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KOREAN WAR

Organized Crime?

By William P. Litynski

From the Grassy Knoll in Seoul, Korea:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?


The Assassinations of Korean Patriots Yuh Woon-Hyung (July 19, 1947) an Ki! Ku (June "#, 1949)

Dr. Syngman Rhee has friends in high places: $r% &yng!an 'hee ((enter), Presi ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea (&outh Korea), a))ears +ith ,entral -ntelligen(e Agen(y (,-A) $ire(tor Allen W% $ulles ("n left), .%&% Ar!y /eneral 0y!an 0% 0e!nit1er (left), ,o!!an er-in-,hief of the 2ar 3ast an .nite 4ations ,o!!an , an .%&% A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea Walter ,% $o+ling in &eoul, &outh Korea in (ir(a 195#% Allen W. Dulles, General Lyman L. Lemnitzer, and Walter C. Dowlin were mem!ers o" the Coun#il on Forei n $elations, a %ri&ate %oliti#al or anization in 'ew (or) City. Walter ,% $o+ling ser6e as the .%&% A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea fro! July 14, 195# until 7(to*er ", 1959% (Photo8 Allen W% $ulles Pa)ers, &eeley /% 9u 9anus(ri)t 0i*rary at Prin(eton .ni6ersity)

Korean )oliti(ians &yng!an 'hee (left) an Ki! Koo :Ki! Ku; ((enter) !eet +ith .%&% Ar!y 0t% /en% John '% Ho ge, the ,o!!an ing /eneral of the .nite &tates Ar!y 2or(es in Korea, in &eoul, Korea in 4o6e!*er 1945% Korean )atriot Ki! Ku, +ho ser6e as Presi ent of the Pro6isional /o6ern!ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea (194<-194=), +as assassinate *y a >lone gun!an? in &eoul, 'e)u*li( of Korea on *une +,, -./.. The Korean War *egan on *une +0, -.01. Korean in e)en en(e a(ti6ists Yuh Woon-Hyung an Ki! Ku fa6ore i!!e iate unifi(ation an the eli!ination of the @= th ParallelA !oth (uh Woon23yun and Kim Ku were assassinated in Seoul !y a 4lone unman5 %

>As if enough i not ha))en on the last &un ay in June :1949;, 6ust %ast noon An 7u2hui, a mem!er o" the 'orthwest (outh and an o""i#er in the $8KA 9$e%u!li# o" Korea Army:, entered Kim Ku;s home and assassinated him. $ru!+right (o!!ente that !ilitary )oli(e >arri6e +ithin !inutes of Ki!Bs eath, although there +ere no !ilitary installations near*y%? Coth A!eri(an an Critish sour(es thought that 'hee +as *ehin the !ur er, an the Critish (ite ru!ors that Ki! +as )lotting a (ou) against 'hee%? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% @9"

Yuh Woon-Hyung eli6ers a s)ee(h in ,o!!ittee for Pre)aration of Korean -n e)en en(e in &eoul, Korea on August 1#, 1945% (uh Woon23yun was assassinated !y a 4lone unman5 <a -.2year2old man named 3an *i2 eun, a mem!er o" a Korean se#ret so#iety= in Seoul, Korea on *uly -., -./>. (Photo8 htt)8EEen%+iFi)e ia%orgE+iFiE$i6isionGofGKorea)
>The ri6er ha slo+e to negotiate the !aeh"a#ong traffi( rotary, +hen the !ur erer !ounte the running *oar an )u!)e three *ullets fro! a %45 auto!ati( into Yo .n-hyongHs hea , Filling hi! instantly% /" in6estigators )in)ointe the site I+ithin a stoneHs thro+ of a )oli(e *oJ,I *ut sai that )oli(e I!a e no effort to a))rehen the assassin%I The eJe(utioner, nineteen-year ol Han ,higun, *elonge to a s!all grou) of right-+ing terroristsA liFe Ja)anese hothea s in the 19@<s, he re(Fone that his a(t +oul !aFe hi! a national hero% .)on his (a)ture he tol )oli(e he ha a(te at the instigation of a !an in PHyongyang na!e PaF 4a!-soF% After )lotting to assassinate Ki! -- &ung, Han ha (o!e o+n fro! PHyongyang a !onth *efore the !ur er, resi ing at the ho!e of Han Hyon-u, +ho +as then oing a life senten(e for the 1945 !ur er of &ong ,hin-uA li6ing in the sa!e house +as none other than Ki! Tu-h+an, +ho! ,-, agents ha (aught torturing leftists Kust a fe+ +eeFs *efore% Although Han enie any )oliti(al affiliation, he an his grou) Ia(Fno+le ge a heren(eI to Ki! Ku% /eneral Ho ge an other Fno+le gea*le A!eri(ans in the 7((u)ation thought that Ki! Ku +as res)onsi*le for the !ur erA 0eonar Certs(h *elie6e that Ki! ha first (leare the a(t +ith &yng!an 'hee% Cut there is e6i en(e for another )ossi*ility, one that Ho ge an Certs(h +oul hesitate to assert8 that the 4ational Poli(e engineere it% Cy the su!!er of 1947 Yo .n-hyong +as Ithe !ost shot at !an in &outh Korea,I a((or ing to a .%&% Ar!e 2or(es in Korea (.&A2-K) historian, +ho (ounte nine atte!)ts on his life sin(e li*eration% -n July 194# se6eral thugs ha trie to lyn(h hi!A in 7(to*er 194# leftists etaine hi! for t+o ays, after +hi(h he entere a hos)ital suffering fro! Iner6ous sho(F%I 2or !onths *efore his eath, Yo (o!)laine that )oli(e follo+e hi! e6ery+here an )erio i(ally sear(he his ho!eA *ut sin(e these sa!e )oli(e +oul not )rote(t hi! fro! atta(F, he asFe A!eri(ans for )er!ission to (arry a +ea)on an to ar! his *o yguar s%? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% "<#

>'oger Cal +in, for !any years the hea of the A!eri(an ,i6il 0i*erties .nion, toure Korea in 9ay 1947% >The (ountry is literally in the gri) of a )oli(e regi!e an a )ri6ate terror,? he +rote to frien sA >you get the general i!)ression of a *eaten, is(ourage )eo)le%? He sa+ a )rison +here one thousan )eo)le +ere hel for la*or an striFe organi1ing% Koreans >+ant all foreigners to get out an let the! *uil their nation,? *ut +ere the A!eri(ans to )ull out, he thought, a (i6il +ar +oul result% After the A!eri(an /-" (hief sho+e hi! intelligen(e re)orts on the (ountrysi e, ho+e6er, Cal +in (on(lu e that >a state of un e(lare +ar? alrea y eJiste in Korea% He s)oFe +ith Yo .n-hyong, 1945 lea er of the Korean Peo)leHs 'e)u*li(, +ho tol hi! that the go6ern!ent +as >full of Luislings? an >toa iers to the A!eri(ans?A it was the Ameri#an retention o" the #olonial %oli#e, (o thou ht, that was the )ey to the 4%resent #haos.5 7n a Muiet, sultry afternoon a fe+ +eeFs later, Yo )i(Fe u) the e itor of the In#e$en#ence %e"s, Ko Kyongho!, an !otore o6er *y the an(ient ,hHanggyongH+on Pala(e to !eet another A!eri(an, 3 gar Johnson, an 3(ono!i( ,oo)eration A !inistration (3,A) offi(ial% Johnson later re(alle , - re!e!*er ho+ i!)atiently - +aite , +ith !y inter)reter, that afternoon of July 19, 1947% - ha *een tol *y !essenger that 0yuh +oul (o!e a*out four oH(lo(F% 2our oH(lo(F (a!e, four thirty, an then a furiously ri6en (ar s+er6e into the !u y lane lea ing u) the hill to our house % % % a !an Ku!)e out an ran stu!*ling u) the hill% Creathlessly he tol !e that 0yuh ha *een assassinate less than half a !ile fro! !y house%? 7he dri&er had slowed to ne otiate the Haehwadong tra""i# rotary, when the murderer mounted the runnin !oard and %um%ed three !ullets "rom a ./0 automati# into (o ?n2hyon @s head, )illin him instantly. G2+ in&esti ators %in%ointed the site 4within a stone@s throw o" a %oli#e !oA,5 !ut said that %oli#e Bmade no e""ort to a%%rehend the assassin.B 7he eAe#utioner, nineteen2year old 3an Chi2 un, !elon ed to a small rou% o" ri ht2win terroristsC li)e *a%anese hotheads in the -.D1s, he re#)oned that his a#t would ma)e him a national hero. .)on his (a)ture he tol )oli(e he ha a(te at the instigation of a !an in Pyongyang na!e PaF 4a!-soF% After )lotting to assassinate Ki! -- &ung, Han ha (o!e o+n fro! Pyongyang a !onth *efore the !ur er, resi ing at the ho!e of Han Hyon-u, +ho +as then oing a life senten(e for the 1945 !ur er of &ong ,hin-uA li6ing in the sa!e house +as none other than Ki! Tu-h+an, +ho! ,-, agents ha (aught torturing leftists Kust a fe+ +eeFs *efore% Although Han enie any )oliti(al affiliation, he an his grou) Ia(Fno+le ge a heren(eI to Ki! Ku% /eneral Ho ge an other Fno+le gea*le A!eri(ans in the 7((u)ation thought that Ki! Ku +as res)onsi*le for the !ur erA 0eonar Certs(h *elie6e that Ki! ha first (leare the a(t +ith &yng!an 'hee% Cut there is e6i en(e for another )ossi*ility, one that Ho ge an Certs(h +oul hesitate to assert8 that the 4ational Poli(e engineere it% Ey the summer o" -./> (o ?n2hyon was Bthe most shot at man in South Korea,B a##ordin to a ?.S. Armed For#es in Korea <?SAFFK= historian, who #ounted nine attem%ts on his li"e sin#e li!eration. Fn *uly -./, se&eral thu s had tried to lyn#h himC in 8#to!er -./, le"tists detained him "or two days, a"ter whi#h he entered a hos%ital su""erin "rom Bner&ous sho#).B For months !e"ore his death, (o #om%lained that %oli#e "ollowed him e&erywhere and %eriodi#ally sear#hed his homeC !ut sin#e these same %oli#e would not %rote#t him "rom atta#), he as)ed Ameri#ans "or %ermission to #arry a wea%on and to arm his !ody uards. Certs(h 6isite YoHs (ountry ho!e in 9ar(h 1947 an foun that )oli(e ha arreste YoHs *o yguar s after sear(hing his house an fin ing +ea)onsA Yo +as in hi ing, fearing an assassination% The A!eri(an a 6isor to the )ro6in(ial )oli(e, a ,olonel &tone, efen e the arrests an sai he +oul not in ulge in Igroun less )rognosti(ationsI a*out +hether Yo +as a target for assassination% 7wo wee)s later (o@s home was wre#)ed !y a !om!. Fn the same %eriod, Ameri#an G2+ re%orts #arried many rumors o" assassination %lots !y ri htist rou%s, in#ludin one that tar eted Ga6. Gen. Al!ert Erown, head o" the Ameri#an team at the *oint Commission. Fn late Gay, the G2+ #ited the eAisten#e within the Korean 'ational Poli#e o" a BEla#) 7i er Gan ,B run !y the Seoul %oli#e dire#tor, Chan 7@ae)san C this an was Brelia!ly re%ortedB to ha&e met with leaders o" the 'orthwest (outh on or a!out Gay -D, to %lot Ba terroristi# #am%ai n aimed s%e#i"i#allyB at (o ?n2 hyon , Kim Kyu2si), and Won Se2hun. A +eeF *efore Yo ie , A!eri(an intelligen(e foun Iserious unrestI in )oli(e ranFs o6er the )ro-Ja)anese, antitraitor *ill then *efore the &K-0AA Ise6eral ranFing !e!*ers of the )oli(e for(e,I +ho! the A!eri(ans ter!e Iol )ro-Ja)s,I +ere Iatte!)ting to (oer(e all )oli(e into ire(t a(tion%I SKFLA le islators eA%ressed "ear "or their own sa"ety, while (o ?n2hyon and Kim Kyu2si) a ain as)ed the Ameri#ans to su%%ly !ody uards. 'one were %ro&ided. 8" those %oliti#ians with whom the Ameri#ans were willin to deal, (o ?n2hyon was the most &o#al #riti# o" the retention o" hated Korean %oli#e who had done *a%anese !iddin . 3e was also, as the CFA later a#)nowled ed, the only non#ommunist southern leader #a%a!le o" #hallen in Syn man $hee "or %ower. 3is dau hter, (o (on2 u, told me that Chan 7@ae)2san ordered the murder. Hither the %oli#e arran ed his assassination, or loo)ed the other way so that it #ould ha%%en. -t is re!arFa*le, for eJa!)le, that the !ur erer (oul li6e at the ho!e of &ong ,hin-uHs assailant for a !onth +ith Ki! Tu-h+an, an not *e ete(te *y the )oli(e% -t is e6en !ore re!arFa*le that the A!eri(an (o!!an ealt so (a6alierly +ith YoHs !any reMuests for )rote(tion, an so leniently +ith his )oli(e an rightist a 6ersaries% -n 1945 Yo .n-hyong +as a gifte , fitting lea er for li*erate Korea% A har y !an an (haris!ati( orator, he refle(te the as)irations of the great !aKority of the Korean )eo)le, an in his )erson e!*o ie the )e(uliar (lass stru(ture of Korean so(iety as it e!erge fro! the Ja)anese gri)8 at ho!e +ith the 6ast )easantry, he also ha a *it of the *ourgeois gentle!an a*out hi!% He +as an ar ent nationalist, a staun(h resister uring the (olonial )erio +ho also Fe)t his istan(e fro! /eneral Ho ge, earning the latterHs en!ity% Yo also e6elo)e a *it of (a!ara erie +ith Ki! -- &ung, so!ething that still (arries a hint a*out ho+ Korea !ight ha6e *een unifie +ithout (i6il +ar% Cut *y 1947 the national i6ision ha har ene , se)arate states ha arisen, an in retros)e(t it is iffi(ult to i!agine ho+ a !an of his !agnani!ous Mualities (oul ha6e sur6i6e the ee)ening strife% The Critish e)ita)h +as that Yo Itrie to ri e all the horses at on(e in or er to *e sure of (o!ing ho!e on the +inner,I +hi(h has an unFin !easure of truth in it, +ere Korea 3nglan or A!eri(a% Cut in the 9ani(haean +orl of )ost+ar Korean )oliti(s, a !an +ho sought to *ri ge ifferen(es an unite )arties +as rare in ee % Yo .n-hyong re!ains a*out the only )oliti(ian fro! the 194<s +ho is honore *oth in &outh an 4orth Korea% That itself is an eloMuent e)ita)h% 7n the thir anni6ersary of li*eration in 194=, the re!nant &on'gu& tongmaeng fa(tion sought to hol a !e!orial ser6i(e for Yo8 'hee ha ninety-siJ of the! arreste % At the en of 1947 K$P stal+art ,hang ToF-su +as also assassinate , rather a re)lay of the !ur er of &ong ,hin-u t+o years earlier% -n *oth (ases the

assassins +ere tra(e to Ki! Ku, the !oti6es +ere the sa!e, an the 7((u)ation i nothing *ut )ut the un erlings in Kail% 7ne of the assassins, PHae Hui-*o!, sai that uring Worl War -- ,hang ha *een an a 6isor to the Hea Muarters of the Ja)anese Ar!y in Korea, ha !o*ili1e !any youths for +arti!e ser6i(e, an ran a Iree u(ationI institute for )oliti(al )risonersA sin(e 1945 he Iha *een )lotting to esta*lish a se)arate go6ern!ent in &outh Korea%I All this a))ears to ha6e *een true, *ut :.%&% Ar!y /en% John '%; Ho ge i not taFe Fin ly to the !ur er of one of his (losest a 6isorsA he (a!e to thinF that Ki! an &yng!an 'hee +ere *ehin the !ur ers of *oth ,hang an Yo% 2or +eeFs he )on ere the arrest of Ki! Ku, an so!e sort of eJile for 'hee, *ut ulti!ately Ho ge !erely got Ki! to testify in the (ase, +hereu)on Ki! )re i(ta*ly enie in6ol6e!ent%? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% "<5-"<=

Korean )atriot Yuh Woon-Hyung (Yo .n-hyong) (left) +as assassinate in &eoul, Korea on July 19, 1947 *y a >lone gun!an? D a 19year-ol Korean >)atsy? na!e Han ,hi-gun (Han Ji-geun), a !e!*er of se(ret so(iety for White Terror >CaeF-ui-sa?% Yuh WoonHyung li6e in &hanghai uring the 19"<s% Korean )atriot Ki! Ku ((enter), a reunifi(ation a(ti6ist +ho ser6e as Presi ent of the Pro6isional /o6ern!ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea (194<-194=), +as assassinate in &eoul, 'e)u*li( of Korea on June "#, 1949 *y a >lone gun!an? D a Korean >)atsy? na!e *y An Tu-hui (Ahn $oo-hee)% An Tu-hui, +ho ser6e as an infor!ant an an agent for the .nite &tates Ar!y ,ounter--ntelligen(e ,or)s (,-,) in 1949, +as assassinate on 7(to*er "@, 199#, nearly 5< years after the assassination of Ki! Ku% 'ight )hoto8 Ki! Ku !et +ith 4orth KoreaBs >$ear 0ea er? Ki! -l &ung (left) in Pyongyang in A)ril 194= to is(uss unifi(ation, *ut the !eeting en e in isagree!ent%

Chan 7ae)2san <-I.D2-.,.=


2oreign 9inister of &outh Korea (August 15, 194=-$e(e!*er "4, 194=), Pri!e 9inister of &outh Korea (9ay #, 195"-7(to*er #, 195"), an ,hief of the &eoul 9etro)olitan Poli(e (right )hoto)

A )hoto of the Korean 4ational Asse!*ly *uil ing (the for!er -!)erial Ja)anese /o6ern!ent-/eneral Cuil ing) in o+nto+n &eoul, &outh Korea in the early 199<s *efore the *uil ing +as e!olishe % The >/rassy Knoll? is on the right% (Photo8 2li(Fr)

>The southern )oliti(al syste! issue forth in the first fe+ !onths after li*eration, an i not su*stantially (hange until the 19#<s% ?nder Ameri#an 8##u%ation aus%i#es, Koreans #a%tured the #olonial state and used its eAtensi&e and %enetrati&e a%%aratus to %reser&e the %ower and %ri&ile e o" a traditional landownin elite that had !een tainted !y its asso#iations with the *a%anese. 7he one relia!le and e""e#ti&e a en#y o" this restoration and rea#tion was the Korean 'ational Poli#e <K'P=. 7he one &ia!le %oliti#al Party was the Korean Demo#rati# Party <KDP=, not !e#ause it or anized a mass #onstituen#y !ut !e#ause it or anized the elite, and #a%tured #entral %ositions in the state. The effe(ti6e o))osition to this syste! +as al!ost +holly on the 0eft8 the Korean Peo)leBs 'e)u*li( an the )eo)leHs (o!!ittees in 1945-194#, the &outh Korean WorFerHs Party (&KWP) an 6arious !ass organi1ations, es)e(ially the Chon$'(ong la*or union, in 1947, an !ost i!)ortant, a !ass )o)ular resistan(e that fro! 1945 to 195< !ingle ra+ )easant )rotest +ith organi1e union a(ti6ity an , finally, ar!e resistan(e in the )erio 194=-195<% The ele!ental (onfli(t in the &outh, then, )itte a ruling (lass +ith (ontrol of a strong an effe(ti6e state D one that ha *een re!arFa*ly autono!ous of so(iety uring the (olonial )erio D against a leftist an (o!!unist lea ershi) +ith less (ertain (ontrol of its !ain resour(e, a resti6e an aggrie6e !ass that ha *een se6erely islo(ate *y Ja)anese i!)erialis! an its e!ise, an that strongly resiste the assertion of (onser6ati6e )o+er%? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% 1=5

0ee Ceo!-seoF8 Korean 4ational &o(ialist 3Jtraor inaireN

0ee Ceo!-seoF :Yi Po!-soF; (1=99-197") Pri!e 9inister of the 'e)u*li( of Korea :&outh Korea; (August 1, 194=-A)ril "1, 195<), $efense 9inister of the 'e)u*li( of Korea :&outh Korea; (194=-195<), Korean A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of ,hina :Tai+an;, an Korean 4ationalist

>>The - ea,? Ju(he : ;, see!s at first glan(e to *e rea ily un erstan a*le% -t is efine as self-relian(e an in e)en en(e in )oliti(s, e(ono!i(s, efense, an i eology% 7n (loser ins)e(tion, ho+e6er, the ter!Bs !eaning is less a((essi*leO-n fa(t it :Ju(he; see!s to *e use !u(h liFe &o&utai : ; in inter+ar Ja)an, or )ol&ische in :4a1i; /er!any, or 9ao Pe ong Thought in ,hina8 a ter! efining an e!otion that )uts the nation first, or the lea erBs +ishes first, in e6erything% As +e ha6e sai , Ju(he shares the sa!e (hara(ter as &o&utai (&u&ch*e in Korean)A chu !eans so!ething liFe !ain or !aster, so that the li*eral translation of Ju(he +oul *e >!ain? or >!aster? )rin(i)le% ,or)oratis! see!s to *e a fleJi*le fra!e+orF +ithin +hi(h 0eft an 'ight (an !eet, so!ething !any ha6e note a*out inter+ar 3uro)e% Korea is no ifferent% Ju(he resonates +ith &o&utai an other su(h )hrases )re(isely *e(ause of its iffuse an all-)ur)ose !eaningA an e!otion !asMuera ing as an i ea, it a))eals to nationalists of all )ersuasions% Thus it is that Ki! -l &ungBs i eology (alls u) (o!)arisons +ith )erha)s the !ost eJtre!e right+ing figure in )ost+ar &outh Korea, Yi Po! &oF :0ee Ceo! &eoF;, the foun er an lea er of the early )ost+ar Korean 4ational Youth (K4Y)% -n the 19@<s, Yi ha stu ie 3uro)ean (or)oratist an 2as(ist youth grou)s, an +orFe +ith the Kuo!intang Clue &hirts an &)e(ial &er6i(es in ,hina% 7n his return to Korea in 194# he organi1e so!e 7<,<<< youths into a (lassi( rightist 6ehi(le of the streetsA *y 194= the K4Y ha o6er a !illion !e!*ers an !a e Yi se(on only to &yng!an 'hee in )o+er% 3is %et slo an, 4min6o) #hisan , )u))a #hisan 5 <nation "irst, state "irst=, eA%ressed his 9'azi: German learnin C he was amon the "irst Korean %oliti#al "i ures eA%li#itly to eAalt not 6ust the nation, !ut the state. 3e o%%osed Korean relian#e on "orei ners <sadae chuui or 4"lun)eyism,5 as the 'orth Koreans translate it=, ad&o#ated inde%enden#e, lam!asted those %oliti#ians who were 4un2Korean,5 and ur ed Koreans to ado%t a stand%oint o" 6u#he, whi#h in his usa e meant #om%lete su!6e#ti&ity where e&erythin Korean was #on#erned. 3e %re"erred e#onomi# autar)y to any eAternal international in&ol&ements that mi ht su!ordinate Korean interests. 3e ur ed a %an2national Korean solidarity !ased on ra#ial %urity: 4the 'ation is the ra#e and the ra#e is the nation.5 TalF of >ra(ial essen(e? an >*loo -lines? (h(olt*ong) runs throughout his +orF8 this for hi! +as the Fey (hara(teristi( efining Korea, an the essential ele!ent in its (or)orate an organi( unity% As "or the mind and s%irit, he thou ht only the stron est national #ons#iousness < minjok uisik= #ould sa&e Korea "rom %redatory reat %owers. 3e li&ed in the era o" 4the masses,5 he said, and there"ore leaders must 4understand and lo&e5 the masses, always !e amon them and ne&er se%arate "rom them. 8ne ra#e, one !lood, one nation, one state, and inse%ara!le unity !etween leaders and led would #reate 4a reat "amily5 that would endure. The resonan(e +ith Ki! -l &ungBs i ea is (lear% Yi +as, ho+e6er, a ro!anti( an (onser6ati6e (or)oratist% 3e eAalted the state, thou ht leaders should !e %atriots a!o&e %oliti#s, railed a ainst the #on#e%t o" #lass stru le, and in his !ias a ainst #a%italism and material %ursuits sou ht not to o&er#ome it in so#ialism !ut to return to an earlier era o" #ommunity. ? D +tate an# +ociet( in Contem$orar( Korea *y Hagen Koo, ,ha)ter # (The ,or)orate &tate in 4orth Korea *y Cru(e ,u!ings), )% ""@-""4

>South Korea@s youth rou%s are an unstudied %henomenon, !ut they were a %otent "orm o" %oliti#al or anization that !elies the "a#tious, %oliti#ally2im%otent stereoty%e o" Korean %oliti#s. 7he raw material #ame in the reater %art "rom youn men who were re"u ees "rom the 'orth, althou h unem%loyed and mar inal elements o" southern so#iety, as well as a #or%s o" elite students, also %arti#i%ated. Fn the #ities, youth rou%s ser&ed as %oli#e auAiliaries, stri)e!rea)ers, or %lain #lothes thu s who !ro)e u% o%%osition demonstrations <still a #ommon "eature o" $8K %oliti#s today=. Fn the #ountryside, de%endin on the so#ial #om%leAion o" &illa es, youth rou%s mi ht de"end %rominent #lans, or side with mar inally ri#her %easants, or indeed or anize whole &illa es to "i ht a ainst nei h!orin le"tist &illa es or to %rote#t a ainst uerrillas and !andits. 'early e&ery %oliti#al %arty o" any si ni"i#an#e had a ByouthB auAiliary, de"inin youths as rou hly !etween the a es o" ei hteen and thirty2"i&e. The 0eft ha a !ass organi1ation of youths for!e in late 1945, na!e the Choson ch'ongn(on ch'ong "ngmaeng or /eneral 2e eration of Korean Youth% 7n the 'ight, the !ost i!)ortant grou)ings +ere the Korean 4ational Youth (K4Y), the 4orth+est or +o,u& Youth (4WY), the Tae#ongYouth, the K"ang,o& Youth, an 'heeHs 4&''K- Youth -Taehan to&ch'o& ch'Ongn(on ch'ong (onmaeng./ 9ost of the! +ere organi1e in the after!ath of the autu!n u)risingsA one, the Korean 4ational Youth le *y Yi Po!-soF, +as an offi(ial agen(y of 9ilitary /o6ern!ent (9/), fun e *y :.%&% Ar!y 0ieutenant /eneral John '%; Ho ge% 7he youth rou%s were set in motion at the to% !y the most %ower"ul ri htists: $hee, (i Pom2so), Cho Pyon 2o), and Chan 7ae)2san . 7he Korean 'ational Poli#e, led !y Cho and Chan , was the eneral %atron o" ri htist youth, relyin on the rou%s time and a ain as auAiliary stron 2arm "or#es. (outh rou% o""i#es were o"ten neAt door to %oli#e stations <and sometimes inside=. Peo%le "lowed out o" the youth rou%s into the %oli#e and the army, and &i#e &ersa. Chan 7ae)2san , the head o" the Seoul Getro%olitan Poli#e, was on the !oard o" dire#tors o" at least two youth rou%s, and as early as 'o&em!er -./, was said to !e en#oura in 6oint %oli#e2youth rou% o%erations. ,hangHs (ons)i(uous role in running the grou)s o((asionally a))roa(he *la(F (o!e y, as in his re!arFs on &e)te!*er 11, 1947 ( ee!e IunfortunateI *y the /-")8 ,hang announ(e a I(ra(F o+nI on terroris! regar less of )oliti(s, an then re!arFe , I$uring the )ast t+o !onths, the )oli(e ha6e allo+e se6eral young !enHs grou)s an )arties to )erfor! terroristi( a(ti6ities, eJ)laining to the! their unla+ful a(tions, an ho)ing they +oul re)ent their )ast errors%I Ameri#an authorities noted that B%ra#ti#ally all ri htist or anizations maintain their headJuarters and !ran#h o""i#es in &ested %ro%erty,B that is, !uildin s #ontrolled !y the 8##u%ation.5 -n 4o6e!*er 1947, the /-" inter(e)te a !e!o fro! the &eoul 9etro)olitan Poli(e to the )ro6in(es, in i(ating that the )oli(e +ere training t+o hun re !e!*ers of the Tae#ong Youth in ea(h of the follo+ing (ities8 &eoul, Taegu, TaeKon, an K+angKu% 7n(e the '7K +as esta*lishe , the tie *et+een the )oli(e an youth grou)s no longer nee e to *e hi en% -n $e(e!*er 194=, for eJa!)le, the 9etro)olitan )oli(e traine siJ hun re !e!*ers of the 4orth+est Youth, then is)at(he the! to riot-torn areas IeMui))e +ith )oli(e unifor!s an on regular )oli(e status%I 7he Army too) mu#h lar er num!ers o" youth rou% mem!ers into its ran)s in mid2-./I. 'o one was sa"e "rom the terrorism. Fn Se%tem!er -./>, an assistant distri#t attorney in Pusan, Chon Su!a), an em%loyee o" the Gilitary Go&ernment, sou ht to %rose#ute "our mem!ers o" a ri htist youth rou% "or terrorism. 3e was assassinated, and no one was !rou ht to 6usti#e "or the murder. ? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% 194-195 >A+are of the fa(t that he ha only a +eaF an isunite grou) of su))orters +ithin the 4ational Asse!*ly, :Presi ent &yng!an; 'hee re(alle Yi Po!-soF, for!er )ri!e !inister an efense !inister, +ho +as ser6ing as his a!*assa or to the 4ationalist ,hinese /o6ern!ent in Tai+an, an entruste hi! +ith the tasF of organi1ing the ne+ )arty% -n or er to un erstan the nature of the ne+ly organi1e )arty, it is ne(essary to eJa!ine (losely the )ersonal *a(Fgroun of Yi Po!soF, its (hief organi1er% Cefore 1945, Yi Po!-soF +as fa!ous for his anti-Ja)anese !ilitary a(ti6ities in 9an(huria% -n 19"<, at the age of t+enty-one, he +as sai to ha6e le a 1,5<<-!an for(e of the 4orthern 'oute -n e)en en(e Ar!y to a e(isi6e 6i(tory o6er a regular Ja)anese *riga e of so!e 1<,<<< !en% .)on for!ation of the 0i*eration Ar!y of the Korean Pro6isional /o6ern!ent in 194<, Yi +as a))ointe its (hief of staff% -n this )osition he ha a (lose relationshi) +ith the !ilitary an )oliti(al lea ers of the 4ationalist ,hinese go6ern!ent, in(lu ing ,hiang Kai-sheF% Yi returne to Korea on June "", 194#, an +ithin a fe+ !onths he set a*out organi1ing the 4ational Youth ,or)s ( 0in1o& Ch*ongn(on#an) on the *asis of a >nation-first? an >state-first? slogan% For reasons not #learly understood e&en today, his 'ational (outh Cor%s was enerously su%%orted !y the Ameri#an authorities with money and material. Furthermore, the %oli#e #ould not o!stru#t its a#ti&ities !e#ause o" the Ameri#an su%%ort it re#ei&ed. 7he 'ational (outh Cor%s, o"ten #om%ared to 3itler;s *u end Eri ade, attra(te !ostly >!arginal !en? su(h as for!er ,o!!unists +ho nee e )rote(tion in a legiti!ate organi1ation, rightist youths +ho resente struggle a!ong the rightist organi1ations the!sel6es, ro!anti(ists +ho +ere attra(te to the ,or)sB i eologi(al a))eals, an others +ho +ere tire of the (haoti( situation in Korean so(iety% &o!e "<,<<< young !en initially res)on e to its (all for !e!*ershi) in 7(to*er 194#% The 4ational Youth ,or)s +as atta(Fe *y *oth leftist an rightist grou)s, *ut it eJ)an e ra)i ly in organi1ation an !e!*ershi) throughout the nation% At one )oint, Yi Po!-soF (lai!e that half of all Korean youths ha *een affe(te *y ,or)s training% Though this +as an eJaggerate (lai!, it in i(ates the eJtent of a(ti6ities of the 4ational Youth ,or)s% .)on esta*lish!ent of the Korean go6ern!ent, Yi +as a))ointe )ri!e !inister an , si!ultaneously, !inister of efense% He Fe)t the )ri!e !inistershi) until A)ril 195<, t+o !onths *efore the out*reaF of the Korean War%? D The 2ailure of 3emocrac( in +outh Korea4 Volume 55 *y &Qng-KQ Han, )% 17-1=

>The offi(ially-su))orte Korean 4ational Youth !el e ,hinese influen(es +ith Ja)anese !etho s of ealing +ith )oliti(al re(al(itrants% (i Pom2so) was a "ier#e Korean nationalist, eA#e%t where the Chinese 'ationalists were #on#erned. Eorn in -I.. in Kyon i Pro&in#e, he went to China durin World War F. 3e "ou ht the *a%anese as a uerrilla alon the Sino2 Korean !order in the early -.+1S. Fn -.DD he &isited Germany to study military a""airsC later he wor)ed with German and Ftalian ad&isors to the 'ationalists. Ey -.D>, he was in the 8""i#e o" the Chie" o" Sta"" o" the KG7 0-st Army, and !y -.DI, was a #om%any #ommander at the KG7 Gilitary A#ademy in 3an #hou. 3e was widely )nown in Korea as a "ollower and admirer o" Generalissimo Chian Kai2she). KChian and his se#ret %oli#e #hie", the unsa&ory 7ai Li, or anized a youth win #alled the 4Elue Shirts5 in the -.D1s, a "as#ist2style %aramilitary "or#e that (hose the (olor *lue, it +oul a))ear, *e(ause *ro+n, *la(F, an green +ere alrea y s)oFen for% Yi +orFe +ith this grou), an +rote in 1947 that the /er!ans an the -talians +ere >)ioneers? in youth !o6e!ents, an also (ite the Kuo!intangHs goo eJ)erien(e +ith youths% He originally ter!e his o+n youth grou) >the Clue &hirts,? an the K4Y, as an A!eri(an eli(ately note , ha > istin(ti6e *lue unifor!s%? A!eri(an sour(es in &hanghai re)orte that Yi ha *een >+orFing for Tai 0i? uring the +ar, an thought he ha *een in6ol6e +ith a grou) of young !en +ho >)erse(ute all Korean resi ents of &hanghai an other 3astern (ities +ithout is(ri!ination%? Tai 0i ha *een a (onfi ant of the 7ffi(e of &trategi( &er6i(es (7&&) (hief in ,hina, A !% 9ilton >9ary? 9iles% -n August 1945 ten 7&& agents in &hanghai fle+ Yi into &eoul *riefly, then tooF hi! *a(F to &hanghai for reasons that ha6e ne6er *een (lear% Whate6er the 7&& !ay ha6e thought of Yi, *y 195< the ,-A ter!e hi! >a !an of little i!agination an !e io(re intelligen(e,? )ossessing a for(eful )ersonality, >great )oliti(al a!*itions, an an intensely nationalist 6ie+)oint%? He thought an a(te IliFe a tra itional ,hinese +ar lor ,I an re!aine ee)ly un er the influen(e of ,hiang Kai-sheF% The ,-A thought his future +as li!ite , in )art *e(ause he (oul not s)eaF 3nglish% Ft was %ro!a!ly (i;s nationalism that the Ameri#ans disli)ed the most, howe&er, "or it meant he #ould not !e trusted. (i !e#ame )nown "or his use o" the Chinese slo an, 4minjok chisang, kukka chisang,5 meanin nation "irst, state "irst. 3e ot the slo an in China, whi#h %ro!a!ly ot it "rom Germany. Fn his mind nation and ra#e were synonymous, 6ust as they were in 3itler;sC the di""eren#e was that in Korea the distin#tion !etween ra#e and nation was minimal, minjok <ethni# %eo%le= o"ten #onnotin !oth. His 1947 *ooF is interesting for its ana(hronis!s, its >unti!ely? MualityA (o!ing t+o years after the Holo(aust it is a *it !u(h to hear so!eone )rattling on yet again a*out ra(e, nation, an *loo lines% At one )oint he lau s the Je+s for )reser6ing their i entity for (enturies, at another he re!arFs that >the eJ(lusion of the Je+s +as Muite effi(a(ious for :/er!an; unity%? Fn #lassi# #or%oratist "ashion, he #alled u%on Koreans to "or et #lass #on"li#ts, distin#tions !etween su%erior and in"erior, and to unite as one "amily. Eut the !oo) is really a teAt on what it means to !e a Korean, with 4!ein Korean5 the essen#e o" #itizenshi% and nationhood. 3e e&en uses the term Juche, (chuche , !y whi#h he meant somethin li)e !ein e&er su!6e#ti&e where thin s Korean are #on#erned, always %uttin Korea "irst. 7his is the #ornerstone o" Korean nationalism, 6ust what one would eA%e#t "rom an an#ient, homo eneous %eo%le lon su!6e#t to outside threat. 2or the A!eri(an +ho has rarely ha to thinF a*out ho+ to )reser6e a nation surroun e *y )re ators, su(h 6ie+s are *loo y-!in e , soli)sisti(, utterly re(al(itrant, o*noJious, oing 6iolen(e to reason at e6ery turn% Cut these are )o)ular i eas in Korea, an also a real! +here 0eft !eets 'ight% -f this is a ty)e of fas(is!, )erha)s no national elite +oul *e !ore re(e)ti6e to su(h a))eals than right-+ing KoreansA if not that, still far !ore re(e)ti6e than to li*eral i eas% 2as(ist o(trine in )oliti(s lau s unity, an !ost Koreans thought isunity ha *rought on the isaster of (olonialis!A in e(ono!i(s it )osits autar(hy, a tra itional fa(t an i eal in KoreaA it liFes a strong lea er, an no )eo)le see!s to )raise an res)e(t a lea er !ore than Koreans (e6en if !u(h of the flattery !ay *e false)A it (onflates ethni(ity an nation, +hi(h (oin(i e al!ost eJa(tly in Korea *ut har ly any+here else% Ft was #ommon in Seoul in the -.,1s to see !ein "ampf in Korean translation dis%layed in one !oo)stall a"ter another, and se#ondary s#hool students would o"ten name 3itler the man they res%e#ted most amon st twentieth2#entury leaders. ? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% 195-19#

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: William P. Litynski served in the U.S. Army from Se tem!er "##$%&ovem!er "##'( rimarily in the )irst Armored *ivision in +ermany ,A a-he Troo ( $%$ .A/( B0din1en23 he 4as de loyed to 5ra6 ,near Ba1hdad2 from A ril "##7 0ntil 80ly "##'. He attended .restvie4 Hi1h S-hool in .restvie4( )lorida from $99:%"### and 1rad0ated in "###. He lived at ;okota Air Base( 8a an ,U.S. Air )or-e !ase near Tokyo2 from $9<=% $997. ,His mother is from 8a an( and his 1randfather 4as drafted t4i-e !y the 5m erial 8a anese &avy d0rin1 World War 55.2 William P. Litynski has traveled e>tensively and has visited Tokyo( London( Paris( Rome( Berlin( /ienna( Br0ssels( L0>em!o0r1 .ity( ?0ni-h( )rankf0rt am ?ain( &e4 ;ork .ity( Washin1ton *...( Boston( Philadel hia( .hi-a1o( Seattle( and *allas. ,E%mail: 4 l7$'@yahoo.-om2

The first .%&% A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea, John J% 9u((io, signs o6er the go6ern!ent to the 'e)u*li( of Korea ('7K) in &eoul, Korea on &e)te!*er 1", 194=% To 9u((ioHs right is 9inister of 2oreign Affairs Chan 7ae)2san A to his left, Pri!e 9inister Lee Eeom2seo)% (4ote8 The )ronun(iation of 0ee Ceo!-seoFBs first na!e is >*u! su(F?%) (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

(Photo8 The Origins of the Korean War4 Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract4 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings)

Syn man $hee (right), Presi ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea, greets Chan 7ae)2san (left), 9inister of 2oreign Affairs of the 'e)u*li( of Korea, an ,hang 9yon ((enter), Korean A!*assa or to the .nite &tates, on 4o6e!*er 5, 1951% (Photo8 htt)8EEfil!%Ft6%go%FrE)ageE)o)E)hotoG)o)%Ks)N)hotoGPhoto&r(/C4RCKS)hotoGPhoto-$R1@S etlGPhoto$T0R#= )

&Full S Cones at Yale .ni6ersity8 &e(ret &o(iety or ,ri!inal &yn i(ateN

The Order of Sk0ll A Bones is a se-ret so-iety at ;ale University. The Order of Sk0ll A Bones is also kno4n as the BBrotherhood of *eath.C Sk0ll A Bones initiation rit0als alle1edly in-l0de individ0als restin1 naked in a -offin and revealin1 their se> life to $' fello4 Bonesmen. ,So0r-e: Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power !y Ale>andra Ro!!ins2

In politics, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way. Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The Tom!( offi-ial head60arters of The Order of Sk0ll A Bones( is lo-ated at ;ale University on Hi1h Street in &e4 Haven( .onne-ti-0t( U.S.A.

939C3'& 72 &K.00 S C743& $.'-4/ TH3 K7'3A4 WA'


Ro!ert A. Lovett ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D Se-retary of *efense ,$9E$%$9E723 *e 0ty Se-retary of *efense ,$9'9%$9E$2 W. Averell Harriman ,B.A. $9$7( SAB $9$72 D *ire-tor of ?0t0al Se-0rity A1en-y ,$9E$%$9E72 ). Tr0!ee *avison ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D *ire-tor of .5A for Personnel ,$9E$%$9E"2 Ro!ert A. Taft ,B.A. $9$#( SAB $9$#2 D U.S. Senator ,R%Ohio( $979%$9E723 Senate ?aFority Leader ,$9E72 Pres-ott S. B0sh ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D U.S. Senator ,R%.onne-ti-0t( $9E"%$9:723 Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9="2 8ohn Sherman .oo er ,B.A. $9"7( SAB $9"72 D U.S. Senator ,R%Gent0-ky( $9':%$9'9( $9E"%$9EE( $9E:%$9=72 8ohn ?artin /orys ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,R%Ohio( $979%$9E92 .harles ?. S offord ,B.A. $9"'3 SAB $9"'2 D .hairman of the &orth Atlanti- .o0n-il of *e 0ties and E0ro ean .oordinatin1 .ommittee ,$9E#%$9E"2 Stanley Wood4ard ,B.A. $9""( SAB $9""2 D U.S. Am!assador to .anada ,$9E#%$9E72 Harold Stanley ,B.A. $9#<( SAB $9#<2 D Partner of ?or1an( Stanley A .o. ,$9'$%$9EE2 Gni1ht Woolley ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9<"2 Ray ?orris ,B.A. $9#$( SAB $9#$2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9E:2 8. Ri-hardson *il4orth ,B.A. $97<( SAB $97<2 D Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$9E$%$9E<2 .harles 8a-o! Ste4art ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D President of &e4 ;ork Tr0st .o. ,$9'9%$9E"2 +eor1e L. Harrison ,B.A. $9$#( SAB $9$#2 D .hairman of the !oard of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2 +eor1e Her!ert Walker 8r. ,B.A. $9"=( SAB $9"=2 D +eneral Partner of +.H. Walker A .o. ,$9"9%$9='2 ?orehead Patterson ,B.A. $9"#( SAB $9"#2 D .hairman of the !oard of Ameri-an ?a-hine A )o0ndry .o. ,$9'7%$9:"2 Henry 8ohn HeinH 55 ,B.A. $97$( SAB $97$2 D President of H.8. HeinH .om any ,$9'$%$9E92 )rank )ord R0ssell ,B.A. $9":( SAB $9":2 D President of &ational Aviation .or . ,$979%$9E'2 Ro!ert +0thrie Pa1e ,B.A. $9""( SAB $9""2 D President of Phel s *od1e .or oration ,$9'=%$9:=2 H. &eil ?allon ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D President of *resser 5nd0stries( 5n-. ,$9"9%$9E<2 Allen T. Glots ,B.A. $9#9( SAB $9#92 D ?em!er of Winthro ( Stimson( P0tnam A Ro!erts Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9"$%$9:E2 Henry R. L0-e ,B.A. $9"#( SAB $9"#2 D Editor%in%.hief of Time( 5n-. ,$9"7%$9:'2 E. Roland Harriman ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D .hairman of the !oard of Union Pa-ifi- Railroad .o. ,$9':%$9:923 President of Ameri-an Red .ross ,$9E#%$9E72

Yale University Graduates & Korean War: War Profiteers or Damn Yankees?

Yale .ni6ersity in 4e+ Ha6en, ,onne(ti(ut, .%&%A%

;ale 1rad0ates Averell Harriman ,left2( U.S. Se-retary of *efense Ro!ert A. Lovett ,-enter2( and U.S. Se-retary of State *ean A-heson meet rivately in 8an0ary $9E$. ,Photo !y Lisa LarsenKTime Life Pi-t0resK+etty 5ma1es2

?em!ers of the ;ale .or oration on O-to!er =( $9E# )ront ro4( left to ri1ht: Wilmarth S. Le4is( Rt. Rev. Henry Gno> Sherrill !resident of the "ational #ouncil of #hurches $%&' ( ). Tr0!ee *avison( Rev. Arth0r Ho4e Bradford( A. Whitney +ris4old !resident of (ale $niversity' ( Ro!ert A. Taft $.%. %enator'( *ean +. A-heson $.%. %ecretary of %tate'( +eor1e /an Santvoord( ?orris Hadley lawyer) !artner of *ilbank, +weed, ,ope - ,adley'. Ba-k ro4( left to ri1ht: 8onathan B. Bin1ham( Le4is H. Weed( .harles *. *i-key( Ed4in ). Blair( Rev. ?or1an Phel s &oyes( 5rvin1 S. Olds #hair.an of the board of $nited %tates %teel #orp.'( 80an T. Tri e !resident of !an &.erican /orld &irways, Inc.'( Ro!ert T.B. Stevens #hair.an of the Federal Reserve 0ank of "ew (ork' . ). Tr0!ee *avison( Rev. Arth0r Ho4e Bradford( Sen. Ro!ert A. Taft( ?orris Hadley( 8onathan B. Bin1ham( and Ed4in ). Blair 4ere mem!ers of Sk0ll A Bones. Wilmarth S. Le4is( *ean +. A-heson( Le4is H. Weed( and .harles *. *i-key 4ere mem!ers of S-roll A Gey. A. Whitney +ris4old 4as a mem!er of WolfLs Head.

;ale University +rad0ates and Their O--0 ation d0rin1 the 5sraeli War of 5nde enden-e ,$9'<%$9'92( Gorean War ,$9E#%$9E72( Se-ond .hinese .ivil War ,$9'E%$9'92( and )ren-h 5ndo-hina War ,$9'E%$9E'2 +overnment Offi-ials: M*ean +. A-heson ,B.A. $9$E( SAG $9$E2 D U.S. Se-retary of State ,$9'9%$9E723 Under Se-retary of State ,$9'E%$9'=2 MRo!ert A. Lovett ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D U.S. Se-retary of *efense ,$9E$%$9E723 *e 0ty Se-retary of *efense ,$9'9%$9E$23 Under Se-retary of State ,$9'=%$9'92 MW. St0art Symin1ton ,B.A. $9"72 D Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,$9'=%$9E#23 .hairman of &ational Se-0rity Reso0r-es Board ,$9E#%$9E$2 MRos4ell L. +il atri- ,B.A. $9"<( LL.B. $97$2 D Under Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,$9E$%$9E72 E01ene ?. N0-kert ,B.A. $977( LL.B. $97=2 D Assistant Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,$9'=%$9E"23 ?em!er of the Atomi- Ener1y .ommission ,$9E"%$9E'2 M8ohn H. )er10son ,B.A. $97:2 D *e 0ty *ire-tor of Poli-y Plannin1 Staff at U.S. *e artment of State ,$9E$%$9E72 M). Tr0!ee *avison ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,.5A2 for Personnel ,$9E$%$9E"2 MT. Geith +lennan ,B.S. $9"=2 D ?em!er of the Atomi- Ener1y .ommission ,$9E#%$9E"2 MW. Averell Harriman ,B.A. $9$7( SAB $9$72 D U.S. Se-retary of .ommer-e ,$9':%$9'<23 *ire-tor of ?0t0al Se-0rity A1en-y ,$9E$%$9E72 .. *i-kerman Williams ,B.A. $9""( LL.B. $9"'2 D +eneral .o0nsel of the U.S. *e artment of .ommer-e ,$9E$%$9E72 8ames Pomeroy Hendri-k ,B.A. $9"72 D Assistant to the Administrator of E-onomi- .oo eration Administration ,E.A2 ,$9'<%$9E72 MRi-hard ?. Bissell 8r. ,B.A. $97"( Ph.*. $9792 D Assistant Administrator for Pro1ram at E-onomi- .oo eration Administration ,$9'<%$9E$23 Staff ?em!er of )ord )o0ndation ,$9E"%$9E'2 M.harles ?. S offord ,B.A. $9"'3 SAB $9"'2 D .hairman of the &orth Atlanti- .o0n-il of *e 0ties and E0ro ean .oordinatin1 .ommittee ,$9E#%$9E"2 H0!ert B. Holland ,Ph.B. $9"E2 D Assistant U.S. Attorney +eneral ,$9E7%$9E:2 .harles R0ffin Hook 8r. ,B.A. $97=2 D *e 0ty Postmaster +eneral of the United States ,$9E7%$9EE2 M.hester Bo4les ,B.A. $9"'2 D U.S. Am!assador to 5ndia ,$9E$%$9E72 MElls4orth B0nker ,B.A. $9$:2 D U.S. Am!assador to Ar1entina ,$9E$%$9E"23 U.S. Am!assador to 5taly ,$9E"%$9E72 Lo0is +. *reyf0s 8r. ,B.A. $9$#2 D U.S. Am!assador to Af1hanistan ,$9'9%$9E$2 Stanley Wood4ard ,B.A. $9""( SAB $9""2 D U.S. Am!assador to .anada ,$9E#%$9E72 Pa0l .lement *aniels ,B.A. $9"'2 D U.S. Am!assador to E-0ador ,$9E$%$9E72 Ho4ard *onovan ,Ph.B. $9"#2 D U.S. .ons0l +eneral in N0ri-h( S4itHerland ,$9E72 Ed4ard Lo0is )reers ,B.A. $9772 D U.S. .ons0l at /ladivostok( R0ssia ,$9'=23 .o0nselor at U.S. Em!assy in ?os-o4( R0ssia ,$9E#%$9E$23 )irst Se-retary at the U.S. Em!assy in Rome( 5taly ,$9E$%$9EE2 Ri-hard T0-ker E4in1 ,B.A. $9'#( SAG $9'#2 D Se-ond Se-retary of the U.S. Em!assy in Tai ei( Re 0!li- of .hina ITai4anJ ,$9E$%$9E:23 Atta-hO at the U.S. Le1ation in S4itHerland ,$9'=%$9'92 Ro!erto ?an0el He0rtematte ,B.A. $97$( SAG $97$2 D Am!assador of Panama to the United States ,$9E$%$9E'23 .om troller +eneral of Panama ,$9E'%$9E92 Ro!ert A. Taft ,B.A. $9$#( SAB $9$#2 D U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an Party%Ohio( $979%$9E723 Senate ?aFority Leader ,8an0ary 7( $9E7%80ly 7$( $9E723 died in offi-e MWilliam Benton ,B.A. $9"$2 D U.S. Senator ,*emo-rati- Party%.onne-ti-0t( $9'9%$9E72 Pres-ott S. B0sh ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an Party%.onne-ti-0t( $9E"%$9:72 M8ohn Sherman .oo er ,B.A. $9"7( SAB $9"72 D U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an Party%Gent0-ky( $9':%$9'93 $9E"%$9EE3 $9E:%$9=723 ?em!er of the U.S. *ele1ation to the United &ations ,$9'9%$9E$2 8ohn Ta!er ,B.A. $9#"2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%&e4 ;ork( $9"7%$9:72 8ames Wol-ott Wads4orth 8r. ,B.A. $<9<( SAB $<9<2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%&e4 ;ork( $977%$9E$2 8ohn ?artin /orys ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%Ohio( $979%$9E92 8ohn .rain G0nkel ,B.A. $9$:2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%Pennsylvania( $979%$9E$( $9:$%$9::2 8ames .. A0-hin-loss ,B.A. $9#<( SAG $9#<2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%&e4 8ersey( $9'7%$9:E2 Thr0ston B. ?orton ,B.A. $9"92 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%Gent0-ky( $9'=%$9E72 Ed4ard Tylor ?iller ,B.A. $9$:2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%?aryland( $9'=%$9E92 8. )oster )0r-olo ,B.A. $9772 D U.S. .on1ressman ,*emo-rati- Party%?assa-h0setts( $9'9%$9E"2 8ohn 8arman ,B.A. $97=2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,*emo-rati- Party%Oklahoma( $9E$%$9==2 Harmar *. *enny 8r. ,B.A. $9#<2 D U.S. .on1ressman ,Re 0!li-an Party%Pennsylvania( 8an0ary 7( $9E$%8an0ary 7( $9E723 ?em!er of .ivil Aerona0ti-s Board ,A ril =( $9E7%&ovem!er $E( $9E92 Stanley ). Reed ,B.A. $9#:2 D 80sti-e of the U.S. S0 reme .o0rt ,$97<%$9E=2 Thomas Walter S4an ,B.A. $9##2 D .hief 80d1e of U.S. .o0rt of A eals for the Se-ond .ir-0it ,$9E$%$9E72 .harles Ed4ard .lark ,B.A. $9$$( LL.B. $9$72 D 80d1e of U.S. .o0rt of A eals for the Se-ond .ir-0it ,$979%$9:72 Ed4ard 8ordan *imo-k ,B.A. $9$$2 D 80d1e of the U.S. *istri-t .o0rt for the So0thern *istri-t of &e4 ;ork ,$9E$%$9:$2 .arroll .lark Hin-ks ,B.A. $9$$2 D .hief 80d1e of U.S. *istri-t .o0rt for the *istri-t of .onne-ti-0t ,$9'<%$9E72 8ohn 8ose h Smith ,B.A. $9"E( LL.B. $9"=2 D 80d1e of the U.S. *istri-t .o0rt for the *istri-t of .onne-ti-0t ,$9'$%$9:#2 Walter 8ose h .0mmin1s ,B.A. $97=2 D Soli-itor +eneral of the United States ,$9E"%$9E72 William ?arvel ,B.A. $97"( SAG $97"2 D U.S. Attorney for the *istri-t of *ela4are ,$9'<%$9E72 Walter 8. Gohler 8r. ,Ph.B. $9"E2 D +overnor of Wis-onsin ,$9E$%$9E=2 +ordon ?a-Lean Tiffany ,B.A. $97E2 D Attorney +eneral of &e4 Ham shire ,$9E#%$9E72 8. P0i11 &e4ton 8r. ,B.A. $977( LL.B. $97:( SAB $9772 D ?ayor of *enver( .olorado ,$9'=%$9EE2 Patri-k Brett OLS0llivan ,B.A. $9#<2 D 80sti-e of the S0 reme .o0rt of .onne-ti-0t ,$9E#%$9E=2 Genneth OLBrien ,B.A. $9$=2 D 80sti-e of the S0 reme .o0rt of &e4 ;ork ,$97'%$9E'2 Ho4ard S. .0llman ,B.A. $9$72 D .hairman of Port of &e4 ;ork A0thority ,$9'E%$9EE2 Harold Armstron1 8ones ,B.A. $9"#2 D ?em!er of the .ivil Aerona0ti-s Board IWashin1ton( *...J ,$9'<%$9E$2 8ames La4ren-e Ho01htelin1 ,B.A. $9#E2 D .hairman of the )air Em loyment Board( .ivil Servi-e .ommission ,$9':%$9E"2

Ed4ard Harvey .0shin1 ,B.A. $9$9( SAG $9$92 D Assistant .hief ?edi-al *ire-tor for Resear-h and Ed0-ation at /eterans Administration ,$9':%$9E"2 Bankers: MWilliam ?-.hesney ?artin 8r. ,B.A. $9"<2 D .hairman of the )ederal Reserve ,A ril "( $9E$%8an0ary 7$( $9=#23 Assistant U.S. Se-retary of the Treas0ry for 5nternational Affairs ,$9'9%$9E$2 Ro!ert Ten Broe-k Stevens ,B.A. $9"$2 D .hairman of )ederal Reserve Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'<%$9E723 Se-retary of the Army ,$9E7%$9EE2 Walter Seth Lo1an ,B.A. $9$#( SAB $9$#2 D /i-e President and +eneral .o0nsel of the )ederal Reserve Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9"<%$9E72 Harold *. Hod1kinson ,Ph.B. $9$"2 D .hairman ,$9E$%$9EE2 and .lass . *ire-tor ,$9'=%$9EE2 of the )ederal Reserve Bank of Boston MR0ssell .. Leffin14ell ,B.A. $<992 D .hairman of 8.P. ?or1an A .o. ,$9'<%$9E#2 8ames Stillman Ro-kefeller ,B.A. $9"'( SAG $9"'2 D President of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork I.iti!ankJ ,$9E"%$9E92 Sam0el Sloan .olt ,B.A. $9$'( SAG $9$'2 D President of Bankers Tr0st .o. ,$97$%$9E=2 Boylston Adams Tom kins ,B.A. $9$E( SAG $9$E2 D /i-e President of Bankers Tr0st .o. ,$9"$%$9EE2 .harles 8a-o! Ste4art ,B.A. $9$<( SAB $9$<2 D President of &e4 ;ork Tr0st .o. ,$9'9%$9E"2 MAlfred Hayes ,B.A. $97#2 D /i-e President of the &e4 ;ork Tr0st .o. ,$9'9%$9E:2 Pres-ott S. B0sh ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9="2 ME. Roland Harriman ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9=<2 MGni1ht Woolley ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9<"2 MRay ?orris ,B.A. $9#$( SAB $9#$2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9E:2 Tha-her ?. Bro4n ,B.A. $<9=2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9E'2 ?orea0 *elano Bro4n ,B.A. $9":2 D Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$979%$9='2 M8ohn ?. S-hiff ,B.A. $9"E2 D Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$97$%$9==2 M8ose h Ri-hardson *il4orth ,B.A. $97<( LL.B. $9'"( SAB $97<2 D Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$9E$%$9E<2 MRo!ert Lehman ,B.A. $9$72 D Partner of Lehman Brothers ,$9"E%$9:92 8ose h Al!ert Thomas ,B.A. $9"<( SAG $9"<2 D Partner of Lehman Brothers ,$97=%$9==2 MHarold Stanley ,B.A. $9#<( SAB $9#<2 D Partner of ?or1an( Stanley A .o. ,$9'$%$9EE2 *ean Witter 8r. ,B.A. $9''( SAB $9''2 D Partner of *ean Witter A .o. ,$9':%$9=#2 Eliot +. )it-h ,B.A. $9$<2 D President of ?arine &ational E>-han1e Bank of ?il4a0kee ,$9'"%$99"2 )rederi- A010st0s Potts ,B.A. $9":2 D President of Philadel hia &ational Bank ,$9'=%$9:'2 +ardner *omini-k Sto0t ,B.A. $9":2 D Partner of *omini-k A *omini-k Iinvestment firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9":%$9:<2 Ed4ard Ho4ard ;ork 8r. ,B.A. $9$"2 D Partner of *re>el A .o. Iinvestment !ank in Philadel hiaJ ,$97$%$97E( $9'7%$9:$2 Ed4ard Starr( 8r. ,B.A. $9""( SAG $9""2 D Partner of *re>el A .o. Iinvestment !ank in Philadel hia ,$97=%-.$9::2 MWilliam )rederi-k ?a-hold ,Ph.B. $9"=2 D Partner of *re>el A .o. Iinvestment !ank in Philadel hiaJ ,$9'9%$9::2 Everett Smith ,B.A. $9$E2 D )is-al a1ent for )ederal Home Loan Banks ,$97=%$9:"2 Ro!ert 8ames Le4is ,B.A. $9"$2 D Partner of Esta!rook A .o. I!ankin1 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$97$%$9:<2 Ed4ard ?-.rady +aillard ,B.A. $9$92 D President of Union A &e4 Haven Tr0st .o. I!ank in &e4 Haven( .onne-ti-0tJ ,$9'7%$9:"2 Henry E01ene .oe 555 ,B.A. $9':2 D Assistant Treas0rer of .hase ?anhattan Bank ,$9E7%$9:#2 Ro!ert +eor1e Wiese ,B.A. $9"E2 D Partner of S-0dder( Stevens A .lark Iinvestment firm in BostonJ ,$97:%$9=<2 Ro1er .onant *amon ,B.A. $9"92 D Senior /5-e President ,$9E"%$9E92 and /i-e President ,$9'7%$9E"2 of )irst &ational Bank of Boston B0sinessmen: M5rvin1 S. Olds ,B.A. $9#=2 D .hairman of the !oard of United States Steel .or . ,$9'#%$9E"2 ME. Roland Harriman ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D .hairman of the !oard of Union Pa-ifi- Railroad .o. ,$9':%$9:92 Leroy A. Lin-oln ,B.A. $9#"2 D .hairman of the !oard of ?etro olitan Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9E$%$9E=2 M+eor1e L. Harrison ,B.A. $9$#( SAB $9$#2 D .hairman of the !oard of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2 ?or1an B. Brainard ,B.A. $9##( LL.B. $9#72 D President of Aetna Life 5ns0ran-e .o. IHartford( .onne-ti-0tJ ,$9""%$9E=2 )ran-is )itH Randol h ,B.A. $9$$( SAB $9$$2 D Senior Partner of 8AW Seli1man A .o. ,$9'#%$9=72 +eor1e Her!ert Walker 8r. ,B.A. $9"=( SAB $9"=2 D +eneral Partner of +.H. Walker A .o. ,$9"9%$9='2 M?orehead Patterson ,B.A. $9"#( SAB $9"#2 D .hairman of the !oard of Ameri-an ?a-hine A )o0ndry .o. ,$9'7%$9:"2 M8. 5r4in ?iller ,B.A. $97$2 D .hairman of the !oard of .0mmins En1ine .o. ,$9E$%$9==23 President of .0mmins En1ine .o. ,$9'=%$9E$2 )rederi-k +lade Wa-ker 8r. ,B.A. $9'#2 D .hairman of the !oard and President of Amm-o Tools( 5n-. I&orth .hi-a1o( 5llinoisJ ,$9'<%$9<=2 .harles .hristian Haffner 8r. ,B.A. $9$9( SAB $9$92 D .hairman and .EO of R.R. *onnelley A Sons .o. I.hi-a1o rintin1 firmJ ,$9E"%$9:'2 Walter Pa0l Pae -ke ,B.A. $9$=2 D .hairman and .EO of .ontainer .or . of Ameri-a ,$9':%$9:#23 Tr0stee of University of .hi-a1o M8ohn E. Bier4irth ,B.A. $9$=2 D President of &ational *istillers A .hemi-al .or . ,$9'9%$9E<2 H. ?ansfield Horner ,B.S. $9":2 D President of United Air-raft .or oration ,$9'7%$9E:2 M80an Terry Tri e ,Ph.B. $9"$2 D President of Pan Ameri-an World Air4ays( 5n-. ,$9"=%$9:'2 MHenry 8ohn HeinH 55 ,B.A. $97$( SAB $97$2 D President of H.8. HeinH .om any ,$9'$%$9E92 +aylord *onnelley ,B.A. $97$( SAB $97$2 D President of R.R. *onnelley A Sons .o. ,$9E"%$9:'23 Tr0stee( Univ. of .hi-a1o ,$9'=%$9<#2 M)rank )ord R0ssell ,B.A. $9":( SAB $9":2 D President of &ational Aviation .or . ,$979%$9E'2 MRo!ert +0thrie Pa1e ,B.A. $9""( SAB $9""2 D President of Phel s *od1e .or oration ,$9'=%$9:=2 H. &eil ?allon ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D President of *resser 5nd0stries( 5n-. ,$9"9%$9E<2 MWalter Ho-hs-hild ,B.A. $9"#2 D President of The Ameri-an ?etal .o. Ltd. ,$9E#%$9E=2 MB. Bre4ster 8ennin1s ,B.A. $9"#( SAG $9"#2 D President of So-ony%?o!il Oil .o. ,$9''%$9EE2 MEdm0nd )itH1erald ,Ph.B. $9$:2 D President of &orth4estern ?0t0al Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'=%$9E<2 Thomas E01ene LoveFoy 8r. ,Ph.B. $9"<2 D President of ?anhattan Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9E#%$9:=2 M.harles Shi man Payson ,B.A. $9"$( SAG $9"$2 D former .hairman of the !oard of /itro .or . of Ameri-a Lo0is S. Roths-hild ,Ph.B. $9"#2 D President of Roths-hild A Sons( 5n-. IGansas .ity( ?isso0riJ ,$9'"%$9EE2 Te-0mseh Sherman )it-h ,B.S. $97$2 D .hairman of the !oard of Washin1ton Steel .or . IPennsylvaniaJ ,$9'E%$9:92 Ro!ert U Fohn Red ath 8r. ,B.A. $9"<2 D life 0nder4riter for La4yers ?ort1a1e .o. I&e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$977%$9<=2 Re0!en B0-k Ro!ertson ,B.A. $9##2 D .hairman of the !oard ,$9E#%$9:#2 and President ,$9':%$9E#( $9EE%$9:"2 of .ham ion Pa ers( 5n-. Henry We!! 8ohnstone ,B.A. $9$:( SAB $9$:2 D Senior /i-e President of ?er-k A .o.( 5n-. I harma-e0ti-al -om anyJ ,$9E#%$9E=2 Henry St0art Harrison ,B.A. $97"2 D Treas0rer of .leveland%.liffs 5ron .o. ,$9'E%$9E"2

Ho4ard ?a-+re1or T0ttle ,B.A. $9#'2 D President of &ational .asket .om any( 5n-. IBostonJ ,$9'7%-.$9E<2 Sam0el 8. Walker ,B.A. $9$=2 D President of .hi-a1o Rail4ay E60i ment .om any ,$9'=%$9:$2 M8ose h Peter +ra-e( 8r. ,B.A. $97:( SAG $97:2 D President and .EO of W.R. +ra-e A .o. ,$9'E%$9<$2 Hora-e Havemeyer( 8r. ,B.A. $97:( SAG $97:2 D President of &ational S01ar Refinin1 .o. I&e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9'<%$9::2 ). That-her Lane ,B.A. $9$=2 D President of Seamless R0!!er .o. ,$977%$9E'23 /i-e President of Re>all *r01 A .hemi-al .o.( 5n-. ,$9'"%E'2 Pier ont /. *avis ,B.A. $9#E2 D /i-e President of &ational .ity .om any ,$9$9%$97'23 President of Harriman Ri ley A .o. ,$9'"%$9E:2 Walter ?. 8effords 8r. ,B.A. $97<2 D .hairman of Brooklyn Boro01h +as .om any ,$9'9%$9E92 )loyd Wellman 8efferson ,B.A. $9#"2 D Partner of 5selin 8efferson .o.( 5n-. Ite>tile mer-hant in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9"=%$9':23 President of 5selin 8efferson .o.( 5n-. ,$9':%$9E#23 .hairman of the !oard of 5selin 8efferson .o.( 5n-. ,$9E#%-.$9:$2 Phili Ro1ers ?allory ,B.A. $9#<2 D .hairman of the !oard of P.R. ?allory A .o.( 5n-. Iman0fa-t0rin1 -om anyJ ,$9':%$9:E2 Allan A. Ryan ,B.A. $9"'2 D .hairman of the !oard of Royal Ty e4riter .om any( 5n-. ,$9'E%$9E'2 Sam0el A. Smith 8r. ,Ph.B. $9"$2 D Treas0rer of +eneral .a!le .or . ,$9E#%$9E72 Ro!ert )or!es &iven ,B.A. $97"2 D Se-retary of Union Oil .o. ,$9'=%$9="23 ?em!er of the Bohemian .l0! in San )ran-is-o William ?. *ay ,B.A. $9"=2 D /i-e President of ?i-hi1an Bell Tele hone .o. I*etroitJ ,$9E#%$9E:2 8ohn ?.G. *avis ,B.A. $9"92 D President of .onne-iti-0t Printers 5n-. IHartford( .onne-ti-0tJ ,$9E"%-.$9="2 )rank .o0rtenay *odd ,B.A. $<9=2 D .hairman of the !oard of *odd( ?ead A .o.( 5n-. I 0!lishin1 -om any in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9'"%$9:<2 Ed4ard Ho4ard *odd 8r. ,B.A. $9"<2 D /i-e President of *odd( ?ead A .o.( 5n-. I 0!lishin1 -om any in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9'$%$9E72 Ri-hard .. *oane ,B.A. $9$92 D /i-e President of 5nternational Pa er .o. I&e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9'<%$9E'2 La0ren-e Har er &orton ,B.A. $9$#2 D *ire-tor ,$9"<%$9:#2 and Treas0rer ,$9E=%$9:#2 of O1le!ay( &orton .o. I.leveland( OhioJ Hora-e Ransom ?0stard ,B.A. $97$2 D Treas0rer of Pitts!0r1h .oke A .hemi-al .o. ,$9''%$9:'2 La4yers: MAllen Ward4ell ,B.A. $<9E( SAG $<9E2 D ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9#9%$9E72 M+eor1e Ro!erts ,B.A. $9#E( LL.B. Harvard $9#<2 D Partner of Winthro ( Stimson( P0tnam A Ro!erts ,$9$'%$9:<2 MAllen T. Glots ,B.A. $9#9( SAB $9#92 D ?em!er of Winthro ( Stimson( P0tnam A Ro!erts Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9"$%$9:E2 8ames William H0sted ,B.A. $9$<2 D Partner of Winthro ( Stimson( P0tnam A Ro!erts ,$97#%$9:92 ?orris Hadley ,B.A. $9$:( SAB $9$:2 D Partner of ?il!ank( T4eed( Hadley A ?-.loy ,$9"'%$9=92 *aniel +leason Tenney 8r. ,B.A. $97E( LL.B. $97<( SAG $97E2 D Partner of ?il!ank( T4eed( Hadley A ?-.loy ,$9'<%-.$9<72 M.harles ?. S offord ,B.A. $9"'( SAB $9"'2 D ?em!er of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9'#%$9E#( $9E"%$9=72 .harles Hastin1s Willard ,B.A. $9":( SAB $9":2 D Partner of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell ,$9E#%$9=72 Ed4ard Ro1ers Ward4ell ,B.A. $9"=( SAB $9"=2 D ?em!er of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell ,$9':%-.$9="2 MSam0el HaHard +illes ie 8r. ,B.A. $97"( LL.B. $97:( SAB $97"2 D ?em!er of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell ,$9'<%"#$$2 Allen Evarts )oster ,B.A. $9#:2 D Partner of Lord( *ay A Lord Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9$9%-.$9=#2 Lo0is ?elville Loe! ,B.A. $9$92 D Partner of Lord( *ay A Lord ,$9'<%$9="23 +eneral .o0nsel of The &e4 ;ork Times .o. ,$9'<%$9:=2 Sherman Bald4in ,B.A. $9$9( SAB $9$92 D ?em!er of Lord( *ay A Lord ,$9"9%$9:92 8ohn *orsey +arrison ,B.A. $97$( LL.B. $97'2 D ?em!er of Lord( *ay A Lord ,$9'7%$9<#2 +arrard Wood +lenn ,B.A. $977( SAG $9772 D Partner of Lord( *ay A Lord ,$9'<%$9E'( $9E<%-.$9='2 M*o01las ?a>4ell ?offat ,B.A. $9#7( LL.B. Harvard $9#=2 D Partner of .ravath( S4aine A ?oore Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9$7%$9E:2 .ha0n-ey Bre4ster +arver ,B.A. $9#<( SAG $9#<2 D Partner of Shearman A Sterlin1 Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9$=%$9=72 Allen Skinner H0!!ard ,B.A. $9$$( SAG $9$$2 D Partner of H01hes( H0!!ard A Reed Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$97=%$9<$2 MWilliam S. +a0d ,B.A. $9"9( LL.B. $97$2 D ?em!er of .arter( Ledyard A ?il!0rn Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9':%$9:$2 Ed4ard Ban-roft T4om!ly ,B.A. $9$"( SAB $9$"2 D Partner of P0tney( T4om!ly( Hall A Skidmore Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9$9%$9::2 )rederi-k P. Haas ,B.A. $97E( SAB $97E2 D Partner of We!ster( Sheffield( )leis-hmann( Hit-h-o-k A .hrystie Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9':%$9:E2 Sidney Wetmore *avidson ,B.A. $9$:3 8.*. $9$<2 D ?em!er of *avidson( *a4son A .lark Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9'9%$9='2 M8erome S. Hess ,B.A. $9#72 D ?em!er of Hardin( Hess A Eder Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9#=%$9=#23 ?em!er of Hardin( Hess A S0areH Ila4 firm in ?e>i-o .ityJ ,$9"$%$9=#23 President of Ameri-an )orei1n La4 Asso-iation ,$9''%$9'=2 +erhard A. +esell ,B.A. $97"2 D ?em!er of .ovin1ton A B0rlin1 Ila4 firm in Washin1ton( *...J ,$9'$%$9:=2 5saa- Henry ?ayer ,B.A. $<<'2 D Senior ?em!er of ?ayer( ?eyer( A0strian A Platt Ila4 firm in .hi-a1oJ ,$9""%$9:=2 ?errill She ard ,B.A. $9"E2 D Partner of Po e( Ballard( Gennedy( She ard A )o4le Ila4 firm in .hi-a1oJ ,$97:%-.$9<:2 Anthony Lee ?i-hel ,B.A. $9":( SAB $9":2 D Partner of +ardner( .arton( *o01las( .hil1ren A Wa0d Ila4 firm in .hi-a1oJ ,$9'"%$9::2 &orman Waite ,B.A. $9"=3 LL.B. Harvard $97#2 D Partner of S-hiff Hardin A Waite Ila4 firm in .hi-a1oJ ,$9'#%-.$9=:2 +eor1e Alfred Ranney ,B.A. $97'( LL.B. $979( SAB $97'2 D ?em!er of Sidley( A0stin( B0r1ess A Smith Ila4 firm in .hi-a1oJ ,$979%$9:"2 8ohn Loomer Hall ,B.A. $<9'( LL.B. $<9:( SAB $<9'2 D ?em!er of .hoate( Hall A Ste4art Ila4 firm in BostonJ ,$9#'%$9:#2 MHarvey H. B0ndy ,B.A. $9#9( SAB $9#92 D ?em!er of .hoate( Hall A Ste4art Ila4 firm in BostonJ ,$977%$9'$( $9'E%$9:72 ?ar-ien 8en-kes ,B.A. $9"$( SAB $9"$2 D ?em!er of .hoate( Hall A Ste4art Ila4 firm in BostonJ ,$9"=%$9=$2 Brinley ?or1an Hall ,B.A. $97'( SAG $97'2 D Partner of .hoate( Hall A Ste4art Ila4 firm in BostonJ ,$9E$%$9:"2 Sidney &or4ood To4le 8r. ,B.A. $97E( LL.B. $97<( SAG $97E2 D Partner of Within1ton( .ross( Park A ?-.ann Ila4 firm in BostonJ ,$9'=%$9E92 +eor1e )rederi-k Baer A el ,B.A. $9"'( SAB $9"'2 D Partner of To4nsend( Elliott A ?0nson Ila4 firm in Philadel hiaJ ,$97<%$9=#2 8ohn Herron ?ore ,B.A. $9"'2 D Partner of Taft( Stettini0s AHollister Ila4 firm in .in-innatiJ ,$97E%$9=#2 8ohn Bo0rne *em sey ,B.A. $9$$( SAB $9$$2 D Partner of S60ire( Sanders A *em sey Ila4 firm in .leveland( OhioJ ,$97E%$9:72 Ho4ard Tallmad1e )o0lkes ,B.A. $9$$2 D Partner of Wi-kham( Bor1elt( Sko1stad and Po4ell Ila4 firm in ?il4a0keeJ ,$9$7%$9=72 Ol-ott *amon Smith ,B.A. $9"92 D Partner of *ay( Berry A Ho4ard Ila4 firm in Hartford( .onne-ti-0t ,$97=%$9:"2 8ohn .ald4ell Parsons ,B.A. $9""3 LL.B. $9":2 D Partner of Ro!inson( Ro!inson A .ole Ila4 firm in Hartford( .onne-ti-0tJ ,$97$%$9=72 Pomeroy *ay ,B.A. $9"<3 LL.B. $97$2 D ?em!er of Ro!inson( Ro!inson A .ole Ila4 firm in Hartford( .onne-ti-0tJ ,$97:%$9E<2 Henry .orni-k .oke ,B.A. $9":( LL.B. $9"9( SAB $9":2 D ?em!er of .oke A .oke Ila4 firm in *allas( Te>asJ ,$97#%$9==2 Alvin H0ey Lane ,B.A. $9$E3 LL.B. Harvard $9"#2 D Partner of Lane A Sava1e ,and rede-essor2 Ila4 firm in *allas( Te>asJ ,$97:%$9E=23 .o% +eneral .o0nsel of the Re 0!li-an Party of Te>as ,$9'"%$9E"2 .orneli0s E. Lom!ardi ,B.A. $9$$( SAB $9$$2 D Partner of Lom!ardi( Ro!ertson( )li11 A ?-Lean Ila4 firm in Gansas .ityJ ,$97:%$9E:2 Ri-hard ?arden *avis ,B.A. $977( SAB $9772 D Partner of *avis( +raham A St0!!s Ila4 firm in *enverJ ,$97=%-.$9<"2 8ose h ?artin 8r. ,B.A. $97:3 LL.B. $9792 D Partner of Walla-e( +arrison( &orton A Ray Ila4 firm in San )ran-is-oJ ,$9':%$9EE2 .harles *0dley Pratt ,B.A. $9""( LL.B. $9"'2 D ?em!er of Pratt( Tavares A .assidy Ila4 firm in Honol0l0( Ha4aiiJ ,$9'=%$9:#2

Lloyd )rank Thanho0ser ,Ph.B.$9"7( LL.B. $9":2 D /i-e President and +eneral .o0nsel of .ontinental Oil .o. ,.ono-o2 IHo0ston( Te>asJ ,$9'9%-.$9::2 8o0rnalists: ME01ene ?eyer ,B.A. $<9E2 D .hairman of the !oard of The Washin1ton Post .o. ,$9'=%$9E92 MWhitela4 Reid ,B.A. $97:2 D President of &e4 ;ork Herald Tri!0ne ,$9E"%$9EE2 MHenry R. L0-e ,B.A. $9"#( SAB $9"#2 D Editor%in%.hief of Time( 5n-. ,$9"7%$9:'2 M.harles ?erH ,B.A. $9$E2 D Editor of The ew !ork Times ,$97<%$9:$2 MWalter ?illis ,B.A. $9"#2 D staff 4riter for ew !ork Herald"Tribune ,$9"'%$9E'2 MA010st He-ks-her ,B.A. $97:2 D .hief Editorial Writer for ew !ork Herald"Tribune ,$9E"%$9E:2 .harles Latimer Stillman ,B.A. $9":2 D Treas0rer ,$97#%$9:#2 and E>e-0tive /i-e President ,$9'9%$9E92 of Time( 5n-. ITime ma1aHineJ Or1aniHation E>e-0tives: MR0ssell .. Leffin14ell ,B.A. $<992 D .hairman of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9':%$9E72 M)rank Alts-h0l ,B.A. $9#<2 D /i-e President of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9E$%$9=$2 MPer-y W. Bid4ell ,B.A. $9$#( Ph.*. $9$E2 D *ire-tor of St0dies at the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$97=%$9E72 MW. Averell Harriman ,B.A. $9$7( SAB $9$72 D *ire-tor of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9E#%$9EE2 ME. Roland Harriman ,B.A. $9$=( SAB $9$=2 D President of Ameri-an Red .ross ,$9E#%$9E72 MWilliam /in-ent +riffin ,B.A. $9$"( SAG $9$"2 D President of En1lish%S eakin1 Union of the United States ,$9'=%$9E=2 The Rt. Rev. Henry Gno> Sherrill ,B.A. $9$$2 D President of the &ational .o0n-il of .h0r-hes USA ,$9E#%$9E"2 Hora-e 8eremiah ,8erry2 /oorhis ,B.A. $9"72 D E>e-0tive *ire-tor of the .oo erative Lea10e of the United States of Ameri-a ,$9'=%$9:=2 An10s *0n ,B.A. $9$'2 D Protestant E is-o al Bisho for the E is-o al *io-ese of Washin1ton( *... ,$9''%$9:"2 8ohn Williams Andre4s ,B.A. $9"#3 LL.B. $9":2 D *ire-tor of Washin1ton 5nstit0te of ?ental Hy1iene ,$9E$%$9E"2 William Payne Ro!erts ,B.A. $9#92 D Pastor of St. Pa0lLs .h0r-h in &ankin1( .hina ,$9"7%$97=23 Bisho of the ?issionary *istri-t of Shan1hai of the Ameri-an .h0r-h ?ission in .hina ,$97=%$9E#2 William Re1inald Wheeler ,B.A. $9$$2 D E>e-0tive Se-retary of ;ale%in%.hina ,$9'=%$9'923 Se-retary of Pres!yterian Board of )orei1n ?issions ,$97<%$9'"23 E>e-0tive Se-retary of Pres!yterian Board of )orei1n ?issions ,$9"7%$97"2 ;... 8ames ;en ,B.A. $9$<2 D )o0nder and +eneral *ire-tor of .hinese &ational Asso-iation of ?ass Ed0-ation ?ovement in Pei in1 IBeiFin1J( .hina ,$9"'%$9E$2 .olle1e Administrators and .olle1e Professors: MAlfred Whitney +ris4old ,B.A. $9"93 Ph.*. $9772 D President of ;ale University ,$9E#%$9:72 La0ren-e +. Ti1he ,B.A. $9$:( SAB $9$:2 D Treas0rer of ;ale University ,$9'"%$9E'2 .arl A. Lohmann ,B.A. $9$#( SAB $9$#2 D Se-retary of ;ale University ,$9"=%$9E72 A010st Sidney Lovett ,B.A. $9$7( SAB $9$72 D .ha lain of ;ale University ,$97"%$9E<2 Ro!ert L. 8ohnson ,B.A. $9$<2 D President of Tem le University ,$9'$%$9E92 Ri-hard *aniel Wei1le ,B.A. $97$( Ph.*. $9792 D President of St. 8ohnLs .olle1e IAnna olis( ?arylandJ ,$9'9%$9<#2 Ro!ert ?aynard H0t-hins ,B.A. $9"$2 D .han-ellor of University of .hi-a1o ,$9'E%$9E$23 Asso-iate *ire-tor of )ord )o0ndation ,$9E$%$9E'2 +eor1e Hoyt Whi le ,B.A. $9##2 D *ean of the S-hool of ?edi-ine and *entistry at University of Ro-hester ,$9"$%$9E72 Pa0l Shi man Andre4s ,B.A. $9#9( LL.B. .ol0m!ia $9$"2 D *ean of Syra-0se University .olle1e of La4 ,$9"=%$9E"2 Shelden *. Elliott ,B.A. $9"=2 D *ean of University of So0thern .alifornia La4 S-hool ,$9'<%$9E"2 Ral h Henry +a!riel ,B.A. $9$7( ?.A. $9$E( Ph.*. $9$92 D Professor of History at ;ale University ,$9"<%$9E<2 Garl &. Lle4ellyn ,B.A. $9$E( LL.B. $9$<2 D Betts Professor of 80ris r0den-e at .ol0m!ia University ,$97#%$9E$23 Professor of La4 at University of .hi-a1o ,$9E$%$9:"2 Stanley ?orrison ,B.A. $9$E2 D Professor of La4 at Stanford University ,$9"9%$9EE23 ?em!er of the Bohemian .l0! in San )ran-is-o MWalt W. Rosto4 ,B.A. $97:( Ph.*. $9'#2 D Professor of E-onomi- History at ?assa-h0setts 5nstit0te of Te-hnolo1y ,$9E#%$9:#2 Ale>ander Hamilton )rey ,B.A. $9$9( LL.B. $9"$2 D Professor of La4 at University of Pennsylvania La4 S-hool ,$97"%$9:<2 Walter )reeman ,B.A. $9$:( ?.*. U.Penn. $9"#2 D Professor of &e0rolo1y at +eor1e Washin1ton University ,$9"=%$9E'2 &ote: MQ?em!er of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations3 SAB Q Sk0ll A Bones3 SAG Q S-roll A Gey

!ro.inent (ale 1raduates - +heir 2ccupation during the 3orean /ar

Ros4ell L. +il atriB.A. ;ale $9"< Under Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,$9E$%$9E72

W. St0art Symin1ton B.A. ;ale $9"7 Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,$9'=%$9E#2

*ean +. A-heson B.A. ;ale $9$E U.S. Se-retary of State ,$9'9%$9E72

William ?-.. ?artin 8r. B.A. ;ale $9"< .hairman of the )ederal Reserve ,$9E$%$9=#2

E01ene ?eyer B.A. ;ale $<9E .hairman of the !oard of The Washin1ton Post .o. ,$9'=%$9E92

Ells4orth B0nker B.A. ;ale $9$: U.S. Am!assador to Ar1entina ,$9E$%$9E"23 U.S. Am!assador to 5taly ,$9E"%$9E72

.hester Bo4les B.A. ;ale $9"' U.S. Am!assador to 5ndia ,$9E$%$9E7( $9:7%$9:92

)rank Alts-h0l B.A. ;ale $9#< /i-e President of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9E$%$9=$2

R0ssell .. Leffin14ell B.A. ;ale $<99 .hairman of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9':%$9E72

Allen Ward4ell B.A. ;ale $<9E ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell ,$9#9%$9E72

Alfred Whitney +ris4old B.A. ;ale $9"9 President of ;ale University ,$9E#%$9:72

William /in-ent +riffin B.A. ;ale $9$" President of En1lish% S eakin1 Union of the United States ,$9'=%$9E=2

8. 5r4in ?iller B.A. ;ale $97$ .hairman of the !oard of .0mmins En1ine .o. ,$9E$%$9==2

8ohn G. 8ess0 B.A. ;ale $9"< .hief Editorial Writer of Life ma1aHine ,$9E$%$9:92

B. Bre4ster 8ennin1s B.A. ;ale $9"# President of So-ony%?o!il Oil .o. ,$9''%$9EE2

Stanley ). Reed B.A. ;ale $9#: 80sti-e of the U.S. S0 reme .o0rt ,$97<%$9E=2

Ro!ert Ten Broe-k Stevens B.A. ;ale $9"$ Se-retary of the Army ,$9E7%$9EE2

8ames S. Ro-kefeller B.A. ;ale $9"' President of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork I.iti!ankJ ,$9E"%$9E92

8ohn Ta!er B.A. ;ale $9#" U.S. .on1ressman ,R%&e4 ;ork( $9"7%$9:72

Thr0ston B. ?orton B.A. ;ale $9"9 U.S. .on1ressman ,R%Gent0-ky( $9'=%$9E72

!ro.inent (ale 1raduates %kull - 0ones' - +heir 2ccupation during the 3orean /ar

Harold Stanley B.A. ;ale $9#< Partner of ?or1an( Stanley A .o. ,$9'$%$9EE2

+eor1e L. Harrison B.A. ;ale $9$# .hairman of the !oard of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2

Ro!ert A. Lovett B.A. ;ale $9$< U.S. Se-retary of *efense ,$9E$%$9E72

). Tr0!ee *avison B.A. ;ale $9$< *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,.5A2 for Personnel ,$9E$%$9E"2

8ohn ?artin /orys B.A. ;ale $9$< U.S. .on1ressman ,R%Ohio( $979%$9E92

8ohn Sherman .oo er B.A. ;ale $9"7 U.S. Senator ,R%Gent0-ky( $9':%$9'9( $9E"%$9EE( $9E:%$9=72

Ro!ert A. Taft B.A. ;ale $9$# U.S. Senator ,R%Ohio( $979%$9E72

Pres-ott S. B0sh B.A. ;ale $9$= Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$% $9="23 U.S. Senator ,R%.onn.( $9E"%$9:72

E. Roland Harriman B.A. ;ale $9$= Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$% $9=<23 President of Ameri-an Red .ross ,$9E#%$9E72

Gni1ht Woolley B.A. ;ale $9$= Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9<"2

Harvey H. B0ndy B.A. ;ale $9#9 Tr0stee( World Pea-e )o0ndation ,$97'%$9:72

W. Averell Harriman B.A. ;ale $9$7 *ire-tor of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9E#%$9EE2

Henry R. L0-e B.A. ;ale $9"# Editor%in%.hief of Time ma1aHine ,$9"7%$9:'2

8ames W. Wads4orth 8r. B.A. ;ale $<9< U.S. .on1ressman ,R%&e4 ;ork( $977%$9E$2

.harles ?. S offord B.A. ;ale $9"' ?em!er of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell Ila4 firmJ ,$9'#%$9E#( $9E"%$9=72

8. P0i11 &e4ton 8r. B.A. ;ale $977 ?ayor of *enver( .olorado ,$9'=%$9EE2

?orris Hadley B.A. ;ale $9$: Partner of ?il!ank( T4eed( Hadley A ?-.loy Ila4 firmJ ,$9"'%$9=92

8. Ri-hardson *il4orth B.A. ;ale $97< Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. I!ankJ ,$9E$%$9E<2

H. &eil ?allon B.A. ;ale $9$= President of *resser 5nd0stries( 5n-. ,$9"9%$9E<2

Henry 8ohn HeinH 55 B.A. ;ale $97$ President of H.8. HeinH .om any ,$9'$%$9E92

Korean War an &)e(ial -nterest8 ,oun(il on 2oreign 'elations

Harold Pratt Ho0se( the head60arters of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations( is lo-ated on so0th4est -orner of Park Aven0e and :<th Street in the ?anhattan !oro01h of &e4 ;ork .ity.

Left to ri1ht: Se-retary of State *ean A-heson( +eneral *4i1ht *. Eisenho4er( Se-retary of *efense Ro!ert Lovett( and Averell Harriman stand to1ether in $9E". All fo0r men in that hoto 4ere mem!ers of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations. A-heson( Eisenho4er( and Harriman 4ere mem!ers of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations at the time this hoto 4as taken in $9E".

*ire-tors of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations d0rin1 the Gorean War ,$9E#%$9E72

W. Averell Harriman( Allen W. *0lles( 8ohn W. *avis( R0ssell .. Leffin14ell( 8ose h E. 8ohnson( Phili *. Reed

Hamilton )ish Armstron1( Le4is W. *o01las( Thomas G. )inletter( *evere0> .. 8ose hs( Henry ?. Wriston( *avid Ro-kefeller

)rank Alts-h0l( +rayson L. Girk( Walter H. ?allory( Whitney H. She ardson( ?yron .. Taylor( William A.?. B0rden &ame 8ohn W. *avis Whitney H. She ardson Allen W. *0lles R0ssell .. Leffin14ell +eor1e O. ?ay Hamilton )ish Armstron1 )rank Alts-h0l 8ohn H. Williams Le4is W. *o01las .laren-e E. H0nter ?yron .. Taylor Henry ?. Wriston Thomas G. )inletter William A.?. B0rden Walter H. ?allory Phili *. Reed *avid Ro-kefeller W. Averell Harriman 8ose h E. 8ohnson +rayson L. Girk *evere0> .. 8ose hs *ire-tor ,;ear2 $9"$%$9EE $9"$%$9:: $9"=%$9:9 $9"=%$9:# $9"=%$9E7 $9"<%$9=" $97'%$9=" $97=%$9:' $9'#%$9:' $9'"%$9E7 $9'7%$9E9 $9'7%$9:= $9''%$9:= $9'E%$9=' $9'E%$9:< $9'E%$9:9 $9'9%$9<E $9E#%$9EE $9E#%$9=' $9E#%$9=7 $9E$%$9E< O--0 ation ,$9E#%$9E72 ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell( +ardiner A Reed Ila4 firmJ ,$9"$%$9EE2 *ire-tor of British *ominions and .olonies )0nd at .arne1ie .or . of &e4 ;ork ,$9':%$9E72 *e 0ty *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,$9E$%$9E72 .hairman of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9':%$9E72 Senior Partner of Pri-e( Waterho0se A .o. 0!li- a--o0ntants ,$9$$%$9:$2 Editor of #oreign $ffairs ma1aHine ,$9"<%$9="2 Se-retary of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9''%$9="2 &athaniel Ro es Professor of Politi-al E-onomy at Harvard University ,$977%$9E=2 .hairman of ?0t0al Life 5ns0ran-e .om any of &e4 ;ork ,$9E#%$9E92 .hief of E.A I?arshall PlanJ S e-ial ?ission to the &etherlands ,$9'9%$9E$2 Re resentative of the President of the U.S. on S e-ial ?ission ,$9E#%$9E72 President of Bro4n University ,$97=%$9EE2 Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,$9E#%$9E72 Partner of William A.?. B0rden A .o. ,$9'9%$9<'2 E>e-0tive *ire-tor of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9"=%$9E92 .hairman of the !oard of +eneral Ele-tri- .o. ,$9'#%$9'"( $9'E%$9E<2 Senior /i-e President of .hase &ational Bank ,$9E$%$9EE2 *ire-tor of ?0t0al Se-0rity A1en-y ,$9E$%$9E72 President of .arne1ie Endo4ment for 5nternational Pea-e ,$9E#%$9=$2 Provost of .ol0m!ia University ,$9'9%$9E72 President of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2

#ouncil on Foreign Relations *e.bers during the 3orean /ar

Harold Stanley Partner( ?or1an( Stanley A .o. ,$9'$%$9EE2

E01ene R. Bla-k President of The World Bank ,$9'9%$9:"2

Winthro W. Aldri-h .hairman of .hase &ational Bank ,$97'%$9E72

William ?-.. ?artin 8r. .hairman of the )ederal Reserve ,$9E$%$9=#2

Allan S ro0l President of the )ederal Reserve Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'$%$9E:2

Henry R. L0-e Editor%in%.hief of Time ma1aHine ,$9"7%$9:'2

Arth0r Hays S0lH!er1er President of The &e4 ;ork Times .o. ,$97E%$9E=2

E01ene ?eyer .hairman of the !oard of The Washin1ton Post .o. ,$9'=%$9E92

*avid Sarnoff .hairman of the !oard of Radio .or oration of Ameri-a ,$9'=%$9::2

William S. Paley .hairman of the !oard of .ol0m!ia Broad-astin1 System ,$9':%$9<72

+eor1e ). Gennan U.S. Am!assador to the Soviet Union ,$9E"2

Pa0l H. &itHe *ire-tor of State *e t. Poli-y Plannin1 Staff ,$9E#%$9E72

*ean +. A-heson U.S. Se-retary of State ,$9'9%$9E72

8ohn )oster *0lles .hairman of The Ro-kefeller )o0ndation ,$9E#%$9E"23 U.S. Se-retary of State ,$9E7%$9E92

+en. Walter Bedell Smith *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,$9E#%$9E72

?aF. +en. ?a>4ell *. Taylor Army *e 0ty .hief of Staff for O erations and Administration ,$9E$%$9E72

?aF. +en. Lyman L. LemnitHer Army *e 0ty .hief of Staff for Plans and Resear-h ,$9E"%$9EE2

*4i1ht *. Eisenho4er S0 reme Allied .ommander of E0ro e ,$9E$%$9E"23 President of the U.S. ,$9E7%$9:$2

Her!ert H. Lehman U.S. Senator ,*%&e4 ;ork( $9'9%$9E=2

H. Ale>ander Smith U.S. Senator ,R%&e4 8ersey( $9''%$9E92

BenFamin 8. B0tten4ieser Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. I&e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$97"%$9==2

)rederi-k ?. War!0r1 Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$97$%$9=72

William +. Brady 8r. .hairman of the !oard of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'<%$9E"2

Ho4ard .. She erd President ,$9'<%$9E"2 and .hairman ,$9E"% $9E92 of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork

.. *o01las *illon .hairman of the !oard of *illon( Read A .o. ,$9':%$9E72

E01ene +. +ra-e .hairman of Bethlehem Steel .or . ,$9'E%$9:#2

Alfred P. Sloan 8r. .hairman of the !oard of +eneral ?otors .or . ,$97=%$9E:2

Thomas 8. Watson Sr. .hairman of 5nternational B0siness ?a-hines .or . ,5B?2 ,$9'9%$9E:2

+eor1e L. Harrison .hairman of the !oard of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2

B. Bre4ster 8ennin1s President of So-ony%?o!il Oil .o. ,$9''%$9EE2

Pa0l +. Hoffman President of )ord )o0ndation ,$9E#%$9E72

Ed4ard R. ?0rro4 .BS Fo0rnalist ,$97E%$9:$2

)eli> )rankf0rter 80sti-e of the U.S. S0 reme .o0rt ,$979%$9:"2

.hristian A. Herter ?em!er of the U.S. Ho0se of Re resentatives ,R%?ass.( $9'7%$9E72

*avid G.E. Br0-e U.S. Am!assador to )ran-e ,$9'9%$9E"2

Arth0r H. *ean Partner of S0llivan A .rom4ell Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9"9%$9=:2

Allen Ward4ell ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9#9%$9E72

.harles ?. S offord ?em!er of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell ,$9'#%$9E#( $9E"%$9=72

E. Roland Harriman .hairman of the !oard of Union Pa-ifi- Railroad .o. ,$9':%$9:92

80an Terry Tri e President of Pan Ameri-an World Air4ays( 5n-. ,$9"=%$9:'2

#ouncil on Foreign Relations *e.bers and +heir 2ccupation during the 3orean /ar 456784569'
&ame 0ankers: E01ene R. Bla-k William ?-.. ?artin 8r. Allan S ro0l Winthro W. Aldri-h *avid Ro-kefeller Thomas S. Lamont William +. Brady 8r. Ho4ard .. She erd .. *o01las *illon 8... Tra ha1en Harold Stanley E. Roland Harriman Ray ?orris Gni1ht Woolley Thomas ?-.an-e )rederi-k ?. War!0r1 8ohn ?. S-hiff BenFamin 8. B0tten4ieser Ro!ert Lehman 8ohn L. Loe! Sr. Broderi-k Haskell Alfred Hayes B.A. Tom kins Alfred W. Weld H01h B0llo-k 0usiness.en: Alfred P. Sloan 8r. Thomas 8. Watson Phili *. Reed 5rvin1 S. Olds E01ene +. +ra-e Le4is W. *o01las +eor1e L. Harrison *evere0> .. 8ose hs 80an Terry Tri e B. Bre4ster 8ennin1s 8a-k 5. Stra0s B. Ed4in H0t-hinson Byron G. Elliott Lammot d0 Pont .o eland Emilio +. .ollado Laird Bell +eor1e O. ?ay Per-ival ). Br0nda1e Sosthenes Behn .leveland E. *od1e W. Randol h B0r1ess ;awyers: 8ohn W. *avis Allen Ward4ell Ral h ?. .arson +eor1e A. Bro4nell Ta11art Whi le E0sta-e Seli1man Arth0r H. *ean +eor1e .. Shar &orris *arrell Eli Whitney *e!evoise )ran-is T.P. Plim ton .)R ?em!ershi ,;ear2 $9E#%$9:7 $9'=%$99E $97E%$9EE $9"=%$9=7 $9'"% resent $97$%$9:: $9''%$9E" $979%$9:" $9'#%"##" $977%$9=7 $9"E%$9E9 $977%$9:9 $9'=%$9E: $9'<%$9== $9'9%$9=< $977%$9=# $97<%$9<: $9'"%$99$ $9'#%$9:< $9'9%$99: $9':%$9<$ $9'<%$9<E $9''%$9EE $9'=%$9E: $9'=%$997 $977%$9:E $9"'%$9EE $9'"%$9<< $97E%$9:" $9"E%$9E< $97E%$9=7 $9"9%$9E7 $9':%$9:$ $977%$9=: $9':%$9:# $9'"%$9<E $9"=%$9:# $9''%$99" $9'"%$9<7 $9'<%$99" $9'9%$9:# $9"'%$9:# $97E%$9=< $97#%$9E7 $97$%$9<" $979%$9=< $9"$%$9EE $9"$%$9E7 $97<%$9:9 $9'=%$9== $9E$%$99" $9":%$9=: $97<%$9<= $9':%$9=" $9':%$9<7 $97E%$9<9 $977%$9<7 Primary O--0 ation President of The World Bank ,$9'9%$9:"2 .hairman of the )ederal Reserve ,A ril "( $9E$%8an0ary 7$( $9=#2 Assistant U.S. Se-retary of the Treas0ry for 5nternational Affairs ,$9'9%$9E$2 President of the )ederal Reserve Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'$%$9E:2 .hairman of the !oard of .hase &ational Bank ,$97'%$9E72 Senior /i-e President of .hase &ational Bank ,$9E$%$9EE2 /i-e President of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9E#%$9=#2 /i-e President of 8.P. ?or1an A .o. ,$9'#%$9E72 .hairman of the !oard of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'<%$9E"2 President of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'<%$9E"2 .hairman of the !oard of *illon( Read A .o. ,$9':%$9E72 .hairman of the !oard of Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9'<%$9E=2 Partner of ?or1an Stanley A .o. ,$9'$%$9EE2 Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9=<2 President of Ameri-an Red .ross ,$9E#%$9E72 Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9E:2 Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$97$%$9<"2 Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. ,$9'E%$9=92 Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$97$%$9=72 Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$97$%$9==2 Partner of G0hn( Loe! A .o. ,$97"%$9==2 Partner of Lehman Brothers ,$9"E%$9:92 Partner of Loe!( Rhoades A .o. I&e4 ;ork .ity !rokera1e firmJ ,$97$%$9EE2 /i-e President of +0aranty Tr0st .om any of &e4 ;ork ,$97=%$9E72 /i-e President of the &e4 ;ork Tr0st .om any ,$9'9%$9E:2 /i-e President of Bankers Tr0st .o. ,$9"$%$9EE2 Partner of Paine( We!!er( 8a-kson A .0rtis I!rokera1e firm in BostonJ Wall Street !anker .hairman of the !oard of +eneral ?otors .or . ,$97=%$9E:2 .hairman of 5nternational B0siness ?a-hines .or . ,5B?2 ,$9'9%$9E:2 .hairman of the !oard of +eneral Ele-tri- .o. ,$9'#%$9'"( $9'E%$9E<2 .hairman of the !oard of United States Steel .or . ,$9'#%$9E"2 .hairman of the !oard of Bethlehem Steel .or . ,$9'E%$9:#2 .hairman of the !oard( ?0t0al Life 5ns0ran-e .om any of &e4 ;ork ,$9E#%$9E92 U.S. Am!assador to +reat Britain ,?ar-h "E( $9'=%&ovem!er $:( $9E#2 .hairman of the !oard of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2 President of &e4 ;ork Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'<%$9E'2 President of Pan Ameri-an World Air4ays( 5n-. ,$9"=%$9:'23 .hairman of The E-onomi- .l0! of &e4 ;ork ,$9E#%$9E"2 President of So-ony%?o!il Oil .o. ,$9''%$9EE2 President of R.H. ?a-y A .o. I?a-yLs de artment storeJ ,$9'#%$9E:2 /i-e President of .hrysler .or . ,$9"E%$9E72 E>e-0tive /i-e Pres. of 8ohn Han-o-k ?0t0al Life 5ns0ran-e .o. ,$9'=%$9E=2 Se-retary of E.5. d0 Pont de &emo0rs A .o. ,$9'=%$9E'2 Assistant Treas0rer of Standard Oil .o. of &e4 8ersey IE>>onJ ,$9'9%$9E'2 .hairman of the !oard of Weyerhae0ser Tim!er .o. ,$9'=%$9EE2 Senior Partner of Pri-e( Waterho0se A .o. 0!li- a--o0ntants ,$9$$%$9:$23 *ire-tor of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9"=%$9E72 Partner of Pri-e( Waterho0se A .o. 0!li- a--o0ntants I&e4 ;orkJ ,$97#%$9E'2 ?em!er of the !oard of dire-tors of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9"E%$9E:2 ?em!er of the !oard of dire-tors of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$9":%$9:#2 ?em!er of the !oard of dire-tors of &ational .ity Bank of &e4 ;ork ,$97<%$9E"2 ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell( +ardiner A Reed I&e4 ;ork .ityJ,$9"$%$9EE2 ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell( +ardiner A Reed ,$9#9%$9E72 ?em!er of *avis( Polk( Ward4ell( +ardiner A Reed ,$97E%$9==2 Partner of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell ,$97#%$9="2 Partner of *avis( Polk A Ward4ell ,$9E#%$99"2 ?em!er of S0llivan A .rom4ell Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9"7%$9=:2 Partner of S0llivan A .rom4ell ,$9"9%$9=:2 Partner of S0llivan A .rom4ell ,$9"9%$9=$2 Partner of S0llivan A .rom4ell ,$97'%$9=:2 Partner of *e!evoise A Plim ton Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$97$%$99#2 Partner of *e!evoise A Plim ton ,$977%$9:$( $9:E%$9<72 President of Tea-hers 5ns0ran-e and Ann0ity Asso-iation IT5AAJ ,$9E$%$9=E2

+eor1e Ro!erts Allen T. Glots Roland L. Redmond William S. Gaud +eor1e W. Ball 8erome S. Hess Henry J. Friendly 2rgani<ation =>ecutives: 8ose h E. 8ohnson Pa0l +. Hoffman .hester 5. Barnard .harles *ollard Brooks Emeny Patri-k ?0r hy ?alin William /in-ent +riffin Genneth Holland Oliver .. .armi-hael Evans .lark )rank Aydelotte Harvey B0ndy Br0-e .. Ho er *avid *0!insky R0ssell .. Leffin14ell Walter H. ?allory )rank Alts-h0l #orporate *edia: E01ene ?eyer Arth0r Hays S0lH!er1er William S. Paley *avid Sarnoff Henry R. L0-e Ed4ard R. ?0rro4 .ass .anfield *avid La4ren-e Phili L. +raham Eman0el R. )reedman +eoffrey Parsons Hamilton )ish Armstron1 #ollege !rofessors: A. Whitney +ris4old 8ames B. .onant Harold W. *odds 8ohn Sloan *i-key Henry ?. Wriston .harles W. .ole 8ames P. Ba>ter 555 Ro!ert +. S ro0l 8.E. Walla-e Sterlin1 Ro!ert L. 8ohnson Everett &. .ase Arth0r +. .oons Genneth ..?. Sills 8ohn W. &ason Arth0r A. Ha0-k *onald G. *avid .arl W. A-kerman Ed4ard S. ?ason Ne-hariah .hafee 8r. Alvin H. Hansen .laren-e H. Harin1 ?anley O. H0dson William L. Lan1er 8ohn Genneth +al!raith Lindsay Ro1ers 8ohn &. HaHard +eroid T. Ro!inson

$97"%$9:= $97'%$9:' $9"'%$9:7 $9'<%$9== $9'9%$997 $97#%$9:< 1942-1985 $9'<%$99# $9'"%$9=" $9'=%$9EE $9'9%$9=# $97<%$9<# $9'<%$9:' $9E#%$9E= $9E$%$9== $9'E%$9E< $97$%$97<( $9'<%$9E: $97<%$9E' $97'%$9:" $97#%$9=" $979%$9=: $9"$%$9E9 $9"<%$9=9 $9"$%$9=7 $97#%$9E< $9"=%$9:< $97:%$9<9 $9'=%$9:9 $97'%$9:: $97'%$9:' $9"7%$9<E $97$%$9=# $9'<%$9:" $9E#%$9=# $9"E%$9E7 $9"$%$9=" $9'"%$9:" $97'%$9=: $97'%$9:< $9':%$9<7 $9":%$9=< $9':%$9E7( $9:#%$9== $97<%$9=$ $9'E%$9:' $9':%$9=< $9'#%$9:$ $9'#%$9<$ $9E#%$9:' $97<%$9E7 $9'"%$9<E $979%$9=# $9'"%$9=E $9'#%$9E7 $9'E%$9=" $9"<%$9E: $979%$9E7 $97$%$9E' $9"$%$9E: $9"=%$9== $9'=%$9=# $9"=%$9=# $9'"%$99' $9'"%$9:9

Partner of Winthro ( Stimson( P0tnam A Ro!erts Ila4 firmJ ,$9$'%$9:<2 ?em!er of Winthro ( Stimson( P0tnam A Ro!erts Ila4 firmJ ,$9"$%$9:E2 ?em!er of .arter( Ledyard A ?il!0rn Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9"E%$9EE2 ?em!er of .arter( Ledyard A ?il!0rn Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9':%$9:$2 Partner of .leary( +ottlie!( Steen A Hamilton Ila4 firm in &;.J ,$9':%$9:$2 ?em!er of Hardin( Hess A Eder Ila4 firm in &e4 ;ork .ityJ ,$9#=%$9=#2 +eneral .o0nsel of Pan Ameri-an World Air4ays ,$9':%$9E92 President of .arne1ie Endo4ment for 5nternational Pea-e ,$9E#%$9=$2 President of )ord )o0ndation ,$9E#%$9E72 President of The Ro-kefeller )o0ndation ,$9'<%$9E"2 President of .arne1ie .or oration of &e4 ;ork ,$9'<%$9EE2 President of )orei1n Poli-y Asso-iation ,$9'=%$9E72 E>e-0tive *ire-tor of Ameri-an .ivil Li!erties Union ,$9E#%$9:"2 President of En1lish%S eakin1 Union of the United States ,$9'=%$9E=2 President of 5nstit0te of 5nternational Ed0-ation ,$9E#%$9=72 President of .arne1ie )o0ndation for the Advan-ement of Tea-hin1 ,$9':%$9E72 E>e-0tive *ire-tor of "#th .ent0ry )0nd( 5n-. ,$9"<%$9E72 Tr0stee of World Pea-e )o0ndation ,$9"=%$9E:2 Tr0stee of World Pea-e )o0ndation ,$97'%$9:72 Tr0stee of World Pea-e )o0ndation ,$97=%$9:92 President of 5nternational LadiesL +arment WorkersL Union ,$97"%$9::2 .hairman of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9':%$9E72 E>e-0tive *ire-tor of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9"=%$9E92 Se-retary of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9''%$9="2 .hairman of the !oard of The Washin1ton Post .o. ,$9'=%$9E92 President of The &e4 ;ork Times .o. ,$97E%$9E=23 P0!lisher of The ew !ork Times ,$97E%$9:$2 .hairman of the !oard of .ol0m!ia Broad-astin1 System I.BSJ ,$9':%$9<72 .hairman of the !oard of Radio .or oration of Ameri-a IR.AJ ,$9'=%$9::2 Editor%in%.hief of Time( 5n-. ,$9"7%$9:'2 .BS Fo0rnalist ,$97E%$9:$2 .hairman of the !oard of Har er A Brothers Ilater Har er A Ro4J ,$9'E%$9EE2 President and Editor of U.S. &e4s A World Re ort ,$9'<%$9E92 P0!lisher of The %ashington Post ,$9':%$9:$2 )orei1n &e4s Editor of The ew !ork Times ,$9'<%$9:'2 .hief Editorial Writer for ew !ork Herald"Tribune ,$9"'%$9E"2 Editor of #oreign $ffairs ma1aHine ,$9"<%$9="2 President of ;ale University ,$9E#%$9:72 President of Harvard University ,$977%$9E72 President of Prin-eton University ,$977%$9E=2 President of *artmo0th .olle1e ,$9'E%$9=#2 President of Bro4n University ,$97=%$9EE2 President of Amherst .olle1e ,$9':%$9:#2 President of Williams .olle1e ,$97=%$9:$2 President of University of .alifornia at Berkeley ,$97#%$9E<2 President of Stanford University ,$9'9%$9:<2 President of Tem le University ,$9'$%$9E92 President of .ol1ate University I&e4 ;orkJ ,$9'"%$9:"2 President of O--idental .olle1e I.aliforniaJ ,$9':%$9:E2 President of Bo4doin .olle1e ,$9$<%$9E"2 President of S4arthmore .olle1e ,$9'#%$9E72 President of University of ?aine ,$97'%$9E<2 *ean of Harvard B0siness S-hool ,$9'"%$9EE2 *ean of +rad0ate S-hool of 8o0rnalism at .ol0m!ia University ,$97$%$9E:2 *ean of +rad0ate S-hool of P0!li- Administration at Harvard Univ. ,$9'=%$9E<2 Professor of La4 at Harvard University ,$9$9%$9E:2 L0-i0s &. Litta0er Professor of Politi-al E-onomy( Harvard Univ. ,$97=%$9E<2 Professor of Latin Ameri-an History and E-onomi-s at Harvard Univ. ,$9"7%$9E72 Bemis Professor of 5nternational La4 at Harvard La4 S-hool ,$9"7%$9:#2 President of The Ameri-an So-iety of 5nternational La4 ,$9'9%$9E"2 Tr0stee of World Pea-e )o0ndation ,$9"7%$9:#2 .oolid1e Professor of History at Harvard University ,$97:%$9:'2 Professor of E-onomi-s at Harvard University ,$9'9%$9:#( $9:7%$9=E2 B0r1ess Professor of P0!li- La4 at .ol0m!ia University ,$9"9%$9E92 Professor of P0!li- La4 at .ol0m!ia University ,$9':%$9==2 Seth Lo4 Professor of History at .ol0m!ia University ,$9E#%$9=$2

Leo Wolman Henry .. Walli-h 1overn.ent 2fficials: +en. *4i1ht *. Eisenho4er 8ohn )oster *0lles Allen W. *0lles )rank +. Wisner +en. Walter Bedell Smith *ean +. A-heson ,Adm.2 Alan +. Girk +eor1e ). Gennan .harles E. Bohlen Walter S. +ifford *avid G.E. Br0-e Selden .ha in Lin-oln ?a-/ea1h 8ohn ?. .a!ot Ells4orth B0nker Hers-hel /. 8ohnson .la0de +. Bo4ers 8ohn .. Wiley &orman Armo0r Waldemar 8. +allman 8ose h .. +reen 8ames +. ?-*onald William P. ?addo> 8ohn 8. ?-.loy W. Averell Harriman Pa0l H. &itHe Her!ert )eis Willard L. Thor .harles ?. S offord Thomas G. )inletter ?aF. +en. ?a>4ell *. Taylor ?aF. +en. Lyman L. LemnitHer H. Ale>ander Smith Ral h E. )landers William B. Benton Her!ert H. Lehman .hristian A. Herter )eli> )rankf0rter

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Professor of E-onomi-s at .ol0m!ia University ,$97$%$9E<2 Professor of E-onomi-s at ;ale University ,$9E$%$9='2 President of the United States ,8an0ary "#( $9E7%8an0ary "#( $9:$2 S0 reme Allied .ommander of E0ro e ,$9E$%$9E"2 U.S. Se-retary of State ,8an0ary ":( $9E7%A ril ""( $9E92 .hairman of The Ro-kefeller )o0ndation ,$9E#%$9E"2 *e 0ty *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,$9E$%$9E72 *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,)e!r0ary ":( $9E7%&ovem!er "9( $9:$2 *ire-tor of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9"=%$9:92 *e 0ty *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y for Plans ,$9E$%$9E92 *ire-tor of .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,$9E#%$9E72 U.S. Se-retary of State ,$9'9%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to the Soviet Union ,$9'9%$9E$2 U.S. Am!. to the Soviet Union ,$9E"23 .o0nselor( State *e t. ,$9'9%$9E$2 U.S. Am!assador to the Soviet Union ,A ril "#( $9E7%A ril $<( $9E=2 U.S. Am!assador to +reat Britain ,*e-em!er "$( $9E#%8an0ary "7( $9E72 U.S. Am!assador to )ran-e ,$9'9%$9E"23 Under Se-retary of State ,$9E"%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to the &etherlands ,$9'9%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to Port01al ,$9'<%$9E"2 U.S. ?inister to )inland ,$9E#%$9E"23 U.S. .ons0l%+eneral in Shan1hai( Re 0!li- of .hina ,$9'<%$9'92 .hairman of the !oard of &ational S01ar Refinin1 .o. ,$9'<%$9E$2 U.S. Am!assador to Ar1entina ,$9E$%$9E"2 U.S. Am!assador to 5taly ,$9E"%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to BraHil ,$9'<%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to .hile ,$979%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to Panama ,$9E$%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to /eneH0ela ,$9E#%$9E$2 U.S. Am!assador to IA artheidJ So0th Afri-a ,$9E$%$9E'2 U.S. Am!assador to the Hashemite Gin1dom of 8ordan ,$9E"%$9E72 U.S. Am!assador to 5srael ,?ar-h "<( $9'9%*e-em!er $7( $9E#2 .o0nselor of the U.S. Em!assy in Lis!on( Port01al ,$9'9%$9E"2 U.S. .ons0l%+eneral in Port of S ain( Trinidad and To!a1o ,$9E"%$9EE2 Hi1h .ommissioner of +ermany ,$9'9%$9E"2 *ire-tor of ?0t0al Se-0rity A1en-y ,$9E$%$9E72 *ire-tor of State *e artment Poli-y Plannin1 Staff ,$9E#%$9E72 ?em!er of State *e artment Poli-y Plannin1 Staff ,$9E#%$9E$2 Assistant Se-retary of State for E-onomi- Affairs ,$9':%$9E"2 .hairman of &orth Atlanti- .o0n-il of *e 0ties and E0ro ean .oordinatin1 .ommittee ,$9E#%$9E"2 Se-retary of the Air )or-e ,A ril "'( $9E#%8an0ary "#( $9E72 Army *e 0ty .hief of Staff for O erations and Administration ,$9E$%$9E72 .ommandin1 +eneral( =th 5nfantry *ivision ,$9E$%$9E"2 Army *e 0ty .hief of Staff for Plans and Resear-h ,$9E"%$9EE2 U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an%&e4 8ersey( $9''%$9E92 U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an%/ermont( $9':%$9E92 U.S. Senator ,*emo-rat%.onne-ti-0t( $9'9%$9E72 U.S. Senator ,*emo-rat%&e4 ;ork( $9'9%$9E=2 ?em!er of the U.S. Ho0se of Re resentatives ,Re 0!li-an%?ass.( $9'7%$9E723 +overnor of ?assa-h0setts ,8an0ary <( $9E7%8an0ary 7( $9E=2 80sti-e of the U.S. S0 reme .o0rt ,$979%$9:"2

The Origins of the Korean War: Russo-Japanese War & Taft-Katsura Agreement

5m erial 8a anese Army ,2 troo s mar-h thro01h the West +ate in Seo0l( Gorea in $9#'. The -ity of Seo0l 4as the -a ital -ity of the Gorean Em ire ,( $<9=%$9$#2 and the former 8oseon *ynasty( or Gin1dom of 8oseon , ( $79"%$<9=2. ,Photo: Li!rary of .on1ress2

From the Grassy Knoll in Shan hai, China:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?


The Assassination of Korean (o!!unity organi1er Ki! 7F-Fyun on 9ar(h "=, 1=94

A )ortrait of Korean (o!!unity organi1er Kim 8)2)yun <le"t= +hile he +as li6ing in 4agasaFi, Ja)an as a refugee% Ki! 7F-Fyun )arti(i)ate in a faile (ou) Betat, for!ally Fno+n as the /a)sin ,ou), in $e(e!*er 1==4% Ki! 7F-Fyun fle Korea an li6e in Ja)an as a refugee fro! 1==4 until 1=94% Korean )atriot 3on Chon 2u <ri ht= shot an Fille Ki! 7F-Fyun in &hanghai, ,hina on 9ar(h "=, 1=94% Critish )oli(e offi(ers in &hanghai arreste Korean )atriot 3on Chon 2u shortly after the assassination an transferre 3on Chon 2u to ,hinese authorities for trial% Ho+e6er, the ,hinese go6ern!ent e(i e to release Korean )atriot 3on Chon 2u fro! )rison% 3on Chon 2u an the (or)se of Kim 8)2)yun arri6e in Korea on A)ril 1", 1=94%

8a anese di lomats and .hinese di lomats si1n the Treaty of Shimonoseki at Shimonoseki( 8a an on A ril $=( $<9E( endin1 the )irst Sino% 8a anese War. 8a an a-60ired the island of Tai4an from .hina and re60ired .hina to re-o1niHe the inde enden-e of Gorea. 8a an also o!tained additional di lomati- and e-onomi- rivile1es( in-l0din1 the o enin1 of several .hinese orts to 8a anese trade.

The Assassination of P0een ?in of Gorea: Or1aniHed .rimeR

A ortrait of P0een ?in of Gorea ,Em ress ?yeon1seon12 ,O-to!er $9( $<E$DO-to!er <( $<9E2

)0neral of P0een ?in of Gorea ,Em ress ?yeon1seon12 in Seo0l( Gorea in O-to!er $<9E. P0een ?in of Gorea had !een assassinated !y a 1ro0 of 8a anese th01s in Seo0l( Gorea on O-to!er <( $<9E d0e to her ro%R0ssian stan-e and her desire to esta!lish an allian-e 4ith the R0ssian Em ire.

The allege Ja)anese !ur erers of 3!)ress 9yeongseong (Lueen 9in) )ose for a grou) )ortrait in front of Hanseong &hin*o (Hanseong 4e+s)a)er) *uil ing in &eoul, Korea in 1=95% A!ong the )er)etrators in(lu e the Ja)anese 9inister to Korea Tis(ount 9iura /orU% The Ja)anese !ur erers +ere trie for their (ri!e insi e a istri(t (ourt in Hiroshi!aA ho+e6er, the Ja)anese !ur erers +ere a(Muitte *y the (ourt ue to insuffi(ient e6i en(e%

Tis(ount 9iura /orU, Ja)anese 9inister to Korea in 1=95

Left hoto: Em eror +4an1m0 ,+oFon12 of the Gorean Em ire r0led Gorea from $<:7 to $9#=. Ri1ht hoto: A hoto of Goreans 4ho died in fi1htin1 in +4anseon1 +arrison d0rin1 the Gorean E> edition of $<=$. The United States &avy en1a1ed in a military -am ai1n( also kno4n as the Gorean E> edition of $<=$ or Shinmiyan1yo( on and aro0nd the Gorean island of +an1h4a near resent%day Seo0l in $<=$. Ulysses S. +rant( a former U.S. Army 1eneral d0rin1 the Ameri-an .ivil War( 4as the President of the United States in $<=$. ,So0r-e of hoto1ra h: Ulysses S. +rant 555 Photo1ra hi- .olle-tion Relatin1 to the Gorean P0nitive E> edition2

One of the ri1hteo0s armiesS that 4ere formed in the early $9##s after the 8a anese o--0 ation. 5n $9#= a ri1hteo0s Army of $#(### tried to li!erate Seo0l !0t 4ere defeated. ?ost of the resistan-e armies in the so0th 4ere h0nted do4n( 4hile those in the north s0rvived !y !ein1 a!le to retreat and res0 ly in ?an-h0ria and R0ssia. ,Photo: htt :KKkoreanhistory.infoKFa an.htm2

.%&% &e(retary of War Willia! Ho+ar Taft s)eaFs +ith Ja)anese ignitaries +hile lea6ing the o(F at YoFoha!a, Ja)an in July 19<5% Willia! Ho+ar Taft an Pri!e 9inister Taro Katsura engage in a >gentle!enBs agree!ent?, later Fno+n as the Taft-Katsura Agree!ent% The Taft-Katsura Agree!ent 6irtually in6ali ate the .nite &tates-Korea Treaty of 1=="% (Photo8 0i*rary of ,ongress)

Left hoto: Lee Wan%;on1 ,$<E<%$9":2 4as the Prime ?inister of Gorea ,$9#:%$9$#2 4ho si1ned the 8a an%Gorea Anne>ation Treaty on A010st ""( $9$#. The Gorean di lomats 4ho a1reed to the anne>ation in $9$# 4ere 0nder the im ression that the 8a anese anne>ation of Gorea 4o0ld lead to a oliti-al 0nion similar to A0stria%H0n1ary3 the anne>ation of Gorea 4o0ld transform Gorea into a 8a anese -olony. Ri1ht: S0nFon1 ,$<='%$9":2 4as the last Gin1 ,Em eror2 of Gorea 4ho 1overned Gorea from $9#= to $9$#. S0nFon1 did not si1n the anne>ation treaty in $9$#. The 5m erial 8a anese 1overnment rovided S0nFon1 and other mem!ers of the Gorean royal family a ension and a 8a anese title of no!ility follo4in1 anne>ation. S0nFon1 died at his ala-e in Seo0l in $9":.

The Ja)an-Korea Treaty of 19<5 (also Fno+n as the 3ulsa Prote(ti6e Treaty or Ja)an-Korea Prote(torate Treaty) +as esta*lishe un er uress in &eoul, Korea on 4o6e!*er 17, 19<5% Ja)anese i)lo!at -to Hiro*u!i entere Jung!yeongKeon Hall (a*o6e) in &eoul, Korea in 4o6e!*er 19<5 an (oer(e Korean ,a*inet !inisters to sign the Ja)an-Korea Treaty of 19<5% The uneMual treaty e)ri6e Korea of its i)lo!ati( so6ereignty an !a e Korea a )rote(torate (an later a (olony) of Ja)an%

A (o)y of the Ja)an-Korea Treaty of 19<5

William Ho4ard Taft ,left2( the U.S. Se-retary of War ,and later President of the United States2( and Taro Gats0ra , 2 ,ri1ht2( the Prime ?inister of 8a an. The Taft%Gats0ra ?emorand0m ,-ommonly -alled the TaftDGats0ra A1reement2 -onsists of notes -ontainin1 ortions of a lon1( -onfidential -onversation !et4een 8a anese Prime ?inister Taro Gats0ra and U.S. Se-retary of War William Ho4ard Taft held in Tokyo( 8a an on 80ly "=( $9#E. Taft and Gats0ra dis-0ssed Ameri-aLs resen-e in the Phili ines( 8a anLs event0al -oloniHation of Gorea( and the !alan-e of o4er in eastern Asia d0rin1 their meetin1. Taro Gats0ra 4as the Prime ?inister of 8a an on three se arate o--asions ,$9#$% $9#:( $9#<%$9$$( and $9$"%$9$723 +aro 3atsura was the !ri.e *inister of ?apan during the Russo8?apanese /ar 457@84576' and during the &nne>ation of 3orea in 4547. William Ho4ard Taft 4as the President of the United States 4hen 8a an anne>ed Gorea in $9$#.

Left: )ield ?arshal ?asatake Tera0-hi , 2 served as the first +overnor +eneral of Gorea ,O-to!er $( $9$#%O-to!er 9( $9$:2 and served as the Prime ?inister of 8a an ,O-to!er 9( $9$:%Se tem!er "9( $9$<2. ?asatake Tera0-hi ado ted a oli-y of BassimiliationC to4ards the Goreans and re60ired Goreans to learn and s eak the 8a anese lan10a1e. 8a an 1overned Gorea as a rote-torate from $9#E 0ntil $9$# and as a -olony from $9$# 0ntil the end of World War 55 in $9'E. Ri1ht: )ield ?arshal ;oshimi-hi Hase1a4a , 2 served as the +overnor +eneral of Gorea from O-to!er $9$: 0ntil A010st $9$9. ;oshimi-hi Hase1a4a served as the .ommander of the Gorea +arrison Army from Se tem!er $9#' 0ntil *e-em!er $9#<. ;oshimi-hi Hase1a4a !r0tally s0 ressed Samil 5nde enden-e ?ovement ,?ar-h $st ?ovement2 that develo ed in Gorea d0rin1 and after World War 5.

From the Grassy Knoll in 3ar!in, China:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?


The Assassination of -to Hiro*u!i, 2or!er Pri!e 9inister of Ja)an, *y Korean Patriot Ahn Jung-geun (7(to*er "#, 19<9)

4F;m 6ust a %atsyL5: Korean )atriot Ahn Jung-geun assassinates an Fills Ja)anese i)lo!at -to Hiro*u!i, +ho ser6e as 'esi ent /eneral of Korea fro! $e(e!*er "1, 19<5 to June 14, 19<9, at the Har*in 'ail+ay &tation in Har*in, ,hina :9an(huria; on 7(to*er "#, 19<9% (Painting8 htt)8EE+++%)ennfa!ily%orgEK&&-.&AEForean-on-sta!)-5%ht!l)

Ja)anese i)lo!at -to Hiro*u!i, Pri!e 9inister of Ja)an uring the 2irst &ino-Ja)anese War, lea6es the train at the Har*in 'ail+ay &tation in Har*in, ,hina on 7(to*er "#, 19<9%

Ja)anese i)lo!at -to Hiro*u!i, +ho ser6e as the Pri!e 9inister of Ja)an uring the 2irst &ino-Ja)anese War (1=94-1=95), lea6es the train at the Har*in 'ail+ay &tation in Har*in, ,hina on 7(to*er "#, 19<9% -to Hiro*u!i ( , 1=41-19<9) +as the Pri!e 9inister of Ja)an (1==5-1===, 1=9"-1=9#, 1=9=, 19<<-19<1) an 'esi ent /eneral of Korea ($e(e!*er "1, 19<5June 14, 19<9)% An Jung-geun, a Korean nationalist, assassinate Hiro*u!i -tU at the Har*in 'ail+ay &tation in Har*in, ,hina :9an(huria; on 7(to*er "#, 19<9 as -to )re)are to !eet +ith Tla i!ir KoFo6tso6, a 'ussian re)resentati6e in 9an(huria%

The 8a an%Gorea Anne>ation Treaty ,2 4as si1ned on A010st ""( $9$# !y the re resentatives of the Gorean and 8a anese 5m erial +overnments. The 8a an%Gorea Anne>ation Treaty 4ent into effe-t on A010st "9( $9$#( offi-ially startin1 the eriod of 8a anese -olonial r0le in Gorea. 5n So0th Gorea( A010st "9 is kno4n as Bthe day of national shame.T

A ortrait of Ahn 80n1%1e0n( the Gorean nationalist and .hristian soldier 4ho assassinated Hiro!0mi 5tU at the Har!in Rail4ay Station in Har!in( .hina I?an-h0riaJ on O-to!er ":( $9#9. An 80n1%1e0n 4as e>e-0ted !y han1in1 at Port Arth0r( .hina I8a anJ on ?ar-h ":( $9$#.

&unKong, the last 3!)eror of Korea (reign, July "<, 19<7DAugust "9, 191<) ne6er signe the Ja)an-Korea AnneJation Treaty%

Korean i)lo!at 0ee Wan-yong (1=5=-19"#) signe the Ja)an-Korea AnneJation Treaty, an uneMual treaty in +hi(h Ja)an for!ally anneJe Korea, in 191<%

The lar1est 0 risin1 a1ainst 8a anese r0le o--0rred in ?ar-h $9$9 after a fail0re of the Gorean dele1ation to 1ain the ri1hts of self% determination at the /ersailles .onferen-e follo4in1 WW5. Here 0niversity st0dents demonstrate. ,Photo: htt :KKkoreanhistory.infoKFa an.htm2

A 1ro0 of Goreans involved in the $9$9 0 risin1 ,?ar-h )irst ?ovement( or Samil ?ovement2 stand in front of 8a anese F0d1es in Gorea d0rin1 a trial. An estimated $%" million Goreans arti-i ated in the 0 risin1 4ith some =(### Goreans !ein1 e>e-0ted. ,Photo: htt :KKkoreanhistory.infoKFa an.htm2

?em!ers of the Provisional +overnment of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( in-l0din1 *r. Syn1man Rhee( ose for a 1ro0 ,Photo: htt :KK444.ahn-han1ho.or.krKsiteK!!sK!oard. h R!oVta!leQ1ro0 V#$Va#$V#'A4rVidQE2

hoto on O-to!er $$( $9$9.

Assassination atte!)t on 3!)eror Hirohito of Ja)an *y Korean in e)en en(e a(ti6ist 0ee Cong-(hang in ToFyo, Ja)an on January 9, 19@"% 2ront)age of 2ren(h ne+s)a)er 0illustre u )etit Journal, 19@"%

Korean )atriot 0ee Cong-(hang ((enter, 19<<-19@") is arreste *y the Ja)anese )oli(e in ToFyo, Ja)an on January 9, 19@" after 0ee atte!)te to assassinate 3!)eror Hirohito +ith han grena es% 0ee Cong-(hang +as senten(e to eath an hange in )rison on 7(to*er 1<, 19@"% 0ee Cong-(hang !et +ith eJile Korean lea er Ki! Ku in &hanghai in 19@1% (&our(e8 Ja)anese *ooF I&ho+a History Tol%#8 9an(hurian -n(i entI )u*lishe *y 9aini(hi 4e+s)a)ers ,o!)any%)

Left: S&shi"kaimei , !"#2 4as a 8a anese oli-y -reated !y +eneral 8iro ?inami ,$%2( the +overnor%+eneral of Gorea( in $979 and $9'# that re60ired Goreans livin1 in Gorea to a!andon their Gorean name and ado t a 8a anese name. +eneral 8iro ?inami 4as the the +overnor%+eneral of Gorea from $97: to $9'"( +overnor%+eneral of G4ant0n1 Leased Territory from $97' to $97:( and the 8a anese ?inister of War ,A ril $97$%*e-em!er $97$2 d0rin1 the infamo0s ?0kden 5n-ident in ?an-h0ria. +eneral 8iro ?inami 4as tried and -onvi-ted of 4ar -rimes at the Tokyo Trials held after World War 55. Ri1ht: Anno0n-ement of the S&shi"kaimei oli-y iss0ed !y the *ae10 -o0rt in Gorea( 4ritten !ilin10ally in 8a anese and Gorean( in a s e-ial arallel style in 4hi-h hanFaKkanFi 4ere rinted only on-e and 4ere TsharedT !y the han10l and kana te>ts. The literal meanin1 of S&shi"kaimei: T.reate a s0rname ,shi2 and -han1e ,yo0r2 1iven nameC.

The 5m erial 8a anese Army -ons-ri ted ,drafted2 Gorean men and !oys d0rin1 the final years of World War 55.

A )hoto of o+nto+n &eoul, Korea un er Ja)anese (olonial rule in the early 194<s% A sign a 6ertising Kirin Ceer ( ) in Ja)anese &atagana (al)ha*et) (an *e seen on the right% &eoul +as Fno+n as KeiKo fro! 191< to 1945% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%sFys(ra)er(ity%(o!Esho+threa %)h)NtR#117"#)

The Ja)anese /o6ern!ent-/eneral 7ffi(e in &eoul, Korea *efore 1945 (&our(e8 Ja)anese *ooF IThe /eneral 6ie+ of KoreaI )u*lishe *y ,hosen-CunFa 2uFyu Kai)

CanF of ,hosen (&'), lo(ate in &eoul (for!erly KeiKo), +as the (entral *anF of Korea un er Ja)anese (olonial rule% The CanF of ,hosen +as a )ri6ately-o+ne (or)oration o+ne an o)erate *y the Ja)anese *anFers% CanF of ,hosen +as for!ally issol6e *y .%&% Allie 7((u)ation authorities in 195< an +as re)la(e *y the CanF of Korea, the (entral *anF for the 'e)u*li( of Korea%

Korean (ity of Pyongyang (for!erly HeiKo, (urrent (a)ital of 4orth Korea) un er -!)erial Ja)anese (olonial rule

Photogra)hs of the ,atholi( 2oreign 9ission &o(iety of A!eri(a, 9aryFnoll, 4e+ YorF, 191"-1945% 3ast /ate, Pyeng Yang :Pyongyang;, Korea, (a% 19"<-194<% Photogra)h of >3ast /ate of an(ient +alle (ity of Pyeng Yang%? (The 9aryFnoll 9ission Ar(hi6es) htt)8EE+++%)iie%(o!E*logsEnFEN)R4#==

A 9itsuFoshi e)art!ent store in &eoul (KeiKo), Korea in the 19@<s

-!)erial Ja)anese Ar!y sol iers surren er their rifles to A!eri(an sol iers in Korea in &e)te!*er 1945% (Photo8 htt)8EE e!ons%s+allo+thesFy%orgE)ostE"9"<=7="741)

-!)erial Ja)anese Ar!y sol iers surren er their rifles to A!eri(an sol iers in Korea in &e)te!*er 1945%

(Photo8 htt)8EE+++%histo!il%(o!E6ie+to)i(%)h)NfR95StR@91=S)R@@4=9ShilitR149)

-!)erial Ja)anese Ar!y troo)s )re)are to +ith ra+ fro! Korea in 1945% (&our(e8 Ja)anese *ooF I&ho+a History of 1<< !illion )eo)le8 7((u)ation of Ja)an Tol%1I )u*lishe *y 9aini(hi 4e+s)a)ers ,o!)any) htt)8EEen%+iFi)e ia%orgE+iFiE2ile8With ra+alGofGJa)aneseGtroo)sGfro!GKorea%JP/

A (olor )hoto of &eoul, Korea shortly *efore the *eginning of the Korean War

Korean War: artition! "uper#ision! Re$e%%ion! and Assassinations &'()*-'(*+,

The Gorean *emilitariHed None ,*?N2 at Panm0nFom. ,Photo: &ational *efense University2

8ohn ?-.loy ,-enter2( the Assistant Se-retary of War d0rin1 World War 55( a ointed t4o Rhodes S-holars( *ean R0sk and .harles H. Bonesteel 555( to assist him in dividin1 Gorea into t4o military distri-ts. U.S. Army .olonel *ean R0sk ,left2( 4ho later served as Se-retary of State d0rin1 the /ietnam War( and U.S. Army .olonel ,later +eneral2 .harles H. Bonesteel 555 ,ri1ht2( 4ho served as the .ommander of the U.S. <th Army IGoreaJ and .ommander of United &ations .ommand Gorea from $9:: to $9:9( made the de-ision to divide Gorea at the 7<th Parallel near the end of World War 55 on A010st $#%$$( $9'E. 8ohn ?-.loy( *ean R0sk( and .harles H. Bonesteel 555 4ere mem!ers of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations( a rivate internationalist or1aniHation in &e4 ;ork .ity.

An Ameri-an Army soldier ,ri1ht( fore1ro0nd2 is seen 10ardin1 the *emilitariHed None alon1 4ith So0th Gorean soldiers as a &orth Gorean soldier stands !ehind the meetin1 hall. ,Photo: United States Army2

The Brid1e of &o Ret0rn near Panm0nFom ,Photo: )li-kr2

7he "uture o" Korea is dis#ussed at the Potsdam Con"eren#e. Tie+ of the (onferen(e ta*le at ,e(ilienhof Pala(e, s(ene of the Pots a! ,onferen(e, in Pots a!, /er!any on July 19, 1945% .%&% Presi ent Harry &% Tru!an is in left foregroun % A !% Willia! 0eahy is seate to the right of the Presi ent% Critish Pri!e 9inister Winston ,hur(hill is seate at u))er left of ta*le% ,le!ent Attlee is seate t+o to the right of 9r% ,hur(hill% &o6iet lea er Josef &talin is at u))er right of ta*le% &o6iet foreign !inister Tya(hesla6 9oloto6 is to the i!!e iate left of 9r% &talin in the )hoto% A6erell Harri!an, the .%&% A!*assa or to the &o6iet .nion, is stan ing at eJtre!e leftA A6erell Harri!an +as a !e!*er of the ,oun(il on 2oreign 'elations, a )ri6ate )oliti(al organi1ation in 4e+ YorF ,ity, an a !e!*er of &Full S Cones se(ret so(iety at Yale .ni6ersity%

The Pots a! ,onferen(e in late July 1945 *rought the &o6iet .nionBs (o!!it!ent to entering the +ar against Ja)an% The result +as a &o6iet o((u)ation of northern Korea, A!eri(an o((u)ation of southern Korea, an KoreaBs )artition along the @=th )arallel% A )i(ture of a (onferen(e session at the Pots a! ,onferen(e in(lu e Critish Pri!e 9inister ,le!ent Attlee, Critish 2oreign &e(retary 3rnest Ce6in, &o6iet 2oreign 9inister Tya(hesla6 9oloto6, &o6iet ,o!!issar Jose)h &talin, 2leet A !iral Willia! $% 0eahy (,hief of &taff to the ,o!!an er in ,hief), Jose)h 3% $a6ies, .%&% &e(retary of &tate Ja!es 2% Cyrnes, an .%&% Presi ent Harry &% Tru!an%

7)ening session of !eetings *et+een the &o6iet an A!eri(an o((u)ation (o!!an s in Korea at &eoul in January 194#% &eate at left at the front of the ta*le is 0ieutenant /eneral John '% Ho ge, the hea of the .%&% o((u)ation in the south% To his left is ,olonel /eneral Terentii 2% &hytFo6, the hea of the &o6iet o((u)ation in the north% (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

Terenti &htyFo6, hea of the &o6iet elegation, lea6es after the first !eeting of the .%&%-&o6iet .nion Joint ,o!!ission at $eoFsu Pala(e in (entral &eoul, Korea in 194#% After Worl War --, Korea +as un er the (ontrol of *oth the .nite &tates an the &o6iet .nion% Terenti &htyFo6 +as the &o6iet !ilitary go6ernor of the northern half of Korea% Korea Ti!es file (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%Foreati!es%(o%FrE+++Ene+sEissuesE"<1"E1"E@#@G1<@451%ht!l)

The )ri!ary negotiators of the agree!ent on Korea in 9os(o+, $e(e!*er 1945, fro! left to right8 Critish 2oreign 9inister 3rnest Ce6inA &o6iet 2oreign 9inister T%9% 9oloto6A .%&% &e(retary of &tate Ja!es 2% Cyrnes% (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

&outh Korean (iti1ens )rotest allie trusteeshi) in $e(e!*er 1945%

A!eri(an sol iers +at(h as the Ja)anese flag is lo+ere fro! a flag )ole uring surren er (ere!onies in &eoul, Korea on &e)te!*er 9, 1945% (Photo taFen *y a .&& &an 2ran(is(o (,A-@=) )hotogra)herA 7ffi(ial .%&% 4a6y Photogra)h, 4ational Ar(hi6es)

A!eri(an sol iers salute as the A!eri(an flag is raise uring surren er (ere!onies in &eoul, Korea on &e)te!*er 9, 1945% The .nite &tates Ar!y 9ilitary /o6ern!ent in Korea (.&A9/-K) (A ()*+,-.) +as the offi(ial ruling *o y of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula fro! &e)te!*er =, 1945 to August 15, 194=% (Photo taFen *y a .&& &an 2ran(is(o (,A-@=) )hotogra)herA 7ffi(ial .%&% 4a6y Photogra)h, 4ational Ar(hi6es)

&urren er of Ja)anese 2or(es in &outhern Korea on &e)te!*er 9, 1945% .%&% elegates A !iral Tho!as ,% KinFai an 0ieutenant /eneral John '% Ho ge (,o!!an ing /eneral of the .nite &tates Ar!y 2or(es in Korea) sign the surren er o(u!ents uring the surren er (ere!onies in the /o6ern!ent Cuil ing at KeiKo (&eoul), Korea on &e)te!*er 9, 1945% .%&% re)resentati6es )resent in(lu e (seate along ta*le, left to right)8 'ear A !iral 2ran(is &% 0o+A Ti(e A !iral $aniel 3% Car*eyA A !iral KinFai A 0ieutenant /eneral Ho geA 9aKor /eneral A%T% Arnol A 9aKor /eneral /%V% ,hee6es, an Criga ier /eneral Jose)h T% 'ea y% Admiral 7homas C. Kin)aid was a mem!er o" the Coun#il on Forei n $elations. (7ffi(ial .%&% 4a6y Photogra)h, no+ in the (olle(tions of the 4ational Ar(hi6es) htt)8EE+++%history%na6y%!ilE)hotosE)ers-usEus)ers-FEt-FinFa %ht!

>-!agine ho+ the )ea(eful gar en of the +orl has *een eserte *y the (ol +in of (a)italis! an ho+ it has *een estroye *y the stor!s of (o!!unis!%%%% 0et us, the thirty !illion )eo)le, (o!*ine together un er one )rin(i)le% We Koreans are not a heterogeneous ra(e of t+o or !ore ifferent )eo)les, *ut a ho!ogenous ra(e%%%% An no+, it is the su)re!e (o!!an of our nation an the sa(re o*ligation of our )eo)le to rise an s!ash the )artition of the @=th )arallel line, +hi(h +as ere(te *y the han s of the foreign for(es, *y our o+n han s an unify the i6i e territories an (o!*ine the i6i e )eo)le together into one )eo)le%? D 6n !o-sang

Koreans in &eoul, Korea Ku*ilantly greet .nite &tates Ar!y troo)s arri6ing in the (ity in 7(to*er, 1945% (.%&% Ar!y Photo E /etty -!ages)

&ol iers of the 7th -nfantry $i6ision Can !ar(h on the (a)ital groun s of &eoul, Korea in 1945% The A!eri(an flag is is)laye on a flag)ole in front of the for!er -!)erial Ja)anese /o6ern!ent-/eneral Cuil ing%

A!eri(an sol iers, 'ussian sol iers, an a grou) of Korean *oys (ongregate aroun a .%&% Ar!y Kee) in Korea in 1945% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%histo!il%(o!E6ie+to)i(%)h)NfR95StR@91=S)R@@4=9ShilitR149)

Koreans are )re)aring to taFe the o((u)ation a !inistration (7ffi(e *uil ing is)laying flags of o((u)ying for(es an )ortraits of the lea ers of Allie (ountries) &eoul, Korea in late 1945% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%histo!il%(o!E6ie+to)i(%)h)NfR95StR@91=S)R@@4=9ShilitR149)

>Wel(o!e the Allie 2or(esW?8 A +el(o!e sign is )oste on a *uil ing in &eoul, Korea in late 1945 (Photo8 2li(Fr)

A +el(o!e sign is )oste in o+nto+n &eoul in early 7(to*er 1945%

A +el(o!ing (ere!ony for &yng!an 'hee is hel *y the .%&% Ar!y in &eoul, Korea in 7(to*er 1945% (Photo8 htt)8EEhu%+iFi)e ia%orgE+iFiE2X,@XA1Kl8&yng!anG'heeGWel(o!eG,ere!ony,G1945G(1)%K)g)

Gorean statesman *r. Syn1man Rhee( Ph.*. ,Rhee earned a Ph.*. at Prin-eton University in $9$#2 s eaks to the Gorean eo le on his ret0rn to Gorea in O-to!er $9'E. U.S. Army Lt. +en. 8ohn R. Hod1e( .ommandin1 +eneral of the United States Army )or-es in Gorea( is seated at left( 4earin1 s0n1lasses. ,Photo: htt :KK444.fli-kr.-omK hotosKdok$K$$$#<=9<"K2

The Korean flag is is)laye alongsi e the flags of the .nite &tates of A!eri(a, 'e)u*li( of ,hina, an &o6iet .nion outsi e the 4ational Asse!*ly in &eoul, Korea in 7(to*er 1945%

.%&% &e(retary of War 'o*ert P% Patterson, ((enter, foregroun ) an .%&% Ar!y 0t% /en% John '% Ho ge ((enter, stan ing neJt to Patterson) atten a (onferen(e hel in &eoul, Korea in $e(e!*er 1945%

Koreans (ele*rate on &eKongno street in o+nto+n &eoul, Korea :.%&% Ar!y o((u)ation 1one; on August 15, 194#, the first anni6ersary of their in e)en en(e fro! Ja)anese rule%

A grou) of Korean !en )ull ri(Fsha+s in the streets of &eoul, Korea uring the fall of 1945%

A )oliti(al !essage (on e!ning the !ilitary o((u)ation +ritten in 3nglish is )oste on a +all in &eoul, Korea%

A *anner at &eoulHs &outh /ate +el(o!es !e!*ers of the .4 Te!)orary ,o!!ission on Korea in January 194=% (.4E$P- Photo)

&outh Koreans +ait in line to (ast *allots in .4-su)er6ise ele(tion of 9ay 1<, 194=% (.4E$P- Photo) (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r and *r. Syn1man Rhee( the first President of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( sit to1ether d0rin1 a -ele!ration markin1 the !irth of the Gorean Re 0!li- on A010st $E( $9'<. ,W BettmannK.ORB5S2

Presi ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea $r% &yng!an 'hee (left), .%&% Ar!y /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur ((enter), an .%&% Ar!y 0ieutenant /eneral John '% Ho ge atten a (ere!ony for the esta*lish!ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea in &eoul, Korea on August 15, 194=%

Koreans (ele*rate in e)en en(e an the inauguration of the go6ern!ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea in &eoul, Korea on August 15, 194=% (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

&eoul, 'e)u*li( of Korea in 1949

An A!eri(an sol ier (left) o*ser6es a Korean fa!ily (right) es(a)ing the &o6iet o((u)ation of northern Korea at the @= th Parallel% (Photo8 7ictorial !istor( of the Korean War (Teterans of 2oreign Wars !e!orial e ition))

Korean !en +a6e the Korean flag in ToFyo, Ja)an in 9ar(h 194=% (Photo8 7ictorial !istor( of the Korean War (Teterans of 2oreign Wars !e!orial e ition))

$r% &yng!an 'hee eli6ers a s)ee(h in front of the ,a)itol Cuil ing in o+nto+n &eoul, Korea in 9ay 194=% (Photo8 7ictorial !istor( of the Korean War (Teterans of 2oreign Wars !e!orial e ition))

.%&% Ar!y 0ieutenant /eneral John '% Ho ge (left) greets Korean Ar!y /en% &ong Ho, ,o!!an ing /eneral of the Korean ,onsta*ulary, in (ir(a 194=% (Photo8 7ictorial !istor( of the Korean War (Teterans of 2oreign Wars !e!orial e ition))

Young Korean !en hol an anti-(o!!unist *anner in o+nto+n &eoul, 'e)u*li( of Korea in 194=% (Photo8 7ictorial !istor( of the Korean War (Teterans of 2oreign Wars !e!orial e ition))

T+o Korean !en in the *a(Fgroun ren er a stiff-ar! salute si!ilar to the salute is)laye *y !e!*ers of A olf HitlerBs inner (ir(le in 4a1i /er!any% (Photo8 7ictorial !istor( of the Korean War (Teterans of 2oreign Wars !e!orial e ition))

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.vinta1.esK"#$7K#9K-olo0r% i-t0res%of%seo0l%in%$9'<%'9.html2

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.vinta1.esK"#$7K#9K-olo0r% i-t0res%of%seo0l%in%$9'<%'9.html2

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.vinta1.esK"#$7K#9K-olo0r% i-t0res%of%seo0l%in%$9'<%'9.html2

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.vinta1.esK"#$7K#9K-olo0r% i-t0res%of%seo0l%in%$9'<%'9.html2

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.vinta1.esK"#$7K#9K-olo0r% i-t0res%of%seo0l%in%$9'<%'9.html2

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.vinta1.esK"#$7K#9K-olo0r% i-t0res%of%seo0l%in%$9'<%'9.html2

Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea in 8an0ary $9'9 ,Photo: htt :KK444.fli-kr.-omK hotosK:'$'=77"@&#"K:<9"$"9:'7K2

&eoul, Korea uring the Korean War

Korean an A!eri(an sol iers +at(h large fires in a 6illage uring the (o!!unist Yeosu-&un(heon 'e*ellion in 194=% (Photo8 ,arl 9y ansETi!e S 0ife Pi(turesE/etty -!ages) (4ote8 4ot originally )u*lishe in 8ife !aga1ine%)

&outh Korean Ar!y sol iers )atrol a 6illage an interrogate (i6ilian resi ents uring the Yeosu-&un(heon 'e*ellion in 194=% (Photo8 ,arl 9y ansETi!e S 0ife Pi(turesE/etty -!ages) (4ote8 4ot originally )u*lishe in 8ife !aga1ine%)

&outh Korean sol iers etain a grou) of young fe!ale >(o!!unist )risoners? uring the Yeosu-&un(heon 'e*ellion (a )oliti(al u)rising against the 'hee go6ern!ent) in 194=% (Photo8 ,arl 9y ansETi!e S 0ife Pi(turesE/etty -!ages) (4ote8 4ot originally )u*lishe in 8ife !aga1ine%)

&outh Korean store o+ners are Fille *y (o!!unist re*els uring the Yeosu-&un(heon 'e*ellion in 194=% (Photo8 ,arl 9y ansETi!e S 0ife Pi(turesE/etty -!ages) (4ote8 4ot originally )u*lishe in 8ife !aga1ine%)

The JeKu .)rising +as a )oliti(al re*ellion that o((urre on JeKu -slan (large islan lo(ate south+est of Pusan) *eginning on A)ril @, 194=% The &outh Korean ar!y su))resse a re*ellion on JeKu -slan that +as initiate *y !e!*ers of the (o!!unist WorFers Party of &outh Korea% An esti!ate 14,<<<-#<,<<< Koreans on JeKu -slan +ere Fille in fighting or eJe(ution *et+een 6arious fa(tions on the islan , an !any 6illages +ere estroye uring the re*ellion% The JeKu .)rising *egan after lo(al )oli(e offi(ers on JeKu -slan o)ene fire on a grou) of e!onstrators% The WorFers Party of &outh Korea, esta*lishe on 4o6e!*er "@, 194#, !erge +ith the WorFers Party of 4orth Korea in Pyongyang on June @<, 1949 to for! the WorFersH Party of Korea ((urrently the ruling )arty of 4orth Korea)%

Koreans in &outh Korea )arti(i)ate in a )oliti(al (a!)aign uring the )resi ential an )arlia!entary ele(tions in 194=% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%fli(Fr%(o!E)hotosE)i(turesG)astE49#975<=5<EinE)hotostrea!)

&outh Korean )oli(e sho+ing the lo(ation of an atta(F *y (o!!unist insurgents uring the &outh Korean ele(tions of 194=% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%fli(Fr%(o!E)hotosE)i(turesG)astE49#914<"91EinE)hotostrea!)

>The Koreans (all it Ithe great 9uche i ea,I *ut it is less an i ea than a state of !in % The ter! literally !eans *eing su*Ke(ti6e +here things Korean are (on(erne , )utting Korea first in e6erything% The se(on (hara(ter, ch'e in the Korean )ronun(iation, is foun in the fa!ous ,hinese ter! of the late nineteenth-(entury self-strengthening !o6e!ent, t*i of t'i-(ung4 !eaning ,hinese learning for the *ase -t'i. an Western learning for useA it is also the tai of &o&utai4 a (on(e)t )ro!ote in Ja)an in the 19@<s that !eant, in essen(e, +hat it !eans to *e Ja)anese as o))ose to e6erything else, +hat is authenti(ally Ja)anese% -t +as ee)ly i entifie +ith the )re+ar e!)eror syste! an +ith ultra-nationalis!% Ja)anese s(ri**lers +oul +rite on an on a*out Igetting &o&utai fir!ly in !in ,I on(e you ha6e it fir!ly in your !in all else follo+s% The Koreans use 1uche in !u(h the sa!e +ay, its goal *eing a su*Ke(ti6e, soli)sisti( state of !in , the (orre(t thought that !ust )re(e e an that +ill then eter!ine (orre(t a(tion% The ter! is really untranslata*leA for a foreigner its !eaning is e6er-re(e ing, into a )ool of e6erything that !aFes Koreans Korean, an therefore ulti!ately ina((essi*le to the non-Korean% -t is fro! this *asi( )hiloso)hi(al stan(e, +hi(h (an *e linFe to a o(trine of essen(es, that the rest of Korean 6oluntaris! flo+s D all the talF a*out i eas (o!e first, the lea er (o!es first% -n is(ussing Iho+ to stu y a))earan(es to rea(h essen(es,I 9ao on(e sai that you start +ith a))earan(es, o*ser6ations, an then go on Ito re6eal the su*stan(e an (ontra i(tions of o*Ke(ti6e things an e6ents%I An on(e the essen(e is gras)e , one (an then a(t in the real +orl , linFing theory or essen(e to (on(rete )raJis% Ki! -- &ung thinFs the sa!e +ay, eJ(e)t +ith less e!)hasis on )raJis% This is an Asian +ay to thinF, it is not in the least sur)rising% -f Asians )la(e too !u(h e!)hasis on states of !in , Westerners )la(e too little% Although one (an fin uses of the ter! 9uche in the 194<s in 4orth an &outh, no one +oul noti(e +ere it not for its later )ro!inen(e% Cut Ki!Bs rhetori( rang +ith synony!ous languageA a 6ariety of ter!s translating roughly as self-relian(e an in e)en en(e stru(ture Ki!Hs i eology in the 194<s8 cha1usong (self-relian(e), min1o& tongni$ (national or ethni( in e)en en(e), chari$ &(ong1e (in e)en ent e(ono!y)% All these ter!s +ere antony!s of sa#ae1uiii4 ser6ing an relying u)on foreign )o+er, +hi(h ha *een the s(ourge of a )eo)le +hose natural in(lination +as to+ar things Korean% Ki! at this ti!e +as a !o al if early 6ariant of thir +orl re6olutionary nationalis!, reinfor(e *y the Korean IHer!it King o!I )ast to+ar a left-isolationist ten en(y%? D The Origins of the Korean War4 Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract4 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings, ,ha)ter 9, )% @1@

+eneralissimo .hian1 Gai%shek of the Re 0!li- of .hina ,' th left2 meets 4ith Re 0!li- of GoreaLs President Syn1man Rhee ,-enter2 and Re 0!li- of GoreaLs *efense ?inister Lee Beom%Seok ,standin1 !ehind Rhee( 4earin1 1lasses2 for a three%day meetin1 at .hinae( Gorea in A010st $9'9. .hian1 Gai%shek had re-ently fled mainland .hina for the island of Tai4an after .omm0nist .hinese for-es defeated his army and o--0 ied the .hinese mainland. ,Photo: U.S. .oast +0ard2 ,So0r-e: htt :KK444.0s-1.milKhistoryKarti-lesKGoreanVWar.as 2

>O:9;issionaries in 6illages re)orte on re)ressi6e K4P a(ti6ity, tea(hers Is)oFe of the a(ti6ity of )ro6o(ateurs an s)ies in the uni6ersities%I The )oli(e, the is)at(h sai , rese!*le the Ja)anese &em$eitai/ Critish o*ser6ers note that 'heeHs )i(ture +as in nearly e6ery )oli(e station in &outh Korea in 2e*ruary 194=, !onths *efore his ele(tion% The )oli(e nee e 'hee to )rote(t the! fro! re)risals, gi6en that !ost of the offi(ers ha ser6e the Ja)anese% 'hee for his )art nee e the )oli(e I*e(ause they alone (an e(i e the (ourse of ele(tions an Fee) hi! in )o+er%I 9ore e6i en(e (oul *e a u(e on the nature of the southern syste!, *ut +hy *e tireso!e a*out an o*6ious realityN 9ore interesting )erha)s +as the range of A!eri(an attitu es, !o6ing fro! (yni(al su))ort of the syste!, to a te)i istan(e that is(lai!e fatherhoo of an un)leasant offs)ring, to e!an s for refor! that ne6er got *eyon the li!its of the A!eri(an s)e(tru!, a /raha! /reen-liFe ILuiet A!eri(anI )roKe(t of refor! that sought to *olster a !i le that *arely eJiste % A (entrist an !o al )osition in A!eri(an so(iety *e(a!e in Korea a MuiJoti( an +eaF )osture, +hile eJ)osing one to (harges of )ro(o!!unis!% The og that so rarely *arFe +as any sign of A!eri(an su))ort for a thorough reno6ation of Korean so(iety% 7he harsh truth is that the ?nited States as a matter o" hi h %oli#y &astly %re"erred the southern %oli#e state to any sort o" serious re&olutionary re ime. 7he re%ression o" the $hee re ime, in other words, had a 6oint Korean2Ameri#an authorshi%. At the same that Ameri#an o""i#ials %raised and %ri&ately #ensured the southern re ime, they nonetheless mis#onstrued the reality. 7he South 9Korea: did ha&e a %oli#e state, and it was an a ent o" a small #lass o" landlords. Eut it was more than that, or it #ould not ha&e sur&i&ed e&en to *une -.01. 7he landlord #lass held !oth o!tuse rea#tionaries and &i!rant #a%italists. Korean (a)italis! !ay not ha6e ha arti(ulate )ro)onents, *ut it ha i!)ressi6e )ra(titioners, of +hi(h the Ki! &ong-su grou) +as the !ost for!i a*le% This +as har ly the 6isionary entre)reneur, ho+e6er, looFing for the !ain (han(eA the !ain (han(e ha *een the Ja)anese regi!e an the o))ortunities that (lose allian(e +ith it *rought to this, KoreaHs first chae,ol ((onglo!erate)% A!eri(ans foun this sort of (a)italis! har to ignify or legiti!ate, as i Koreans, seeing little 6irtue in *usiness that he+e (lose to the state% Cut it +as a sour(e of yna!is! in the Korean e(ono!y, this state-le (a)italis! i!)lante *y a Ja)anese i!)erialis! ifferent fro! !ore stagnant 6arieties, su(h as the $ut(h in -n onesia or the Portuguese in Angola% -t lai the foun ations for the e(ono!i( gro+th of the 19#<s% Cut it i not fit a teJt*ooF es(ri)tion of (a)italis!, any!ore than the &tan ar 7il Trust i in A!eri(a%? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% 1=9

Soviet R0ssiaLs .ommissar 8osef Stalin ,left2 and Red .hinaLs .ommissar ?ao Tse%t0n1 ,-enter( standin12 4at-h .ho0 Enlai( Premier of the +overnment Administration .o0n-il of the .entral Peo leLs +overnment of the Peo leLs Re 0!li- of .hina IRed .hinaJ( si1n the Si1nin1 .eremony of the Sino%Soviet Treaty of )riendshi ( Allian-e and ?0t0al Assistan-e and related a1reements on February 4@, 4567. 8osef Stalin 1ave ta-it a roval to Gim 5l S0n1Ls ro osed Bli!erationC ,invasion2 of the Re 0!li- of Gorea ISo0th GoreaJ and ?ao Tse%t0n1Ls ro osed Bli!erationC ,invasion2 of the island of Tai4an( 1overned !y the .hinese &ationalists( in $9E#. ,Photo: htt :KK444.id- -.or1.-nKen1lishKal!0mK-ornerstoneVeK$%$%'.htm2

Koreans in 4orth Korea engage in )oliti(al e!onstrations an (arry )osters of Ki! -l &ung an Josef &talin in 194=% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%fli(Fr%(o!E)hotosE)i(turesG)astE49#9147#45EinE)hotostrea!)
>Korean ,o!!unist lea ers fro! the fi6e )ro6in(es in the 4orth *egan organi1ing a *ran(h *ureau in the 4orth, an Hyon :,hunhyoF; hea e this effort% Eut in 9si#: Se%tem!er +I, -./0, 3yon was assassinated on his way !a#) "rom a meetin with Ga6or General $omanen)o. He +as in the front seat of a tru(F +ith ,hoo 9an-siF, *ut his assailant Fille only Hyon% There is an ela*orate a((ount of his eath i!)li(ating Ki! -l &ung as the (ul)rit% Ki! ha arri6e in Wonsan on &e)te!*er 19, 1945, less than ten ays *efore the shooting, an it is unliFely that he +as in6ol6e in the )lot to eli!inate Hyon% -t +as re)orte that Ki! ha (ons)ire +ith ,hang &i-u, hea of the Justi(e $e)art!ent of PByongna! Pro6in(ial Cureau, to ha6e one of their hen(h!en !ur er Hyon% Politi(al assassination +as (o!!on in *oth 4orth an &outh Korea shortly after the li*eration%? D Kim Il +ung: The %orth Korean 8ea#er *y $ae-&ooF &uh (19==), )% 7<

&orth Gorean 5nvasion of So0th Gorea: Prior Gno4led1eR

8ohn )oster *0lles ,-enter2( a mem!er of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations in &e4 ;ork .ity and a tr0stee of the Ro-kefeller )o0ndation in $9E#( visits the 7<th Parallel in the Re 0!li- of Gorea on ?une 45. 4567( si> days !efore the .omm0nist &orth Gorean army -rossed the 7<th Parallel and atta-ked So0th Gorea. The Gorean di1nitary holdin1 a !ino-0lar is So0th GoreaLs *efense ?inister Shin S0n1%mo. ,Photo: 8ohn )oster *0lles Pa ers( P0!li- Poli-y .olle-tions( *e artment of Rare Books and S e-ial .olle-tions( Prin-eton University Li!rary2

>After the Korean War, Her*ert 2eis in his *est (hoir-*oy !anner Muerie A(heson on John 2oster $ullesHs +ell-!arFe 6isit to the thirty-eighth )arallel on June 19, 195<8 IAre you sure his )resen(e i nHt )ro6oFe the atta(F $eanN There has *een (o!!ent a*out that-- onHt thinF it i % You ha6e no 6ie+s on the su*Ke(tNI A(hesonHs ea )an res)onse8 I4o, - ha6e no 6ie+s on the su*Ke(t%I Kennan then interKe(te , IThere is a (o!i(al as)e(t to this, *e(ause the 6isits of these )eo)le o6er there, an their )eering o6er out)osts +ith *ino(ulars at the &o6iet )eo)le, - thinF !ust ha6e le the &o6iets to thinF that +e +ere on to their )lan an (ause the! (onsi era*le )ertur*ation%I B(es,B A#heson said, BFoster u% in a !un)er with a hom!ur 9hat: on M it was a &ery amusin %i#ture.B Yes, funny, a!using-an illogi(al8 +ere Kennan right, $ulles +as Ion to their )lan,I +hy then +oul the atta(F ha6e ensue N -f $ullesBs )resen(e !ight ha6e I)ro6oFe the atta(F,I a )resen(e +here-at the thirty-eighth )arallel, +here all A!eri(an ignitaries 6isitN 7r in Ja)an, su))ing +ith the 1ai*atsu eliteN An a*o6e all, +hyN Why +oul either the 'ussians or the Koreans taFe su(h a strong risF of A!eri(an inter6ention, at this ti!eN -t is not a Muestion liFely to *e ans+ere +ithout a full (onsi eration of all the )ossi*le eJ)lanations% -t is o*6iously not a Muestion that intereste A(heson, +hose +on erful an +ell-tutore !e!ory !ysteriously i!!e % &u enly A(heson ha Ino 6ie+sI on a su*Ke(t of (riti(al i!)ort8 whether Dulles@s &isit %ro&o)ed a war. So, why did Dulles o to Korea? He originally ha no )lans to 6isit the )eninsulaA instea he ha thought of etouring to Tai+an8 *ir ogging 0ouis Johnson shoul the latter run off to see the generalissi!o an his 9a a!e% Cut then Korea (a!e u) front an (enter uring a inner +ith the Korean a!*assa or to the .nite &tates, ,hang 9yon, on June 1<, 195<% Present +ere $ulles, 'usF, Allison, an 4iles Con % ,hang tol the! his regi!e +as in (risis% 2our ays later, the ,-A +arne of the )ossi*ility of a 4orth Korean atta(F, an on the sa!e ay $ulles tol Wellington Koo he +oul >go to Korea for a looF%? The Korean a!*assa or re)orts that his regi!e is in (risis% The ,-A re)orts that the 4orth Koreans (an atta(F at any !o!ent% $ulles e(i es to ha6e Ia looF%I -t +ill *e re!e!*ere that ,hang 9yon +as an A!eri(an fa6orite, an that he +as a lea er of the o))osition 3%7:K374 also an A!eri(an fa6orite% The ,-A +as on re(or *efore the 9ay 195< ele(tions ho)ing for a $4P 6i(tory, an it lau e ,hangHs Mualities in its *iogra)hi(al sFet(hes% -n A)ril an 9ay 'heeHs !ost )ro6o(ati6e allies +ere ra)i ly un er!ining $4P stal+arts in the *ureau(ra(y, an *y early June it +as (lear that left-leaning an !o erate )oliti(ians ha s(ore a !aKor 6i(tory o6er *oth 'hee an the $4P D e6en the A!eri(ansH ca$o #i tutti ca$i4 ,ho Pyong-oF, ha *een 6ote out% At the sa!e ti!e, &outh Korean intelligen(e re)orte an i!)en ing atta(F an )ut the Ar!y on full alert% ,hang Fne+ $ulles as +ell as any Korean, ha6ing +orFe I6ery har han in han I +ith hi! at the .nite 4ations in 194=, +hen the t+o intera(te on a aily *asis% He liFe to (all $ulles Ithe 2ather of the 'e)u*li( of Korea%I ,hang ha returne to Korea in 9ay, !eeting 9a(Arthur along the +ayA there is no re(or of the su*stan(e of their talFs% He (a!e *a(F urgently to Washington in !i -June, seeFing to (on6in(e A!eri(an offi(ials that the '7K +as on the 6erge of (olla)seA after the fa(t he sai that he ha also +arne that a 4orth Korean atta(F +as >i!!inent%?? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% 5<<-5<1

>Cy June 195<, alar!s a*out an in6asion of the &outh +ere ol hat, stan ar fare for intelligen(e offi(ers% A!eri(an intelligen(e sour(es first )re i(te a 4orth Korean in6asion in the s)ring of 194#, an a6aila*le re)orts sho+ !any re)etitions o6er the neJt four years, +ith no )arti(ular in(rease Kust *efore the +ar% /en% John '% Ho ge ha +arne for years that the 4orth Koreans +oul atta(F the &outh on(e A!eri(an troo)s +ith re+, an )erha)s e6en *efore they left, lea ing to freMuent in6asion alerts uring his tenure% John 9u((io re)orte that A!eri(an troo)s +ent on in6asion alert siJ ti!es *et+een 9ar(h 1 an August "5, 194=, an in 7(to*er A!eri(an intelligen(e sour(es re+ u) a t+o-)age, single-s)a(e list of in6asion threat re)orts re(ei6e aroun the ti!e of the Yosu 'e*ellion% 'u!ors an re)orts of i!!inent atta(F (ontinue in 4o6e!*er an $e(e!*er% Throughout 1949 this situation )ersiste , )arti(ularly aroun ti!es of intense *or er fighting% As +e ha6e seen, ru!ors of +ar +ere strong enough in &e)te!*er to sen Preston /oo fello+ s(a!)ering off to &eoul, although it +as *y no !eans (lear +hether this ha to o +ith 4orthern instea of &outhern threats% -n 2e*ruary 195<, t+o /-" re)orts (ite in6asion threats for 9ay 195< an another sai it +oul (o!e in June 195<A in 9ar(h it +as sai that the '7K +oul *e estroye on July 14, 195<A an in early 9ay the /-" (hief +rote, >the +ar of ner6es is on(e !ore re(ei6ing its annual sti!ulant %%% re)orts uring this )erio ha the 4orth Koreans in6a ing &outh Korea on the 7th, =th, an 9 th of 9ay %%%% 4eJt re)orte in6asion ate is 1" 9ay +ith a Hrain (he(FH for the "<th of 9ay%? The +eary tone +as the *est e6i en(e that A!eri(an intelligen(e offi(ers thought the s)ring 195< alar!s +ere, as Yogi Cerra on(e )ut it, > eKa 6u all o6er again%? 'o*erts sai in 9ar(h 195< that in6asion threats +ere far !ore nu!erous in 194= an 1949 than in the )re6ious siJ !onths, an that >:@=th; )arallel in(i ents ha ro))e off !arFe ly%? There +as a Mui(Fening of *or er fighting in 9ay an June 195<, +ith an a6erage of a*out fifteen in(i ents )er +eeF fro! 9ay 5 to June 1#, *ut all of the! +ere !inor (o!)are to the )re6ious su!!er% -n the early !onths of 195<, Korean 9ilitary A 6isory /rou) (K9A/) intelligen(e got freMuent re)orts of the south+ar e)loy!ent of KPA troo)s an eMui)!ent% -n January, it thought the KPA " $i6ision hea Muarters is)la(e south+ar fro! Ha!hung to Wonsan, along +ith an artillery regi!ent, an note other in i(ators of south+ar !o6e!ent of tanFs an troo) units% -n 2e*ruary, it (a!e to the (on(lusion that $P'K intelligen(e +as e(ei6ing '7K intelligen(e *y re)orting false south+ar troo) !o6e!entsA in 9ar(h an A)ril s(attere e6i en(e of south+ar e)loy!ents (a!e in again, in(lu ing re)orts of the arri6al of !ore tanFs at ,hor+on, an then the !aterials gro+ thin, +ith little of note !entione in 9ay an June% The e6i en(e of south+ar e)loy!ent +oul see! to *e the !ost signifi(ant sort of infor!ation, gi6en that in6asion alar!s (oul easily *e s(are ta(ti(s *y either Pyongyang or &eoul, +hereas the ne+ e)loy!ents enhan(e in6asion (a)a*ilities% Yet in i(ations of south+ar e)loy!ent +ere if anything stronger in late 1949 than in the s)ring of 195<% There +ere !any su(h re)orts in &e)te!*er, 7(to*er, an 4o6e!*er, (o!*ine +ith e6i en(e of the re(ei)t of &o6iet hea6y +ea)ons through 4orth Korean )orts, an the !o6e!ent of (i6ilian fa!ilies Kust north of the )arallel, 6ie+e *y so!e as )re)aratory to an in6asion (although it +as stan ar &o6iet )ro(e ure to (lear (i6ilians fro! tense *or ers)% -n late 4o6e!*er 1949 half of the total nu!*er of tanFs in the Pyongyang area +ere sai to ha6e *een shi))e to the 6i(inity of the )arallel, one hun re tanFs re)orte ly arri6e in ,hor+on a +eeF later, another thirty-se6en arri6e in PoFFye fro! W#nsan the neJt +eeF% -n !i -$e(e!*er K9A/ /-" sai that so!e three thousan sol iers thought to *e in Ha!hung +ere no+ near the )arallel at Kaesong, an (ite *arra(Fs (onstru(tion to house thousan s of ne+ troo)s (lose to the *or er% KP A or er of *attle esti!ates +ere (hange to refle(t this south+ar e)loy!ent as early as &e)te!*er, 1949% 7n(e again, in other +or s, the e6ents of )re6ious years (learly sha)e )er(e)tions in 195<% A!eri(ans on the s(ene ha li6e +ith in6asion threats sin(e 194#A the &outh ha I(rie +olfI so !any ti!es that fe+ *othere to listenA there +as so !u(h InoiseI in fi6e years of A!eri(an intelligen(e re)orts in Korea that no one sa+ the +ar (o!ing, or so it see!s% 2urther!ore, the *attles in 1949 sha)e i!!e iate )er(e)tions in 195<% War see!e so liFely in the su!!er of 1949 that the intelligen(e e6i en(e of 195< )ale *y (o!)arisonA !ore i!)ortant, in 1949 Fno+le gea*le A!eri(ans Fne+ that the &outh sought to )ro6oFe +ar, an therefore 6ie+e 4orth Korean threats an e)loy!ents in that conte;t, fin ing the! to *e )re i(ta*le, at ti!es e6en un erstan a*le, efensi6e res)onses to southern a(ti6ities% Thus it +as that *oth Critish an A!eri(an intelligen(e esti!ate that an in6asion +oul not (o!e in the su!!er of 195<%? D The Origins of the Korean War4 Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract4 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings, ,ha)ter 9, )% 44=-45< >There is in(reasing (onfi en(e in the :&outh Korean; Ar!y% An aggressi6e, offensi6e s)irit is e!erging% 4er6es that +ere fraye an Kittery the )ast fe+ !onths !ay no+ gi6e +ay to this ne+ s)irit% A goo )ortion of the Ar!y is eager to get going% 9ore an !ore )eo)le feel that the only +ay unifi(ation (an *e *rought a*out is *y !o6ing 4orth *y for(e% - ha6e it fro! $i(F Johnston <%e" =or& Times re)orter; that ,hiang Kai-sheF tol 'hee that the 4ationalist air for(e (oul su))ort a !o6e 4orth an that the( #iscusse# the $ossi,ilit( of the %ationalists starting an offensi)e mo)e against 0anchuria through Korea> There is so!e feeling that no+ is the ti!e to !o6e 4orth +hile the ,hinese (o!!unists are )reo((u)ie % - ou*t +hether 'hee +oul a(tually or er a !o6e 4orth in his saner !o!ents% ,a)tain &hin, - Fno+, is ea against it% :$efense 9inister of &outh Korea; 8ee ?um +u& :0ee Ceo!-seoF; "oul# lo)e it/ Ho+e6er, shoul +e ha6e another Kaesong or 7ngKin flare-u), a (ounter-atta(F !ight lea to all sorts of un)re i(ta*le e6elo)!ents :e!)hasis a e ;%? D John J% 9u((io, .%&% A!*assa or to &outh Korea, in August 1949 &our(e8 The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings, )% @94

>The ,-A note one +eeF *efore the +ar that the KPA ha e)loye ne+ units, tanFs, an artillery south+ar Iin re(ent !onths,I *ut argue that the 4orth ha far fro! eJhauste the )otential for internal +ar in the &outhOWhat the e6i en(e oes in i(ate is that the 4orth ha the (a)a*ility to estroy the &outh *y June 1949, not June 195<, an that it +as on a 6irtual +ar footing fro! &e)te!*er 1949 on+ar , if not earlier% The result of the 1949 fighting un erline 4orthern (a)a*ilities, sin(e they e6astate '7KA units in the !aKor *attles% Cy the en of the year the 4orth ha )la(e near the )arallel !u(h of the !en an eMui)!ent it +oul later use in the &outh, an a e to this in the s)ring of 195<, *ut +ith no 6isi*le Mualitati6e (hange in the eMui)!ent% -n short, *oth si es (onfronte ea(h other in June 195< a*out the +ay they ha in the fall of 1949% Coth si es !o6e for(es (lose to the )arallel in the +eeFs an !onths )re(e ing the +ar, an o*ser6ers on all si es +oul ha6e e6ery reason to *elie6e that 195< +oul re)eat 19498 !ore *or er (lashes, !ore guerrilla +ar% The one interesting (a6eat to this analysis is a gro+ing a+areness *y the A!eri(ans that the 4orth ha the (a)a*ility to a(hie6e the li!ite goal of (a)turing &eoul, +hi(h +oul then )ro*a*ly lea to a (olla)se of the 'hee regi!e% This Ku g!ent +as *ase *oth on the !ilitary (a)a*ilities of the 4orth an the )oliti(al ina eMua(ies of the &outh% 9u((io tol the Critish a!*assa or in $e(e!*er 1949 that Ihe (oul not *elie6e that the )resent regi!e (oul sur6i6e for !ore than a fe+ ays if the go6ern!ent a*an one the (a)ital,I an the ,-A in June 195< sai that although the I(o!*at effe(ti6enessI of the KPA an the '7KA +as >nearly eMual,? KPA su)eriority in tanFs, hea6y artillery, an air(raft ga6e it Ia (a)a*ility for attaining li!ite o*Ke(ti6es in short-ter! !ilitary o)erations against southern Korea, in(lu ing the (a)ture of &eoul%I &eoul +as the (ore area *oth of regi!e su))ort an its sine+s of (ontrol in the for! of ela*orate *ureau(ra(ies an trans)ortation an (o!!uni(ation fa(ilitiesA *eyon &eoul an the surroun ing Kyonggi Pro6in(e, an +ith the eJ(e)tion of the s)arsely )o)ulate ,hung(hong Pro6in(es, o)ene an a*yss of )oorly-(ontrolle )o)ulations !ostly sy!)atheti( to the 0eft% Furthermore the Korean %oliti#al %ers%e#ti&e on !oth sides was that an elimination o" the #enter would !e the )ey to the #olla%se o" the o%%osin re ime: $hee wanted to seize Pyon yan , and Kim wanted to seize Seoul.? D The Origins of the Korean War4 Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract4 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings, ,ha)ter 9, )% 45<-451

John 2oster $ulles at the @=th Parallel in Korea on June 19, 195<, siJ ays *efore the 4orth Korean in6asion% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%fli(Fr%(o!E)hotosE)i(turesG)astE49#975<75=EinE)hotostrea!)

>The +ar that (a!e liFe a thun er (la) in June 195< +as i!!anent in the fighting of the )re6ious su!!er% Cor er *attles laste fro! early 9ay until late 7(to*er, taFing hun re s of li6es an e!*roiling thousan s of troo)s% The reason that +ar i not (o!e in 1949 is at on(e si!)le, an essential to gras)ing the (i6il origins of the Korean (onfli(t8 the &outh +ante a +ar then, the 4orth i not, an neither i the .nite &tates% A year later this ha (hange % The *or er *attles of 1949 esta*lishe the setting for June 195<% The fighting i not start all at on(e in the early !orning hours, *ut *egan in the re!ote 7ngKin Peninsula, s)rea to Kaesong, then(e to ,hBun(hBon, an finally to the 3ast (oast% June 195< +as the !i(ro(os! of the su!!er of 1949, (olla)sing it in ti!e *ut not (hanging its (hara(ter8 the ifferen(e +as that no+ the 4orth +as rea y to fight% -n !ost histories of the +ar there is neJt to no referen(e to the 1949 fighting, an if there is, the initiation of all *attles is routinely *la!e on the 4orth, +ith the &outh )ortraye in a state of original inno(en(e, arraye efensi6ely an either un+illing or in(a)a*le of threatening anyone% 7ne stal+art Korea han tol !e, I- (ertainly ho)e youHre not going to taFe 'heeHs threats to !ar(h 4orth seriouslyW Why, his (o!!an ers use to laugh *ehin his *a(F +hen he sai those things%I 2or!erly (lassifie sour(es, ho+e6er, tell a ifferent story% An Ar!y /-" stu y state that &outh Korean for(es ItooF a 6antage of the +ith ra+al of the .%&% for(es to *e(o!e !ore aggressi6e,I an that lea ers of the '7K go6ern!ent I+ill go to any en s to insure the (ontinue )resen(e of .%&% for(es u)on +hi(h their o+n )ositions, fortunes, an )erha)s e6en their li6es e)en %I Thus, the stu y sai , 6arious *or er in(i ents in the su!!er of 1949 +ere Inot only en(ourage , *ut )ro*a*ly e6en initiate *y (ertain !e!*ersI of the '7K go6ern!ent% That +as an un erstate!ent% General $o!erts, KGAG #ommander, said that in the numerous #lashes in Au ust, BHa#h was in our o%inion !rou ht on !y the %resen#e o" a small South Korean salient north o" the %arallel. ... 7he South Koreans wish to in&ade the 'orth. We tell them that i" su#h o##urs, all ad&isors will %ull out and the HCA s%i ot will !e turned o"".B $o!erts went on to say that B!oth 'orth and South are at "aultB in the !a#)2and "orth Bneedlin B alon the %arallel. Eut a##ordin to #a%tured do#uments sent to the ?nited 'ations !y 'orth Korea, in an Au ust +, -./., meetin with $e%u!li# o" Korea Army <$8KA= di&isional #ommanders, $o!erts said that Balmost e&ery in#ident has !een %ro&o)ed !y the South Korean se#urity "or#es,B a stron er alle ationC !ut in the atmos%here o" -.01 a!out the only Ameri#an news%a%er willin to !rin these alle ations out was #he Daily $orker. Durin this %eriod $hee ra%idly eA%anded the Army. T+o ne+ i6isions (the ,a)ital an the =th) +ere a(ti6ate in June 1949A Ar!y strength +as at =1,<<< *y the en of July, an 1<<,<<< *y the en of August% Cy then it +as !u(h *igger than the a((e)te strength of the 4orth Korean ar!yA the su*seMuent *uil u) an the return of ,hina-linFe sol iers (oul thus *e 6ie+e as the 4orthHs atte!)t to esta*lish a *alan(e (.%&% intelligen(e thought the KPA +as 95,<<< strong in June 195<)% $hee also !rou ht into the Army o""i#ers who had ser&ed the *a%anese and who were re"u ees "rom the 'orth, at the eA%ense o" nationalist "i ures who had "ou ht with the Chinese 'ationalistsC the main reason was to surround $hee with military %eo%le who owed e&erythin to him, and who #ould !e #ounted on not to mount a #ou% <and to loath #ommunists=. T+o PaeF *rothers, &onyo) an -n-yo), le a north+est fa(tion in the Ar!y, +hi(h also in(lu e /enerals Yang KuF-Kin, Ki! &oF-*o!, an !any !e!*ers of the 4orth:+;est Youth% Coth PaeFs +ere *orn near Pyongyang a fe+ years after Ki! -- &ung, an ha *een Ja)anese K+antung Ar!y offi(ers% ,hong -l-g+on, also an offi(er in the K+antung Ar!y, le the northeast or Tong,u& fa(tion% ,hong +as thirty-t+o, an PaeF &on-yo) thirty, in 195<% 7he !order had !een a %otential "lash %oint sin#e late Se%tem!er -./0, when the ?nited States and the So&iets ere#ted #he#) %oints and !arriers that eAem%li"ied the de&elo%in di&ision o" the %eninsula. Eut "or the neAt three years little serious "i htin o##urred, and the !order %oints ser&ed to eA#han e millions o" %eo%le !a#)wards and "orwards, as well as a #onsidera!le amount o" 'orth2South trade. Fi htin "lared u% in early -./I, howe&er, Gen. *ohn $. 3od e re%ortin that althou h the South 4in&aria!lyB %la#ed the !lame on the 'orth, mu#h o" it o##urred !e#ause o" %ro&o#ations !y elements o" the 'orthwest (So%uk (outh. After the 9ay 194= ele(tions a nu!*er of *or er in(i ents +ere )ro6oFe *y *oth si es% -n August 194= the '7K set u) a IKorean 'esear(h Cureau,I )atterne after the A!eri(an ,ounter--ntelligen(e ,or)sA it routinely sent agents into the 4orth on s)ying an sa*otage !issions, assiste *y rightist youth organi1ations, of +hi(h the !ost )ro!inent +as the 4orth+est Youth (4WY)% A((or ing to A!eri(an ,ounter--ntelligen(e ,or)s (,-,) fin ings, in January 1949 ele!ents of the 4WY for!e a s)e(ial (ra(F *riga e in the '7K Ar!y, gi6en the *est eMui)!ent an su))lies, an )oste near the )arallel D thus to a(t as Ithe s)earhea in the e6ent that the :'7K; Ar!y in6a es 4orth Korea%I -n other +or s, the *or er fighting, liFe Kust a*out e6erything else on the )eninsula, illustrate the (ontinuing )attern of re6olution an (ounterre6olution% The *or er also ser6e as a *ell+ether of 4orthern intentions% $uring the Yosu-&un(hHon 'e*ellion, as +e ha6e seen, it +as eJ(ee ingly Muiet% -n the su!!er of 1949 the 4orth +ante the A!eri(an troo)s to lea6e, an so +as less aggressi6e than the &outh, +hi(h +ante to )ro6oFe enough fighting to !aFe the! stay% 4onetheless, the 4orth +as har ly )assi6e, an !iJe the fighting +ith a unifi(ation )oliti(s that also )resage June 195<% The 1949 *attles *egan at Kaesong on 9ay 4, in an engage!ent lasting a*out four ays an taFing an offi(ial toll of four hun re 4orth Korean an t+enty-t+o &outh Korean sol iers, as +ell as u)+ar s of one hun re (i6ilian eaths in Kaesong, a((or ing to A!eri(an an &outh Korean figures% The &outh (o!!itte siJ infantry (o!)anies an se6eral *attalions, of +hi(h t+o efe(te to the 4orth% -t is unliFely that the &outh Fille so !any northern sol iers sin(e later re)orts sai the southerners +ere *a ly !aule % 9onths later, the 4orth Koreans allege that se6eral thousan troo)s le *y Ki! &oF-+on atta(Fe a(ross the )arallel on the !orning of 9ay 4, near &ongBaF 9ountain% Ki! +as in ee the (o!!an er of the (riti(allyi!)ortant 2irst $i6ision% He +as a for!er north Korean +ho ha tra(Fe Ki! -l &ung in the 9an(hurian +il erness in the late 19@<s as the hea of the I&)e(ial Ki! $eta(h!entI in the K+antung Ar!y% He +as Fno+n then as Kaneya!a &haFugenA 3!)eror Hirohito e(orate hi! +ith the 7r er of 9erit for I*ra6eryI in (a!)aigns in &hansi Pro6in(e% He s)orte a Kaiser Wilhel! !ousta(he, an +as +i ely thought to *e res)onsi*le for nu!erous atro(ities against ,hinese (iti1ens uring the +ar%

Ki! +as (lose to 'hee, 0ouise Yi!, an Yi ,hHong-(hHon, a!ong others% 7n June ", 194=, Ki! ha le ",5<< 6eterans of the Ja)anese Ar!y through the streets of &eoul, their +arti!e unifor!s no+ sha**y *ut their goose-ste))ing s!artness still i!)ressi6eA Yi ,hHong(hHon +as on the re6ie+ing stan an es(ri*e the grou) as the nu(leus of the '7K ar!y% Ki!Hs son tol a re)orter that Yi an his father +ere goo frien s in s)ite of Yi *eing on the other si e in the +ar, sin(e they on(e atten e the sa!e Ja)anese !ilitary a(a e!y% 'o*erts see!e to (onfir! the 4orth Korean (harge, *y later +riting that the Iflare-u)I at Kaesong resulte fro! Inee lingI of the 4orth Koreans *y Ki! &oF-+on D >stuffe -shirt, *lo+n-u), Ja)anese-traine frien of the Presi ent, +ho (o!!an s the 1st $i6ision there% We A!eri(ans an the Korean staff are all after his s(al), as he has all his C:attalio;ns no+ on line of the Parallel an one ,o:!)any; in reser6e% He sno+ Ko*s the :K9A/; A 6isors an oes as he )leases%? The efe(tors +ere fro! the 1st an " *attalions of the =th '7KA regi!ent, a total of a*out "45 sol iers, le *y 9aKors PHyo 9u-+on an Kang THae-!u% $uring inter6ie+s +ith northern re)orters, the t+o !aKors sai that Ithe !aKority of '7K Ar!y offi(ers ha *een running ogs of Ja)anese i!)erialis!,I of +ho! the !ost notorious +as Ki! &oF-+on, +ho Ifor(i*ly !o*ili1e Korean youths to fight Ja)anHs aggressi6e +ar in ,hina,I an Islaughtere the ,hinese )eo)le%I '7KA offi(ers fighting un er hi! +ere his I(lients,I for!er offi(ers in the Ja)anese Ar!y% The hea of the #th $i6ision +as Ki! PaeF-il, +ho, they sai , ha *een hea of >a s)e(ial eta(h!ent of the Ja)anese Ar!y in ,hina%I Although the rea er alrea y Fno+s the *a(Fgroun of Ki! &oF-+on an Ki! PaeF-il, it is signifi(ant that these na!es (o!e u) in the early fighting in 9ay 1949% -n !i -9ay the 4orth Koreans noti(ea*ly es(alate their )ro)agan a rhetori(, saying that I,hiang Kai-sheF is e!olishe an &yng!an 'hee is tu!*ling o+n,I an a((using 'hee of turning to the Ja)anese i!)erialists to sa6e hi!self% 7n 9ay "1 so!e !inor in(i ents tou(he off a !aKor assault *y t+o KPA Cor er /uar *attalions on the 7ngKin Peninsula, in the TuraF 9ountains% The &outh *rought in reinfor(e!ents *y sea, raising their for(e le6els to eight *attalions +ithin ays% The 4orth no+ o((u)ie )ositions as !u(h as fi6e Filo!eters *elo+ the )arallel, so the &outh laun(he an assault on THaetHan , ten Filo!eters north of the )arallel% 7n 9ay "= fi6e hun re Korean Peo)leHs Ar!y (KPA) sol iers !o6e south of the )arallel again, tou(hing off fighting in +hi(h se6eral tens of !en ie on ea(h si e% The southern si e +as *a ly flogge in this engage!ent, too8 its units I)ro6e una*le to laun(h a (oor inate large-s(ale atta(F%I Ki! PaeF-il tooF u) the general (o!!an of the 7ngKin region on June 5A his e)uty +as Kang Yong-hun (+ho in 19=9 +as )ri!e !inister of the '7K)% The 7ngKin fighting (ontinue through the en of June, often at rather hea6y le6els )un(tuate *y !inor *attles else+here along the )arallel% The 4orth Korean )ress a((use 'hee of )ro6oFing fighting to fin a +ay to Fee) A!eri(an troo)s in the &outh% The 4orth also heate u) a *ig (a!)aign to +el(o!e a InationalI !eeting of the $e!o(rati( 2ront for the .nifi(ation of the 9otherlan :Chogu& t'ongil min1u1uui ui chonson; on June "5 in Pyongyang, a year to the ay *efore the :Korean; +ar *egan% 7n the last &un ay in June 1949, hea6y fighting o)ene u) in the a+n hours on the 7ngKin PeninsulaA three ays later the &outh sent a*out 15< !orim (forest tiger) guerrillas on a long foray a(ross the )arallelA they roa!e aroun (ausing )ro*le!s in the area a*o6e an to the east of ,hHol+on for a fe+ ays, *ut +ere +i)e out *y July 5% The &un ay, June "# *attle is i!)ortant *e(ause .4,7K sent a elegation to 7ngKin after hearing of Ihea6y fighting%I -t arri6e (ourtesy of an '7K na6al 6essel an +as gui e aroun *y '7KA )ersonnel% .4,7K !e!*ers re!aine on the )eninsula for a ay or so an then returne to &eoul on 9on ay e6ening, fro! +hi(h they then file a re)ort to the .4 *la!ing Inorthern in6a ersI for the trou*le% -t is Muite )ossi*le that the 4orth +as to *la!e, *ut +hat is re!arFa*le is .4,7KHs failure to in6estigate an re)ort u)on )ro6o(ations *y the &outh as +ell, an instea )u*li(ly to taFe *oth the '7K an the A!eri(an +or as gos)elA it thus *e(a!e a )artisan in the (i6il (onfli(t% -t is also note+orthy that Kust *efore this in(i ent, Ki! &oF-+on ga6e .4,7K a *riefing in his status as (o!!an er of '7KA for(es at the thirty-eighth )arallel8 4orth an &outh I!ay engage in !aKor *attles at any !o!ent,I he sai A Korea has entere into Ia state of +arfare%I IWe shoul ha6e a )rogra! to re(o6er our lost lan , 4orth Korea, *y *reaFing through the @=th *or er +hi(h has eJiste sin(e 1945IA the !o!ent of !aKor *attles, Ki! thought, is ra)i ly a))roa(hing% &u(h southern threats resulte in the )osting of .4,7K !ilitary o*ser6ersOAfter the +ar *egan a year later, the for!er '7K ho!e !inister, Ki! Hyo-soF, +ho ha *y then efe(te to the 4orth, sai that 'hee ha )lotte a Inorthern eJ)e itionI to *egin on July 15, 1949, +ith Ki! &oF+on atta(Fing north+ar fro! the 7ngKin Peninsula +ith the goal of o((u)ying HaeKu an then Pyongyang% Whate6er the truth of this, it is o(u!ente that in !i -July A!eri(an authorities +orrie that the &outh +as rea ying an atta(F on the 4orth% ,a)ture o(u!ents in this )erio sho+e that the $e!o(rati( Peo)leHs 'e)u*li( of Korea ($P'K) ha fully !ine the roa s lea ing into the 4orth, an feare an a!)hi*ious lan ing at the )ort (ity of Wonsan% This (a!e Kust after the en of A!eri(an o)erational (ontrol of the southern !ilitary, an +as a))arently a )relu e to the near-+ar of early August% As of August 1, if not earlier, southern for(es +ere in o((u)ation of .n)a 9ountain (.n)Hasan), an i!)ortant salient north of the thirty-eighth )arallel on 7ngKin +hi(h (o!!an e !u(h of the near*y terrain% K9A/ is)at(he an a 6isory grou) to 7ngKin on the sa!e ate, )ro*a*ly to restrain the &outh Koreans% -n the early !orning hours on August 4:, 1949; the 4orth o)ene u) great *arrages of artillery an !ortar fire, an then at 58@< A%9% so!e four to siJ thousan 4orth Korean Cor er guar sol iers atta(Fe , seeFing in 'o*ertsHs +or s Ito re(o6er high groun in 4orth Korea o((u)ie *y :the; &outh Korean Ar!y%?? D The Origins of the Korean War4 Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract4 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings, )% @==-@9"

Tele1ram E>tra-t( 8ohn )oster *0lles and 8ohn Allison to *ean A-heson and *ean R0sk( 80ne "E( $9E#. Harry S. Tr0man Administration( Elsey Pa ers. ,So0r-e: Harry S. Tr0man Presidential Li!rary2

Korean War: -n#asion and -nter#ention &'(*+-'(*.,

Ameri-an military for-es( in-l0din1 the U.S. Army "'th 5nfantry *ivision( re are to retreat from TaeFon I*aeFeonJ( Gorea in 80ly $9E# after the &orth Gorean .omm0nist army defeated the Ameri-an and So0th Gorean army in the Battle of TaeFon ,80ly $'%"$( $9E#2. The U.S. Army retreated to areas aro0nd P0san and esta!lished the BP0san PerimeterC.

>This threat (ontinue to *e e6il the efenses of the Pusan )eri!eter, an a((ounte for the !aKority of guerrilla (asualties in the su!!er of 195<% The A!eri(ans allo+e Korean 4ational Poli(e *attalions to eal +ith real an sus)e(te guerrillas +ith their (usto!ary *rutality, +hile a o)ting ra(onian !etho s of their o+n% Tirtually any 6illage sus)e(te of har*oring or su))orting guerrillas +as *urne to the groun , usually fro! the air% 2urther!ore, (ities an to+ns thought to *e leftist in in(lination +ere si!)ly e!)tie of their )o)ulation through for(e e6a(uations% All *ut 1< )er(ent of (i6ilians +ere !o6e out of &un(hHon, 9asan +as e!)tie of tens of thousan s of (iti1ens, >all (i6ilians?, +ere !o6e out of Ye(hHon% A!i a threat that Ithe leftists an 2ifth (olu!n, li6ing in Taegu, are (ons)iring to (reate a *ig istur*an(e,? an +ith the )eri!eter un er great strain, 6ast nu!*ers of Taegu (iti1ens +ere e6a(uate for fear of Ian u)rising%I Cy !i -August, !any of these re!o6e (iti1ens +ere (on(entrate on islan s near Pusan, for*i en to lea6e% 9ean+hile the +ar *arely affe(te ,heKu -slan , s(ene of the strongest guerrilla !o6e!ent in the late 194<s% Although a fe+ !inor in(i ents in !i -August (ause an -rish )riest to infor! the e!*assy that Ithe (o!!unists +ere *eginning to run ra!)ant,I only one hun re or so )artisans +ere left on the islan % At the start of the +ar the '7KA (o!!an er, Ja)anese-aligne /en% Yi .ng-Kun, )ut so!e 1,1<< sus)e(ts in )rison an )la(e the islan un er !artial la+A those arreste in(lu e ,heKuHs (hief Ku ge, the (hief )ro(urator, the (hief of a !inistration, the (hief of agri(ulture, the !ayor of ,heKu (ity, an se6eral *usiness!en an la+yers% (They +ere (harge +ith (ons)iring to arrange a +el(o!e for KPA sol iers%) /eneral Yi !aintaine a 98<< P%9% (urfe+ throughout the su!!er, (onfis(ate all ra ios, an (ensore all ne+s in a 6an(eA un erstan a*ly, the islan ers Fne+ little a*out the (ourse of the fighting% The (hief of the ,heKu )oli(e for(e +as a for!er >youth lea er%? -t +as *usiness as usual on ,heKu%? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% #9<

The .nite 4ations &e(urity ,oun(il 6ote to sen !ilitary troo)s to 4orth Korea on June "7, 195<% The .nite 4ations also esta*lishe the .nite 4ations ,o!!an Korea, a unifie !ilitary (o!!an stru(ture% (Photo8 'al)h 9orseETi!e 0ife)

&o6iet elegate to the .nite 4ations gets u) to lea6e in )rotest uring a .nite 4ations &e(urity ,oun(il !eeting in June 195<% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%fli(Fr%(o!E)hotosE)i(turesG)astE49#91475@7EinE)hotostrea!)

TasF 2or(e &!ith arri6es at the TaeKon rail station% 7n July 5, 195<, near 7san, this untrie for(e of a*out half a *attalion, !ostly teenagers, stoo alone against a 4orth Korean i6ision an a large tanF for(e% (Photo8 .%&% $e)art!ent of $efense)

0eft )hoto8 .nite &tates Ar!y (he(F)oint, @=th Parallel, Korea (ir(a 194= 'ight )hoto8 &outh Korean !ilitary )oli(e!an es(orts a 4orth Korean )risoner-of-+ar to the rear uring the su!!er of 195<%

)resh and ea1er U.S. ?arine troo s arrive at the vital so0thern s0 the front lines. ,Photo: US5AK&ARA )5LE X: 7#:%PS%E#%$$"9<2

ly ort of P0san( Re 0!li- of Gorea in A010st $9E# rior to advan-in1 to

A 1ro0 of Ameri-an U.S. Army infantrymen mar-h into the &akton1 River re1ion on A010st $$( $9E#( as they ass a line of fleein1 Gorean ref01ees. The &orth Gorean army 0nder the -ommand of &orth GoreaLs B*ear LeaderC Gim 5l S0n1 invaded So0th Gorea ,Re 0!li- of Gorea2 on 80ne "E( $9E# and overran the -a ital -ity of Seo0l three days later. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

The mass e>e-0tion of s0s e-ted Gorean .omm0nists !y the So0th Gorean military and oli-e at TaeFon I*aeFeonJ( Gorea in 80ly $9E#. ,Photo: htt :KK444.korea%is%one.or1Ks i . h Rarti-le7$#E2

Pre-lan ing re(onnaissan(e )hoto of -n(hon taFen *y an '2-=< on Aug% @1, 195<% (.%&% Air 2or(e )hoto) htt)8EE+++%e +ar s%af%!ilE)hotosE!e iagallery%as)Ngallery-$R5"9S)ageR41

U.S. Army Bri1. +en. .o0rtney Whitney( U.S. Army +en. *o01las ?a-Arth0r ,.ommander in .hief of U.&. )or-es2( and U.S. Army ?aF. +en. Ed4ard ?. Almond o!serve the shellin1 of 5n-hon from the USS ?t. ?-Ginley on Se tem!er $E( $9E#. ,U.S. ArmyK&ational Ar-hives2

P0san Perimeter in A010st $9E# and Se tem!er $9E#

(Photo8 .%&% 4a6y)

U.S. ?arines en1a1e in street fi1htin1 d0rin1 the li!eration of Seo0l( Gorea -ir-a late Se tem!er $9E#. &ote ?%$ rifles and Bro4nin1 A0tomati- Rifles -arried !y the ?arines( dead Goreans in the street( and ?%' TShermanT tanks in the distan-e. ,U.S. &aval Histori-al .enter Photo1ra h2

+eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r ,in leather Fa-ket2 and an ento0ra1e of ress and !rass e>amine !odies of &orth Gorean soldiers at advan-ed marine ositions east of 5n-hon on Se tem!er $=( $9E#. The marine in -amo0fla1e helmet holds a R0ssian%made s0!ma-hine 10n kno4n to Ameri-ans as a !0r 10n. ,U.S. Army hoto2 htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm

Seoul Cam%ai n, Se%tem!er -.01: &outh Korean infantry an irregulars roun ing u) )risoners in the &eoul area, as .%&% 9arine ,or)s 9-"# tanFs roll )ast, "# &e)te!*er 195<% The irregulars in the right (enter a))ear to *e ar!e +ith 'ussian 9osin-4agant rifles% Photogra)he *y &&gt% John Ca*yaF, Jr%, .&9,% (Official @/+/ 0arine Cor$s 7hotogra$h4 from the collections of the %a)al !istorical Center/ )

A marine tank s0 orts So0th Gorean soldiers 10ardin1 &orth Gorean .omm0nist risoners -a t0red in the assa0lt on Seo0l on Se tem!er ":( $9E#. ,Photo: U.S. ?arine .or sK&ational Ar-hives2

?arine Pvt. $st .lass L0ther Le10ire raises U.S. )la1 at Ameri-an .ons0late in Seo0l( Gorea on Se tem!er "=( $9E# 4hile fi1htin1 for the -ity ra1ed aro0nd the -om o0nd. S1t. 8ohn Ba!yak( 8r. ,?arine .or s2

A (ere!ony is hel restoring the 'e)u*li( of Korea ('7K) go6ern!ent in &eoul on &e)te!*er "9, 195<% /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur, the (o!!an er of .4 for(es in Korea, is seen stan ing to the right the )o iu! +hile Presi ent of Korea &yng!an 'hee is seen stan ing to the left% &tan ing *ehin 9a(Arthur, +earing a *o+ tie, is A!*assa or John J% 9u((io, the A!eri(an A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea% (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

.%&% Ar!y /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur is(usses the !ilitary situation +ith .%&% A!*assa or to &outh Korea John J% 9u((io at the 'e)u*li( of Korea ('7K) Ar!y hea Muarters outsi e &eoul on June "9, 195<% (4ational Ar(hi6es)

Gorean 4omen and -hildren sear-h the r0!!le of Seo0l( Gorea on &ovem!er $( $9E# for anythin1 that -an !e 0sed or !0rned as f0el. ,Photo !y .a tain ). L. S-hei!er( U.S. ArmyK&ational Ar-hives2 htt :KK444.fli-kr.-omK hotosK in1ne4sK$<:$$"$#'#K

)o0r LSTs 0nload on the !ea-h at 5n-hon as marines 1ather e60i ment to move ra idly inland on Se tem!er $E( $9E#. Landin1 shi s 4ere st0-k in the dee m0d flats !et4een one hi1h tide and the ne>t. ,U.S. &avy hoto2

A!eri(an sol iers of the .%&% Ar!y 1st ,a6alry $i6ision fire into a tunnel +ith their 75-!! rifles after the 4orth Korean ar!y ignore a surren er ulti!atu! uring a *attle in northern Korea in 7(to*er 195<% (Photo8 HanF WalFerETi!e 0ife)

When .4 for(es (a)ture Pyongyang, the 4orth Korean (a)ital, uring the thir +eeF of 7(to*er 195<, they foun the (a)itol *uil ing hea6ily (a!ouflage % (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

John J% 9u((io (right), the .%&% A!*assa or to &outh Korea, a))ears +ith Presi ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea &yng!an 'hee%

A!eri(an ar!y sol iers for(e sur6i6ing sol iers of the 4orth Korean ar!y to surren er uring a )atrol in northern Korea on 4o6e!*er 1=, 195<% (Photo8 HanF WalFerETi!e 0ife) >The 4orth Korean sol ier !ust not *e un eresti!ate % He is a tough o))onent, +ell-le , (o!*ines the infiltration ta(ti( of the Ja)anese +ith the tanF ta(ti(s of the 'ussian of Worl War --% He is a*le to !ar(h an !aneu6er an to atta(F at night +ith (ohesionO? D .%&% Ar!y /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur, July 195<

U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r ins e-ts the 4re-ka1e of a R0ssian%made &GPA tank near the 5n-hon !attlefield in Se tem!er $9E#. ,&ational Ar-hives2

?arines move aro0nd &orth Gorean T7' tanks kno-ked o0t in P0san Perimeter !attle in the late s0mmer of $9E#. A dead &orth Gorean soldier lies on the tank in the fore1ro0nd. ,U.S. ?arine .or s hoto2

)i1htin1 4ith the "nd 5nfantry *ivision north of the .hon1-hon River( Ser1eant )irst .lass ?aFor .leveland ,left2( 4ea ons s60ad leader( oints o0t .omm0nist%led &orth Gorean osition to his ma-hine 10n -re4 on &ovem!er "#( $9E#. The U.S. Army 4as dese1re1ated ,ra-ially inte1rated2 !y the !e1innin1 of the Gorean War. ,Photo: U.S. &ational Ar-hives and Re-ords Administration2 htt :KK444.army.milK%ima1esK"##<K#=K"'K$9<<=K

At the !e1innin1 of the Gorean War( U.S. ?arines -over a 4o0nded &orth Gorean soldier as he hoists himself on to a stret-her( in the &akton1 River se-tor of the Gorean front( in $9E#. ,.ORB5S2

&orth Gorean risoners( taken !y the U.S. ?arines in a foothills fi1ht( mar-h sin1le file a-ross a ri-e addy in $9E#. ,U.S. ?arine .or sK&ARA )5LE X: $"=%&%A7"'"2 htt :KK444.fli-kr.-omK hotosKim-omkoreaK"9$9EE'":=KinKset%="$E=:#=<#<'$'""EK

>The )re6alen(e of guerrillas in the &outh !eant that A!eri(ans foun the!sel6es in a ne+ Fin of +ar -n Korea, -n +hi(h the ene!y an )eo)le *e(a!e in istinguisha*le% A Peo)leHs Ar!y sol ier !ight off unifor! for the (hara(teristi( +hite rai!ent of the )easantry an sol6e into the !assA so!eoneHs gran !other or a ten-year ol Fi )ull a gun fro! a *un le an Fill you% The result +as a 6ery irty +ar% The a6erage /%-% arri6e in Korea +ith the *arest Fno+le ge of +here he +as, +ho he +as fighting, an +hyA he +as thro+n into *attle in the stea!ing hu!i ity, freMuent rain sMualls an !u y terrain of !i su!!erA he slogge through ri(e )a ies fertili1e +ith hu!an +aste, so!ething (o!!on in )easant so(ieties *ut o6er+hel!ing at the first s(entA if he slaFe his thirst +ith )a y +ater he got a!oe*i( ysentery% -n this .4 >)oli(e a(tion? he fa(e an ene!y +ho fought a total +ar, using e6ery resour(e to turn Korean +eaFness into strength% &o!eti!es this !eant using little Fi s to ferry a!!unitionA so!eti!es it !eant ri6ing +ee)ing refugees into A!eri(an lines to (o6er an infantry assault% The a6erage /%-% also (a!e fro! an A!eri(an so(iety +here )eo)le of (olor +ere su*Kugate an segregate , an +here the highest la+ offi(er in the lan , Attorney /eneral 9(/rath, ha (alle (o!!unists Iro ents%I -t thus i not taFe long for sol iers to *elie6e that Koreans +ere su*hu!an, an a(t a((or ingly% This ele!ent of the Korean War has *een lost fro! the (olle(ti6e !e!ory, as if Tietna! +ere the only inter6ention +here >9ylais? o((urre % Cut in 195<, the )eo)le in >+hite )aKa!as? an +hat they )ro6oFe in A!eri(ans +as as a((essi*le as the neigh*orhoo *ar*ersho) rea ing ta*le% 9ilitary historian Walter Karig, +riting in Collier's4 liFene the fighting to Ithe ays of -n ian +arfareI (a (o!!on analogy)A he thought Korea !ight *e liFe &)ain-a testing groun for a ne+ ty)e of (onfli(t, +hi(h !ight *e foun later in )la(es liFe -n o(hina an the 9i le 3ast% I7ur 'e foe s(orns all rules of (i6ili1e +arfare,I Karig +rote, Ihi :ing; *ehin +o!enHs sFirts%?? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% #9<-#91

United &ations for-es 4ithdra4 from Pyon1yan1( the &orth Gorean -a ital( and re-rossed the 7<th arallel in $9E#. ,Photo: US5AK&ARA )5LE X: 7#:%)S%"E9%"$2

So0th Gorean army troo s shoot oliti-al risoners and s0s e-ted .omm0nist a1ents near *ae10( So0th Gorea d0rin1 the Gorean War. ,APKU.S. Army2 htt :KK444.-hina ost.-om.t4KasiaKkoreaK"##<K#=K#:K$:'$<"K)amilies%re-o0nt.htm

Atta#)s on (alu $i&er Erid es, 'o&em!er -.01. Yalu 'i6er *ri ges at &inuiKu, 4orth Korea, un er atta(F *y )lanes fro! .&& 8e(te (,T-@")% Three s)ans ha6e *een ro))e on the high+ay *ri ge, *ut the rail+ay *ri ge (lo+er *ri ge) a))ears to *e inta(t% The 9an(hurian (ity of Antung is a(ross the ri6er, in u))er right% Photogra)h is ate 1= 4o6e!*er 195<, *ut !ay ha6e *een taFen on 14 4o6e!*er% (Official @/+/ %a)( 7hotogra$h4 no" in the collections of the %ational 6rchi)es/ ) htt)8EE+++%history%na6y%!ilE)hotosEe6entsEFo+arE5<-unofEun-"a%ht!

A for!er >To) &e(ret? o(u!ent ate 4o6e!*er #, 195< regar ing the *o!*ing of the &inuiKu-Antung Cri ge o6er the Yalu 'i6er%

The 2irst 9arine $i6ision *egins their >a 6an(e in another ire(tion? fro! the ,hosin 'eser6oir in northern Korea in $e(e!*er 195<% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%!iJe !artialarts%(o!E!!a%(f!NgoRforu!%)ostsSforu!R"Sthrea R"<51<"#S)ageR11)

.hinese .omm0nist +eneral Lin Piao ,left2 and U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r ,ri1ht2

>- ne6er +oul ha6e !a e the atta(F an risFe !y !en an !y !ilitary re)utation if - ha not *een assure that Washington +oul restrain /eneral 9a(Arthur fro! taFing a eMuate retaliatory !easures against !y lines of su))ly an (o!!uni(ation%? D /en% 0in Piao

These are so!e of the @=5 a*le-*o ie sur6i6ors of the ",5<< ar!y 7th $i6ision !en (aught in a series of ,hinese a!*ushes along the eastern shore of the ,hangKin (,hosin) reser6oir in late 4o6e!*er 195<% (.%&% 9arine ,or)s )hoto%)

?arine .orsairs have F0st str0-k .hinese ositions in the .han1Fin ,.hosin2 reservoir area of northeast Gorea 4ith Fellied 1asoline na alm. .lose air s0 ort 4as a key to the s0--essf0l retreat to the sea in *e-em!er $9E#. ,U.S. ?arine .or s hoto2 htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm

A!eri(an for(es target rail (ars south of Wonsan, 4orth Korea, an east (oast )ort (ity, uring the Korean War% (.%&% Ar!y 9ilitary History -nstitute)

A!eri(an sol iers esta*lish their )osition a*o6e a rail+ay tunnel +ith a %@< (ali*er air-(oole !a(hine gun uring the Korean War% (.nite &tates Ar!y)

A!eri(an !arines of the .%&% 1st 9arine $i6ision (a)ture ,hinese ,o!!unists uring fighting on the (entral Korean front near Hoengsong, Korea on 9ar(h ", 1951% (Photo8 Pf(% ,%T% WehnerE9arine ,or)sE4ational Ar(hi6es)

U.S. Army soldiers of the U.S. ArmyLs Se-ond I5nfantryJ *ivision move 0 to the front ast a si1n 4arnin1 them to kee on the road as the fields are mined !y the Allies in Gorea on ?ay "#( $9E$. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

As the Gorean War 4ent on( Ameri-an air o4er methodi-ally demolished virt0ally everythin1 in &orth Gorea havin1 any military si1nifi-an-e 4hatsoever. Here s0 ly 4areho0ses at the east%-oast ort of Wonsan ,&orth Gorea2 are !om!ed in 80ly $9E$. ,Photo: htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm2

A )ifth Air )or-e )%E$ ?0stan1 dro s na alm Fellied 1asoline tanks on an ind0strial tar1et in &orth Gorea in A010st $9E$. ,U.S. Air )or-e hoto2 htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm

A marine )'U .orsair 0lls 0 from a !om!in1 r0n on a .hinese%held hill in 4estern Gorea in O-to!er $9E". ,U.S. &avy hoto2 htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm

A!eri(an ar!y sol iers of the "5th -nfantry $i6ision a 6an(e in (entral Korea in late 9ar(h 1951% (.%&% Ar!y )hoto)

B$e%u!li# o" Korea Army is 7rained in ?.S. Army StyleB I9aKor Harry W% Hoff!an %%%, Wea)ons A 6isor for the -nfantry &(hool, +at(hes target )ra(ti(e on a Fno+n istan(e rifle range%I (Luote fro! the original (a)tion) Photogra)h is ate 9 2e*ruary 195"% The '7K sol iers are firing 91 I/aran I rifles% 4ote 9aKor Hoff!anHs Korean 9ilitary A 6isory /rou) shoul er )at(h an e!*le!s )ainte on the Korean troo)sH hel!ets% (Official @/+/ 6rm( 7hotogra$h4 from the A6ll !an#sA collection at the %a)al !istorical Center/ ) htt)8EE+++%history%na6y%!ilE)hotosEe6entsEFo+arEun-roFEroF-tng%ht!

An Ameri-an Army soldier 10ards a 1ro0 of &orth Gorean risoners of 4ar on 80ly $#( $9E# !efore they are interro1ated at the "$st 5nfantry Re1imentLs -ommand ost( so0th of .hon0i. ,Photo: U.S. Army. So0r-e: &ational Ar-hives .entral Plains Re1ion2 htt :KK444.tr0manli!rary.or1KkoreaK hotosKnr#=$#V#.htm

A risoner of 4ar -am in So0th Gorea d0rin1 the Gorean War ,U.S. Army hoto2

.ha lain Genny Lyn-h -ond0-ts servi-es north of H4a-hon( Gorea( for men of the 7$st Re1iment on A010st "<( $9E$. ,Photo: Pvt. 8a-k *. 8ohnsonKU.S. ArmyK&ational Ar-hivesK&ARA )5LE X $$$%S.%7=<9$=2 htt :KK444.fli-kr.-omK hotosKim-omkoreaK"9$9E7=:<7KinKset%="$E=:#=<#<'$'""EK

/ie4 of )%<: air lanes on the fli1ht line 1ettin1 ready for -om!at in Gorea in 80ne $9E$. ,U.S. Air )or-eKUS5AK&ARA )5LE X: 7#:%PS%E$%9=:#2 htt :KK444.fli-kr.-omK hotosKim-omkoreaK"9$9E#$=E7KinKset%="$E=:#=<#<'$'""EK

+eneral of the Army *o01las ?a-Arth0r 1reets 8ohn )oster *0lles( .ons0ltant to the State *e artment( at the Haneda Air )or-e Base in Tokyo( 8a an on 80ne "$( $9E#. *0lles( on a )ar East fa-t%findin1 mission( had F0st left Gorea and 4as in Tokyo 4hen the first re orts of the invasion arrived. 8ohn )oster *0lles 4as a mem!er of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations. ,Photo1ra h: U.S. Army( .or oral *an1elKSo0r-e: Tr0man Li!rary2

Averell Harriman visits U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r ,left2 in Tokyo( 8a an some time after World War 55. ,Photo: S'ecial (nvoy to )hurchill and Stalin, *+,*"*+,- !y W. Averell Harriman and Elie A!el2

Averell Harriman visits U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r

+eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r 1reets Assistant U.S. Se-retary of War 8ohn ?-.loy ,ri1ht2 and Lie0tenant +eneral Ro!ert L. Ei-hel!er1er ,-enter2 in 8a an in $9'E. ,Photo !y H0lton Ar-hiveK+etty 5ma1es2

Presi ent Harry Tru!an returns fro! the WaFe -slan ,onferen(e +ith /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur an A !iral 'a for in 7(to*er 195<% 0eft to right8 Presi ential a 6isor A6erell Harri!anA &e(retary of $efense /eorge ,% 9arshallA &e(retary of &tate $ean A(hesonA A!*assa or at 0arge Philli) ,% Jessu)A &e(retary of the Treasury John &ny erA &e(retary of the Ar!y 2ranF Pa(eA ,hair!an of the Joint ,hiefs of &taff /en% 7!ar Cra ley% Harri!an, A(heson, Jessu), an Pa(e +ere !e!*ers of the ,oun(il on 2oreign 'elations% (Photo8 Harry Tru!an Presi ential 0i*rary an 9useu!)

.hinese .omm0nists -arry osters 4ith i-t0res of Soviet R0ssiaLs .omm0nist leader 8ose h Stalin as they -ele!rate the se-ond anniversary of the esta!lishment of the .omm0nist re1ime in mainland .hina on O-to!er $( $9E$. ,W .ORB5S2

President Harry S. Tr0man ret0rned to Washin1ton( *... on O-to!er $<( $9E# after his Pa-ifi- .onferen-e 4ith U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r. Left to ri1ht: W. Averell Harriman( S e-ial Assistant to the President3 Se-retary of *efense +eor1e .. ?arshall3 President Tr0man3 and Se-retary of State *ean A-heson. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

>7n a Muiet &atur ay night on the Muietest +eeFen in June 195<, $ean A(heson ha re)aire :si(; to his &an y &)ring far! in 9arylan after Ione of his routine late nights at the &tate $e)art!ent%I At 98"# P%9% that e6ening, June "4, John 9u((ioBs first (a*le arri6e A +ithin an hour $ean 'usF +as at the &tate $e)art!ent% John Hi(Ferson )hone A(heson i!!e iately, +ho tol hi! Ito taFe the ste)s +hi(h +ere ne(essaryI to ha6e the &e(urity ,oun(il !eet the neJt ay% At 118@< P%9% Hi(Ferson !a e this reMuest to Tryg6e 0ie% The e(ision +as, as 'usF loner a(Fno+le ge , *ase on this first telegra! fro! &eoul% A#heson and $us) were &irtually the only hi h o""i#ials in Washin ton at the time. 7ruman had le"t "or Fnde%enden#e that mornin , and %aid a Juiet &isit to his !rother@s "arm on Sunday !e"ore returnin to Washin ton. Fn su##eedin days, A#heson dominated the de#ision2ma)in whi#h soon #ommitted Ameri#an air and round "or#es to the "i ht. A#heson <alon with $us)= made the de#ision to ta)e the Korean Juestion to the ?', !e"ore he had noti"ied 7ruman o" the "i htin C he then told 7ruman there was no need to ha&e him !a#) in Washin ton until the neAt day. At the Clair House !eetings on the e6ening of June "E A(heson argue for in(rease !ilitary ai to the 'e)u*li( of Korea ('7K), A!eri(an air (o6er for the e6a(uation, an the inter)osition of the 7th fleet *et+een Tai+an an the !ainlan A on the afternoon of June "# A(heson la*ore alone on the fun a!ental e(isions (o!!itting A!eri(an air an na6al )o+er to the Korean War, a))ro6e that e6ening at Clair House% Thus the e(ision to inter6ene +as A(hesonHs e(ision, su))orte *y the )resi ent *ut taFen *efore .nite 4ations, Pentagon, or ,ongressional a))ro6al%H /eorge Kennan, +ho su))orte the June e(isions, re(alle fro! taFen at the ti!e that A(heson *roFe off (ollegial is(ussions on afternoon of June "#O? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% #"5

>The only reason - tol the Presi ent to fight in Korea +as to 6ali ate 4AT7%? D $ean A(heson

Presi ent Harry &% Tru!an (right) )resents the .%&% 9e al of 9erit to John J% 9u((io ((enter), .nite &tates A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea, at WaFe -slan on 14 7(to*er 195<% /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur is on the left% (Photo8 .%&% &tate $e)art!ent)

President Harry S. Tr0man and +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r meet for the first time on Wake 5sland on O-to!er $'( $9E#. ,So0r-e: Harry S. Tr0man Presidential Li!rary2

U.S. Army +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r( former -ommander of Allied for-es( first in World War 55 and then in Gorea( 1ives his fare4ell address !efore the U.S. Senate on A ril $9( $9E$. President Harry S. Tr0man relieved +eneral ?a-Arth0r of his -ommand over differen-es in o inion on strate1y in Gorea. ,W .ORB5S2

>-n +ar there is no su*stitute for 6i(tory% There are so!e +ho for 6arying reasons +oul a))ease 'e ,hina% They are *lin to historyHs (lear lesson, for history tea(hes +ith un!istaFa*le e!)hasis that a))ease!ent *ut *egets ne+ an *loo ier +ar% -t )oints to no single instan(e +here this en has Kustifie that !eans, +here a))ease!ent ha le to !ore than a sha! )ea(e% 0iFe *la(F!ail, it lays the *asis for ne+ an su((essi6ely greater e!an s until, as in *la(F!ail, 6iolen(e *e(o!es the only alternati6e%? D .%&% Ar!y /eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur, on A)ril 19, 1951 in his fare+ell a ress to ,ongress

/eneral $ouglas 9a(Arthur re(ei6es a heroBs +el(o!e in 4e+ YorF ,ity on A)ril "<, 1951, after he +as relie6e of his (o!!an in Korea *y Presi ent Harry &% Tru!an% An esti!ate 7 !illion )eo)le turne out in 4e+ YorF ,ity to (heer hi!% (Cett!annE,or*is)

Left to ri1ht: +eneral ?atthe4 B. Rid14ay ,left2( +eneral 8ames A. /an )leet ,-enter2( and ?aFor +eneral Lyman L. LemnitHer ,later +eneral2 a ear in Gorea in 8an0ary $9E". +eneral Lyman L. LemnitHer 4as a mem!er of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations( an internationalist or1aniHation in &e4 ;ork .ity( from $9': to $9<=3 +eneral ?atthe4 B. Rid14ay 4as a mem!er of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations from $9E' to $9=7.

Se-retary of *efense Ro!ert Lovett ,left2( Se-retary of the Army )rank Pa-e 8r. ,se-ond from ri1ht2( and S0 reme Allied .ommander of E0ro e ,&ATO2 +en. *4i1ht Eisenho4er ,ri1ht2 listen to President Harry Tr0man in 80ne $9E". Eisenho4er 4as a mem!er of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations in $9E". ,So0r-e: Ike *.+/"*++/: $ Pictorial History 0)ommemorative (dition1 !y *o01las Ginnard2

.omm0nist .hinese Premier .ho0 Enlai re-eives ?adame /iFayalakshmi Pandit( 4ith an 5ndian -0lt0ral dele1ation( and G.?. Panikkar( the 5ndian Am!assador to Pekin1. ,East hoto2 htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm

,-A $ire(tor Walter Ce ell &!ith (right) 6isits .%&% Ar!y /en% ,harles Willough*y (left) an /en% 9atthe+ 'i g+ay ((enter) in &outh Korea uring the Korean War% Walter Eedell Smith ser&ed as Dire#tor o" the Central Fntelli en#e A en#y "rom 8#to!er >, -.01 until Fe!ruary ., -.0D. (Photo8 The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<))

Korean War Armisti/e Negotiations

,o!!unist ,hinese an 4orth Korean elegates lea6e the (onferen(e roo! for inner uring ar!isti(e talFs at Kaesong, Korea in 1951% 7he armisti#e #on"eren#e was held initially at Kaeson and later at Panmun6om. (Photo8 .%&% $e)art!ent of $efenseE4ational Ar(hi6es) htt)8EE(o!!ons%+iFi!e ia%orgE+iFiE2ile8KoreanGWarGPea(eGtalFs%GKaesong,GKoreaG-G4A'AG-G"9"#"1%K)g

The Kaesong Ar!isti(e ,onferen(e &ite uring the Korean War

5n the atio of the main -onferen-e !0ildin1 at Gaeson1( Gorea( the United &ations dele1ation at the -ease%fire talks ose for i-t0res !y -ameramen and hoto1ra hers re resentin1 friendly and enemy for-es on A010st $7( $9E$. Left to ri1ht: ?aFor +en. Henry 5. Hodes ,<th.Army23 ?aFor +en. L... .rai1ie ,USA)23 /i-e Admiral .. T0rner 8oy ,US&2 the -hief dele1ate3 ?aFor +eneral Paik S0n ;0 of the Re 0!li- of Gorea Army and Rear Admiral Arlei1h A. B0rke ,US&2. ,W H0lton%*e0ts-h .olle-tionK.ORB5S2

.nite 4ationsB elegates stan *y a .%&% Air 2or(e H-5 heli(o)ter +ith .%&% Ar!y /eneral 9atthe+ C% 'i g+ay, ,o!!an er in ,hief of .nite 4ations ,o!!an , )rior to taFe off for the initial Ar!isti(e talFs !eeting on July 1<, 1951% They are (fro! left to right)8 'ear A !iral Arleigh A% CurFe, .&4A 9aKor /eneral 0auren(e ,% ,ragie, .%&% Air 2or(eA 9aKor /eneral PaiF &un Yu), 'e)u*li( of Korea Ar!yA Ti(e A !iral ,% Turner Joy, .&4, ,hief $elegateA /eneral 'i g+ay, an 9aKor Henry -% Ho es, .%&% Ar!y% The Ar!isti(e negotiations *egan at Kaesong, Korea on July 1<, 1951% (7ffi(ial .%&% 4a6y Photogra)hE4ational Ar(hi6es) htt)8EE+++%history%na6y%!ilE)hotosE)ers-usEus)ers-KE(t-Koy%ht!

4orth Korean Ar!y offi(ers (left) an A!eri(an !ilitary re)resentati6es (right) re6ie+ !a)s efining the future $e!ilitari1e Pone ($9P) at Pan!unKo!, 7(to*er 1951% (.%&% Air 2or(e )hoto) htt)8EE+++%e +ar s%af%!ilE)hotosE!e iagallery%as)Ngallery-$R5"9S)ageR@1

A !eri(an !ilitary offi(ers an a &outh Korean ar!y offi(er atten the Korean War Ar!isti(e 4egotiations at Pan!unKo!, Korea on 4o6e!*er @<, 1951% They are (fro! left to right)8 9aKor /eneral Ho+ar Turner, .&A2A 9aKor /eneral 0ee, 'e)u*li( of Korea Ar!yA Ti(e A !iral ,% Turner Joy, .&4, &enior $elegateA 'ear A !iral 'uth6en 3% 0i**y, .&4A 9aKor /eneral Henry -% Ho es, .%&% Ar!y, an 'ear A !iral Arleigh A% CurFe, .&4 'A !% 0i**y +as 'A !% CurFeHs relief on the elegation% (Official @/+/ %a)( 7hotogra$h4 no" in the collections of the %ational 6rchi)es/ )

.%4% ,o!!an &enior $elegate .%&% 4a6y Ti(e A !iral ,% Turner Joy gi6es (orres)on ents a re)ort follo+ing a (onferen(e session at Pan!unKo! on 1< 9ay 195"% 7n this ate the ,o!!unist )risoners of +ar at KoKe- o +ere hol ing as their (a)ti6e Criga ier /eneral 2ran(is $o , +ho +as the P7W (a!) (o!!an ant at the ti!e of his (a)ture on 7 9ay% (7ffi(ial .%&% 4a6y Photogra)h, no+ in the (olle(tions of the 4ational Ar(hi6es) htt)8EE+++%history%na6y%!ilE)hotosE)ers-usEus)ers-KE(t-Koy%ht!

.omm0nist .hinese and &orth Gorean dele1ates leave the -onferen-e area at Panm0nFom( Gorea( -ir-a early $9E". These offi-ers a ear to !e .omm0nist .hinese Peo leLs Li!eration Army ?aFor +eneral Hsieh )an1 and &orth Gorean Army ?aFor +eneral Lee San1 .ho. &ote &orth Gorean Army 10ards( 4earin1 60ilted 4inter 0niforms and armed 4ith R0ssian ?$<9$ ?osin%&a1ant !olt%a-tion rifles. ,Offi-ial U.S. &avy Photo1ra h2

Ameri-an soldiers interro1ate -a t0red Goreans d0rin1 the Gorean War. Some of the -a t0red Gorean men 4ere -ivilians 4hile some of the -a t0red Gorean men 4ere enemy soldiers in dis10ise.

9ilitary Poli(e offi(ers of the .nite &tates Ar!y )atrol the &outh 0i!it of the Korean $e-9ilitari1e Pone ($9P) uring the Korean War% (Photo8 'ene 4oor*ergen E ,a!era Press 0on on PiJ -n(%)

A!eri(an an &outh Korean offi(ials !eet at &outh KoreaBs Presi ent &yng!an 'heeBs resi en(e in &eoul, Korea on June 1@, 195@, only ays *efore 'heeBs release of ,o!!unist )risoners threatene an early ar!isti(e% 0eft to right8 .%&% 4a6y A !iral Arthur 'a for , ,hair!an- esignate of the Joint ,hiefs of &taffA Presi ent 'heeA .%&% A!*assa or to &outh Korea 3llis 7% CriggsA 2oreign 9inister of &outh Korea Pyun Tung TaiA .%&% Ar!y 0ieutenant /eneral 9aJ+ell $% Taylor, ,o!!an er of the 3ighth Ar!y% ?.S. Army Lieutenant General GaAwell D. 7aylor was a mem!er o" the Coun#il on Forei n $elations, a %ri&ate or anization in 'ew (or) City, in -.0D. (Photo8 Rethin&ing the Korean War: 6 %e" 3i$lomatic an# +trategic !istor( *y Willia! &tue(F)

U.S. Am!assador to So0th Gorea Ellis O. Bri11s ,-enter2 talks 4ith Ameri-an ea-e ne1otiator Arth0r H. *ean ,-enter( ri1ht2 !efore takin1 art in the Pea-e &e1otiations at Panm0nFom( Gorea in O-to!er $9E7. Both men 4ere mem!ers of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations. &rthur ,. Dean was a .e.ber of the #ouncil on Foreign Relations in 4569. ,Photo: 8ose h S-hers-helKTime Life2

.hinese .omm0nist -ommander Pen1 *eh0ai si1ns the Gorean War armisti-e at Gaeson1( Gorea( a -ity near the *e%?ilitariHed None. ,East hoto2 htt :KK444.!evinale>ander.-omKkoreaKkorean%4ar% hotos.htm

The ar!isti(e is signe on July "7, 195@% .%&% Ar!y /en% W%K% Harrison (left ta*le) an 4orth Korean /eneral 4a! -l (right ta*le) sign o(u!ents% /eneral 4a! -l ser6e as 2oreign 9inister of 4orth Korea fro! 195@ to 19#7% /eneral 4a! -l +as Fille in a strange (ar a((i ent in Pyongyang in 197#% (.%&% Air 2or(e )hoto) htt)8EE+++%e +ar s%af%!ilE)hotosE!e iagallery%as)Ngallery-$R5"9S)ageR@<

+eneral &am 5l of &orth Gorea a

ears at the Tr0-e .onferen-e site in Panm0nFom( So0th Gorea in A ril $9E7. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

.%&% Ar!y /eneral 9arF W% ,larF, 2ar 3ast (o!!an er, signs the Korean ar!isti(e agree!ent on July "7, 195@, after t+o years of negotiation, uring +hi(h hun re s of thousan s of !en +ere Fille an +oun e in (ontinue hostilities% (.%&% 4a6y )hoto) htt)8EE+++%*e6inaleJan er%(o!EForeaEForean-+ar-)hotos%ht!

4orth KoreaBs Pre!ier Ki! -l &ung (left) )re)ares to sign ar!isti(e that is han e to hi! *y /eneral 4a! -l, hea of the (o!!unist elegation at Pan!unKo!, on July "7, 195@% (3ast)hoto) htt)8EE+++%*e6inaleJan er%(o!EForeaEForean-+ar-)hotos%ht!

A for!er 4orth Korean sol ier shouts for Koy u)on rea(hing &eoul, &outh Korea, an free o!% 9any 4orth Korean an ,hinese P7Ws renoun(e (o!!unis! an (hose to *e release to ne+ li6es in &outh Korea an Tai+an% (.%&% Air 2or(e )hoto) htt)8EE+++%e +ar s%af%!ilE)hotosE!e iagallery%as)Ngallery-$R5"9S)ageR@1

U.S. Army +en. *o01las ?a-Arth0r ,left2 visits +eneralissimo .hian1 Gai%shek ,ri1ht2( President of the Re 0!li- of .hina( in Tai ei on 80ly 7$( $9E#. +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r and his ento0ra1e traveled to Tai ei 4itho0t notifyin1 the Tr0man administration or the U.S. State *e artment. +eneral *o01las ?a-Arth0r 4as ordered not to atta-k the &orth Gorean -omm0nist army and the .hinese .omm0nist army that 4ere stationed on the .omm0nist .hinese side of the ;al0 River. U.S. President Harry S. Tr0man de loyed the U.S. Seventh )leet to the Tai4an Straits d0rin1 the Gorean War to kee the B ea-eC and restrain !oth the .hinese &ationalists and the .hinese .omm0nists.

.a tion: B)o0rteen tho0sand former .omm0nists defied ?aoLs !rain4ashers and -hose freedom in Tai4an at the end of the Gorean War.C

,hinese )risoners of +ar in Korea ri e in the *a(F of a .%&% Ar!y tru(F as they (arry the flag of the 'e)u*li( of ,hina an a )ortrait of 'e)u*li( of ,hinaBs Presi ent /eneralissi!o ,hiang Kai-sheF enroute to the islan of Tai+an% 9any ,hinese )risoners of +ar (hose to relo(ate to the islan of Tai+an rather than return to ,o!!unist-rule !ainlan ,hina%

Anti%-omm0nist .hinese risoners%of%4ar of the Gorean War mar-h alon1 a road to 5n-hon( So0th Gorea on 8an0ary ":( $9E'( 4here they 4ere trans orted to Tai4an( the offshore island 1overned !y the Re 0!li- of .hina. They -arried &ationalist .hinese fla1s and i-t0res of *r. S0n ;at%sen and +eneralissimo .hian1 Gai%shek. ,Photo: W H0lton%*e0ts-h .olle-tionK.ORB5S2

'e(ently release ,hinese )risoners-of-+ar (P7Ws) (arrying the flags of the 'e)u*li( of ,hina (Tai+an) *oar a .nite &tates Air 2or(e (.&A2) trans)ort in January 1954 for the flight to Tai+an an free o! after renoun(ing (o!!unis!% Those (o!!unist P7Ws +ho returne to ,o!!unist ,hina an 4orth Korea fa(e un(ertain futures D they +ere regar e as traitors for *eing (a)ture % (.%&% Air 2or(e )hoto) htt)8EE+++%e +ar s%af%!ilE)hotosE!e iagallery%as)Ngallery-$R5"9S)ageR@1

Presi ent of &outh Korea &yng!an 'hee ((enter) 6isits /eneralissi!o ,hiang Kai-sheF (left) at an air)ort in Tai)ei, Tai+an, 'e)u*li( of ,hina on 4o6e!*er "7, 195@%

Korean War8 7rgani1e ,ri!eN


Korean War8 -n Their 7+n Wor s
>WA' is a ra(Fet% -t al+ays has *een% -t is )ossi*ly the ol est, easily the !ost )rofita*le, surely the !ost 6i(ious% -t is the only one international in s(o)e% -t is the only one in +hi(h the )rofits are re(Fone in ollars an the losses in li6es% A ra(Fet is *est es(ri*e , - *elie6e, as so!ething that is not +hat it see!s to the !aKority of the )eo)le% 7nly a s!all >insi e? grou) Fno+s +hat it is a*out% -t is (on u(te for the *enefit of the 6ery fe+, at the eJ)ense of the 6ery !any% 7ut of +ar a fe+ )eo)le !aFe huge fortunes%? D &!e ley $% Cutler, 'etire 9aKor /eneral of the .%&% 9arine ,or)s, War is a Rac&et

/en% &!e ley $% Cutler >Why, of (ourse the )eo)le onBt +ant +ar% Why +oul so!e )oor slo* on a far! +ant to risF his life in a +ar +hen the *est that he (an get out of it is to (o!e *a(F to his far! in one )ie(eN 4aturally, the (o!!on )eo)le onBt +ant +arA neither in 'ussia nor in 3nglan , nor in A!eri(a, nor for that !atter in /er!any% That is un erstoo % Cut, after all, it is the lea ers of the (ountry +ho eter!ine the )oli(y an it is al+ays a si!)le !atter to rag the )eo)le along +hether itHs a e!o(ra(y, a fas(ist i(tatorshi), a )arlia!ent, or a (o!!unist i(tatorshi)% O*ut 6oi(e or no 6oi(e, the )eo)le (an al+ays *e *rought to the *i ing of the lea ers% That is easy% All you ha6e to o is tell the! they are *eing atta(Fe , an enoun(e the )a(ifists for la(F of )atriotis! an eJ)osing the (ountry to anger% -t +orFs the sa!e +ay in any (ountry%? D Her!ann /oering, in a (on6ersation +ith .%&% Ar!y ,a)tain /usta6e /il*ert in a )rison (ell uring the 4ure!*erg trials, on A)ril 1=, 194#% fro! %urem,erg 3iar(, *y /usta6e 9% /il*ert >Cut the safety of the )eo)le of A!eri(a against angers fro! foreign for(e e)en s not only on their for*earing to gi6e 1ust (auses of +ar to other nations, *ut also on their )la(ing an (ontinuing the!sel6es in su(h a situation as not to in)ite hostility or insultA for it nee not *e o*ser6e that there are $reten#e# as +ell as Kust (auses of +ar% -t is too true, ho+e6er isgra(eful it !ay *e to hu!an nature, that nations in general +ill !aFe +ar +hene6er they ha6e a )ros)e(t of getting anything *y itA nay, a*solute !onar(hs +ill often !aFe +ar +hen their nations are to get nothing *y it, *ut for the )ur)oses an o*Ke(ts !erely )ersonal, su(h as thirst for !ilitary glory, re6enge for )ersonal affronts, a!*ition, or )ri6ate (o!)a(ts to aggran i1e or su))ort their )arti(ular fa!ilies or )artisans% These an a 6ariety of other !oti6es, +hi(h affe(t only the !in of the so6ereign, often lea hi! to engage in +ars not san(tifie *y Kusti(e or the 6oi(e an interests of his )eo)le%? D John Jay, 2e#eralist 4o% 4 >7f all the ene!ies to )u*li( li*erty +ar is, )erha)s, the !ost to *e rea e , *e(ause it (o!)rises an e6elo)s the ger! of e6ery other% War is the )arent of ar!iesA fro! these )ro(ee e*ts an taJesA an ar!ies, an e*ts, an taJes are the Fno+n instru!ents for *ringing the !any un er the o!ination of the fe+% -n +ar, too, the is(retionary )o+er of the 3Je(uti6e is eJten e A its influen(e in ealing out offi(es, honors, an e!olu!ents is !ulti)lie A an all the !eans of se u(ing the !in s, are a e to those of su* uing the for(e, of the )eo)le% The sa!e !alignant as)e(t in re)u*li(anis! !ay *e tra(e in the ineMuality of fortunes, an the o))ortunities of frau , gro+ing out of a state of +ar, an in the egenera(y of !anners an of !orals engen ere *y *oth% 4o nation (oul )reser6e its free o! in the !i st of (ontinual +arfare%? D .%&% ,ongress!an Ja!es 9a ison, fro! 7olitical O,ser)ations, A)ril "<, 1795

Her!ann /oering

John Jay

Ja!es 9a ison

4Postwar5 Armisti#e N Godern Korea

9aKor /eneral Cla(Fshear 9% Cryan, .%&% Ar!y ("n fro! left), &enior 9e!*er of the 9ilitary Ar!isti(e ,o!!ission, .nite 4ationsH ,o!!an , eJ(hanges (re entials +ith 9aKor /eneral 0ee &ang ,ho, 4orth Korean Ar!y (@r fro! right), &enior ,o!!unist elegate, at the ,onferen(e Cuil ing at Pan!unKo!, Korea, "= July 195@% This +as the ay after the Korean War Ar!isti(e +ent into effe(t% (Photogra)h fro! the Ar!y &ignal ,or)s ,olle(tion in the .%&% 4ational Ar(hi6es) htt)8EE+++%history%na6y%!ilE)hotosEi!agesEs4<<<<<Es4"##=4(%ht!

Left to ri1ht: U.S. President *4i1ht *. Eisenho4er( U.S. Se-retary of State 8ohn )oster *0lles( )ren-h )orei1n ?inister +eor1es Bida0lt( and British envoy Lord Ro!ert .e-il Salis!0ry ,Ro!ert +as-oyne%.e-il( Eth ?ar60ess of Salis!0ry2( the Leader of the Ho0se of Lords ,$9'"%$9'E( $9E$%$9E=2( la01h to1ether d0rin1 the )orei1n ?inisters .onferen-e in Washin1ton( *... in 80ly $9E7. *4i1ht *. Eisenho4er and 8ohn )oster *0lles 4ere mem!ers of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations in $9E7. +he 3orean /ar ar.istice was established at the De.ilitari<ed Aone D*A' in !an.unBo., 3orea on ?uly CD, 4569. Over 77(:## Ameri-an soldiers died and over $#7("## Ameri-an soldiers 4ere 4o0nded d0rin1 the Gorean War. +he 0ureau of Internal Revenue was for.ally rena.ed Internal Revenue %ervice on ?uly 5, 4569. A--ordin1 to the .hinese -alendar( $9E7 4as kno4n as B;ear of the SnakeC. ,Photo: +eor1e Skaddin1 KTime Life2

>-f the Korean War *e(a!e a total +ar for Koreans, it +as for A!eri(ans a !o!ent in the !aFing an re!aFing of A!eri(an hege!onyA as A(heson sai , fro! this stan )oint it +as not a Korean War, it (oul ha6e ha))ene any+here% A#heson also !lurted out somethin else, in retros%e#ti&e seminars in -.0/ held to aid him in writin his memoirs and to #oo) Ga#Arthur@s oose: BKorea #ame alon and sa&ed us.B 7he re"eren#e is to 'SC ,I, the most im%ortant #old war do#ument o" our time, and to Korea as a ne#essary crisis that ena!led the enormous de"ense eA%enditures #alled "or in the do#ument. Gore enerally, Korea was a #risis ena!lin the se#ond reat wa&e o" Ameri#an state2!uildin in this #entury. 7he 'ew Deal was the "irst, and the 'ational Se#urity state was the se#ond, with its !ureau#ra#ies rowin eA%onentially "rom the early -.01s. The Korean War thus )ro)elle hege!ony out+ar , an state-!aFing in+ar % Cut this is no+ (o!!on)la(e in the literature, at least the (o!)etent literatureA Korea +as an instan(e in the !aFing of A!eri(an hege!ony% The stan ar argu!ent is that Korea o((asione the glo*ali1ation of (ontain!ent, stret(hing KennanHs li!ite (ontain!ent to 4it1e-$ulles unli!ite (o!!it!ents% Cut +e sai !aFing an rema&ing4 an Ire!aFingI oes is(o6er so!e ne+ history% 4&, #= also ha +ithin it not Kust a glo*ali1ation of (ontain!ent, *ut our iale(ti( *et+een (ontain!ent an roll*a(F% 4&, 4= signale the en of a thorough re6aluation of .nite &tates )oli(y to+ar Asia, to a((ount for the ,hinese re6olution an the in(i)ient rea))earan(e of Ja)anese in ustryA it ha the sa!e iale(ti( *et+een (ontain!ent an roll*a(F% -n late August, Tru!an an A(heson e(i e to !ar(h into 4orth Korea, thus gi6ing 9a(ArthurHs thrust its *roa *a(Fing in Washington% An unsta*le (o!)ro!ise on (ontain!ent fro! 1947 to 195<, la(Fing *i)artisanshi) on Asia *ut a*o6e all la(Fing the fun s to un er)in the ne+ hege!ony, +as *rought together 6ia the !ar(h 4orth D for a*out t+o !onths, fro! late August to late 7(to*er% 'oll*a(F !et a regrou)e Peo)leBs Ar!y an t+o hun re thousan ,hinese >6olunteers,? (ausing the greatest (risis in the )ost+ar )erio an li!iting a +ar that (oul not *e li!ite in Washington% -n the +inter of 195<, foreign )oli(y (entrists liFe A(heson an 4it1e is(o6ere *elate ly that (ontain!ent +as the )oli(y% ,entrist roll*a(F ha faile , *ut it +as *la!e on Asia-first roll*a(Fers% An so 9a(Arthur slo+ly fa e fro! the s(ene, *ut not +ithout so!e u)roarious )ulling an hauling in o!esti( A!eri(an )oliti(s, as the roll*a(F (onstituen(y fought *a(F against this re6ersal of (orre(t 6er i(ts% -n the interests of *i)artisan (onsensus a re6isionist history ha to e!erge8 9a(Arthur, the lone +olf, +oul *e *la!e for the roll*a(F failureA $ulles +oul !erge +ith the (o!forta*le *roa !i le, +hile using roll*a(F rhetori( to sate the outrage a))etites of the right-+ing% 9ost i!)ortant, the failure of Korean roll*a(F )ut e(isi6e outer li!its on >)ositi6e a(tion? for the neJt se6eral e(a es% ,ontain!ent +as the real 3isenho+er )oli(y, 6astly )refera*le to the (entrist elites then in (ontrol of foreign )oli(y% -t +as 2oster $ulles, )utati6e ar(hite(t of roll*a(F, +ho )la(e these li!its (follo+ing on the ,hinese, that is)% -n 195@, for eJa!)le, he suggeste the ulti!ate (i6il +ar eterrent8 )la(ing the A!eri(an ar!y s!a(F in front of the '7K Ar!y, if reMuire to Fee) the latter fro! !ar(hing northA an Kust liFe Tru!an an A(heson, $ulles learne that the .nite &tates (oul not (arry the +ar to ,hina, *ut !ust li!it it to the Korean )eninsula% 9ore illustrati6e, ho+e6er, +as the sear(h for a )la(e +here a !ini-roll*a(F !ight *e a((o!)lishe , its feasi*ility efine *y getting in an out uns(athe , an not )ro6oFing the ,hinese or the 'ussians% The )altry )la(e of (hoi(e for $ulles, +hi(h he *rought u) freMuently, +as Hainan -slan , off the &ino-Tietna!ese (oast% Cut of (ourse, it +as ne6er trie % 0iFe another roll*a(Fer, 'onal 'eagan at /rena a in 19=@, $ulles +as re u(e to an >islan ? strategy, an irony gi6en his )ur)orte o))osition to A(hesonHs islan )eri!eter% Well *efore the Hungarian re*ellion in 195# (usually thought to s)ell the en of his roll*a(F fantasies), $ulles (riti(i1e >)re6enti6e +ar? o(trines an roll*a(F8 trying to I eta(hI satellites fro! the .&&', he sai , >+oul in6ol6e the .& in general +ar%? &e(retary of the Treasury Hu!)hrey se(on e $ulles8 >an aggressi6e (ourse of a(tion to roll *a(F ,o!!unis!? +as outA it +as >not +orth the risFs it entails%? ,ontain!ent thus *e(a!e the )referre strategy, a syste! +ith histori(ally- forge *oun aries +ithin +hi(h (hoi(es +ere !a e, an it has *een the !o al )referen(e of e6ery a !inistration sin(e 195<% Kenne yBs un+illingness to follo+ through +ith a *ig in6asion at the Cay of Pigs eJ)resse the ifferen(e *et+een roll*a(F in ,u*a an Korea% 7he -.01 e%isode also eA%lains why there was no in&asion o" 'orth OietnamC the "ear o" %ro&o)in China animated national se#urity elites until 'iAon;s o%enin to Eei6in made it irrele&ant in -.>-. 4o A!eri(an a !inistration (oul risF *lo+ing itself a)art *y in6a ing 4orth Tietna! an getting another >glut of ,hina!en%? ,hina un erstoo that the +ars in Korea an Tietna! +ere )roJy +ars, +ith the ,hinese re6olution *eing the real issue% Through its *loo y sa(rifi(es in Korea an its eft eterren(e in Tietna!, ,hina )la(e efiniti6e li!its on A!eri(an eJ)ansionis! in these, its t+o !ost i!)ortant for!er tri*utary states% -n any (ase, the *oun aries on (ontain!ent eJ)lain the stale!ate (in ee , +hat $aniel 3lls*erg has (alle >the stale!ate !a(hine?) *et+een (onser6ati6es an li*erals o6er the Cay of Pigs in 19#1, the Tietna! War, an 4i(aragua throughout the 19=<s% We (an no+ un erstan ho+ the anti(o!!unist strategy of su((essi6e a !inistrations +as forge % Cut that oes not fully eJ)lain the re!aFing of A!eri(an hege!ony% Hege!ony i!)lies so!ething !ore than a strategy, !ore than a glo*al i6ision into s)heres of influen(e in real)olitiF ter!s% -t i!)lies a )oliti(al e(ono!y% -n its A!eri(an internationalist !o e, the essen(e of hege!ony +as to ra+ outer li!its e!ar(ating a gran area for free tra e an e(ono!i( gro+th% &u(h a syste! fa6ors the auto!ati(ity of e(ono!i( eJ(hange o6er the ne(essities of s)heres of influen(e or the use of !ilitary for(e% The lines for this in 3ast Asia +ere ra+n !ostly in 1947, +ith the re6erse (ourse in Ja)an an the >great (res(ent? in the rest of AsiaO? D The Origins of the Korean War: Volume II: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-195 *y Cru(e ,u!ings (199<), )% 7#1-7#@

A1ainst a !a-k1ro0nd of fla1s of the nations 4ho have troo -ontin1ents in Gorea( a fo0rsome of )o0r Star +enerals takes the sal0te at the revie4 of more than :(### troo s from $E nations at &inth%Army%Head60arters in $9E7. )rom left are +eneral ?atthe4 B. Rid1e4ay( U.S. Army .hief of staff 4ho formerly -ommanded the <th Army and later 4as S0 reme U& .ommander3 +eneral 8ohn E. H0ll( resent S0 reme .ommander in the far east3 +eneral ?a>4ell Taylor( -ommander of the <th Army and +eneral S0n ;0 Paik( So0th Gorean Army -hief of Staff. +eneral Rid1e4ay -alled the United &ations for-e Tin-redi!le ro1ress.T +eneral ?atthe4 B. Rid1e4ay and +eneral ?a>4ell Taylor 4ere mem!ers of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

The 8oint .hiefs of Staff is hoto1ra hed to1ether at the Penta1on on Se tem!er :( $9E= for the first time sin-e +en. T4inin1 !e-ame .hairman. Left to ri1ht: +en. Thomas *. White( Air )or-e3 +en. ?a>4ell *. Taylor( Army3 +en. &athan ). T4inin1( -hairman3 Adm. Arlei1h A. B0rke( .hief of &aval O erations3 and +en. Randol h ?-.. Pate( ?arine .or s( .ommandant. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

2ifth Air 2or(e, Korea--Arri6ing &atur ay at the .%&% Air 2or(e 17th Co!* Wing *ase in Korea in 9ar(h 195@, A lai 3% &te6enson, for!er /o6ernor of -llinois an $e!o(rati( Party )resi ential (an i ate, is flanFe *y the A!eri(an A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea, 3llis 7% Criggs (left) an a(ting 2oreign 9inister of the 'e)u*li( of Korea, $r% ,ho ,hong-H+an (se(on fro! right)% $r% ,ho an the a(ting Pri!e 9inister of the 'e)u*li( of Korea, TaiF Tu-(hin (thir fro! right), re)resente Korean Presi ent &yng!an 'hee in greeting 9r% &te6enson as he arri6e at the *ase fro! +here C-"# light *o!*ers taFe off aily in striFes against ,o!!unist su))ly (on6oys an installations in 4orth Korea% (Photo8 A-' A4$ &PA,3 9.&3.9Y8 1""4=< A, ('elease to Pu*li()) htt)8EE(o!!ons%+iFi!e ia%orgE+iFiE2ile8&te6ensonGan GKoreanGoffi(ialsGatG.&A2G*aseGinGKorea,G9ar(hG195@%K)g

Presi ent of &outh Korea &yng!an 'hee (left) greets .nite &tates .n er &e(retary 7f &tate ,hristian A% Herter (right) at the Presi ential 9ansion in &eoul, &outh Korea% Christian A. 3erter was a mem!er o" the Coun#il on Forei n $elations.

Presi ent of &outh Korea &yng!an 'hee (left) is sho+n aroun the ne+ 3ighth Ar!y Hea Muarters at Yongsan /arrison in &eoul, Korea *y .%&% Ar!y /en% 9aJ+ell $% Taylor on &e)te!*er 1=, 1955(N)% The shift to ne+ Muarters +as !a e re(ently so the for!er lo(ation, a s(hool (o!)oun in &eoul, (oul *e returne to &eoul .ni6ersity offi(ials% ?.S. Army Gen. GaAwell D. 7aylor was a mem!er o" the Coun#il on Forei n $elations.

.nite &tates &e(retary of &tate John 2oster $ulles (left) an Presi ent $+ight $% 3isenho+er ((enter) !eet +ith Arthur H% $ean, s)e(ial en6oy to the Korean )ea(e talFs at Pan!unKo!, at the White House in Washington, $%,% on $e(e!*er "1, 195@% (AP Photo)

Left hoto: &orth GoreaLs des ot Gim 5l S0n1 1reets Red .hinaLs des ot ?ao Tse%t0n1 in $9E<. Ri1ht hoto: &orth Gorean *i-tator Gim 5l S0n1 visits &orth /ietnamese *i-tator Ho .hi ?inh in Hanoi. Gim visited &orth /ietnam at least t4i-e in se-ret.

President of So0th Gorea *r. Syn1man Rhee delivers a s ee-h to the United States .on1ress in Washin1ton( *... in $9E'. ,Photo: htt :KK444.koreaherald.-omKvie4. h R0dQ"#$7#<$7###9<9AmodQsk!2

Harry S. Tr0man ,left2( former President of the United States( 1reets President of So0th Gorea Syn1man Rhee in -ir-a A010st $9E'. ,Photo: Harry S. Tr0man Presidential Li!rary2

*0rin1 his to0r in the United States in $9E'( Re 0!li- of GoreaLs President Syn1man Rhee visited Harry Tr0manSs ho0se in 5nde enden-e( ?isso0ri in $9E' to thank Tr0man for his role in settin1 0 the Gorean 1overnment in $9'< and his de-ision to send Ameri-an troo s to Gorea shortly after the invasion !y the Soviet%!a-ked &orth Gorean army in $9E#. The hoto of Syn1man Rhee 4ith Tr0man is from the ew !ork Times ,80ly "#( $9:E edition( the day after Rhee died in Ha4aii2. ,Photo: htt :KKysfine.-omKko!akKkohist.html2

$r% &yng!an 'hee ("n left), Presi ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea, a))ears +ith .%&% A!*assa or to the 'e)u*li( of Korea Walter ,% $o+ling ("n right) in &eoul, 'e)u*li( of Korea on July @<, 195=% Walter ,% $o+ling +as a !e!*er of the ,oun(il on 2oreign 'elations, a )ri6ate foreign affairs organi1ation in 4e+ YorF ,ity%

Gorean st0dents mar-h 4ith !anners readin1 T*o4n 4ith Red .hinaT and TO0t 4ith Red 5ns e-tion TeamT in ea-ef0l demonstration in Seo0l( So0th Gorea on A010st $E( $9EE( the tenth anniversary of /%8 *ay( after So0th GoreaLs President Syn1man Rhee 0r1ed the So0th Goreans to sta1e T ea-ef0lT arades aimed at the o0ster of .omm0nist Tr0-e 5ns e-tion Teams. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

A hoto of &orth Gorean -ommando Gim Shin%Fo shortly after his -a t0re in $9:< follo4in1 the a!orted Bl0e Ho0se Raid in Seo0l( So0th Gorea. &orth GoreaLs Bdear leaderC Gim 5l S0n1 ordered his -ommandos to infiltrate So0th Gorea in 8an0ary $9:< and m0rder So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee at his residential ala-e( also kno4n as the Bl0e Ho0se( and de-a itate his head in the streets of Seo0l in an attem t to -on60er So0th Gorea and s0!F01ate the Gorean eo le 0nder .omm0nist r0le. Gim Shin%Fo 4as the only &orth Gorean -ommando to !e -a t0red alive. The remainin1 &orth Gorean -ommandos e>-e t for one -ommitted s0i-ide or 4ere eliminated !y the So0th Gorean army in firefi1hts near the *e%?ilitariHed None ,*?N23 only one &orth Gorean -ommando ret0rned to &orth Gorea alive and 4as later romoted to the rank of a 1eneral. Shortly after his -a t0re( Gim Shin%Fo -onfessed: B5 -ame do4n to -0t Park .h0n1 HeeLs throatYC Gim Shin%Fo -onverted to .hristianity and serves as a Protestant astor in So0th Gorea. The &orth Gorean -ommandos s0--essf0lly infiltrated the U.S. Army "nd 5nfantry *ivision se-tor of the *?N !efore da4n on 8an0ary $<( $9:< and mar-hed into Seo0l 0ndete-ted( 4earin1 So0th Gorean army 0niforms.

Gim Shin%Fo( the only s0rvivor of a 7$ man assassination team from &orth Gorea dis10ised as So0th Gorean soldiers( identifies the !odies of his -omrades in $9:<. :< So0th Goreans and 7 Ameri-ans 4ere killed tryin1 to -a t0re them. T4o days later( on 8an0ary "7( the USS P0e!lo 4as -a t0red !y &orth Gorea. ,Photo: htt :KKkoreanhistory.infoK ark.htm2

Re resentatives of the United States and &orth Gorean 1overnments meet at Panm0nFom( Gorea( to si1n the a1reement for the release of PuebloSs -re4( "" *e-em!er $9:<. ?aFor +eneral +il!ert H. Wood4ard( U.S. Army( Senior ?em!er( United &ations .ommand ?ilitary Armisti-e .ommission( is in the left fore1ro0nd( 4ith his !a-k to the -amera. USS Pueblo ,A+ER%"2 and her -re4 had !een -a t0red off Wonsan on "7 8an0ary $9:<. ,Offi-ial U.S. &avy Photo1ra h2 htt :KK444.history.navy.milK hotosKsh%0snK0snsh% Ka1er"%l.htm

A!eri(an !ilitary offi(ers greet .&& Pue*lo (re+!e!*ers u)on their re)atriation *y 4orth Korea on $e(e!*er "@, 19#=% The .&& 7ue,lo +as (a)ture *y 4orth Korea on January "@, 19#=, Kust t+o ays after 4orth Korean (o!!an os atte!)te to assassinate &outh KoreaBs Presi ent ParF ,hung-hee at the Clue House, &outh KoreaBs )resi ential resi en(e, in &eoul, &outh Korea%

0eft )hoto8 The )hoto sho+s the .&& Pue*lo in )ort at Pyongyang, 4orth Korea% 'ight )hoto8 Ki! Jong -l listens to his father an 4orth Korean i(tator Ki! -l &ung% (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%glo*alse(urity%orgE!ilitaryE+orl E )rFEFi!-Kong-il%ht!)

This is )i(ture 7 of the fight seMuen(e% Again, .4, )ersonnel are +earing +hite hel!ets% ,o!)are these nu!*ers to the offi(ial 4orth Korean state!ent% The )i(tures +ere taFen *y .%&% 9ilitary )ersonnel, *ut these are s(anne in fro! IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I% ,o)ie fro! insi e the *a(F )age of the *ooFlet IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I8 Pu*lishe *y .4 Korean War Allies Asso(iation, -n(% ,%P%7% CoJ 9@# &eoul, Korea ,ontents of this )u*li(ation !ay *e re)ro u(e in )art or in entirety +ith or +ithout (re it to the )u*lisher% August "1, 197# The AAe Gurder Fn#ident (Korean8 ) +as the Filling of t+o .nite &tates Ar!y offi(ers *y 4orth Korean sol iers on August 1=, 197# in the Joint &e(urity Area (J&A) lo(ate in the Korean $e!ilitari1e Pone ($9P) +hi(h for!s the #e facto *or er *et+een 4orth an &outh Korea% The Fillings an the res)onse three ays later ( 8%eration Paul Eunyan) heightene tensions *et+een 4orth an &outh Korea as +ell as their res)e(ti6e allies, the Peo)leHs 'e)u*li( of ,hina :,o!!unist ,hina; an the .nite &tates% The in(i ent is also Fno+n as the 3at#het Fn#ident an the Po%lar 7ree Fn#ident *e(ause the o*Ke(t of the (onfli(t +as a )o)lar tree stan ing in the J&A% &our(e8 htt)8EEen%+iFi)e ia%orgE+iFiEAJeG9ur erG-n(i ent

0eft )i(tures8 The first set of )i(tures (-!ages 1 an 4) of the in(i ent% The )i(tures +ere taFen *y .%&% 9ilitary )ersonnel, *ut these are s(anne in fro! IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I% ,o)ie fro! insi e the *a(F )age of the *ooFlet IAJe+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I8 Pu*lishe *y .4 Korean War Allies Asso(iation, -n(% ,%P%7% CoJ 9@# &eoul, Korea ,ontents of this )u*li(ation !ay *e re)ro u(e in )art or in entirety +ith or +ithout (re it to the )u*lisher% Aug% "1, 197# 'ight )i(tures8 Pi(tures " an 5 in the series of siJ i!ages% -n all of the )i(tures, .4, Personnel are +earing +hite hel!ets% The )i(tures +ere taFen *y .%&% 9ilitary )ersonnel, *ut these are s(anne in fro! IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I% ,o)ie fro! insi e the *a(F )age of the *ooFlet IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I8 Pu*lishe *y .4 Korean War Allies Asso(iation, -n(% ,%P%7% CoJ 9@# &eoul, Korea ,ontents of this )u*li(ation !ay *e re)ro u(e in )art or in entirety +ith or +ithout (re it to the )u*lisher% Aug% "1, 197#

These are )i(tures @ an # in the fight seMuen(e% The )i(tures +ere taFen *y .%&% 9ilitary )ersonnel, *ut these are s(anne in fro! IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I% ,o)ie fro! insi e the *a(F )age of the *ooFlet IAJe-+iel ing 9ur er at Pan!unKo!I8 Pu*lishe *y .4 Korean War Allies Asso(iation, -n(% ,%P%7% CoJ 9@# &eoul, Korea ,ontents of this )u*li(ation !ay *e re)ro u(e in )art or in entirety +ith or +ithout (re it to the )u*lisher% Aug% "1, 197#

4orth Korean tunnel un er the $9P foun near Pan!unKo! ()hoto fro! 7anmun1om *y Wayne A% KirF*ri e) (Photo8 htt)8EE+++%6f+)ost7591%orgE,ha)ter-1"%ht!l =

5n 80ly $9=: .a t ?el-hin1 and ?S1t )orsyth to0red the "nd &orth Gorean *?N T0nnel( 4hi-h dis-overed in ?ar-h $9=E and 4as lo-ated east of the .hor4on /alley. We fle4 0 there 4ith the United States )or-es Gorea T0nnel &e0traliHation Team ,US)GKT&T2. The hoto is of o0r t4o T0nnel Team es-orts( one ROG and one U.S.( at the entran-e of the inter-e t t0nnel 4hi-h leads do4n several h0ndred feet to the &orth Gorean t0nnel( 4hi-h 4as !lo-ked F0st north of the ?ilitary *emar-ation Line. ?S1t )orsyth is on the ri1ht side of this hoto takin1 his o4n i-t0re( his film 4as later -onfis-ated after takin1 a hoto at the north end of the t0nnel( a-t0ally inside &orth Gorea( altho01h o0r Gorean ?aFor said 4e -o0ld take i-t0res any4here inside the t0nnel. The E'<th rovided ima1ery s0 ort to the T0nnel Team for the ne>t $' years( 0ntil the o eration 4as taken over !y the Gorean Army. ,Photo -o0rtesy of Ho4ard ?el-hin12 htt :KK444.E'<rt1.or1KE'<thVatVWork.html

&outh Korean sol iers )atrol the $e!ilitari1e Pone%

(0 to ') Critish /rou) ,a)tain ,olin /rea6es, Australian /rou) ,a)tain -an PetFoff, .%&% 9aKor /eneral Ja!es &oligan an &outh KoreaHs Criga ier /eneral 0ee Jung-&uF arri6e for a !eeting August #, "<<" in Pan!unKo!, on the *or er *et+een 4orth an &outh Korea% 'e)resentati6es fro! .nite 4ations ,o!!an an 4orth KoreaHs Korean Peo)leHs Ar!y !et to is(uss +ays to )re6ent hostilities, su(h as the June "9 na6al (lash *et+een the t+o Koreas along a is)ute sea *or er% (PoolE/etty -!ages)

&outh Korean elegate Ar!y ,ol% 9oon &ung-9ooF (0) talFs +ith 4orth Korean elegate Ar!y ,ol% PaF 'i!-&u (') uring a !ilitary !eeting at the 4orth si e of the *or er 6illage of Pan!unKo! on July 1<, "<<7 in 4orth Korea% 4orth Korea an &outh Korea resu!e talFs after 4orth Korea e!an e the re- ra+ing of a is)ute sea *or er% (Photo8 Han outE/etty -!ages)

?aFor +eneral Sin1la0!( senior United &ations .ommand re resentative( leads the other re resentatives leavin1 a meetin1 of the Armisti-e .ommission in Panm0nFom( Gorea. ,Photo: htt :KK444.vf4 ost=E9$.or1K.ha ter%$".html2

A &orth Gorean soldier ,left( rear2 stands 10ard as So0th Gorean soldiers kee 4at-h 4hile .anadaSs Prime ?inister Ste hen Har er ,not i-t0red2 visits the tr0-e villa1e of Panm0nFom in the demilitariHed Hone ,*?N2 on *e-em!er =( "##9. ,Re0ters2

ParF ,hung-hee, Yushin ,onstitution, S The 'ise of 4ational &o(ialis! in &outh Korea

+eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,4earin1 s0n1lasses2 is seen standin1 4ith his soldiers in $9:$. +eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,, /0( Se tem!er 7#( $9$=% O-to!er ":( $9=92( 4hose 4as also kno4n as B?asao Taka1iC ,1232 0nder -olonial 5m erial 8a anese r0le( rose to o4er in a military -o0 a1ainst President ;0n Bo%seon on ?ay $:( $9:$. Park .h0n1%hee normaliHed di lomati- relations 4ith 8a an in $9:E( after 8a an -oloniHed Gorea from $9$# to $9'E. 8a anLs -olonial a0thorities for-ed Goreans to s eak only 8a anese and for-ed many Gorean 4omen into rostit0tion. Park .h0n1%hee served as a lie0tenant in the G4an1t0n1 Army( a 0nit in the 5m erial 8a anese Army( d0rin1 World War 55. Park .h0n1%hee ado ted the B;0shin I;0sinJ .onstit0tionC ,also kno4n as the )o0rth Re 0!li-2 in $9=" and r0led as a virt0al di-tator 0ntil he 4as assassinated !y Gim 8ae1y0( the *ire-tor of the Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,G.5A2( on O-to!er ":( $9=9. The ;0shin .onstit0tion 4as modeled after the 8a anese ?eiFi Restoration IReformationJ ?ovement ,?eiFi ;0shin I5shinJ3 45672.

Korean )rotesters stor! the )resi ential resi en(e in &eoul, &outh Korea on A)ril 19, 19#<% &outh KoreaBs Presi ent $r% &yng!an 'hee resigne as Presi ent of &outh Korea on A)ril "#, 19#< an fle to Ha+aii, along +ith his Austrian-*orn +ife 2ran(es(a $onner, in eJile t+o ays later +ith the assistan(e of the .%&% ,entral -ntelligen(e Agen(y% $r% &yng!an 'hee ie in eJile in Ha+aii on July 19, 19#5% The Koreans )roteste in A)ril 19#< after the 6i(e )resi ential ele(tion +as rigge A &yng!an 'heeBs )referre 6i(e )resi ential (an i ate 0ee /i*ung efeate ,hang 9yon, a for!er &outh Korean A!*assa or to the .nite &tates, *y an a*nor!ally +i e !argin% (Photo8 htt)8EEasFaForean%*logs)ot%(o!E"<<9G<5G<1Gar(hi6e%ht!l)

So0th Gorean oli-e offi-ers !r0tally atta-k Gorean -ivilians d0rin1 the A ril $9 Revol0tion in $9:#. ,Photo: htt :KK444.koreaherald.-omKvie4. h R0dQ"#$7#<$7###9<9AmodQsk!2

The lea ers of the 9ilitary 'e6olutionary ,o!!ittee are )i(ture in &eoul, &outh Korea on 9ay "<, 19#1, four ays after the (ou)8 ,hair!an ,hang $o-yong (left) an Ti(e-,hair!an ParF ,hung-hee (right)%

>This )seu o-so(ialis! is one of the essential features of fas(is!A in ee , Hitler (alle his 4a1i i eology >4ational &o(ialis!,? +hereas Kita -FFi (lai!e hi!self to *e a >)ure so(ialist%? -t is, )erha)s, this )ure so(ialis! that ha a signifi(ant influen(e on the e6olution of ParF ,hung-heeBs so(io)oliti(al !entality% Coth ParF an Kita -FFi share a )ersonal history of 6a(illating *et+een left an right, an it is in ee the (ase that fas(ist i eology itself is >(onser6ati6e re6olutionary theory? hat e!*ra(es *oth leftist an rightist i eas% -n one of ParF ,hung-heeBs s)ee(hes he sai , >Ha6e you e6er seen the han s of the 1X of )ri6ilege )eo)le in our so(ietyN $eli(ate han s are our ene!y% Those han s a!age our !in s%? This has the ring of tra itional leftist rhetori(, *ut a(tually refle(ts Kita -FFiBs )ure so(ialis!% There are other in i(ations that the roots of ParF ,hung-heeBs i eology lie in the real! of the Ja)anese rightists% 2or eJa!)le, ParFBs &ae!aul (or 4e+ Tillage) 9o6e!ent +as a (o)y of Ja)anese /o6ernor-/eneral .gaFiBs 2ar!ing Tillage Pro!otion 9o6e!ent% ParFBs 'e6itali1ing 'efor! (the Yushin syste!) in 197" +as eri6e fro! the 9eiKi 'efor!s% The 4ational ,harter of 3 u(ation, rafte *y )hiloso)her ParF ,honghong at ParFBs *ehest, is an i!itation of the Ja)anese -!)erial 9essage on 3 u(ation% The intro u(tion of !ilitary training (lasses in s(hools +as ins)ire *y the Ja)anese !ilitary e u(ation that ParF re(ei6e % -n ParFBs highly (riti(al e6aluation on the ,hosun ynasty in Korea, the Ja)anese (olonial 6ie+ of Korean history (an *e (learly ete(te % ParF (o!)ose a fe+ anthe!s, all of the! *ase on the Ja)anese !usi(al s(ale% 2inally, ParFBs a o)tion of a Ja)anese na!e un erlines the eJtent of the Ja)anese influen(e on his )ersonal e6elo)!ent% 7*ser6ing the role )laye *y the Ja)anese ar!y in the unfol ing of Ja)anese !o ern history an in setting u) the )u))et go6ern!ent +ith the last e!)eror, Pui :Puyi;, )ersua e ParF ,hung-hee of the i!)ortan(e of the !ilitary as a !eans of national refor!% .) until the ti!e of the o+nfall of 'hee &ung-!an in A)ril 19#<, the Korean ar!y ha *een )oliti(ally neutral, +hi(h !eans, in effe(t, that it fun(tione in a((or an(e +ith A!eri(an i eology% After the ParF ,hung-hee (ou) in 9ay 19#1, ho+e6er, the &outh Korean so(io)oliti(al agen a +oul *e o!inate *y the !ilitary an +oul re!ain so for !ore than a Muarter-(entury%? D 3e)elo$mental 3ictatorshi$ an# The 7ar& Chung-hee Bra: The +ha$ing of 0o#ernit( in the Re$u,lic of Korea *y 0ee Cyeong-(heon, )% @<4-@<5

,eroic general ;ee passes away at age of 54


By Lee Tae%hoon A ril 7#( "#$"

0ee Han-li!
Retired Lt. +en. Lee Han%lim( the only military -ommandin1 offi-er to 0!li-ly de-lare his o died of nat0ral -a0ses S0nday. He 4as 9$ years old. osition to the military -o0 of $9:$(

Lee enrolled in the ?an-h0rian 5m erial Army A-ademy 4ith the late President Park .h0n1%hee in $9'# and entered the 8a anese ?ilitary A-ademy 4ith him in $9'". He layed a ivotal role in the -reation of the -o0ntryLs first moderniHed armed for-es follo4in1 the end of 8a anLs 7: years of -olonial r0le of the Gorean Penins0la on A01. $E( $9''. He re-eived the Tae1e0k ?edal( the hi1hest honor for Gorean soldiers( and a Silver Star from the United States( for s0--essf0lly re ellin1 .hinese troo s as the 9th *ivision -ommander( d0rin1 the $9E# to E7 Gorea War. The 1eneral earned res e-t for maintainin1 his oliti-al ne0trality. He reFe-ted the demand of the to military and 1overnment a0thorities to for-e his troo s to -ast !allots for desi1nated residential and vi-e residential -andidates in ele-tions on ?ar-h $E( $9E'. .onse60ently( Lee 4as stri ed of his ost as -ommander of the :th Army .or and had to 0nder1o the h0miliation of !ein1 sent to a military 1rad0ate s-hool as a st0dent. *0e to his 0 ri1ht -hara-ter( he -lashed 4ith +en. Park( one of his !est friends and military -ollea10es. He initially tried to deter the military -o0 !y Park( !0t 1ave 0 on fears that his move -o0ld lead to a -ivil 4ar and invite invasion !y the -omm0nist &orth. He 4as arrested !y the -o0 for-es and dis-har1ed from the military in $9:$. Lee 4as !riefly e>iled to the United States and had to serve a rison term on his ret0rn to his home -o0ntry( lar1ely d0e to his ref0sal to arti-i ate in ParkLs military re1ime. &evertheless( after re eated re60ests and ers0asion from Park( Lee !e-ame the head of the state%r0n Gorea Water Reso0r-es .or oration in $9:7. He also served as head of .hinhae .hemi-al in $9:< and -onstr0-tion minister in $9:9. He !e-ame head of the &ational To0rism Or1aniHation in $9=" and served as am!assador to T0rkey and A0stralia !et4een $9=' and $9<#.

&our(e8 htt)8EE+++%Foreati!es%(o%FrE+++Ene+sEnationE"<1"E<5E11#G1<9974%ht!l

&outh Korean ar!y sol iers stan in front of a (ity hall uring the (ou) Betat in 9ay 19#1 that *rought ParF ,hung-hee to )o+er% (Photo8 htt)8EE)o)ulargusts%*logs)ot%(o!Esear(hEla*elEPostX"<1945X"<3ra)

Soldiers kee -ro4ds off street near the &ational Assem!ly. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omKsear-hKla!elKPostZ"#$9'EZ"#Era2

So0th Gorean army soldiers detain So0th Gorean -ivilians at a train station in Seo0l. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omKsear-hKla!elKPostZ"#$9'EZ"#Era2

So0th Gorean army soldiers detain -0rfe4 violators in ?yeon1%don1( So0th Gorea in $9:$. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omKsear-hKla!elKPostZ"#$9'EZ"#Era2

5n $9:'( Lee ?y0n1%!ak ,third from ri1ht2( the former President of So0th Gorea( 4as arrested for rotestin1 Seo0l%Tokyo talks. ,+rand &ational Party( via Re0ters2 htt :KK444.nytimes.-omK"##=K$"K"#K4orldKasiaK"#lee.html

St0dents at S&U -alled for rotests( !0rned effi1ies of Sim erialist and nationalist traitors(S and held a rotest a1ainst the 0 -omin1 Gorea% 8a an -onferen-e on 8on1no on ?ar-h "'( $9:'. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omKsear-hKla!elKPostZ"#$9'EZ"#Era2

So0th GoreaLs stron1man Park .h0n1%hee de-lared martial la4 and ordered the So0th Gorean army to end the rotests in Seo0l( So0th Gorea on 80ne 7( $9:' d0rin1 a -onferen-e !et4een the 1overnments of So0th Gorea and 8a an. Goreans in So0th Gorea rotested Park .h0n1% heeLs move to esta!lish di lomati- relations 4ith 8a an3 Goreans 4ho 4ere raised in Gorea 0nder 5m erial 8a anese -olonial r0le 4ere treated like slaves !y the 5m erial 8a anese a0thorities and 4ere for-ed to s eak 8a anese 4hile the Gorean lan10a1e 4as o0tla4ed. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omKsear-hKla!elKPostZ"#$9'EZ"#Era2

President 8ohn ). Gennedy ,"nd left2 1reets +eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,standin1 to the ri1ht of President Gennedy2( .hairman of the S0 reme .o0n-il for &ational Re-onstr0-tion of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( and mem!ers of +eneral ParkLs offi-ial arty for a l0n-heon in honor of +eneral Park in the &orth Porti-o of the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. .lement E. B.lemC .on1er( a roto-ol offi-er for the State *e artment( is on the far left( and Gorean Am!assador to the United States 5l G4on .h0n1 is se-ond from the ri1ht ,4earin1 1lasses and lookin1 at the -amera2. All others are 0nidentified. ,Photo: Ro!ert Gn0dsen. White Ho0se Photo1ra hs. 8ohn ). Gennedy Presidential Li!rary and ?0se0m2 htt :KK444.Ffkli!rary.or1KAsset%/ie4erKAr-hivesK8)GWHP%G&%.$9'77.as >

President 8ohn ). Gennedy 1reets +eneral Park .h0n1 Hee( .hairman of the S0 reme .o0n-il for &ational Re-onstr0-tion of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( for a l0n-heon in honor of +eneral Park in the &orth Porti-o of the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. .lement E. B.lemC .on1er( a roto-ol offi-er for the State *e artment( is on the far left. All others are 0nidentified. ,Photo: Ro!ert Gn0dsen( White Ho0se Photo1ra hs( 8ohn ). Gennedy Presidential Li!rary and ?0se0m ,Boston22 htt :KK444.Ffkli!rary.or1KAsset%/ie4erKAr-hivesK8)GWHP%$9:$%$$%$'%B.as >

President 8ohn ). Gennedy ,sittin1 in ro-kin1 -hair2 meets 4ith +eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,4earin1 1lasses and sittin1 on -o0-h2( the a-tin1 President of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( inside the Oval Offi-e of the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. Also attendin1 the meetin1 are ?aFor +eneral ;an1 Soo ;oo( .hairman of the )orei1n Affairs and *efense .ommittee3 *0k Shin .hoi( ?inister of )orei1n Affairs3 By0n1 Gy0 .h0n( ?inister of )inan-e3 Byen1 G4on Bak( ?inister of &ational *efense3 .h0n1 P0m Son1( *e 0ty .hairman of the E-onomi- Plannin1 Board3 and 5l G4on .h0n1( Gorean Am!assador to the United States. ,Photo: A!!ie Ro4e( White Ho0se Photo1ra hs( 8ohn ). Gennedy Presidential Li!rary and ?0se0m2 htt :KK444.Ffkli!rary.or1KAsset%/ie4erKAr-hivesK8)GWHP%$9:$%$$%$'%..as >

)irst Lady 8a-60eline Gennedy ,ri1ht2 a--e ts a -hest of handmade -lothes sent !y female st0dents in Gorea and resented !y +eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,left2( .hairman of the S0 reme .o0n-il for &ational Re-onstr0-tion of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( as President 8ohn ). Gennedy looks on d0rin1 a meetin1 inside the ;ello4 Oval Room at the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. ,Photo: .e-il Sto01hton( White Ho0se Photo1ra hs( 8ohn ). Gennedy Presidential Li!rary and ?0se0m2 htt :KK444.Ffkli!rary.or1KAsset%/ie4erKAr-hivesK8)GWHP%$9:$%$$%$'%..as >

President 8ohn ). Gennedy 1reets +eneral .h0n1 Hee Park( .hairman of the S0 reme .o0n-il for &ational Re-onstr0-tion of the Re 0!li- of Gorea( for a l0n-heon in honor of +eneral Park in the &orth Porti-o of the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. .lement E. B.lemC .on1er( a roto-ol offi-er for the State *e artment( stands !ehind and to the ri1ht of +eneral Park. All others are 0nidentified. ,Photo: A!!ie Ro4e( White Ho0se Photo1ra hs( 8ohn ). Gennedy Presidential Li!rary and ?0se0m2 htt :KK444.Ffkli!rary.or1KAsset%/ie4erKAr-hivesK8)GWHP%$9:$%$$%$'%B.as >

Lie0tenant +eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,-enter2( leader of the So0th Gorean military F0nta( meets 4ith Ameri-an President 8ohn )itH1erald Gennedy ,left2 at the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. ,Photo: htt :KK444.koreaherald.-omKvie4. h R0dQ"#$7#<$7###9<9AmodQsk!2

Lie0tenant +eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,-enter2( leader of the So0th Gorean military F0nta( meets 4ith Ameri-an President 8ohn )itH1erald Gennedy ,left2 at the White Ho0se in Washin1ton( *... on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. Park and Gennedy 4ere assassinated !y a Blone 10nmanC. 8ohn )itH1erald Gennedy served in the U.S. Ho0se of Re resentatives from 8an0ary 7( $9'= 0ntil 8an0ary 7( $9E7( and served as a U.S. Senator ,*emo-rat%?assa-h0setts2 from 8an0ary 7( $9E7 0ntil *e-em!er ""( $9:#. ,Harvey +eor1esKAP Photo2 So0r-e: htt :KK444.!loom!er1.-omKne4sK"#$"%$$%$"Ks%koreans%fret%4orld%!eatin1%-hae!ol%destroys%small%!0si.html

U.S. President 8ohn ). Gennedy ,ri1ht2 and +en. Park .h0n1%hee of So0th Gorea a ear at a -onferen-e inside the White Ho0se on &ovem!er $'( $9:$. Bet4een them are Lt. .ol. San10k Han( Gorean inter reter( and *r. Pa0l .rane( the Ameri-an inter reter. +en. Park( 4ho at the time 4as headin1 So0th GoreaLs r0lin1 military F0nta( 4as in Washin1ton seekin1 e-onomiand military assistan-e.

So0th GoreaLs President +en. Park .h0n1%hee 1reets President 8ohn ). Gennedy( 4ho 4as shot to death in *allas( Te>as on &ovem!er ""( $9:7 alle1edly !y mem!ers of the ,U.S.2 .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y. Park .h0n1%hee 4as shot to death !y Gim 8ae1y0( the *ire-tor of the Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,G.5A2( on O-to!er ":( $9=9.

/eneral ParF ,hung-hee (left), Presi ent of &outh Korea, !eets +ith A!eri(an Presi ent 0yn on Caines Johnson (right) in Honolulu, Ha+aii, .%&%A% on A)ril 17, 19#=% (White House Photo 6ia .P-)

+eneral Park .h0n1%hee ,-enter2( President of So0th Gorea( meets 4ith U.S. /i-e President Lyndon Baines 8ohnson ,ri1ht2 at Washin1ton &ational Air ort on &ovem!er $7( $9:$ as U.S. Se-retary of State *ean R0sk ,left2 looks on.

U.S. President Lyndon Baines 8ohnson ,front( left2 and So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee ,-enter2 revie4 the troo s in Washin1ton( *...( U.S.A. in ?ay $9:E. So0th Gorea sent an estimated 7##(### troo s to /ietnam d0rin1 the /ietnam War. ,Photo: )ran-is ?illerKTime Life2

President Park .h0n1%hee si1ns the Gorea%8a an Basi- Treaty in this file hoto taken on 80ne ""( $9:E. )ollo4in1 this deal( the Park 1overnment -o0ld 0rs0e its se-ond five%year e-onomi- develo ment lan ,$9:=%$9="2 4ith more -onfiden-e. ,Photo: Gorea Times2

So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee ,left2 a ears 4ith U.S. President Ri-hard &i>on ,"nd left2 at the Presidio in San )ran-is-o( .alifornia( U.S.A. on A010st "$( $9:9. ,UP5 Tele hoto2

So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee ,left2 a U.S.A. on A010st ""( $9:9. ,AP Wire hoto2

ears 4ith U.S. President Ri-hard &i>on ,"nd left2 in San )ran-is-o( .alifornia(

So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee( left( and his da01hter Park +e0n%hye( se-ond left( ose 4ith U.S. President 8immy .arter( ri1ht( and U.S. first lady Rosalynn .arter( se-ond ri1ht( and their da01hter( Amy( at the Bl0e Ho0se in Seo0l( So0th Gorea on 80ne 7#( $9=9. ,AP PhotoK)ile2 htt :KK!i1story.a .or1K hotoK ark%-h0n1%hee% ark%1e0n%hye%Fimmy%-arter%rosalynn%-arter%amy%-arter

+en. Park .h0n1 Hee( President of So0th Gorea( shakes hands 4ith retired U.S. Army +en. *o01las ?a-Arth0r at ?a-Arth0rLs Waldorf To4er a artment in &e4 ;ork .ity on &ovem!er $<( $9:$.

&outh KoreaBs Presi ent /eneral ParF ,hung-hee (left) a))ears +ith 9ayor of West Cerlin Willy Cran t at Te!)elhof Air)ort in West Cerlin, West /er!any on $e(e!*er 1<, 19#4% (Photo8 /er!an 2e eral Ar(hi6es)

President Park .h0n1 Hee ,left2 of the Re 0!li- of Gorea 4alks 4ith +eneralissimo .hian1 Gai%shek( President of the Re 0!li- of .hina( at S0n1shan ?ilitary Air Base in Tai ei( Tai4an( Re 0!li- of .hina on )e!r0ary $:( $9::. ,BettmannK.ORB5S2

Ameri-an oliti-ian and former Holly4ood a-tor Ronald Rea1an ,L2( the +overnor of .alifornia( shakes hands 4ith So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee d0rin1 Rea1anSs -o0rtesy -all in Seo0l( So0th Gorea on O-to!er $:( $9=$. Rea1an( to0rin1 Asia as President &i>onSs ersonal emissary( arrived in Seo0l from Sai1on( So0th /ietnam. ,W BettmannK.ORB5S2

Ameri-an President +erald )ord s eaks 4ith So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1 Hee d0rin1 a state visit in Seo0l( So0th Gorea in &ovem!er $9='. ,Photo !y *ir-k HalsteadKTime Life Pi-t0resK+etty 5ma1es2

The Seo0l%P0san Hi1h4ay in So0th Gorea 4as a -onstr0-tion roFe-t develo ed !y So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee.

.ity Hall in Seo0l ,2( So0th Gorea in $9:=( 4ith a oster dis layed on the -ity hall 4el-omin1 Ameri-an President Lyndon B. 8ohnson and So0th GoreaLs President Park .h0n1%hee. ,Photo: htt :KK444.skys-ra er-ity.-omKsho4thread. h RsQ9:!:d""9:''"!-7""d--97<a"-<e!f'dAtQ:$$=":A a1eQ'2

Seosom0n hi1h ass Ie> ress4ayJ in So0th Gorea in $9:=. ,Photo: htt :KK444.skys-ra er-ity.-omKsho4thread. h RsQ9:!:d""9:''"!-7""d--97<a"-<e!f'dAtQ:$$=":A a1eQ'2

The Sams0n1 +ro0 is So0th GoreaLs lar1est -hae!ol I!0siness -on1lomerate( or -artelJ3 Sams0n1( Hy0ndai( and *ae4oo 4ere three of So0th GoreaLs rominent -or orations that !enefited from the national so-ialist e-onomi- oli-ies im lemented !y So0th GoreaLs President +en. Park .h0n1%hee. Park .h0n1%heeLs national so-ialist e-onomi- lan and his )irst )ive%year E-onomi- *evelo ment ,im lemented in $9:"2 4ere modeled after the 5m erial 8a anese 1overnmentLs e-onomi- lan in ?an-h0ria !efore and d0rin1 World War 55.

>The 4"4-Filo!etre ri6e u) the !otor+ay fro! Pusan to &eoul taFes a*out siJ hours% Hea6y traffi(, es)e(ially in the last #< Filo!etres, an es)e(ially on a &un ay night +hen e6eryone is returning to &eoul after the +eeFen , (an really slo+ you o+n% -t is har to a))re(iate, +hen youHre ri6ing along this )er!anently *usy roa , that !ost sensi*le )eo)le in 19#=, +hen it +as *uilt, sa+ it as a (o!)lete +aste of !oney% -t only got one *e(ause it +as the *rain(hil of the )resi ent, ParF ,hung-hee% Par) had started to de&elo% the #ountry@s industry to %ro&ide the means "or lon 2term de"en#e a ainst north Korea and to end the de%enden#e on the ?nited States. As %art o" this strate y, and under some ?S %roddin , he had si ned di%lomati# relations with *a%an, earnin a use"ul P011 million in rants and loans, !ut o""endin the sensi!ilities o" many Koreans, "or whom the memories o" o##u%ation were still "resh. Students had %rotested so stron ly that it almost !rou ht the o&ernment down. Par) saw that he needed ood e#onomi# rowth not 6ust to !uild his nation, !ut to le itimize his re ime. Pusan +as the )ort nearest to Ja)an an Fey to the glorious future as a tra ing nation% The !o ern roa +as to striFe iagonally a(ross the length of the (ountry, linFing the south-eastern )ort +ith the in ustrial &eoul--n(hon region in the north+est% The Worl CanF ha a 6ise against it% The 4ational Asse!*ly ha refuse to a))ro6e it, thinFing ParF +as going to *anFru)t the (ountry% ParF ignore the!% There is a story that after a fe+ !onthsH +orF, the (e!ent ran out% H- onHt (are,H ParF is allege to ha6e sai % H2inish it any+ay%H -t +as one% Within three years, =< )er (ent of the (ountryHs 6ehi(les +oul *e using the eJ)ress+ay an the area it ser6i(e +oul *e )ro u(ing al!ost 7< )er (ent of /4P% -f the story of south KoreaHs re!arFa*ly ra)i transition fro! agri(ultural *a(F+ater to !o ern in ustrialise state in one generation is re(alle a !illenniu! fro! no+ an re u(e to a *i*li(al-length 6erse or t+o, this slightly a)o(ry)hal e)iso e !ay o% 157 -t tells of a )arti(ular !ira(le that (hara(terise the *igger !ira(le of gro+th% 0iFe the *i*li(al loa6es an fishes, the (e!ent +as there so!e+here% The !ira(le +as that )eo)le +ere )ersua e to )ro u(e it% They +ere )ersua e *y a lea er +ith a 6ision of e6elo)!ent an the a*ility to )ush it through% -t +as ParF +ho ins)ire , *ullie , *eat, (aKole an enti(e Koreans out of the )a y fiel s an into the forefront of the in ustrial +orl % Author 9arF ,liffor has es(ri*e hi! as an He(ono!i( +arriorH% He +as Ha nation-*uil er +ith fe+ )eers in the !o ern +orl ,H ,liffor +rites% H4one of the *etter-Fno+n national ar(hite(ts of the "< th-(entury D AtaturF, 4asser, or 0enin D ha6e *uilt a !ore ura*le an )ros)erous (ountry than ParF%H 76er three e(a es, KoreaHs e(ono!y gre+ *y an a6erage of al!ost 9 )er (ent a year, fro! Z"%@ *illion in 19#" to Z44" *illion in 1997% Per (a)ita in(o!e rose fro! Z=7 in 19#" to Z9,511 in 1997% Cy the 199<s, it ha *e(o!e the +orl Hs ele6enth largest e(ono!y an thirteenth tra ing nation, an a !aKor )ro u(er of shi)s, steel, ele(troni(s an (ars% -ts huge (onglo!erates ha gone !ultinational an Koine the ranFs of the +orl Hs *iggest *usinesses% As a !easure of the (hanges, in 19#", there +ere @<,=<< registere 6ehi(les in the (ountry% Cy 1997, there +ere 1<,41@,4"7, al!ost all of the! Korean-!a e% 7n !aKor national holi ays, +hen )eo)le ri6e out to the (ountrysi e to )ay their res)e(ts at an(estral to!*s, these 6ehi(les all see! to go out at on(e% The &eoul-Pusan eJ)ress+ay an the other *roa , !o ern !otor+ays +hi(h no+ linF all the !aKor (ities of this (ountry, +here )eo)le still re!e!*er ar!y Kee)s *oun(ing along )othole tra(Fs an )easants sla))ing their lu!*ering oJen, get 6irtually gri lo(Fe % Par) ruled "rom -.,- until his assassination in -.>.. 3e is a towerin "i ure in the Korean story. Yet, if +e (an i entify a fatal fla+, it +as that he a))eare to !aFe e(ono!i( gro+th itself the goal of e6erything that he i , an in oing so, !isse the lesson that ha *een learne alrea y *y hu!an *eings else+here an +as in e6i en(e in !ore e6elo)e states to *e *orro+e % That is that the goal of e(ent go6ern!ent is ha))iness an a (i6ilise life for its )eo)le an that e(ono!i(s is a !eans to this en , not an en in itself% As a result of this short(o!ing, e6en in e6elo)e Korea to ay, there is a harshness% -t is a state +hi(h *ull o1es an(ient !onu!ents, re!o6es entire hills, an fails to restrain e6elo)ers for the *roa er goo of !aFing life that *it !ore green an )leasant% An al!ost *rutal o*session +ith e(ono!y still re!ains +ith Koreans% Li)e $hee !e"ore him, Par) #ame to !elie&e that the nation #ouldn;t sur&i&e without him, and altered the #onstitution and ri ed ele#tions so that he #ould stay in %ower. Fn the end, he was shot at the dinner ta!le !y his own intelli en#e #hie". $es)ite his aggressi6e su))ression of la*our unions an )oliti(al issi ents, he is !isse to ay *y !any Koreans, +ho feel that he +oul Fno+ ho+ to get the nation through its (urrent :late 199<s; e(ono!i( (risis% He +as the son of a Tong-ha& re*el +ho ha *een )ar one in an a!nesty an ha *e(o!e a su*sisten(e far!er% His struggle *egan early, +hen his forty-fi6e-year-ol !other trie to a*ort hi!, *e(ause she alrea y ha too !any (hil ren% &he ranF ra+ soy*ean sau(e an +illo+ sou) to try to )oison hi!, tie a *elt aroun her *elly to (onstri(t hi!, an e6en Ku!)e off a +all% He sur6i6e this )re-*irth *attering% ParF i +ell at s(hool an *e(a!e a tea(her *efore Koining the ar!y% He (a!e to) in his (lass at the Ja)anese 9an(huFuo A(a e!y an +ent to the elite ToFyo 9ilitary A(a e!y% After his gra uation in 1944, he +as (o!!issione a lieutenant in the Ja)anese-(ontrolle 9an(huFuo :K+antung; ar!y% This Ja)anese eJ)erien(e +as a 6ital (o!)onent in the (hara(ter of ParFHs future rule% 4ot only +as he eJ)ose to Ja)anese )lanning, *ut he an his fello+ Korean offi(ers +ere i!*ue +ith the Ja)anese attitu e of )la(ing the interests of the grou) an nation *efore )ersonal or fa!ily interest% HAs a grou) they ha s(ant regar for the intri(a(ies of etiMuette, +hi(h all too often li!ite a(tion in Korea,H ,liffor +rites% HThey also )la(e !u(h less i!)ortan(e on the fa!ily an !ore i!)ortan(e on the organisation D *oth the nation an the (or)oration% -n this sense they +ere !u(h less ty)i(ally Korean than the generations that )re(e e an follo+e the!% -t is har to o6er-e!)hasise their i!)ortan(e in Korean e6elo)!ent% $es)ite the Ja)anese *a(Fgroun , ParF +as not seen as ha6ing *een a (olla*orator% After his ol er *rother +as Fille *y )oli(e in 194# uring a (o!!unist-le riot in Taegu, ParF si e +ith the )oliti(al left% He sa+ it as !ore organise , )atrioti( an less (orru)t than the right% -n 194=, he le a (o!!unist (ell in the ar!y an +as senten(e to eath for his )art in a re6olt of Kunior offi(ers% The senten(e +as (o!!ute to fifteen years an he +as later )ar one ue to his (o-o)eration +ith in6estigators% He +as )ro!ote to *riga ier-general uring the Korean War an !aKor-general in 195=% ParF ha a strong isliFe of the 'hee go6ern!ent, +hi(h he felt +as (orru)t an o6er e)en ent on the .nite &tates% The Kenne y a !inistration Fne+ enough a*out his history to +orry after his (ou) that he

!ay ha6e still *een a (o!!unist% The lo(al )ress ga6e hi! a 'ussian-soun ing ni(Fna!e, (alling hi! HParFo6H (enKoying a )ress free o! that +as later (urtaile )% HParF ,hung-hee +as ne6er an i eologi(al (o!!unist,H says Kournalist ,ho /a*-Ke% HCut he +as an e!otional (o!!unist *e(ause of his !in for in e)en en(e% He thought that Ja)anese i!)erialis! ha *een re)la(e *y A!eri(an i!)erialis!% He +as a 6ery in e)en ently-!in e an )ra(ti(al )erson% His *asi( +ay of thinFing +as that you (an tra6el as far as your )o+er allo+s you% Power is the most im%ortant thin , not em%ty words. 3e endured the humiliation 9o" de%enden#y: and wanted to !uild u% Korean %ower in order that we #ould !e inde%endent "rom !oth *a%an and the ?nited States.@ Fn other words, juche !y a more su!tle route than Kim Fl Sun @s. Fmmediately a"ter ta)in %ower, he laun#hed an anti2#orru%tion #am%ai n, roundin u% the ri#h, #entralisin e#onomi# %lannin and enerally ma)in it #lear who was the !oss. Se&eral wealthy !usinessmen were arrested, !ut most were let o"" %ro&ided that they set u% #om%anies in #ertain desi nated industries. $ather than su%%ress !usinessmen, as the le"tist within him may ha&e wished, Par) sou ht to harness their %ro"it2huntin a!ilities to the #ause o" national rowth. Thus, as e(ono!ist Ali(e A!s en notes, +ithin ays of his (ou) Kan allian#e had !een "ormed !etween !usiness and o&ernment that laid the !asis "or su!seJuent industrialisation.; Ean)ers, howe&er, were not so "a&oured. Ean)s were nationalised. As we shall see later, this was a #ru#ial "a#tor in the #entrally %lanned rowth. Failure to ad6ust later and %ermit !an)s their inde%enden#e led ine&ita!ly to the "inan#ial #risis in -..>. Fn -.,+, Par) laun#hed his "irst "i&e2year %lan. 4o one +as i!)resse % Cur!a an the Phili))ines +ere seen as the )ro!ising Asian e(ono!ies of the ay% The )re6ailing fore(ast for Korea +as gloo!% $uring that first fi6e years, annual /4P gro+th a6erage =%@ )er (ent, eJ(ee ing the )lannersH o+n fore(asts% 3J)orting +as the )riority an +oul *e(o!e a )atrioti( uty% The !antra of gro+th soon *e(a!e HeJ)ort goo , i!)ort *a H% ,o!)anies +ere gi6en eJ)ort targets *y *ureau(rats% 2ir!s that fulfille gaine )referential (re its, taJ *enefits, an the grateful su))ort of *ureau(rats, +ho +ere *eing hel res)onsi*le *y the all-)o+erful Clue House for the results% 2ir!s that faile to !eet their targets (oul get into trou*le an e6en fin the!sel6es un er or ers to *e taFen o6er% $uring the se(on )lan annual /4P gro+th a6erage 11%4 )er (ent% -n the early 197<s, ParF laun(he a !aKor ri6e to *uil u) hea6y an (he!i(al in ustries%? D The Koreans: Who The( 6re4 What The( Want4 Where Their 2uture 8ies *y 9i(hael Creen, ,ha)ter 1< (The &)e(ta(le of /ro+th), )% 1@@-1@# >Through the 197<s an [=<s, as Ko* o))ortunities eJ)an e , )eo)le )oure into the (ities% They +orFe har an in6este in the e u(ation of their (hil ren% They sa6e , too% &outh KoreaHs sa6ings rate is @5 )er (ent% -n (ontrast to the i eologues in the 4orth, their lea ers +ere !ore )rag!ati( than theoreti(al% ParF an the )eo)le aroun hi! i +hat they ha to o to eal +ith the o*sta(les to gro+th% Thus the eJ)lanation for the (ourse of Korean e6elo)!ent is often *est !a e +ith referen(e to the o*sta(les it fa(e % A shortage of foreign (urren(y le logi(ally to an e!)hasis on eJ)orts% The a*sen(e of natural resour(es le to a (on(entration on in ustrial )ro u(ts% ,hanging )atterns of (o!)etiti6eness an the nee s of nation-*uil ing le to a natural )rogression of these )ro u(ts fro! teJtiles, to shi)s an iron an steel, to ele(troni(s an auto!o*iles% -n this )ro(ess, ParF (rushe issent, ruine *usiness!en +ho i not (o-o)erate, an )ushe +orFers to en ure long hours% ParF un erstoo the i!)ortan(e of the A!eri(an allian(e for KoreaHs gro+th% -n ee , the rise of south Korea !ay *e 6ie+e , +ithout offen(e to Koreans, as an A!eri(an su((ess story, too% After its initial *ungling, in(lu ing its res)onsi*ility for ha6ing i6i e the (ountry, the .& go6ern!ent stoo *y its ally, )ro6i ing a se(urity shiel against )ossi*le rene+e (onfli(t +ith north Korea, an a !arFet for Korean )ro u(ts% There ha6e *een tensions an iffi(ulties, *ut the *enefit to Korea +as that it +as *oth in A!eri(an strategi( interests an a natural (onseMuen(e of A!eri(an 6alues as a nation *orn in o))osition to i!)erialis!, that its (lient state gro+ e(ono!i(ally an )oliti(ally fro! near-total e)en en(y to eMual )artnershi)% A!eri(a i not start the gro+th% Cut it )ro6i e a (ontinue se(urity u!*rella that ena*le it to ha))en% -t also e!onstrate *y its o+n +ealth an free o! +hat Korea, too, (oul *e(o!e%? D The Koreans: Who The( 6re4 What The( Want4 Where Their 2uture 8ies *y 9i(hael Creen, ,ha)ter 1< (The &)e(ta(le of /ro+th), )% 1@7-1@=

?ilitary *ay Parade in So0th Gorea in $9:: ,Photo: htt :KK444.skys-ra er-ity.-omKsho4thread. h RsQ9:!:d""9:''"!-7""d--97<a"-<e!f'dAtQ:$$=":A a1eQ'2

&outh Korean sol iers honor Presi ent of &outh Korea /en% ParF ,hung-hee uring an ar!y )ara e on Ar!e 2or(es $ay in &eoul, &outh Korea on 7(to*er 1, 197@%

Left hoto: So0th Gorean dissident Gim *ae%F0n1( later President of So0th Gorea( talks to the ress after !ein1 released from rison in the early $9=#s. Park .h0n1%hee ordered his Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,G.5A2 a1ents to kidna and dro4n Gim *ae%F0n1 in $9=7. Gim *ae%F0n1 4as a residential -andidate in the So0th Gorean residential ele-tion in $9=$3 he 4as BdefeatedC !y Park .h0n1%hee that year. htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omK"#$#K#:K ark%-h0n1%hees%a-t%of%terrorism.html Ri1ht hoto: So0th Gorean dissident Gim *ae%F0n1 a ears in front of a military tri!0nal. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omK"#$#K#:K ark%-h0n1%hees%a-t%of%terrorism.html2

So0th Gorean soldiers -lam do4n on the G4an1F0 *emo-ratiHation ?ovement in ?ay $9<#. ,Photo: htt :KK444.koreaherald.-omKvie4. h R0dQ"#$7#<$7###9<9AmodQsk!2

The G4an1F0 U risin1 of $9<# 4as held in So0th Gorea in ?ay $9<#( 4here So0th Goreans advo-ated demo-rati- ele-tions and rotested martial la4 rom0l1ated !y Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y -hief +en. .h0n *oo H4an. +en. .h0n ordered the So0th Gorean army to violently dis erse the rotestors( and at least $'# Goreans died d0rin1 the rotests.

So0th Gorean soldiers arrest rotestors d0rin1 the G4an1F0 ?assa-re in G4an1F0( So0th Gorea on ?ay "=( $9<#. +eneral .h0n *oo%h4an( the military stron1man of So0th Gorea( de-lared martial la4 over So0th Gorea on ?ay $=( $9<# in an attem t to -onsolidate his oliti-al o4ers. Protests er0 ted all over So0th Gorea over +en. .h0nLs de-ision to im ose martial la4. Goreans in G4an1F0( So0th Gorea en1a1ed in a 4eek%lon1 0 risin1 and !arri-aded the -ity of G4an1F0 0ntil +eneral .h0n *oo% h4an sent his Ameri-an%trained S e-ial Warfare .ommand Troo s to violently s0 ress the 0 risin1.

So0th Gorean soldiers detain rotestors d0rin1 the G4an1F0 ?assa-re in G4an1F0( So0th Gorea on ?ay "=( $9<#.

President of the United States Ronald Rea1an ,left2 toasts 4ith President of So0th Gorea +en. .h0n *oo H4an d0rin1 a re-e tion at the Bl0e Ho0se in Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea on &ovem!er $7( $9<7. ,Photo: Ronald Rea1an Presidential Li!rary2

President of So0th Gorea +en. .h0n *oo H4an ,left2 toasts Em eror Hirohito of 8a an d0rin1 a state !an60et at the 5m erial Pala-e in Tokyo( 8a an on Se tem!er :( $9<'. ,W BettmannK.ORB5S2

Presi ent of &outh Korea ,hun $oo H+an ((enter) a))ears +ith Pri!e 9inister of /reat Critain 9argaret That(her uring her 6isit to &outh Korea%

Presi ent of &outh Korea ,hun $oo H+an (left) greets Pri!e 9inister of /reat Critain 9argaret That(her%

St0dent rotesters sho0t and -hant d0rin1 a demonstration in Seo0l( Re 0!li- of Gorea on 80ne "7( $9<=. St0dents and other demonstrators 4ho Foined them all over So0th Gorea rotested the oliti-al and e-onomi- sit0ation and event0ally !ro01ht the re1ime of President .h0n *oo H4an to an end. 5n O-to!er $9<=( the &ational Assem!ly ratified a ne4 -onstit0tion( 4hi-h rovided for dire-t residential ele-tions. ,W Patri-k Ro!ertKSy1maK.ORB5S2

President of So0th Gorea Roh Tae%4oo ,left2 meets Soviet President ?ikhail S. +or!a-hev in $99#. ,Photo: htt :KK444.koreaherald.-omKvie4. h R0dQ"#$7#<$7###9<9AmodQsk!2

From the Grassy Knoll in Seoul, South Korea:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?


The Assassination of /eneral ParF ,hung-hee on the 7<th Anni6ersary of the Assassination of Ja)anese $i)lo!at -to Hiro*u!i (7(to*er "#, 1979)

Lie0tenant +eneral Gim 8ae%ky0 ,front ro4( "nd left2( *ire-tor of the Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y( a ears on trial for his dire-t role in assassinatin1 President Park .h0n1%hee on O-to!er ":( $9=9. 8a anese di lomat 5to Hiro!0mi 4as assassinated !y Gorean atriot Ahn 80n1%1e0n in Har!in( .hina on O-to!er ":( $9#9. ,Photo: htt :KK444.koreaherald.-omKvie4. h R0dQ"#$7#<$7###9<9AmodQsk!2

So0th Gorean B atsyC Lt. +en. Gim 8ae%ky0( *ire-tor of the Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y from $9=: 0ntil $9=9( assassinated President +en. Park .h0n1 Hee on O-to!er ":( $9=9. The Gorean .entral 5ntelli1en-e A1en-y ,G.5A2( no4 -alled the &ational 5ntelli1en-e Servi-e( 4as ori1inally esta!lished !y +en. Park .h0n1%hee in $9:$. Lt. +en. Gim 8ae%ky0 4as e>e-0ted for m0rder !y han1in1 on ?ay "'( $9<#. ,Photo: htt :KKkoreanhistory.infoK ark.htm2

Presi ent of &outh Korea ,hun $oo H+an (left) greets .nite &tates A!*assa or to &outh Korea Willia! H% /leysteen Jr% in (ir(a 19=<-19=1% A!*assa or /leysteen, a Yale gra uate, +as a !e!*er of the ,oun(il on 2oreign 'elations fro! 19=@ until his eath on $e(e!*er #, "<<"%

2aile 4orth Korean assassination atte!)ts on t+o )resi ents of &outh Korea

0a%e 1ni#ersit2 3raduates and Their O//upation during the Assassination of 3en4 ar5 Chung-hee

/illia. ,. 1leysteen ?r. B.A. ;ale $9'9 U.S. Am!assador to So0th Gorea ,80ly "'( $9=<%80ne $#( $9<$2

/inston ;ord B.A. ;ale $9E9 President of the .o0n-il on )orei1n Relations ,$9==%$9<E2

#yrus R. Eance B.A. ;ale $979 U.S. Se-retary of State ,8an0ary "#( $9==% A ril "<( $9<#2

!eter 0. 0ensinger B.A. ;ale $9E< Administrator of *r01 Enfor-ement Admin. ,$9=:%$9<$2

3ing.an 0rewster ?r. B.A. ;ale $9'$ U.S. Am!assador to +reat Britain ,$9==%$9<$2

!otter %tewart B.A. ;ale $97= 80sti-e of the U.S. S0 reme .o0rt ,$9E<%$9<$2

?onathan 0. 0ingha. B.A. ;ale $97: U.S. .on1ressman ,*emo-rat%&e4 ;ork( $9:E%$9<72

/illia. %. *oorhead ?r. B.A. ;ale $9'E U.S. .on1ressman ,*emo-rat%Pennsylvania( $9E9%$9<$2

+ho.as ;ud &shley B.A. ;ale $9'< U.S. .on1ressman ,*emo-rat%Ohio( $9EE%$9<$2

;eslie ;es' &spin B.A. ;ale $9:# U.S. .on1ressman ,*emo-rat%Wis-onsin( $9=$%$9972

;owell !. /eicker B.A. ;ale $9E7 U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an%.onne-ti-0t( $9=$%$9<92

?ohn ,. #hafee B.A. ;ale $9'= U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an%Rhode 5sland( $9=:%$9992

,enry ?ohn ,ein< III B.A. ;ale $9:# U.S. Senator ,Re 0!li-an% Pennsylvania( $9==%$99$2

,enry 0. %chacht B.S. ;ale $9E: .hairman and .EO of .0mmins En1ine ,$9==%$99E2

&ngelo 0artlett 1ia.atti B.A. ;ale $9:# President of ;ale University ,$9=<%$9<:2

Robert &. ;ovett B.A. ;ale $9$< Partner of Bro4n Brothers Harriman A .o. I!ankJ ,$97$%$9'#( $9':%$9'=( $9'9%$9E#( $9E7%$9<:2

1eorge ,./. 0ush B.A. ;ale $9'< .hairman of )irst 5nternational Bank in Ho0ston( Te>as ,$9==%$9<#2

"icholas F. 0rady B.A. ;ale $9E" President and .EO of *illon( Read A .o. I!ankJ ,$9=$%$9<"2

%a.uel /. ;ewis B.A. ;ale $9E" U.S. Am!assador to 5srael ,$9==%$9<E2

/. &verell ,arri.an B.A. ;ale $9$7 Elder Statesman

The f0neral of So0th GoreaLs stron1man +en. Park .h0n1%hee 4as held in Seo0l( So0th Gorea on &ovem!er 7( $9=9. ,Photo: htt :KK o 0lar10sts.!lo1s ot.-omK"##9V#<V#$Var-hive.html2

/eneral ParF ,hung-hee

P3A,3 -& P'3'3L.-&-T3 T7 .4-2-,AT-74


Cy ParF ,hung Hee, Presi ent of the 'e)u*li( of Korea June "@, 1974

ParF ,hung Hee (1917-1979) +tatement issue# on 9une C54 19744 on the occasion of the first anni)ersar( of the +$ecial +tatement regar#ing 2oreign 7olic( for 7eace an# @nification
$ear fello+ (ountry!en at ho!e an a*roa 8 7n the o((asion of the first anni6ersary of the June "@ 2oreign Poli(y &tate!ent for Pea(e an .nifi(ation, - +ish to reaffir! our )oli(y of a(hie6ing unifi(ation of the fatherlan on a )ea(eful *asis +hile re6ie+ing e6elo)!ents on the Korean )eninsula uring the )ast year% The ai! of the 2oreign Poli(y &tate!ent +as to i!)ro6e su*stantially the (on itions for the attain!ent of unifi(ation of the fatherlan through our o+n in e)en ent efforts *y (onsoli ating )ea(e in this lan on the *asis of a realisti( a))raisal of internal an eJternal realities% -n that state!ent, - e(lare that the south an the north shoul neither interfere in ea(h otherHs internal affairs nor (o!!it aggression against ea(h other, in or er to !aintain )ea(e on the Korean )eninsulaA an that +e for our )art +oul eJert our ut!ost efforts to a(hie6e )ea(eful unifi(ation of the (ountry *y (ontinuing, +ith sin(erity an )atien(e, our efforts to se(ure (on(rete results fro! the south-north ialogue% - also !a e it (lear that, )ro6i e these (on itions +ere !et, +e +oul not o))ose north KoreaHs )arti(i)ation +ith us in the .nite 4ations an other international organi1ations, an that the $e%u!li# o" Korea would o%en its doors to all the nations o" the world, in#ludin those #ountries whose ideolo ies and so#ial system are di""erent "rom ours, on the !asis o" the %rin#i%les o" re#i%ro#ity and eJuality. - e!)hasi1e that )ea(e an goo -neigh*orliness +ere the fir! *asis of the foreign )oli(y of the 'e)u*li( of Korea, an that +e +oul further strengthen our eJisting ties +ith frien ly nations% To looF *a(F o6er )ast e6ents, the Korean )eo)le +ere offere an o))ortunity in 1947 to a(hie6e unifi(ation of the fatherlan through in e)en ent, )ea(eful an e!o(rati( !eans +hen the se(on session of the .nite 4ations /eneral Asse!*ly a o)te a resolution re(o!!en ing the hol ing of free general ele(tions throughout *oth south an north Korea% This o))ortunity, ho+e6er, +as lost ue to north KoreaHs refusal% 9oreo6er, the in6asion of the south *y the north Korean ,o!!unists on June "5, 195< further ee)ene the s(his! of istrust an heightene the *arrier of i6ision *et+een the south an the north% 36en after the ar!isti(e +as signe in 195@, the north Korean ,o!!unists i not a*an on their s(he!e to (o!!uni1e the +hole of Korea, *ut (ontinue to (o!!it 6arious a(ts of ar!e )ro6o(ation against the south, in(lu ing the atte!)te rai on the Presi ential 'esi en(e in &eoul on January "1, 19#=A the hiKa(Fing of the .&& 7ue,loD the large-s(ale infiltration of ar!e guerrillas into the .l(hin-&a!(huF areaA the hiKa(Fing of a Korean Airlines )assenger )lane to the north, et(% Thus tension +as !ounting *et+een the south an the north, an the anger of rene+e hostilities +as gro+ing% .n er the (ir(u!stan(es, - !a e a )oli(y state!ent in !y 4ational 0i*eration $ay A ress on August 15, 197< +ith a 6ie+ to )re6enting another trage y of fratri(i al +arfare *y all !eans, an re u(ing tension on the Korean )eninsula%

The follo+ing year, the 'e ,ross &o(iety of the 'e)u*li( of Korea )ro)ose the (on6ening of a south-north 'e ,ross (onferen(e to settle hu!anitarian )ro*le!s, in(lu ing the reuniting of se)arate fa!ilies% 2urther!ore, - se(retly sent !y e!issary to Pyongyang in an earnest effort to re u(e tension an )re6ent the re(urren(e of +ar on the Korean )eninsula, an thus to )re)are a foun ation for )ea(eful unifi(ation% As a result, the &outh-4orth Joint ,o!!uniMue +as issue on July 4, 197", o)ening the )ath to+ar the south-north ialogue% -n the (ourse of the south-north talFs, +e tooF the )osition that *oth si es shoul en ea6or to *uil u) !utual (onfi en(e *y sol6ing easier an !ore )ra(ti(al )ro*le!s first, an thus to re!o6e gra ually the *arriers *et+een the south an the north *y eJ)e iting !any-si e eJ(hanges% We *elie6e that su(h an a))roa(h +oul *est ser6e to !aFe the talFs )ro u(ti6e, an to a((elerate the )ro(ess of )ea(eful unifi(ation% 7n the (ontrary, north Korea not only reKe(te our reasona*le an realisti( )ro)osals, +ithout +orFing to+ar eli!inating the (auses of !utual istrust *et+een the south an the north, *ut also (ontinue to !aFe a*sur assertions +hi(h !ight en anger the se(urity of the 'e)u*li( of Korea% $ue to this o*stinate attitu e of the north Korean si e, no )rogress +as !a e in the ialogue, an south-north relations rea(he a )oint +here !utual istrust see!e a*out to ee)en, an tension to in(rease further% -n the fa(e of these realities of the south-north relationshi), as +ell as the international tren to+ar relaJation of tension an )ea(eful (oeJisten(e, - (on(lu e that the i!)ro6e!ent of *asi( (on itions +as in is)ensa*le for the attain!ent of our goal of )ea(eful unifi(ation% 2or these reasons, - )ut for+ar our ne+ foreign )oli(y in !y state!ent on June "@ last year% 9y ear fello+ (ountry!en8 What +as the north Korean rea(tion to our ,ona fi#e )oli(y state!ent for )ea(eN -n the e6ening of that 6ery ay, the north Korean si e, in ia!etri(al o))osition to our 2oreign Poli(y &tate!ent, (ounter-)ro)ose a nu!*er of unrealisti( an stereoty)e i eas for )oliti(al )ro)agan a )ur)oses, su(h as a so-(alle Igran national (onferen(eI or I(onfe erationI of the south an the north% &in(e then, the north Koreans ha6e resu!e their slan ers an li*els against us at ho!e an a*roa , in 6iolation of the July 4 Joint ,o!!uniMue an other agree!ents rea(he *et+een the south an the north% 3Jternally, they ha6e atte!)te to istort an 6ilify our Kust an realisti( )oli(y for )ea(e% While at the sa!e ti!e esta*lishing i)lo!ati( relations +ith so!e of the (ountries +hi(h ha6e long !aintaine i)lo!ati( relations +ith the 'e)u*li( of Korea, an also Koining international organi1ations of +hi(h +e ha6e long *een a full !e!*er, they ha6e ne6ertheless )ersiste in their in(onsistent an self-(ontra i(tory assertion that their entry along +ith us into the .nite 4ations +oul )er)etuate the i6ision of the (ountry% 2inally, north Korea unilaterally sus)en e the south-north ialogue u)on issuan(e of a state!ent on August "= last year, an i!!e iately intensifie its slan ers against the south% 4onetheless, last 4o6e!*er +e urge the north Korean si e, +ith untiring )erse6eran(e an sin(erity, to resu!e the !eetings of the &outh-4orth ,oor inating ,o!!ittee an the &outh-4orth 'e ,ross ,onferen(e% &u*seMuently, the /eneral Asse!*ly of the .nite 4ations last year a o)te a e(ision on 4o6e!*er "= eJ)ressing the ho)e that the south an the north of Korea +oul (ontinue their ialogue an eJ)an their eJ(hanges an (oo)eration in 6arious fiel s, so as to eJ)e ite the in e)en ent an )ea(eful unifi(ation of Korea% The e(ision +as in (o!)lete (onsonan(e +ith our )oli(y for )ea(e an unifi(ation, an e6i ently refle(te +orl +i e su))ort for our June "@ 2oreign Poli(y &tate!ent% -n ee , it is o+ing to our )erse6eran(e an sin(erity that the south-north ialogue has *arely Fe)t in eJisten(e, in the for! of (onta(ts *et+een the liaison offi(ers of the &outh-4orth 'e ,ross ,onferen(e an the Ti(e ,o-,hair!en of the &outh-4orth ,oor inating ,o!!ittee% Ho+e6er, north Korea has sho+n no interest or sin(erity a*out nor!ali1ing the south-north ialogue, *ut has ne+ly engage in )ro6o(ati6e a(ts against fi6e islan s off the +est (oast +hi(h *elong to our territory% The north Koreans ha6e re(ently intro u(e a large nu!*er of 6arious ne+ +ea)ons for sur)rise atta(F% They ha6e also *uilt ne+ na6al an air *ases in areas near the ar!isti(e line% Thus they ha6e *een *ent on )re)aring for another +ar, aggra6ating the tension on the Korean )eninsula to a serious eJtent%

-n or er to )re6ent a re(urren(e of hostilities on the Korean )eninsula, an to !aintain )ea(e an se(urity in 4ortheast Asia, )ro)ose to the north Korean si e the (on(lusion of a non-aggression agree!ent on January 1= this year% 7he north Korean side, howe&er, has a ain turned its !a#) to this sin#ere %ro%osal %ut "orth !y us, and intensi"ied its slanders a ainst us as well as the in"iltration o" armed es%iona e a ents into the south. 8n Fe!ruary -0 this year, north Korean un!oats re%eated the inhuman and sa&a e a#t o" sin)in and hi6a#)in our "ishin &essels %ea#e"ully en a ed in "ishin o%erations on the hi h seas o"" the west #oast, )illin and )idna%%in the inno#ent "ishermen a!oard. Furthermore, the north Koreans ha&e o&ertly attem%ted to #reate so#ial unrest in the south, and to o&erthrow the $e%u!li# o" Korea, thus re&ealin their desi n to #ommunize the whole o" the #ountry. HAternally, they ha&e %ut "orward a %ro%osal "or a %ea#e a reement with a third %arty in their attem%t to dis uise the real intention !ehind their %ea#e %ro%a anda. All these a#ts o" the north Korean Communists re&eal that they ha&e no intention to settle the %ro!lems %endin !etween the south and the north !y %ea#e"ul means and throu h dialo ue. 9y ear (o!)atriots in the south an the north8 Ju ging o*Ke(ti6ely fro! the (urrent internal an eJternal situations fa(ing Korea to ay, - +ish to reaffir! that our foreign )oli(y for )ea(e an unifi(ation is truly the !ost reasona*le an realisti( ste) to+ar )ea(eful an in e)en ent unifi(ation of our fatherlan % -t is unliFely that our efforts for )ea(eful unifi(ation +ill *ear fruit +ithin a short )erio , as long as the north Korean ,o!!unists o not renoun(e their negati6e an )ro6o(ati6e attitu e, eri6e fro! their strategy of )la(ing the south un er (o!!unist rule% Ho+e6er, +e (annot affor interru)tion or elay in our efforts to+ar the easing of tension an the (onsoli ation of )ea(e on the Korean )eninsula, *e(ause +e fir!ly *elie6e that these are the !aKor )rereMuisites to )ea(eful unifi(ation of our (ountry% 7n the o((asion of the first anni6ersary of the June "@ 2oreign Poli(y &tate!ent, - +ish to reiterate our eter!ination to (ontinue our *est efforts, +ith )atien(e an sin(erity, to ease tension an (onsoli ate )ea(e on the Korean )eninsula, an to !aFe )rogress in the south-north ialogue% At the sa!e ti!e, - on(e again e!an that north Korea a((e)t our )oli(y for )ea(e an unifi(ation% First, F stron ly ur e the north Korean Communists to renoun#e immediately their %oli#y o" #ommunizin the whole o" Korea !y "or#e and &iolen#e an , *y returning to the s)irit of the July 4 Joint ,o!!uniMue, to Koin us in efforts to nor!ali1e the &outh-4orth 'e ,ross ,onferen(e as +ell as the &outh-4orth ,oor inating ,o!!ittee, an to reali1e eJ(hanges an (oo)eration *et+een the south an the north% Se#ond, F #all u%on the north Korean side to dis#ontinue at on#e all its a#ts or inter"eren#e in our internal a""airs and all its hostile a#ti&ities a ainst the $e%u!li# o" Korea, in#ludin military %ro&o#ations, and to res%ond without delay to our #all "or ne otiations to #on#lude a non2a ression a reement !etween the south and the north. Thir , - reiterate that the 'e)u*li( of Korea, +ith its @@ !illion )o)ulation, shoul *e a !itte into the .nite 4ations, so as to (ontri*ute )ositi6ely to the !aintenan(e an strengthening or international )ea(e, an to the )ro!otion of international (oo)eration% At the sa!e ti!e, +e shall not o))ose north Korea +ith its 14 !illion )eo)le Koining the .nite 4ations if it so esires% 2ourth, +e shall (ontinue to )ursue our o)en- oor )oli(y +ith a 6ie+ to i!)ro6ing relations +ith (ountries +hi(h !ay ha6e ifferent i eologies an syste!s, on the *asis of the )rin(i)les of re(i)ro(ity an eMuality% We earnestly ho)e that all )ea(e-lo6ing nations +ill res)on )ositi6ely to this )oli(y, there*y (ontri*uting +ith us to the se(urity of this region, an to the esta*lish!ent of +orl )ea(e% 9y ear fello+ (ountry!en8 -n the fir! *elief that our )oli(y of (onsoli ating )ea(e on the Korean )eninsula an a(hie6ing )ea(eful unifi(ation of the fatherlan +ill (ertainly *ear fruit, let us !ar(h for+ar +ith (ourage an +is o!% &our(e8 To"ar# 7eaceful @nification: +electe# +$eeches E Inter)ie"s *y ParF ,hung Hee (197#), )% 1<@-1<=

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