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In the name of God English for the student of Civil Engineering Page 9

Zahra Heirany, PhD

Structural elements
Columns A column in structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below (transmit loads from the floor and ransmit roof to the foundation). For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to . resist lateral forces. Other compression members are often termed "columns" because of the similar stress ist conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. Column types are Tied, Spiral, Composite, Combination and Steel pipe. Spiral

A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment. Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but smaller structural structures such as truck or automobile frames, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed and analyzed in a similar fashion.

Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads (i.e., loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns walls, or tr columns,

In the name of God English for the student of Civil Engineering Page 10

Zahra Heirany, PhD

girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members. In light frame construction the joists rest on the beam. Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their crosssection), their length, and their material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel, reinforced concrete, wood, composites, or cased fluids (inflatable beams). One of the most common types of steel beam is the I-beam or wide-flange beam (also known as a "universal beam" or, for stouter sections, a "universal column"). This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other common beam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe, and the angle. Slab That part of a reinforced concrete floor, roof, or platform which spans beams, columns, walls, or piers. A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal slabs of steel reinforced concrete, typically between 100 and 500 millimeters thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving. In many domestic and industrial buildings a thick concrete slab, supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil, is used to construct the ground floor of a building. In high rise buildings and skyscrapers, thinner, pre-cast concrete slabs are slung between the steel frames to form the floors and ceilings on each level. On the technical drawings, reinforced concrete slabs are often abbreviated to "r.c.slab" or simply "r.c.". Shallow Foundations Shallow foundations (sometimes called 'spread footings') include pads ('isolated footings'), strip footings and rafts. Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted fill, peat, recent lacustrine and alluvial deposits, etc. Pad Foundations Pad foundations are used to support an individual point load such as that due to a structural column. They may be circular, square or reactangular. They usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but they may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. Pad foundations are usually shallow, but deep pad foundations can also be used. Strip Foundations Strip foundations are used to support a line of loads, either due to a load-bearing wall, or if a line of columns need supporting where column positions are so close that individual pad foundations would be inappropriate. Raft Foundations Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. They are used when column loads or other structural loads are close together and individual pad foundations would interact. A raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. Deep Foundations Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at depths >3 m below finished ground level. They include piles, piers and caissons or compensated foundations using deep basements and also deep pad or strip foundations. Deep foundations can be used to transfer the loading to a deeper, more competent strata at depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface.