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2001

Technical Seminar

2001

2001

2000 TECHNICAL SEMINAR

Automatic Transmission Rebuilders Association


2400 Latigo Avenue Oxnard, CA 93030 Phone:(805) 604-2000 Fax:(805) 604-2005 http://www.atra-gears.com

This manual has been developed by the Automatic Transmission Rebuilders Association (ATRA) Technical Department to be used by qualified transmission technicians in conjunction with ATRAs technical seminars. Since the circumstances of its use are beyond ATRAs control, ATRA assumes no liability for the use of such information or any damages incurred through its use and application. Nothing contained in this manual is to be considered contractual or providing some form of warranty on the part of ATRA. No part of this program should be construed as recommending any procedure which is contrary to any vehicle manufacturers recommendations. ATRA recommends only qualified transmission technicians perform the procedures in this manual. This manual contains copyrighted material belonging to ATRA. No part of this manual may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, electronic or information storage and retrieval without express written permission from the ATRA Board of Directors. Public exhibition or use of this material for group training or as part of a school curriculum, without express written permission from the ATRA Board of Directors is strictly forbidden. ATRA and the ATRA logo are registered trademarks of the Automatic Transmission Rebuilders Association. Portions of materials contained herein have been reprinted with permission of General Motors Corporation, Service Technology Group. 2001 ATRA, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA.
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

2000 TECHNICAL SEMINAR

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Program Contents
General Motors .................................................... 1 Ford ................................................................... 49 Chrysler ............................................................. 91 Imports (Nissan and Subaru) ............................ 141 Reference ......................................................... 199

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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2000 TECHNICAL SEMINAR

ATRA Technical Department


Lance Wiggins, Technical Director Mike Baird Weldon Barnett Bill Brayton Larry Frash Steve Garrett Evelyn Marlow Cliff McCormick Randall Schroeder David Skora

Acknowledgements
Thank you for attending the 2001 ATRA seminar. The people behind the scenes, putting programs like this together dont always get the recognition they deserve for the effort they put forth. Producing a seminar program of this type requires months of hard work. I would like to thank everyone who had a part in producing this program. I would like to offer a special thanks to the following persons for spending a lot of evenings and weekends making sure we produced the best information possible: Larry Frash, who spent hours ferreting-out many of the facts used in this manual, as well as the initial copywriting and drawing. Evelyn Marlow, who took great pains to make sure our line art was as clean as possible, against sometimes overwhelming odds. Cliff McCormick, whose skill with our digital camera provided us with a crisp and unique collection of images. Steve Garrett, who was instrumental in collecting the very latest information for our GM section. My personal thanks to all of you; we couldnt have done it without you. Lance Wiggins Technical Director
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

GM Updates and Changes


Contents
All Applications DTC P0122: TP Sensor Circuit Low Input ...............3 Ratio Error DTCs ..................................4 4T40E Harsh or Soft 32 Downshift .................8 Hard Upshifts with Possible Trouble Codes .............. 10 4T40E / 4T60E Intermittent Surge or Loss of Power .... 11 4T60E Hard Upshifts ..................................... 12 4T65E Moan after TCC Apply......................... 13 4T60E / 4T65E Updates for 2000 ................................ 18 34 Clutch Backing Plate................. 18 New TCC PWM Solenoid .................. 19 Updated Valve Body ........................ 20 Pump Interchange .............................. 21 Valve Body Changes ........................... 26 4L60E HD New Features ..................................... 30 Features Carried Over from 4L60E ..... 31 4L60E / 4L80E Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 ............ 32 Delayed Engagements; Low Fluid Level ................................. 39 Hard 12 Upshifts; 1999 Vehicles ....... 40

Speedometer Reads 4L80E MPH/KPH at a Stop .......................... 14 Harsh Shifts, Possible DTC 63 ............ 41 4T65E Surge While Towing; Slip or Flare During 12 or 34 Upshift ............................ 15 4L60E 19961999 7.4L ............................... 42 2nd Gear Starts in Manual 2nd .............. 43 1999-and-Later Center Support and Sun Gear Shaft Changes ............ 44

Engine Surges or Chuggles When TCC Applies ............................ 16 Allison LCT 1000 2nd Gear Starts; Normal Operating Conditions ............. 47 Binds in Manual Low ........................ 17

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

All Applications

DTC P0122: TP Sensor Circuit Low Input


Some 1999-2001 W-body vehicles (Regal, Grand Prix, Monte Carlo/Impala and Intrigue) with a 3.8L engine have been showing up with code P0122 in memory. They may also exhibit these additional symptoms: Engine and transmission driveability problems DTC P0452 Fuel tank pressure sensor or circuit DTC P0462 Fuel level sensor or circuit DTC P1635 5-volt reference circuit

With the key on, engine off, check the 5-volt reference at the TPS. If theres no 5-volt reference, the problem may be the 5-volt reference wire is shorted to ground. The TP sensor shares its 5-volt reference circuit with several other components, including the fuel level sensor and the fuel tank pressure sensor. Look for this wiring to be pinched near the rear seat belt retaining stud. This chafes the wire, shorting it to ground.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

All Applications
Ratio Error DTCs
All computers that are programmed to set ratio errors work off the same basic strategy and need to know at least three basic things. Input Speed: One way could be as simple as reading the engine RPM signal; another can be to read true input shaft speed, such as the 4T40E. Output Speed: Once again, this data can be received from a few different locations. One would be at the final drive, while another could be directly from the output shaft, such as the 4L60E. Calibration Knowledge: The computer must know how to calculate data from the input and output speed sensors, and it must also know the ratios that are being used by the year, make and model of the vehicle.

Inaccuracy in any of these three areas will cause false ratio errors to be set.

Two Basic Causes


Cause 1: Miscalculated Ratios
One way to determine if a ratio error is set due to a miscalculation is to operate the transmission with the drive wheels off the ground. Typically, if a ratio error is due to a miscalculation, it will set the code even when there is no load on the transmission. Possible causes: Incorrect PROM or calibration programming Wrong sprocket or final drive ratio (FWD only) Incorrect speed sensor reluctor tooth count Incorrect engine RPM reading EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) Incorrect PCM/TCM/VCM Faulty PCM/TCM/VCM

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

All Applications
Cause 2: Component Slipping

Ratio Error DTCs (continued)


Leaking, damaged or worn stator support bushings (4L60E) This is generally caused by a hardening problem with turbine shaft. The turbine shaft or input housing may require replacement. (Very common) An updated stator support bushing is now being used with the 4L60E HD.

N O T IC E

TCC pressure regulator valve is side loading or sticking (all applications): This condition causes low TCC apply pressure. Valve body updates have been issued to try to repair this condition. In addition, several aftermarket manufacturers have valve body repair kits to address this problem. (Very common) Front bearing failure (input or turbine shaft support bearing; 4T60E, 4T65E): The manufacture of this bearing was changed to eliminate this problem. When the bearing fails the customer may also complain of a whining noise in park or neutral. The channel plate sleeve is often damaged, which will also require replacement. (Very common)

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

All Applications

Ratio Error DTCs (continued)


Cause 2: Component Slipping (continued)
A worn, sticking or damaged actuator feed limit valve or bore (all applications with a PCS): This valve provides the feed oil for the PCS, so it controls line pressure boost. Many times problems with this valve or its bore will also cause the vehicle to start in a gear other than 1st gear. Generally the customer complaint will be that the transmission bumps as the vehicle first starts to move. What the customer is actually feeling is the transmission downshifting during acceleration. (Very common)

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

All Applications

Ratio Error DTCs (continued)


Cause 2: Component Slipping (continued)
Slipping or damaged clutches or bands: Refer to the clutch/band apply chart for the unit youre working on to determine which clutch or band could cause the problem. Some of the GM computers cant determine whats actually slipping; for example, is it the TCC or a clutch or band? (Very common) Faulty torque converter clutch Faulty or damaged TCC PWM solenoid wiring Faulty TCC PWM or TCC apply solenoid. Check whether an updated solenoid is available for the unit youre working on. Leaking turbine shaft O-ring or sealing rings Plugged or restricted TCC or AFL screens Sticking, worn or damaged TCC apply valve Sticking or damaged PCS Sticking or damaged pressure regulator valve Valve body, channel plate or case damage (warped, cracked, dented, etc.) Low solenoid current flow due to high resistance. Correct current flow for the shift solenoids and the TCC apply solenoid is generally around 0.51.0 amp, depending on solenoid resistance. Correct current flow for a TCC PWM solenoid is generally around 1.23.0 amps, depending on duty cycle. Low current flow indicates high resistance in the solenoid, its wiring, or its feed or control circuits.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4T40E

Harsh or Soft 32 Downshift


Depending on the configuration, these symptoms may be caused by a missing or mispositioned #6 checkball. As shown in the picture, the #6 checkball was moved from its original pocket (6a) to a different location in 1997, labeled 6b.

6b

6a

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4T40E

Harsh or Soft 3-2 Downshift (continued)


The casting wasnt changed so unless youre certain of the year, the best way to tell which location to use is to look at the separator plate. For the checkball to function properly, there must be two holes in the separator plate.

6b

6a
If your plate is set up for both locations (which many were) you can install a checkball in either position. But in 6a the ball controls the drain rate of the direct clutch; in 6b the ball controls the drain rate of the 23 accumulator. Because of this, the 32 shift feel will be different, depending on the location. A checkball in location 6a will result in a softer 32 downshift. A checkball in location 6b will result in a firmer 32 downshift.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.



GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4T40E

Hard Upshifts with Possible Trouble Codes


The vehicle comes in suffering from harsh upshifts, and may have the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) on. In addition, a number of codes may be stored in memory. This is primarily on Cavaliers, Aleros, Sunfires, Malibus and Grand Ams. The most common codes are P0716 and P0717, which are turbine shaft speed sensorrelated. In most cases the problem is the transmission connector. What happens is the connector only gets latched on one side, creating bad connections on the opposite side. Depending on which pins have a bad connection, many intermittent diagnostic trouble codes will set. To correct this problem, make sure the connector isnt damaged, and reconnect it properly. Clear any codes in memory, road test the vehicle, and check for any new codes. Remember to perform a complete drive cycle to give codes a chance to set.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES



4T40E / 4T60E

Intermittent Surge or Loss of Power


After operating the vehicle at fairly high throttle, suddenly it begins losing power or surging. The TCC may begin cycling off and on, and the transmission may even begin hunting between 3rd and 4th gears. The problem remains evident until the throttle drops back to idle, or maybe even until the engines been shut off. The problem is restricted to 1998 N-body (Grand Am, Achieva, Skylark) and U-body (Transport, Lumina, Venture and Silhouette) vehicles equipped with a V6 engine. The problem usually traces back to part of the isolation tape (a heavy rubber tape used in the radiator core support area) losing its adhesion. The tape becomes loose, and the high air flow through the engine air intake pulls the end of the tape into the air intake. This restricts the flow of air going into the engine, and past the mass airflow sensor (MAF). The engine loses power due to the restriction, and the computer receives a low reading from the mass airflow sensor. The low reading indicates the engine is under less of a load, so the computer adjusts engine performance and gear ratio accordingly. Once you release the throttle or shut the engine off, the tape falls back out of the air intake, and the engine can run properly again until the next time the tape gets sucked into the air intake. Remove the loose piece of isolation tape.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4T60E

Hard Upshifts
Vehicles equipped with a 4T60E transaxle may experience harsh upshifts for one or more of these reasons: A sticking accumulator valve Clean and inspect the valve body. A sticking accumulator piston Scotchbrite the bore and use a factory quality seal.

In addition, a missing, loose or mispositioned accumulator sleeve retainer will cause the sleeve to become misaligned with the valve body ports. The bushing retainer was changed at the start of production for 1993. The 93-and-later retainer wont interchange with earlier models. The picture shows the two applications.
IM P O R T A N T

All 4.9L and some 3.1L applications have a specific, unique 12 accumulator valve-and-spring line up, different from other 4T60E applications. Never assume that these applications have a harsh shift due to misassembly. The service manual may show the incorrect assembly for these applications. The picture shows the correct assembly for these applications.

4.9L and Some 3.1L 12 Accumulator

12 Accumulator All Others

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4T65E

Moan after TCC Apply


Some 4T65Es may exhibit a moan or growl after TCC applies. The noise is generally worse at lower road speeds, just as TCC applies. Overriding TCC by stepping on the brake will usually eliminate the noise. The problem is that a specific harmonic frequency is set up in the cooler line when TCC applies. The harmonic is transferred through the cooler lines and into the vehicle body. Many manufacturers correct this type of problem by providing tuned cooler lines. Check with your local dealer to see if updated cooler lines are available for your particular application. If an updated line isnt available, install the updated cooler line retaining bracket, #25714015. This bracket mounts to a support bar just behind the passenger-side cooling fan.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4T60E / 4T65E

Speedometer Reads MPH/KPH at a Stop


A number of 1997-98 G, C, H and W bodies (Riviera, Aurora, Park Ave, Lumina, Monte Carlo, Regal, Grand Prix) have been showing up with the speedometer showing the vehicle is moving while its fully stopped. This is usually due to EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) being induced into the VSS wiring. The problem is that the VSS wires are routed too close to high voltage or high current wires. Probable sources: Fuel injector wiring PCS (Pressure Control Solenoid) 4T65E only. Secondary ignition wires (spark plug and coil wires). Charging system. Try disabling the alternator and retest.

To correct this problem, reroute the VSS wires to the computer. Move them away from any source of interference.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4T65E

Slip or .lare During 12 or 34 Upshift


19992001 vehicles with a 4T65E transaxle may exhibit a slip or flare on the 12 shift. This usually occurs during cold temperatures and disappears after the transmission reaches operating temperature. It may also slip or flare on the 23 upshift. The 12 shift solenoid ball and seat may distort with changing fluid temperature, causing a leak when the solenoid is supposed to be closed. To correct this problem, replace the solenoid with an updated one, part number 24219819.

12 Shift Solenoid

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Engine Surges or Chuggles When TCC Applies


Many 19961997 C, K and G trucks and vans have been experiencing a surge or chuggle, especially when the converter clutch is applied. Heres a list of the possible causes for this problem: Driving conditions: Wind, rough roads; speak with the customer about other possible adverse driving conditions; verify the complaint. Drive train: Inspect the tires for abnormal wear patterns, check driveshaft, wheel bearings, ball joints, bushings and other drive train components for wear. TCC apply: Use a scan tool to check for excessive converter slippage. Does the converter clutch have a smooth apply? Engine accessories: Check all belt-driven components. Turn off A/C heater system to eliminate the A/C clutch cycling from being a possible cause. Engine: Check for vibrations caused by out-of-balance components, such as the flywheel, harmonic balancer, bent pulleys, etc. Monitor engine misfire counters with a scan tool. Ignition or fuel problems can cause engine surges or misfires that are amplified when the TCC applies. Engine Calibration: Use a scan tool to make sure the latest engine calibration software has been installed.

Revised Calibrations: If none of the conditions listed are present, and the engine calibration is the latest version, you may need to install the latest transmission calibrations. Check with your local dealership for the latest calibration.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E

2nd Gear Starts; Binds in Manual Low


There are three common causes for 2nd gear starts or a bind in manual low on a 4L60E transmission: Broken 12 accumulator, commonly caused by a broken spring Defective or worn 12 accumulator seal Worn or defective 12 accumulator pin or pin bore

To prevent this from occurring, replace the 12 accumulator springs during every rebuild.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Updates for 2000


34 Clutch Backing Plate
The backing plate of the 34 clutch was updated to prevent it from being installed upside-down. This update eliminated the chamfer on the backing plate. You can use the updated plate with earlier model units. Three selective thickness plates are available for adjusting clutch clearance: 4.2 mm ............... 24217453 5.6 mm ............... 24217516 5.9 mm ............... 24212461

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E

Updates for 2000 (continued)


New TCC PWM Solenoid
The TCC PWM solenoid was updated in 2000. This solenoid will retrofit to all units using a PWM TCC. You can identify this solenoid by its gray connector, and its snout is now molded plastic instead of steel. The reason for the update was to reduce the possibility of valve body bore wear. TCC PWM Solenoid.......... 24212690

Early Solenoid

Late Solenoid w/Plastic Snout

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Updates for 2000 (continued)


Updated Valve Body
Currently the most common 4L60E diagnostic trouble code is P1870 Converter Clutch Slip. To correct this problem, GM has redesigned the TCC pressure regulator valve, isolator valve and spring. The valve lands are now longer to improve the support of the valve in the bore and to help reduce side-loading.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Pump Interchange
The non-PWM (pulse width modulated) pumps that were used only in the 93 to 94 model 4L60E are almost identical to the earlier 4L60 pumps. The main differences are the 4L60E pump stators dont have the D2 boost circuit drilled, and the bore for the filter is larger. In fact, because the non-PWM pumps are becoming increasingly harder to find, some parts remanufacturers have been machining the filter bores of 4L60 stators to meet the demands. This works, if done properly, but there are a few more things you will need to do:

4L60 Stator

4L60 .ilter Bore, 0.870" Bore Diameter

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Pump Interchange (continued)


4L60E .ilter Bore, 0.970" Bore Diameter

4L60E Stator

When converting a 4L60 stator, youll have to use the 4L60 boost valve assembly.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Pump Interchange (continued)


Make sure the D2 boost circuit has the necessary exhaust: Drill a vent hole about 1 8" / diameter in the D2 boost passage.
If youre using a 4L60 stator, drill a 1 8" hole in the D2 boost / passage for an exhaust.

If the stator was from a unit with an auxiliary valve body, plug the forward feed tube passage.

If youre using the stator from a unit with an auxiliary valve body, plug the forward feed tube passage.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Pump Interchange (continued)


Does this sound like a can of worms just to replace a pump? Actually, the only reason were covering this is in case you receive a rebuilt pump that was converted from a 4L60. We want you to know it can work, and show you what to check to make sure it will work. There is a much easier way to replace a bad pump in a non-PWM 4L60E: When GM introduced the PWM lockup system in 1995, the pump body and stator castings were redesigned. But you can use a complete PWM pump assembly in the 93 and 94 non-PWM transmissions without any modification. The difference between the PWM and non-PWM pumps is that converter charge now feeds directly from mainline, which is the same thing that happens when a technician grinds the center land of the pressure regulator valve for the commonly-used line-to-lube modification.
C A U T IO N

Never try to mix the halves from a PWM and a non-PWM assembly. A complete PWM pump assembly will work in a non-PWM transmission. But a nonPWM pump wont work in a PWM transmission.
The circles show where to look for the most obvious differences.

Non-PWM Stator

PWM Stator

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Pump Interchange (continued)


The circles show where to look for the most obvious differences.

Non-PWM Pump Body

PWM Pump Body

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Valve Body Changes


There are three basic versions of 4L60E valve bodies. In 1993 and 1994 the 4L60E used a non-PWM converter clutch, which was the same as the one used on the 4L60. These valve bodies used 4 solenoids.

1993 94 Valve Body Uses 4 Solenoids

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Valve Body Changes (continued)


In 1995, GM introduced the PWM converter clutch to the 4L60E. These valve bodies are exactly the same as the non-PWM valve bodies, except: they have an additional solenoid. the separator plate is different. they have a converter clutch regulator valve instead of a signal valve.

You can interchange these valve bodies with the earlier, non-PWM valve bodies as long as you swap the valves assembly and separator plate, and add the PWM solenoid.

1995 Valve Body Uses 5 Solenoids and a Non-Vented Manual Valve

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E

Valve Body Changes (continued)


In 1996, GM modified the 32 control valve; its now a switch valve, and uses a 1924 ohm, on/off solenoid, rather than a 9 14 ohm PWM solenoid. These valve bodies also use a vented manual valve bore. This provides a vent for the low/reverse clutch circuit while in the D4 range. Earlier, nonvented valve bodies trapped this circuit any foreign oil in the circuit could apply the low/reverse clutch. You cant benefit from this new vent by installing the manual valve on earlier valve bodies. The valve will work, but no differently than earlier valves. If you use an earlier manual valve on vented valve bodies,

1996 On Valve Body Uses 5 Solenoids and a Vented Manual Valve


youll lose all line pressure through the vent when the shifter is in park. The separator plate for 1996-and-later valve bodies is different than both earlier plates.

Late (Vented)
The vented manual valve has the longer second land. But it only provides a vent for the low/reverse clutch circuit when used with the vented valve body (arrow).

Early (Non-Vented)

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E
There are three different separator plates made for the 4L60E. Use this picture to identify which separator plate you have.

95-on (PWM) 93-95 only

93-94 only (Non-PWM)

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E HD
2001 Models
Identification
Model Tag: 1KZD RPO Code: M32 The 4L60E HD appears in sport utility vehicles with the 6.0L engine; these include the Grand Suburban, Denali, Denali XL, Centennial pickup, Yukon-XL and 2002 Cadillac Escalade.

New .eatures
5-pinion carriers made of powdered metal and assembled with bronze, bat-wing washers to support each pinion. Reaction Carrier: Part # 24218069 Input Carrier: Part # 24218063 Heavy duty sun shell and sun gear. HD Sun Shell: Part # 24217145 HD Sun Gear: Part # 24218234 A new, heavy duty output shaft that has been stress relieved through a shotpeening process during manufacturing, to increase durability. HD output shaft: Part #24217157

Reaction Carrier
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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E HD

2001 Models (continued)


Thinner 34 frictions to make room for an extra clutch without changing the design of the input housing. Instead of six frictions, the drum now holds seven. Improved input and reaction shell thrust bearings were added to handle the increased thrust loads. Induction hardened turbine shaft. Induction hardening relieves internal stress and increases shaft strength. Heat-treated stator support splines reduce the tendency to strip under extreme loads. Aluminum bushings are used because they can handle higher loads than bronze. A heavy duty low roller clutch, with large rollers and an enhanced housing for increased load capacity. Low Roller Clutch assembly (plate kit w/rear piston, steels, center support and roller clutch): Part # 8687996

.eatures Carried Over from 4L60E


ECCC (Electronically controlled capacity converter clutch) Adaptive shift control Abuse and shift torque management. Shift stabilization Second gear starts in manual 2 Tow/Haul mode Service transmission monitor
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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860


4L60E/4L80E transmissions may exhibit any or all of these trouble codes and driveability problems: P0740 P0753 P0758 P0785 P1860 TCC Solenoid Electrical Fault 12 Solenoid Electrical Fault 23 Solenoid Electrical Fault 32 Solenoid Electrical Fault TCC PWM Solenoid Electrical Fault

4L80E applications fail to shift, or will drop into second gear intermittently. The customer may complain that the vehicle is going to neutral at higher road speeds. 4L60Es fail to shift and may drop or stay in 3rd gear when the shift lever is in the OD position. Any or all of these codes may set: P0758, P0785, P1860, P0753, P0740. If the problem is intermittent, the system may not set a code.

This problem is caused by a poor crimp on one of the terminals for circuit 1020.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 (continued)


Generally the crimp problem is cavity A2 at the bulkhead connector or (C100) on later model applications at connector C2, pins E2 and F2 of the UBEC (Underhood Bussed Electrical Center, used on many trucks.

Circuit 1020

Bulkhead Connector (C100) C100

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 (continued)


Starting with 1998 S-10 trucks and all other trucks and vans, GM began using the UBEC (Underhood Bussed Electrical Connector) rather than the simple bulkhead connector. The UBEC consists of several PC boards which connect a number of circuits, including the ignition switch to the transmission. When the UBEC fails youll lose power to the transmission, resulting in failsafe or transmission solenoid codes. Unfortunately, you cant repair the UBEC like you could the earlier bulkhead connector. Instead, you must either bypass the UBEC or replace it.

UBEC C2 Connector

Inner .ender

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 (continued)

C2 Connector

Terminal E2: Power to UBEC Terminal .2: Power from UBEC to Transmission UBEC

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 (continued)

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 (continued)

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E / 4L80E

Possible No Shifts or Codes P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, P1860 (continued)


On VCM applications, if a code sets for only one or two solenoids or circuits, inspect the weatherpack seal at the VCM. You may find the seal is mispositioned, allowing water into the VCM connector. This may cause severe corrosion, which can degrade solenoid performance and cause codes to set. If corrosion is present, the VCM and the female terminals may require replacement. The ignition switch is also a common source of any or all of these problems. This holds true for the redesigned, 3-contact ignition switches used on the S-10s. To isolate this as a possible source of the problem, monitor pin voltage on circuit 1020 when the condition occurs. If the voltage drops below battery voltage, inspect the pins listed or the ignition switch for possible problems. If you find an open in the UBEC, youll have to replace it, as it is cant be disassembled and reassembled effectively.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

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4L60E / 4L80E

Delayed Engagements; Low .luid Level


Some 4x4s with the 4L60E or 4L80E may experience delayed engagements, caused by low fluid level in the transmission. This could be due to external leaks, but in some cases may be caused by a leak in the seal that separates the transmission from the transfer case. If you dont see any signs of major external leaks, check the transfer case fluid level: If its high, the input shaft seal is probably the culprit. Possible Causes: External leaks Damaged or improperly manufactured transfer housing input shaft seal: Check transfer case fluid level: If level is high, inspect the transfer case input shaft seal.

To correct the problem, examine the transfer housing input gear and bearing carefully. Replace any part thats worn or damaged. Then replace the input shaft seal with part number 14095609. Remember to drain the transfer case, and refill with the proper fluid.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L60E / 4L80E

Hard 12 Upshifts; 1999 Vehicles


Some 1999 vehicles equipped with the 4L60E or 4L80E transmissions may experience harsh 12 upshifts. This problem may be accompanied by one or both of these other problems: Hard 12 upshifts at heavy throttle. Shift may seem long with, a bump at the end.

One possibility for this problem may be a line pressure variation during the shift. The correction is to reflash the VCM with an updated calibration. These calibrations include changes in the line pressure tables.

Calibration Update: Hard 12 Upshifts


Vehicle C/K 2500 Engine/Trans 6.0L/4L80E Axle Ratio 3.73:1 4.10:1 Old Calibration Number 16253293 16253294 16264138 16264140 C/K 1500 4.8L/4L60E 3.42:1 3.73:1 4.10:1 5.3L/4L60E 3.42:1 3.73:1 4.10:1 16254164 16254166 16264200 16264201 16254202 16246203 New Calibration Number 16264187 16264188 16264205 16264206 16264165 16264167 16264243 16264244 16264245 16264246

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

"

4L80E

Harsh Shifts, Possible DTC 63


Vehicles equipped with a 4L80E transmissions and diesel engines (mostly 6.5L models) may experience a harsh shift complaint. This may be accompanied by code 63 in memory. The problem could be the vehicle has the wrong (or a faulty) BARO/boost sensor. Diesel applications use a BARO/boost sensor to determine altitude. Gasoline applications use a MAP sensor to determine manifold pressure. Although these sensors look identical, theyre calibrated differently. To correct this problem, install BARO sensor number 16006833 on diesel applications.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L80E

Surge While Towing; 19961999 7.4L


A number of 199699 trucks with the 7.4L engine have been showing up with a surge while towing. Here are the symptoms you can expect: Vehicle surges only when pulling a trailer. How bad a surge varies based on vehicle speed, trailer weight, condition and type of suspension, and the trailer hitch location and configuration. Surge tends to reduce significantly or go away when the TCC releases.

To diagnose this problem: Monitor the MAP, MAF and TPS values with a scan tool while the problem is occurring. Look for fluctuations at steady throttle. If the MAP, MAF and TPS signals fluctuate under steady throttle, check for fuel- or emission-related problems such as EGR, fuel pressure, faulty or dirty injectors, and ignition problems. Monitor TCC slip and gear ratios. Inspect the trailer suspension and hitch for possible problems. Consider relocating the load in the trailer or relocating the position of the hitch (5th wheel applications).

If all other possibilities check out okay, a new calibration is available to change the TCC lockup speed. This will greatly reduce the surge. Use a scan tool to identify the current calibration and the chart below to select the proper calibration update.

Calibration Update: Surge While Tow ing


Model Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 Old Scan Tool Calibration Number 16227602 16227603 16243564 16267332 16216254 16232743 16232744 New Scan Tool Calibration Number 16241010 16241011 16241012 16241013 16241014 16241015 16241016

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

"!

4L80E

2nd Gear Starts in Manual 2nd


A 1999 through 2001 vehicle equipped with a 4L80E starts in second gear when M2 range is selected. This is normal operation: A calibration update was issued for the GMT800 Pickup/ Suburban. To improve traction in slippery weather, the VCM was programmed to provide 2nd-gear-only operation in manual 2nd. This feature is identical to the 4L60E truck.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L80E

1999-and-Later Center Support and Sun Gear Shaft Changes


In 1999, GM added a 0.041" shim under the rear ring gear bearing. This raised the height of the sun gear by 0.041".

To offset this difference, they made a 0.041" recess in the under side of the support, where the bearing race sits.

1997 98
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

1999 On

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

"#

4L80E

1999-and-Later Center Support and Sun Gear Shaft Changes (continued)


This also required a change in the sun gear shaft. The machined area that contacts the center support bushing is 0.041" shorter. The two tubes are easy to mix up, except that the 1999-and-later shaft has a machined groove in the splined area.

1997 98

1999 On

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

4L80E

1999-and-Later Center Support and Sun Gear Shaft Changes (continued)


You may interchange these components as a set but not individually. Obviously, if you omit the shim (or add it where it doesnt belong) you will affect the rear endplay. Mixing up the sun gear shaft and support will affect the height of the shoulder of the shaft. The shoulder of the shaft should be about 0.050" above the center support ring tower. Naturally, a mismatch will also affect the front endplay, but if you arent careful you could change the shim on the pump to make up for it, without noticing the direct drum resting on the center support ring tower. You will notice it when it comes back.

Incorrect

Correct

Incorrect

Late Shaft w/ Early Support Shoulder is almost flush with the support
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

Matching Shaft and Support Shoulder is about 0.050" above support Early Shaft w/ Late Support Shoulder is about 0.090" above support

GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

"%

Allison LCT 1000

Normal Operating Conditions


The Allison LCT 1000 appears in GM heavy duty applications equipped with 8.1L gas and 6.6L Duramax diesel engines. Several conditions may be misdiagnosed as problems when in fact they are actually normal conditions, according to GM and Allison. Never attempt to repair any of these customer complaints: A clunk when shifting the transmission from reverse to park. This noise is simply the parking pawl engaging the park gear. A clunk or clicking noise in park during startup. This noise has been identified as hydraulic valve train movement or staging in anticipation of operation. A clunk when shifting from park while parked on a hill; a condition common to several transmissions. A light whine or humming noise when the vehicle is stopped with the engine idling. This is considered normal by Allison for the type of pump design they are using. A whining noise when the vehicle is moving. This is a typical planetary noise and is considered normal for the three-planetary design that Allison is using. The whine is most noticeable in 1st and 2nd gears. Shifts which arent driver initiated are a common complaint. The TCM that Allison uses has the ability to command upshifts, downshifts and TCC apply or release without any input from the customer. The customer may notice that during deceleration, engine braking may occur while going down a grade. In addition, the customer may notice the transmission shifting even though they are decelerating down a hill or traveling in hilly terrain. Some customers may comment on the firm shifts the LCT 1000 provides. The LCT 1000 uses a clutch-to-clutch shift, so youll feel a distinct firmness regarding both upshifts and downshifts.

GM uses the LCT 1000 in heavy duty applications only. This transmission is designed to withstand heavy use, so harsh shifts and certain noises are considered normal.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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GM UPDATES AND CHANGES

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

"'

.ord Updates and Changes


Contents
All Applications False Codes P1729 or P1781 .............. 51 VSS / PSOM Problems A4LD No Cooler Flow after Bellhousing Change ......................... 72

Codes 452 /P0500.............................. 52 A4LD, 4R44E / 4R55E Pump Identification ............................ 74 4R100 4R44E, 5R55E Squawking Noise in Reverse Backing up a Hill ............................. 57 4R44E: No 2nd, No 4th After Rebuild 5R55E: No 3rd, No 5th After Rebuild ... 77 No 34 Upshift or a 34 Shift Hunt When Using Cruise Control .............. 58 4R100 / E4OD P0605 (RAM Test Error) or P0603 (KAM Test Error).................... 59 No TCC Apply ..................................... 78 4R44E / 4R55E / 5R55E Low Line Pressure and No Line Rise ... 79 Extension Housing Leaks ................... 80

Valve Body Gasket and 4R70W Separator Plate ID ............................ 60 Multiple Transmission Codes Type 1 Case Gasket ......................... 62 after Installing Type 1 Valve Body Gasket ............... 63 Exchange Transmission ................... 81 Type 2 Case Gasket ......................... 64 AX4N / AX4S Type 2 Valve Body Gasket ............... 65 Type 3 Case Gasket ......................... 66 Type 3 Valve Body Gasket ............... 67 Type 4 Case Gasket ......................... 68 Type 4 Valve Body Gasket ............... 69 Plate ID ........................................... 70 No Reverse, Slips in Reverse ............... 71 No Movement after Rebuild; Valve Body, Converter or Internal Problem .............................. 82 CD4E Passenger Side Axle Seal Wear, Noise or Vibration ............................ 89

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

#

All Applications

.alse Codes P1729 or P1781


1999-2000 Econoline, Crown Victoria, Grand Marquis, and Town Cars may experience codes P1729 (4x4 Low Switch Error) or P1781 (4x4 Circuit Out of Self Test Range) in continuous memory. A check of the systems will show these to be false codes. Codes P1729 and P1781 are stored in continuous memory; they wont cause any driveability problems, or cause the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or Transmission Indicator Lamp (TCIL) to light. Clear the codes from memory; if they return, ignore them. Repair any other codes per normal diagnostics. Dont replace or reflash the computer for these codes there is no correction for this problem at this time.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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VSS / PSOM Problems


Codes 452 /P0500
There are a number of problems that can be related to the vehicle speed sensor (VSS). These problems can include: VSS related DTCs Hard upshifts Early or late upshifts No speedometer reading No speed reading with a scan tool

The first thing you need to do is to determine whether the problem is in the speed sensor itself, or if the signal is being altered by a problem in the circuit.

PCM
VSS

PSOM SCS GEM ABS/ 4WABS MSGC

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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#!

VSS / PSOM Problems


Codes 452 /P0500 (continued)
Check the signal at the VSS with it disconnected and the drive wheels spinning. Voltage should be a minimum of 0.5 VAC. If not, check the reluctor or gear; if everything else looks okay, replace the sensor.

2
Shown from the terminal side of the sensor.

VSS+

VSS

If the VSS checks out okay, the problem could be due to a failure in one or more of these modules. Each of these modules shares the VSS signal, so each has the capability of influencing the VSS circuit.

Instrument Cluster Connector (PSOM) ID Test Pin 3 Grnd VSS+ Test Pin 6
PSOM () PSOM (+)

Programmable Speedometer/ Odometer Module (PSOM) Vehicle Harness Connector


Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

VSS / PSOM Problems


Codes 452 /P0500 (continued)
Speed Control Servo Connector ID

Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.

VSS+

GEM Module Connector ID

VSS+

Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

##

VSS / PSOM Problems


Codes 452 /P0500 (continued)
ABS Connector ID VSS+

Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.

Message Center Connector ID

VSS+

Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#$

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

VSS / PSOM Problems


Codes 452 /P0500 (continued)
VSS+ (Pin 3) VSS (Pin 6) EEC-IV Connector ID VSS Only

Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.

VSS (Pin 33)

OBD-II Connector ID VSS Only

VSS+ (Pin 58)

Shown from the terminal side of the harness connector.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

#%

4R100

Squawking Noise in Reverse Backing up a Hill


Models affected: 1999 F250 Heavy Duty and Super Duty F-series trucks with 5.4L or 6.8L gas engines. This condition is often due to low line rise; the computer command for line rise isnt adequate for the conditions. To correct this, Ford has issued an update computer calibration. Use the transmission tag number and calibration number to determine whether the truck youre working on requires this update.

Ford Computer Calibration Update


Application 5.4L 49 State 5.4L CA 6.8L 49 State Transmission ID Tag MER NUY YHH AEO BIH DOZ MCM 6.8L CA EAP FOT JUR JTY MFG NRR Calibration Number 9 VZA-AF 9 VZA-BJ 9 WAA-AA 9 WAA-AC 9 WAA-AF 9 WAA-AH 9 WAA-AI 9 WAA-BC 9 WAA-BD 9 WAA-BL 9 WAA-BV 9 WAA-BY 9 WAA-BZ

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100

No 34 Upshift or a 34 Shift Hunt When Using Cruise Control


Models affected: 1999 F-series Super Duty pickups with 7.3L diesel engines may experience a hunt between 3rd and 4th gears when using cruise control. In some cases, they may lose 4th gear entirely. A calibration update has been issued to take care of this problem.

Ford Calibration Update


Application F-250/350 Federal F-450/550/650 Federal F-250/350 California Climate Warm Cold Warm Cold Warm Cold Transmission ID FIF NVK AGD CNH NSU FHP Calibration Code 9DTA-AR 9DTA-AU 9DTA-AS 9DTA-AV 9DTA-BH 9DTA-BK

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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#'

4R100 / E4OD

P0605 (RAM Test Error) or P0603 (KAM Test Error)


Some OBD-II vehicles equipped with a 7.3L DI Turbo diesel engines have been showing up with the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) on. When you pull the codes, either P0603 or P0605 will appear. These codes may be caused by aftermarket devices designed to enhance engine and transmission driveability. Typically these devices plug into the harness between the computer and the vehicle harness, or on the J3 connector located at the back of the computer. Some of the vehicles may exhibit poor driveability; others will seem to operate just fine. In either case, the MIL may be lit. To repair the code, youll need to remove the device and retest the vehicle for codes. If the problem doesnt return, the customer can then decide to leave it off, or return the vehicle to the person who originally installed device.

J3 Connector

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID

Valve Body Gasket and Separator Plate ID


There are four sets of valve body gaskets that cover 1989-2001 E4OD/4R100. Heres how to choose the correct set of gaskets, by examining just the separator plate. Step 1: Check location A. If it has a hole at A, use type 2 gaskets. If it doesnt have a hole at A, go to step 2.

Step 2: Check location B. If it doesnt have a hole at B, use type 4 gaskets. If it has a hole at B, go to step 3.

Step 3: Check location C. If it has a round hole at C, use type 1 gaskets. If it has a slot at C, use type 3 gaskets.

Separator Plate Identification


Plate Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Location A No Hole Hole No Hole No Hole Location B Hole Hole Hole No Hole Location C Round Hole Round Hole Slot Slot

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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$

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

Location A

Location B

Separator Plate
Location C

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 1 Case Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

E9TZ-7C155-B 1989 Gasket No Colors

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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$!

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 1 Valve Body Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

E9TZ-7D100-B Plain Black Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 2 Case Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

.4TZ-7C155-A Yellow Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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$#

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 2 Valve Body Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

.5TZ-7D100-A Yellow Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$$

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 3 Case Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

.6TZ-7C155-A Green Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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$%

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 3 Valve Body Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

.6TZ-7D100-A Green Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 4 Case Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

.81Z-7C155-AA Blue Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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$'

4R100 / E4OD
Gasket ID (continued)
Type 4 Valve Body Gasket

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)

.81Z-7D100-AB Blue Stripe

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R100 / E4OD
Plate ID

VB Gasket and Separator Plate ID (continued)


Even though there are only four different sets of gaskets to choose from, there are several separator plates. This chart can help you identify the separator plate you have by its identification notches. On applications with more than one listing, either separator plate will work.
Separator Plate Application
Year 1989 199095 Engine Siz e 7.3L, 7.5L, 5.8L 4.9L, 5.0L, 5.8L, 7.3L, 7.5L Separator Plate E9TZ-7A008-A F4TZ-7A008-A F5TZ-7A008-A 199095 4.9L, 5.0L, 5.8L, 7.3L, 7.5L F6TZ-7A008-B* F5TZ-7A008-B* 1996 4.9L, 5.0L, 5.8L, 7.3L, 7.5L F6TZ-7A008-B F7TZ-7A008-AA 1997 6.8L F7UZ-7A008-AA F8UZ-7A008-CA F81Z-7A008-EA 4.2L, 4.6L, 5.4L, 7.3L 1998 6.8L 7.3L (4R100 Only) 6.8L (E4OD) 19982000 20002001 19992001 4.2L, 4.6L, 5.4L Transmission Tags H, J, L, M Transmission Tags A, B, C, D, E, F F7TZ-7A008-AA F8UZ-7A008-AA F8UZ-7A008-BA F7TZ-7A008-AA F81Z-7A008-BA F81Z-7A008-DA 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Plate ID Gasket Type 1 2

* These replacement separator plates will only retrofit if you update the entire valve body assembly to 1996 parts.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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%

4R100 / E4OD

No Reverse, Slips in Reverse


The Ford 4R100 and E4OD early and late accumulator bodies aren't interchangeable. 1996-and-later accumulator bodies have only three exhaust slots; earlier bodies have four. If you install a 1995 accumulator body with four slots on a later unit, reverse oil will exhaust through the line modulator exhaust slot.

1996-and-Later Accumulator Body, with 3 Exhaust Slots

1995 Accumulator Body, with 4 Exhaust Slots

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

A4LD

No Cooler .low after Bellhousing Change


If you install an A4LD pump and plate on an unmodified 4R44/55E bellhousing, youll end up with no cooler flow. But you can easily modify the 4R44/55E bellhousing to work with the A4LD pump and plate.
IM P O R T A N T

This is a one-way interchange; theres no easy way to modify the A4LD bellhousing to work with the 4R44/55E pump and plate.

To modify the 4R44/55E bellhousing: Extend the lube circuit passage through the additional bolt hole in the 4R44/55E bellhousing. Use the pump plate to make sure the lube passage is completely clear.

Before Modification

After Modification

Remove the dam in the 4R44/55E bellhousing between the bolt hole and lube circuit.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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%!

A4LD

No Cooler .low (continued)


Use the pump plate as a template to make sure the modified hole is extended enough to open the lube passage all the way through the plate.

Partially blocked passage; remove material until the hole is clear

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

A4LD, 4R44E / 4R55E


Pump Identification
The 4R44E/4R55E bellhousing is the only individual part of the two pump assemblies that you can easily interchange, with just a simple modification. However, you can interchange the complete assemblies, as long as you keep the components together as a set. The following illustrations identify the differences in these assemblies, to prevent mismatching components.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

%#

A4LD, 4R44E / 4R55E

Pump Identification (continued)

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

A4LD, 4R44E / 4R55E

Pump Identification (continued)

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

%%

4R44E: No 2nd, No 4th After Rebuild 5R55E: No 3rd, No 5th After Rebuild
After a rebuild or valve body repair, some 4R44Es and 5R55Es may have some gears missing: 4R44E: No 2nd or 4th gears 5R55E: No 3rd or 5th gears

4R44E, 5R55E

One likely cause for this problem is the plug between the EPC boost valve and the forward modulator valve is installed backward. Use the photo to identify the correct way to install this plug.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R44E/4R55E
No TCC Apply
1995-96 model 4R44E/4R55E transmissions may experience no TCC application. This may be due to a broken tip on the TCC solenoid. The repair is simple: Replace the solenoid. The updated solenoid part number is F77Z7G136-AA.

Original Design

Updated Design

Original Design; Damaged

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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%'

4R44E / 4R55E / 5R55E


Soft shifts Slips on acceleration Ratio errors Burned clutches and bands

Low Line Pressure and No Line Rise


A number of 4R44E, 4R55E and 5R55E transmissions have been showing up with low line pressure and/or no line rise. Symptoms of these problems include:

One common cause for this is a weak or bent EPC solenoid bracket. This allows the EPC solenoid to back out of the bore, causing line pressure to drop too low. If you run into one of these units, check the bore and the solenoid for wear and install a new bracket, part # XL2Z-7L491-AA.

EPC Solenoid SSB

SSA

SSD/ CCS

TCC Solenoid

Solenoid Brackets SSC

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

4R44E / 4R55E / 5R55E


Extension Housing Leaks
A number of 19982000 Rangers equipped with the 3.0L engine have been showing up with extension housing leaks. A further inspection reveals that the bushing has seized onto the driveshaft yoke, and spun in the housing. One likely cause of this problem is the computer programming: These computers originally allowed the vehicle to reach speeds in excess of 95 MPH. The driveshaft yoke seizes in the bushing due to lack of lube at these speeds, which causes it to spin in the tail housing. To correct the leak, replace the tail housing with part # F77Z-7A039-CA, and install an updated driveshaft. To correct the actual source of the failure, have the processor reprogrammed to prevent the vehicle from reaching such high speeds.

Updated Driveshafts
Chassis Length 112" Wheelbase 118" Wheelbase 126" Wheelbase Ford P/N F87ZA-4602-AA F87ZA-4602-EA F87ZA-4602-PA

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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4R70W

Multiple Transmission Codes after Installing Exchange Transmission


In 1998 Fords 4R70W changed its transmission connector. The illustrations show the terminal ID.

Pre-1998 Connector 3 6 7 9 2 1 5 4 8
1 2 3 4 5

Pre-1998 4R70W Terminal Identification Pin Function Shift Solenoid 1 Shift Solenoid B+ TCC TFT Shift Solenoid 2 Pin Function 6 7 8 9 EPC B+ TCC B+ TFT Ground EPC Solenoid

1998-On Connector 2 1 3
1998-On 4R70W Terminal Identification Pin Function 1 2 3 4 TFT Ground TCC Solenoid Solenoid B+ TFT Signal Pin Function 5 6 7 EPC Solenoid Shift Solenoid 1 Shift Solenoid 2

4 7 6 5

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

AX4N / AX4S

No Movement after Rebuild; Valve Body, Converter or Internal Problem


Whenever youre facing a unit that wont move after a rebuild, the first question is whether the problem is caused by the valve body, converter or an internal transmission problem. The first step in this type of diagnosis is to monitor the signal from the input speed sensor with the transmission in gear and the drive wheels stopped. If you have a signal, the input shaft is turning, so the converter must be transmitting power: The problem has to be either in the valve body, or caused by an internal problem. If theres no signal from the input speed sensor, the input shaft probably isnt turning. That means the problem is either in the valve body or converter; thats the problem well discuss here.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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AX4N / AX4S

No Movement after Rebuild (continued)


Converter or Control Problem?
Remove the cooler lines and start the engine. If cooler flow is good, the converter is full of oil. That means the valve body is doing its job, providing the oil necessary for the converter. So that solves the problem: The converter is the culprit. If you get little or no cooler flow it means theres no converter charge. This can be caused by a pump volume problem or a sticking converter regulator valve.

Pump Volume Problem?


If the pump volume is unable to meet the demands of the pressure regulator valve, the mainline regulator valve will cut off converter charge to maintain as much pump volume as possible. Check mainline and EPC pressures.

Mainline EPC

AX4N

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

AX4N / AX4S

No Movement after Rebuild (continued)


Pump Volume Problem (continued)
Direct Clutch

Mainline

EPC

AX4S/ AXODE
If mainline is extremely high, and EPC Normal May be a stuck pressure regulator valve. EPC High (up to but not over 100 PSI) May be a bad EPC solenoid or electrical problem. Test accordingly. EPC High (over 100 PSI) Remove the spring from the pressure failsafe valve and 16 block the valve toward the retaining clip with a 5/ " rubber checkball.

If mainline is extremely low, remove the side cover, and blow air into the mainline pressure tap. Look for signs of leaks in the mainline circuit. If there are no signs of leaks, you may have a bad pump.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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&#

AX4N / AX4S
Pressure Problem
Remove the spring from the pressure failsafe valve and block the valve toward the retaining clip with a 5 / " rubber checkball. 16

No Movement after Rebuild (continued)

AX4N Pressure .ailsafe Valve

AX4S Pressure .ailsafe Valve

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

AX4N / AX4S

No Movement after Rebuild (continued)


Converter Charge Problem
If mainline is normal, the converter charge passage in the pump shaft may be plugged, or the sleeve in the valve body rotated. Either of these conditions will cut off converter charge oil to the converter.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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AX4N / AX4S

No Movement after Rebuild (continued)


Converter Charge Problem (continued)
The most common cause of no converter charge is the converter regulator valve sticks and blocks converter charge oil. To correct this problem, install a 20%30% heavier spring in the converter regulator valve.

Converter Regulator Valve

AX4N

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

AX4N / AX4S

No Movement after Rebuild (continued)


Converter Charge Problem (continued)

Converter Regulator Valve

AX4S

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.ORD UPDATES AND CHANGES

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CD4E

Passenger Side Axle Seal Wear, Noise or Vibration


A number of 1995-96 Contours and Mystiques have been showing up with a noise or vibration when moving. An inspection usually reveals excessive wear on the passenger side axle seal. A likely source of the problem is if the wrong bolt holes were used to mount the intermediate axle shaft bracket. The original bracket has two sets of bolt holes: One set is used for the MTX-75 (manual transaxle) and the other for the CD4E applications.

MTX-75 CD4E

CD4E Original Axle Bracket


To prevent this from happening any more, two axle support brackets are now available: One is for the MTX-75, the other for the CD4E. But this only prevents the problem if you use the correct bracket.

The CD4E retainer bolts use these holes

The MTX-75 retainer bolts use these holes

CD4E: .5RZ-3A329-.

MTX-75: .5RZ-3A329-E
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Chrysler Updates and Changes


Contents
42LE Differential Disassembly and Setup .... 93 Differential Disassembly ..................... 94 Checking and Adjusting Pinion Depth .................................. 100 Setting Pinion Depth ........................ 103 Interpreting Your Reading ............. 106 Differential Preload ........................... 109 Pinion Shaft Preload ......................... 113 Differential Backlash ........................ 117 Output Shaft Preload ........................ 120 Sprockets and Chain ........................ 121 42RH Worn Manual Valve .......................... 126 46RE / 47RE Reverse Buzz .................................... 127 Front Clutch Failure ......................... 128 45RFE New Product Information .................. 129 TCM Operation ................................. 136 Torque Converter Lockup ................. 138 Pressure Testing ............................... 139 Air Pressure Tests ............................ 140

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup


In 1993, Chrysler introduced the 42LE in their Concord, Intrepid, and Vision models. In 1994 they added the New Yorker and LHS to the list. Today the 42LE is becoming popular as a rebuild prospect, and with it come certain procedures that are critical for a successful rebuild. One of the most critical procedures is setting up the differential, pinion shaft, and output shaft. The output shaft is simple; its very similar to the 41TE. The pinion is similar to the 41TE, but because its a helical-type arrangement you sometimes have to consider pinion depth. Finally, the differential; this is very similar to setting up the differential in a rear-wheel drive vehicle. Output shaft preload, pinion preload, and differential preload and backlash are procedures youll need to follow for every rebuild; well cover them later. Setting pinion depth isnt necessary during most rebuilds. But sometimes youll be faced with serious damage that requires replacement of the pinion bearings, or worse yet, replacement of the entire ring and pinion assembly. In either case, you must reset pinion depth. You must reset pinion depth anytime you replace the pinion shaft or pinion bearings. And youll need some special tools to set the pinion depth. Some of the tools are common, such as a dial indicator, bearing splitter, and miscellaneous hardware; you should already have these tools on hand. But there are a few tools that are especially made just for this process; youll need them as well. The picture shows all of the specialty tools well use for setting up the geartrain on this unit. Included are tools well use for setting the pinion depth, as well as all the procedures for adjusting preload and backlash.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Disassembly
Once you have the valve body, pump, clutch drums, clutch packs and planetary gearsets removed from the transaxle, removing the differential is easy and doesnt require any special tools: Remove the inner and outer differential adjuster ring clamps.

Remove the outer differential adjuster ring from the differential side cover. Remove the differential side cover bolts, then carefully remove the side cover, without damaging the cover-to-case mating surfaces.

Remove the differential, then remove the inner differential adjuster ring.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Disassembly (continued)
The output shaft and pinion shaft are a bit more challenging. First you need to remove the drive chain: Measure the drive chain stretch to determine whether the chain is reusable (well discuss this procedure at the end of this section). Remove the snap ring and wave spring from each of the sprockets.

Install the special sprocket spreader tool between the sprockets.

Tighten the spreader until you can slide the sprockets up and off the output and pinion shafts easily.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Disassembly (continued)
Remove and save the small plastic thrust washer from under the output sprocket.

The procedure for removing the nuts on the two shafts is the same: Grind or chisel the stake outward or off of each nut. Remove the nut from the shaft. Tools 6497 (nut wrench) and 6498 (shaft socket) make this easy. You may prefer using an impact gun to remove these nuts, but youll need these tools during reassembly, so you might as well have them available.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Disassembly (continued)
Once you have the nuts removed from the shafts, press the two shafts out of the case. The output shaft pops right out through the case, usually requiring little more than a few good taps with a soft mallet to slide the shaft through the bearing. Locate and save the small selective metal shim from under the rear output shaft bearing.

The pinion shaft isnt quite as cooperative. Tap (or pound, if required) the pinion shaft toward the case to pop the rear bearing off the shaft.

But the rear bearing outer race still in the case prevents you from tilting the pinion shaft enough to remove it from the case. For this youll need the bearing-race-removal tool (6577). This is a must-have tool; the race is almost impossible to remove without it. Heres how it works:
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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Disassembly (continued)
Install the jaws of the tool on the bearing. Install the tool. Tighten the nut.

and the race pops off. Retrieve the selective shim from under this bearing, too.

Remove the bearing shield plate from the case by gently tapping it out from behind, then you can easily remove the pinion shaft through the differential housing.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Disassembly (continued)
The next step is to remove the pinion shaft seals. For this you can simply use a large screwdriver or drift and drive them out through the rear of the case.

If the output shaft and front pinion shaft bearings and races are in good condition, theres no need to remove these three races from the case. The unit is now sufficiently disassembled, ready for parts inspection and cleaning.
N O T IC E

The bearing race bores in the case may have a layer of oxidation. This will cause an excessively tight fit when installing new bearing races. Its a good idea to lightly sand the case bores of any bearing races that you removed.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Checking and Adjusting Pinion Depth
Theres no need to check the pinion shaft depth unless the pinion shaft bearings, pinion and ring gears, or case need to be replaced. If these parts are okay, skip ahead to the next section. If you do need to perform this check, well assume that youre replacing the pinion bearings too, so well also cover how to do that. Remove the pinion shaft front bearing race from the case using a drift or long punch.

Lightly sand the race bore to remove any coating or oxidation. Remove the pinion bearing from the pinion shaft with a common bearing splitter and press.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Checking and Adjusting Pinion Depth (continued)
Theres a shim between the bearing and the pinion gear: This is the selective washer to check if you replace the pinion shaft or its bearings. Install the new pinion shaft front bearing race into the case. Youll need to keep the pressing force on the race in line with the race bore, to keep the race from jamming partway into place. But this isnt always easy to do. Chryslers special tool set (6494) is designed specifically for this purpose. It works great and ranks quite high on our Must Get tools list. You also need part of this tool set to perform the actual pinion depth measurement, which well discuss next.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Checking and Adjusting Pinion Depth (continued)
Make sure that the bearing race seats all the way down into its bore by trying to slip a thin feeler gauge between the race and the end of the case bore. If the feeler gauge goes in, the race isnt home yet. Keep pressing or bashing until the race is fully seated.

IM P O R T A N T

The tests and adjustments for pinion depth, differential preload, pinion shaft preload, and differential backlash must be performed in the order presented. Neither pinion depth nor pinion shaft preload can be checked with the differential in the case, differential preload cant be checked with the pinion shaft in the case, and so on.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Setting Pinion Depth
Youll need special tool 6549 for this, which is actually a kit that includes several tools. You will also need tool 6494-2, which is a large, disk-shaped part of tool 6494, the tool used to press the front pinion bearing race into the case.

The procedure is fairly simple: Install the centering block into the case, making sure it bottoms out in the adjuster bore.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Setting Pinion Depth (continued)
Place the new pinion shaft front bearing on the gauge disk (6549-3) and threaded rod included in the kit, and slide them into the case.

Set tool 6494-2 into the rear pinion bearing race bore, and run the special nut from the 6549 kit down the threaded rod, into tool 6494-2. Center the gauge disk on the bearing as you finger-tighten the nut.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Setting Pinion Depth (continued)
Insert your dial indicator into the locating block from the kit, locking it into place with the blocks set screw. Make sure that your indicator doesnt protrude beyond the back of the locating block. Remove the tip from your indicator and screw in the dial indicator extension from the kit.

Zero-out your dial indicator, using the tube-shaped special tool from the kit. Place your dial indicator through the tube, and then lay the fixture on a flat surface. Press down on your indicator and zero the dial indicator, then lock or tape the dial face in place so it doesnt move.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Setting Pinion Depth (continued)
To make your measurement, insert the dial indicator locating block into the center hole of the centering block in the case. Holding the locating block against the centering block, slowly rotate the indicator, sliding the indicator peg back and forth across the gauge disk to achieve the reading closest to zero.

Interpreting Your Reading


Since different types of indicators use different types of scales, which can involve different ways of interpreting readings, its easy to get confused when trying to figure out your actual measurement. Were going to try to make this a bit easier for you. Most dial indicators rotate clockwise when you push the indicator peg toward the dial. If yours does, youre looking for how many thousandths of an inch counterclockwise your needle is from zero.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Setting Pinion Depth (continued)
If your indicator rotates counterclockwise when you push it, count the thousandths clockwise from zero to the measurement. The indicator used in our example rotates clockwise.

Although the indicator needle is pointing to 0.060" on the dial, were going to ignore that and count counterclockwise from zero, arriving at a measurement of 0.040". One clue: Your measurement must be somewhere within the 0.023"0.047" range. If your reading is substantially different, then either youre measuring improperly; interpreting your measurements wrong; or the pinion shaft front bearing, race or gauge disk is out of position. Check the bearing race; it may not be pressed all the way into its bore. To select the proper pinion depth shim, youll need two things: 1. The measurement value from your dial indicator reading, and 2. The pinion adjustment factor, which youll add to or subtract from your measurement, to give you the required shim size.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Setting Pinion Depth (continued)
The pinion adjustment factor is the number painted on the pinion shaft, with either a plus or a minus sign in front of it. If your shaft doesnt have a number on it, the factor is zero. Ready for some twisted logic?

If the adjustment factor number on the shaft has a minus in front of it, add that number to your measurement to determine the shim size. If the shaft number has a plus, subtract that number from your measurement to determine the shim size.

The shaft used has a minus 3 printed on it, so we add 0.003" to the reading of 0.040", for a required shim size of 0.043". There are 17 shims to choose from, in increments of about 0.001", from 0.027" to 0.045". Once youve installed the correct shim on the pinion shaft and pressed the bearing into place, youre done with pinion depth.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Preload
Install the O-ring and seal onto the inner differential adjuster ring. Support the outside diameter of the inner adjuster while pressing the seal in, and only drive the seal in flush. Its easy to break the center out of the adjuster if you drive the seal too far into its bore.
C A U T IO N

Lube the O-ring and adjuster threads with gear lube, and then install the adjuster into the case using special tool (6502C) until its just flush with the differential side of the case.

Lube the differential bearings with gear lube, then place the differential carrier into the case.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Preload (continued)
Check the cover and case mating surfaces for damage on the contact area. Repair any damage that would keep the cover from lying flat on the case. Install the differential cover without any sealer, and tighten the bolts to 20 ft-lbs.

Install the O-ring on the outer adjuster, but dont install the seal yet. Lube the O-ring and adjuster threads with gear lube. Install the outer adjuster into the case, being careful not to damage the O-ring as it enters the bore. You may want to use the side of a pick tip to help feed the ring into the bore. Use an inch-pound torque wrench with special tool 6503 to tighten the outer adjuster until you start to feel a bit of preload on the differential bearings. Using the torque wrench will make sense in just a moment.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Preload (continued)
Now youll set the turning torque for the differential. This is a bit tricky so follow closely: Use tool 6548, with a long extension and an inch-pound torque wrench, to measure the differential turning torque.

The proper turning torque for the differential carrier is: 19 to 23 inch-pounds for new bearings. 6 to 10 inch-pounds for used bearings.

Remember, youre checking for turning torque; in other words, the torque required to keep the differential turning, not starting torque, which is the torque required to start the differential turning. While youre measuring the turning torque, tighten (or loosen) the outer adjuster to change the amount of turning torque.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Preload (continued)
Keep in mind that youre using an inch-pound torque wrench on the outer adjustment tool (6503). What youre doing is measuring how much torque it takes to tighten the outer adjuster to achieve the proper differential turning torque usually requiring about 125150 in-lbs of torque on the outer adjuster ring. Heres why youre checking this torque: After you install the pinion shaft, you wont be able to measure the differential turning torque by itself, because the differential and pinion shaft will be engaged. But now we know how much adjuster torque is needed to achieve the correct differential turning torque! Youll use the torque applied to the outer adjuster to get back to the right differential turning torque, even though the pinion shaft is installed and engaged with the differential. Once youve recorded the adjuster torque needed to achieve the correct differential turning torque, remove the outer adjuster from the differential cover. Then remove the differential cover and differential. Theres no reason to remove the inner adjuster, so just leave it in the case.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Pinion Shaft Preload
Set the pinion shaft into the case, and hold it in place with the support fixture tool (6595). Or you can use a substitute that will load the shaft against the front pinion bearing race firmly enough during seal installation.

Slide the seal protector tool (6592) onto the pinion shaft so you dont damage the seals. Install the two pinion shaft seals one at a time using the special driver tool (6567A), which also controls the crucial seal installation depth.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Pinion Shaft Preload (continued)
Notice that the two seals have a different outside diameter; install the smaller of the two seals with the ridges on one side of it first, closer to the differential. These ridges must face away from the differential, with the seal lip and garter spring facing toward the differential.

The larger seal installs with its back against the smaller seal back, seal lip and garter spring facing away from the differential.

Install the bearing shield into the case.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Pinion Shaft Preload (continued)
Slide the selective shim over the pinion shaft. Dont worry about which selective washer you use just yet; use the washer that came with the unit.

Drive the rear pinion shaft bearing race into the case bore, making sure it goes all the way down against the shoulder in the bore. Place the rear pinion bearing onto the shaft, then start a new pinion shaft nut on the shaft threads. Never beat on the bearing; the shaft is still being held by the support fixture at the other end of the shaft. You can use the nut to press the bearing into position on the shaft.

C A U T IO N

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Pinion Shaft Preload (continued)
To tighten the pinion shaft nut, youll need the same two special tools used to remove it: the socket for turning the shaft (with a torque wrench this time), and the holding wrench for the nut.

The torque for the nut is 200 ft-lbs, and the turning torque for the pinion shaft is 1 to 8 inch-pounds. Measure the turning torque repeatedly as you tighten the nut. If you exceed the turning torque specification without reaching the tightening torque of the nut, stop and install a thicker selective washer. If you reach the 200 ft-lbs and have endplay on the shaft, youll need a thinner selective washer.

One you achieve both the proper turning torque and tightening torque, stake the nut so it wont back off. Chrysler has a special tool (6589) that makes staking the nut easy.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Backlash
To set differential backlash: Place the differential into the case. Clean and dry the differential side cover and case mating surface. Apply a thin bead of silicone to the side cover and install it onto the case. Tighten all the cover bolts to 20 ft-lbs. Tighten the outer adjuster until you get to the specification you recorded earlier. Remember, you cant check the turning torque of the differential, so you must tighten the adjuster to the specification you found earlier; this should provide the correct differential turning torque.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Backlash (continued)
Okay, once again the next part gets a bit tricky, so follow closely. You must now set the differential backlash: Place a dial indicator through the access hole, with the tip of the indicator resting on the side of one of the differential ring gear teeth.

Reach into the access hole and move the differential ring gear back and forth while you check the indicator. Make sure the pinion shaft doesnt move while youre checking the backlash.

The proper backlash is 0.0045" to 0.0105". If the backlash is incorrect, move the differential carrier closer to, or away from, the pinion shaft. To move the carrier toward the pinion, turn the inner adjuster away from the carrier a small amount, then turn the outer adjuster toward the carrier the exact same amount, until you reach the proper adjuster torque. Check the backlash again. Moving the carrier closer to the pinion shaft reduces backlash. Moving the carrier away from the shaft increases the backlash.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Differential Backlash (continued)
Its a pretty weird tool setup, so it may take some practice to get reliable readings. Once you have the backlash correct, recheck the tightening torque of the outer adjuster.

Remember, as youre adjusting the differential backlash, youre changing the turning torque on the differential, because youre moving the adjusters. Once you have both the backlash and adjuster torque set properly, youre finished with this part of the setup procedure: Secure the adjusters with the adjuster clamps. Install the stub shaft seal protector over the differential stub shaft and install the seal into the outer adjuster.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Output Shaft Preload
The next part of the process is setting up the output shaft. You must set the turning torque of the output shaft, just as you did the pinion shaft. The procedure for setting the output shaft turning torque is exactly the same as it was for the pinion shaft. You use the same tools, the turning torque is the same, and you measure it the same way. And since the procedure is virtually identical, refer to the pinion shaft preload section for this procedure.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Sprockets and Chain
The output sprocket uses a selective shim under it to raise or lower the output sprocket to align the two sprockets.

To set up and install the sprockets and chain: Place the shim that came with the unit on the output shaft. Place the sprockets on their shafts, without the chain in place. Place a straightedge across the sprockets. Carefully press on the straightedge, first over one sprocket, then the other.

The sprockets may be perfectly aligned, but its doubtful. Youll most likely find that when you press the straightedge over one sprocket, theres clearance between the other sprocket and the straightedge. If so, measure this clearance with a feeler gauge. You want less than 0.015" clearance between the sprocket and straightedge.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Sprockets and Chain (continued)
If the clearance is more than 0.015", replace the selective washer under the output sprocket with a different thickness washer, until you get the right clearance. Once you have the sprockets aligned, its time to install the chain: Place the chain on the sprockets. Use the special chain sprocket-spreading tool (6550) to spread the sprockets apart; tightening the chain and place this assembly on the shafts.

Loosen the tool while you turn the two shafts. Once the splines of the sprockets and shafts line up, the sprockets and chain will slide right down onto the shafts.

Install the spring washers and snap rings that secure the two sprockets.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Sprockets and Chain (continued)
The last measurement is the chain snubber clearance: Bolt the snubber in place. Tighten the chain by prying on the side of the chain opposite the snubber with a screwdriver or bar, then measure the clearance between the snubber and chain. Snubber-to-chain clearance should be 0.000"0.030". If you have too much clearance, replace the snubber.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Sprockets and Chain (continued)
While were at the chain, lets look at how you measure it for too much stretch: Pry on the chain the same way you did for checking snubber clearance. Measure the distance across the inside of the chain.

Pry the same side of the chain in the opposite direction, and measure the distance across the inside of the chain again.

If you have a difference of more than 1" between the two measurements, replace the chain. Naturally, now isnt the time to check for chain stretch; you should have done that before you took the unit apart. But this is a great time for showing you how to do it.

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42LE

Differential Disassembly and Setup (continued)


Sprockets and Chain (continued)
This last page of the section provides charts of the shim thicknesses available for the differential setup procedure.

Transfer Shaft Rear Shims (Inches)


0.1390.140 0.1400.141 0.1410.142 0.1420.143 0.1430.144 0.1440.144 0.1450.146 0.1460.147 0.1470.148 0.1480.149 0.1500.150 0.1510.152 0.1520.153 0.1530.154 0.1540.155 0.1550.156 0.1570.158 0.1580.159 0.1590.160 0.1600.161 0.1610.162 0.1630.163 0.1640.165 0.1650.166 0.1660.167 0.1670.168 0.1690.169 0.1700.171 0.1710.172 0.1720.173 0.1730.174 0.1740.175 0.1760.176 0.1770.178 0.1780.179 0.1790.180 0.1800.181 0.1810.182 0.1830.183 0.1840.185

Output Shaft Rear Shims (Inches)


0.2030.204 0.2050.205 0.2060.207 0.2070.208 0.2080.209 0.2090.210 0.2110.211 0.2120.213 0.2130.214 0.2140.215 0.2150.216 0.2160.217 0.2180.218 0.2190.220 0.2200.221 0.2210.222 0.2220.223 0.2230.224 0.2250.226 0.2260.227 0.2270.228 0.2280.229 0.2300.230 0.2310.232 0.2320.233 0.2330.234 0.2340.235 0.2350.236 0.2370.237 0.2380.239

Output Sprocket Spacer Shims (Inches)


0.1040.112 0.1120.120 0.1200.128 0.1370.145 0.1450.153 0.1530.161 0.1620.170

These procedures are time consuming and precise, but they really are necessary. The tools used in these procedures run about $1000. Naturally you can improvise for some of them, but with others youll have to get the tools, because the right tools will let you do the job right the first time.
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42RH

Worn Manual Valve


Dodge has a recall on 1991 and 92 Dakotas with the 42RH transmission. The problem has to do with the manual valve wearing out. Dodge offers a replacement valve under kit number CBMT8710. You may not want to purchase the complete kit, since it includes the pan gasket, a filter and some other seals that you probably already have. But always check the manual valve for wear.

Manual Valve

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46RE / 47RE
Reverse Buzz
This complaint is very common. There have been a number of fixes designed to help combat this complaint, such as: Pressure Regulator Valve (Steel OEM): 4130169 Brass Screen (Aftermarket): Ask your supplier Servo Kit (OEM: Reverse Band Anchor, Reverse Boost Valve and Plug): 04897877AA Reverse Boost Sleeve (OEM): 52118761 Reverse Boost Plug (OEM): 52118763 Worn Manual Valve: Replace the valve body or get a good valve

All these repairs have fixed the problem at one time or another but none of them works every time. Pay special attention to the pump gears: Any wear across the face of the teeth can and will cause a buzz. Using the higher volume pump on 46RE and 47RE units will usually take care of this problem.

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CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

46RE and 47RE


.ront Clutch .ailure
Make sure you inspect the seal surface of the front clutch carefully during every rebuild. Some front clutch drums werent finished properly, so they wear out the piston seal. If the seal surface isnt smooth all the way around, replace the front clutch drum. And make sure the inner seal isnt recessed too deeply into the seal groove. Some drums have seal grooves that are cut too deep, which prevents the seal from making adequate contact with the piston.

Check the seal surface indicated: If they arent smooth all the way around, replace the drum.


And make sure the seal protrudes slightly.

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45R.E

New Product Information


The 45RFE is used in the 1999-on Jeep Grand Cherokee, equipped with the 4.7L engine. The 42RE is still used with the smaller 4.0L engine in the Jeep Grand Cherokee. This can lead to some problems when giving quotes for servicing these vehicles. Make sure of the engine size to determine which unit youre dealing with.

Clutch Application
Shifter Position Park Reverse Neutral Overdrive 1st 2
nd

Low / Reverse

S eco n d

Overdrive

Fourth

Underdrive

Overrun

Reverse

2nd Prime 3rd 4th Limp In Manual 2 1st 2 Manual Low


nd

Limp In

0 L/R clutch is only applied when the output shaft speed is below 150 RPM.

Gear Ratios
Gear 1
st nd nd

Ratio 3.00:1 1.67:1 1.50:1 1.00:1 0.75:1 3.00:1

2 3

2 Prime
rd th

Reverse

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

!

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


The primary mechanical components of the transmission are: Three multiple disc input clutches underdrive, overdrive, and reverse.
Reverse Reaction Plate Reverse Clutch Snap Ring (Selective)

Reverse Hub/Shaft Rev/OD Reaction Plate Snap Ring (Wave) OD Hub/Shaft Snap Ring (.lat)

Bearing Number 4

Bearing Number 3

Plate

Disc

Input Clutch Hub Seal

Seal

Snap Ring

UD Balance Piston Snap Ring

Snap Ring UD Hub/Shaft Bearing Number 2 OD Clutch Snap Ring (Taper)

Input Shaft Seal UD Piston Clutch Retainer Seal OD/Rev Piston Plate Spring Disc

Snap Ring (.lat)

UD/OD Reaction Plate (Selective)

Snap Ring

Belleville Spring

UD Clutch

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

!

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Three multiple disc holding clutches 2C, 4C and Low/Reverse).
2C Piston Seal Snap Ring

Disc Plate 4C Retainer Bulkhead

2C Bellville Spring

4C Piston Reaction Plate Snap Ring (Selective)

Seal Disc

Return Spring

Snap Ring

Snap Ring (Selective) Reaction Plate

Plate

Snap Ring

Overrunning Clutch Seal Seal Snap Ring Retainer Belleville Spring Piston

L/R Clutch Retainer

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

!

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Three planetary gear sets reaction, reverse and input.

Bearing Number 11 Bearing Number 10 Snap Ring Bearing Number 9 Bearing Number 8 Reaction Annulus Bearing Number 6 Reaction Planetary Carrier Reverse Planetary Carrier Input Sun Gear Input Planetary Carrier Input Annulus

Reaction Sun Gear Bearing Number 7 Thrust Plate

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

!!

45R.E

TCC Accumulator Valve

New Product Information (continued)


Dual-stage hydraulic oil pump, consisting of four TCC valves, a pressure regulator valve, two pumps (primary and secondary), and a bolt-on stator.
TCC Control Valve TCC Switch Valve

Oil Pump to Case Bolt (6)

TCC Limit Valve Pump Housing Pump Cover Valve Body Reaction Shaft Support Seal Pump Body Drive Gear Oil Pump

Pressure Regulator Valve

Sealing Rings (5)

Oil .ilter Seal

Driven Gears

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

!"

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Valve body low/reverse switching valves, solenoid switch valves, 7 checkballs, and a manual valve. Features five hydraulic accumulators overdrive, underdrive, 4C, 2C, and low/reverse.
Low/Reverse Accumulator Low/Reverse Switch Valve

Upper Valve Body

2C Accumulator 4C Accumulator Underdrive Accumulator Overdrive Accumulator Solenoid Switch Valve Manual Valve

TRS Selector Plate #4 #2 #3

#7

#5 #1

Clutch Passage Seals

#6

Detent Spring

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

!#

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Solenoid pack solenoids, pressure switches, range selector, and temperature sensor. There are 23 pins in the connector.
Transmission Terminal Identification
Shown from the pin side of the harness connector
Gray
Pin Function 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fused Ignition Switch Ouput (Run) L/R Solenoid Engine Starter Motor Relay TRS T41 Sense TRS T42 Sense Backup Lights Overdrive Solenoid TRS T3 Sense TRS T1 Sense Transmission Control Relay Output 4th Clutch Pressure Switch Pressure Control Solenoid Pin Function 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 TRS T2 Sense L/R Pressure Switch 2nd Clutch Pressure Switch Overdrive Pressure Switch Underdrive Solenoid Underdrive Pressure Switch 4th Clutch Solenoid 2nd Clutch Solenoid MS Solenoid Speed Sensor Ground Transmission Temperature Sensor

3 7 12 16 20 23

1 4 8 13 17 21

Pressure Control Solenoid

Solenoid Pack 23-Way Connector

Transmission Range Sensor


2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

!$

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


The Transmission Control Module (TCM) is the brain of the electronic control system and relies on information from various direct and indirect inputs (sensors, switches, etc.) to determine driver demand and vehicle operating conditions. With this information, the TCM can calculate performance in a timely manner, to optimize the shifts. Various output or control devices are used to achieve this, such as the solenoid pack, transmission control relay, etc.

TCM Operation
The 45RFE relies on full electronic control for all upshifts and downshifts. It features real-time adaptive closed-loop shift and pressure control. Direct Inputs: Battery (B+) Voltage Ignition (On) Voltage Transmission Control Relay (Switched B+) Throttle Position Sensor Crankshaft Position Sensor Transmission Range Sensor Pressure Switches Transmission Temperature Sensor Input Shaft Speed Sensor Output Shaft Speed Sensor Line Pressure Sensor

Indirect inputs: Engine/Body Identification Manifold Pressure Target Idle Torque Reduction Confirmation Engine Coolant Temperature Ambient/Battery Temperature DRB Scan Tool Communications

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

!%

45R.E
Direct Outputs:

New Product Information (continued)


TCM Operation (continued)
Transmission Control Relay Solenoids Torque Reduction Request

Indirect Outputs: Transmission Temperature (to ECM) PRNDL Position (to BCM)

Other responsibilities and functions of the TCM are: Storing and maintaining Clutch Volume Indexes (CVIs). Storing and selecting appropriate shift schedules, depending on shift lever position, throttle position, engine load, fluid temperature, and software level. System Self-Diagnostics Diagnostic Capabilities (with DRB scan tool) If you replace the TCM, youll have to perform the Quick Learn Procedure.

N O T IC E

Clutch Volumes
Clutch Low/Reverse Second Overdrive Fourth Underdrive Updated During 21 or 31 Downshift 32 Kickdown 23 Upshift 34 Upshift 43 Kickdown Clutch Volume 45 to 134 25 to 85 30 to 100 30 to 85 30 to 100

Now, with all that out of the way, lets get into some of the things that make this unit stand above others that are trying to achieve the same things.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

!&

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Torque Converter Lockup
The lockup torque converter has four different working modes: No EMCC (Electronic Modulated Converter Clutch): When the L/R solenoid is off, theres no EMCC. Several conditions can cause this, such as a failure in the transmission or the TCM simply determines that, because of the load, it isnt needed. This may be normal. Partial EMCC: The L/R solenoid is modulated (duty cycled) to obtain partial lockup. The TCM maintains partial EMCC until conditions are right for it to switch to full lockup. During partial EMCC, some slip occurs. Partial EMCC usually takes place at lower road speeds, low load and light throttle. Full EMCC: The TCM increases the L/R solenoid duty cycle to 100% (full on) only after partial EMCC. The TCM brings the transmission input speed within the desired slip range of the engine speed, relative to engine RPM. Gradual-to-no EMCC: This is to soften the change from full or partial EMCC to no EMCC. This occurs at mid-throttle. The TCM decreases the duty cycle on the L/R solenoid to achieve this.

To determine how to control lockup, the TCM uses coolant temperature, engine RPM, vehicle speed, throttle position, and manifold vacuum. The TCC can be engaged in third gear while in D range, and in fourth gear in OD range, depending on the position of the overdrive control switch.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

!'

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Pressure Testing
There are only three pressure tests you can perform from the outside of the 45RFE: T/C off (converter released), T/C on (converter applied), and line pressure, which requires a special adapter. This adapter allows you to check the integrity of the pressure transducer, as well as the working line pressure at idle. Compare the pressure reading on your scan tool to the gauge reading to determine whether the transducer is sending the correct signal to the TCM. Its possible to check all of the clutch circuits by using a special oil pan that lets you hook into virtually every circuit in the transmission. This pan must be used when checking oil pressures. The 45RFE uses closed loop control of the line pressure, so the pressure readings may very greatly, but should always follow line pressure. The pressure specs are: Upshift/downshift pressure for all shifts except the 34, 43 and 42 prime is 120 PSI. Upshift/downshift pressure for the 34, 43, and 42 prime is 100 PSI. Garage shift pressure for NR is 220 PSI. Garage shift pressure for RN and N1 is 120 PSI.

Transmission

Special Tool 8258

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"

CHRYSLER UPDATES AND CHANGES

45R.E

New Product Information (continued)


Pressure Testing (continued) Air Pressure Tests
When air pressure testing, always regulate the air pressure to 30 PSI. You can perform these air pressure tests in the vehicle or on the bench when repairing this unit. Refer to for the different test port locations. Air pressure tests will enable you to determine the holding ability of the clutch drum being used. If the clutches are damaged, the test wont let you determine the holding ability of that clutch, but it does let you identify problems in the apply circuit.

4th Low/Reverse 2nd

Overdrive

Underdrive

Reverse

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

"

Import Updates and Changes


Contents
Nissan Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure ....... 143 RE4F02A and RL4F02A ................. 144 RE4F03A ....................................... 145 RE4F04A and 4F20E ..................... 146 RL4R01A, RE4R01A, R4A-EL and R4AX-EL ................. 147 RE4R03A ...................................... 148 JR403E ......................................... 149 Subaru 4-Speed ............................ 150 RE4R01A, RE4R03A, R4AEL, Subaru and JR403E Line Pressure Control Solenoid.... 152 RE4F02A Line Pressure Control Solenoid ......................... 152 RE4F03A, RE4F04A and 4F20E Line Pressure Control Solenoid.... 153 RE4F02A ....................................... 154 RE4F03A, RE4F04A and 4F20E .... 155 Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis Code Retrieval Procedures ................ 166 Preliminary Check ............................ 167 All, Except J30, Q45 and Quest ........ 168 Quest Only ....................................... 168 J30 Only .......................................... 169 Q45 Only .......................................... 169 Reading Codes Most Systems ......... 170 Reading J30 Codes ........................... 172 Reading Q45 Codes .......................... 174 Diagnostic Trouble Codes ................. 175 Clearing Diagnostic Trouble Codes ... 175 Code 1: Revolution Sensor ................ 176 Code 2: VSS (Vehicle Speed Sensor) .. 178 Code 3: TPS (Throttle Position Sensor) ............... 181 Solenoid Codes ................................. 184 Code 8: Fluid Temperature Sensor Out of Range ............................................ 186

Code 9: Engine Revolution Signal ..... 188 RE4R01A, RE4R03A, R4A-EL, R4AX-EL, JR403E and Nissan Computer Pin Charts Subaru 4-Speed .......................... 156 All Up to 1998 RE4F02A ....................................... 157 Except RWD Vans and Wagons ...... 189 RE4F03A, RE4F04A and 4F20E .... 158 RE4R01A, RE4R03A, R4A-EL, R4AX-EL, JR403E and 1999-On ........................................... 193 Subaru 4-Speed .......................... 159 Subaru Computer Pin Charts Nissan RE4F02A Early Models .................................... 195 Low Pressure at Idle ......................... 160 Nissan RE4F04A and 4F20E Slides Through 2nd Gear, Upshifts 134 ............................... 163
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

All RWD Vans and Wagons Up to 1998 ..................................... 191

Late Models ...................................... 197

"

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

"!

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure


It isnt uncommon for electronically-controlled Nissan transmissions to have problems with line pressure. Whether its low mainline at idle, not enough line rise, or no line rise at all, the result will be soft shifts or burnt clutches and bands. Its a good idea to check pressures before any work is performed on the vehicle. But its absolutely necessary to check pressures when you reinstall the unit, even if it seems to work great. Most of these transmissions dont have a true line pressure tap. Instead, you can check line pressure by checking the forward clutch pressure when the units in D, S and L, and reverse clutch pressure when its in reverse. But remember, if forward clutch pressure is 20 PSI at idle, it could be a mainline pressure problem or it could be a leak in the forward clutch circuit. The point is, dont assume theres a problem with mainline pressure just because forward clutch pressure is low.

Mainline Pressure Specifications


Pressure in Drive (PSI) Transmission RL4F02A RE4F02A RL4F03A RE4F03A RE4F04A / 4F20E RL4R01A RE4R01A / RE4R03A Vehicle All All All All Quest / Villager All Others All 2WD 4WD 4WD Subaru 4-Spd 2WD / 4WD Idle 5464 5561 7580 7075 7075 7075 6167 6470 6874 6874 5774 6482 Full 175200 186198 155160 155160 170180 155165 128139 128139 148159 175186 148159 164182 Pressure in Reverse (PSI) Idle 5464 5561 125130 120125 120130 120130 97102 102108 95101 8894 102108 85100 Full 175200 186198 250260 265275 260270 245260 202213 201212 206218 219230 206218 206230

R4A-EL / R4AX-EL 2WD

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

""

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4.02A and RL4.02A
Lockup Release Reverse Clutch

High Clutch

Mainline

Mainline

Governor (RL4.02A Only)

Low Clutch

Cooler .low (to Cooler)

Low/Reverse Brake

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

"#

Nissan
RE4.03A

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)

.orward Clutch

Low/Reverse Brake

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"$

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4.04A and 4.20E
Lockup Release .orward Clutch

Lockup Apply

Low/Reverse Brake

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

"%

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RL4R01A, RE4R01A, R4A-EL and R4AX-EL
Accumulator Vent Passage Plug

High Clutch/ Servo Release 3rd Gear

2nd Band Apply 4th Band Apply

Governor (RL4R01A Only)

Reverse

.orward Clutch

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"&

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan
RE4R03A

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
High Clutch/Ser vo Release 3rd Gear A ccum ulator Vent Passage Plug

2nd Band A pply

4th Band A pply

Reverse

Overrun Clutch

.or ward Clutch

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

"'

Nissan
JR403E

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
Reverse

3rd Clutch/ Ser vo Release 3rd Gear 2nd Band A pply 4 Band A pply
th

A ccum ulator Vent Passage Plug

.or ward Clutch Overrun Clutch Low/Reverse Brake

Mainline
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
Subaru 4-Speed

3rd Clutch

Lockup Apply

Overrun Clutch

.orward Clutch

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

#

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
Subaru 4-Speed (continued)
Oil Pump Control Reverse Clutch 3rd Clutch/ Servo Release

Transfer Clutch

Oil Pump Outlet

Low/Reverse Brake Reverse Clutch 2nd Band Apply 4th Band Apply

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
The most common reason for no line rise in Nissan transmissions with electronic pressure control is a bad line pressure control solenoid. The only way to purchase one of these solenoids separately is to order one for the RE4R01A, part # 31940-41X01. All Nissan line pressure control solenoids are the same, except for the bracket and wiring. The bracket is held on to the solenoid by a snap ring. To use this solenoid on other units, simply use the original connector and bracket from the unit youre working on, and splice the wires to the original connector.

RE4R01A, RE4R03A, R4AEL, Subaru and JR403E Line Pressure Control Solenoid

RE4.02A Line Pressure Control Solenoid

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

#!

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4.03A, RE4.04A and 4.20E Line Pressure Control Solenoid

Subaru 4-Speed

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#"

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
Another common reason for no line rise is insufficient feed to the line pressure control solenoid. Always enlarge the line pressure control solenoid feed orifice to 0.042", on every Nissan transmission you rebuild.

RE4.02A

Solenoid .eed Orifice

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

##

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4.03A, RE4.04A and 4.20E

Solenoid .eed Orifice

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#$

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4R01A, RE4R03A, R4A-EL, R4AX-EL, JR403E and Subaru 4-Speed

Solenoid .eed Orifice

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

#%

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
If you are getting line rise but not enough on all Nissans except RE4F02A, install a 25%30% stronger spring in the pilot valve and a 40%45% stronger spring in the pressure modifier valve. The RE4F02A doesnt use a pressure modifier valve, but you can still add a 25%30% stronger spring in the pilot valve. These modifications will greatly improve line rise and can be used as a normal rebuild procedure.

RE4.02A

Install a 25%30% stronger spring in the pilot valve.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

#&

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4.03A, RE4.04A and 4.20E

Install a 25%30% stronger spring in the pilot valve.

Install a 40%45% stronger spring in the pressure modifier valve.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

#'

Nissan

Soft Shifts, Burnt Clutches and Bands, Poor Line Pressure (continued)
RE4R01A, RE4R03A, R4A-EL, R4AX-EL, JR403E and Subaru 4-Speed

Install a 25%30% stronger spring in the pilot valve.

Install a 40%45% stronger spring in the pressure modifier valve.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan RE4.02A
Low Pressure at Idle
The RE4F02A has a unique way of controlling the pump slide. The job of the mainline regulator valve is to control pressure by dumping pump volume when mainline pressure is too high. When the mainline pressure is too high, the valve moves toward the spring and opens a passage that sends the excess oil through the converter relief valve to the converter. If this isnt enough to regulate mainline pressure, the valve moves farther toward the spring, sending pressure to the control cylinder. The control cylinder pushes the pump slide to lower the output volume.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

$

Nissan RE4.02A

Low Pressure at Idle (continued)


The problem occurs when the area where the pump slide contacts the pump is either worn or machined wrong. When this happens, the first time the control cylinder moves the slide, the slide sticks hydraulically in a low volume position. This will cause low line pressure at idle.

When the area that the slide contacts is worn or machined wrong, the slide can stick hydraulically in a low volume position.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan RE4.02A

Low Pressure at Idle (continued)


To correct or prevent the pump slide from sticking, block the control cylinder piston toward the cover. This will prevent the control cylinder from moving the pump slide. Its okay to do this during every RE4F02A rebuild.

Install the bushing here to block the control cylinder.

To prevent the pump slide from sticking, block the control cylinder piston toward the cover.

Single-seal type uses a THM 200-4R center support bushing.

Dual-seal type uses a THM 350 sun gear bushing.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

$!

Nissan RE4.04A and 4.20E




Slides Through 2nd Gear, Upshifts 134


We havent found a consistent fix for these symptoms. Instead, there are a few modifications to cure the problems. You can perform these modifications, one by one, until the problem goes away, or you can perform them all at once. Step 1: Check mainline, and make sure its operating properly (covered in the previous section.) Step 2: Install a lighter spring in the 24 servo.

Return Spring

Install a lighter spring in the 24 servo

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$"


IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan RE4.04A and 4.20E


Slides Through 2nd Gear, Upshifts 134 (continued)
Step 3: Install a heavier spring in the 12 accumulator piston.

Install a heavier spring into the 12 accumulator piston.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

$#

Nissan RE4.04A and 4.20E




Slides Through 2nd Gear, Upshifts 134 (continued)

Step 4: Enlarge the feed hole to the 12 accumulator piston to 0.072".

Enlarge the feed hole to the 12 accumulator piston to 0.072".

12 Accumulator .eed

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$$

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures
Nissan and Infinity provide diagnostic trouble codes through one of four ways: Power (or Power Shift) Light O/D Off Light A/T Check Light Digital readout at the diagnostic information display

These systems indicate there are codes in memory by flashing the light 16 times every time you start the engine. The light used to indicate and display codes depends on the specific vehicle youre working on.

O/D Off Light

If the vehicle has a Mode switch, it indicates codes through the Power or Power Shift light.

Some Nissans and Infinities display trouble codes through the O/D Off light.

A/T Check Light Digital Display


The 300 ZX and J30s display diagnostic trouble codes through the A/T Check light.
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

Q45s display diagnostic trouble codes through a digital display.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

$%

Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Preliminary Check
To enable Nissans to display any diagnostic trouble codes stored in memory, you have to run through a specific procedure. This puts the system into the mode to display diagnostic trouble codes. Before you can begin the code procedure, you must first run through a preliminary check, to prepare the vehicle for self-diagnosis, and to make sure the lights are working properly. Heres how to prepare the system to deliver codes. Step 1: Bring the engine to normal operating temperature. Step 2: Turn the key off. Step 3: Set the parking brake. Step 4: Turn the key on, engine off. Now youre ready to check the display light, to make sure its capable of working. This applies to all vehicles except the Q45. This procedure depends on what type of light and switches the vehicle uses: Step 1: Put the switch in the proper position: If the vehicle has an O/D Off button, work the button to make sure the O/D Off light comes on. Then work the button again to turn the light off. If the vehicle has a Mode button, work the button to make sure the Power or Power Shift light comes on. Then work the button again to turn the light off. Step 2: Turn the key off, and wait a few seconds. Step 3: Turn the key on, engine off. The indicator light on the dash should come on for a few second, then turn off. This is to check the light circuit, to make sure its capable of indicating codes. If the light doesnt come on now, check the light circuits operation before continuing the test procedure. Step 4: Turn the key off. Step 5: Move the shifter to D. Step 6: Turn the O/D Off switch off. Now youre ready to begin the specific procedure to retrieve codes. The procedure depends on which vehicle youre working on.
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$&

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
All, Except J30, Q45 and Quest
Heres how to set the system to display diagnostic trouble codes, on all Nissans and Infinities, except the J30, Q45 and Quest: Step 1: Turn the key on, engine off, and wait for a few seconds. Step 2: Move the shifter to 2. Step 3: Turn the O/D switch on (light off). Step 4: Move the shifter to 1. Step 5: Turn the O/D switch off (light on). Step 6: Press the throttle to the floor and release it. Step 7: On vehicles that display codes through the O/D Off light, turn the O/D switch on. After performing this procedure, the computer system will display any diagnostic trouble codes by flashing the appropriate light on the dash.

Quest Only
Heres how to set the system to display diagnostic trouble codes on the Quest: Step 1: Hold the O/D Off button in, and turn the key on, engine off. Then wait for a few seconds, and release the button; at this point, the O/D Off light should be lit. Step 2: Move the shifter to 2. Step 3: Press and release the O/D Off switch; the O/D Off light should go out. Step 4: Move the shifter to 1. Step 5: Press and release the O/D Off switch; the O/D Off light should come back on. Step 6: Press the throttle to the floor and release it. After performing this procedure, the computer system will display any diagnostic trouble codes by flashing the O/D Off light on the dash.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

$'

Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
J30 Only
Heres how to set the system to display diagnostic trouble codes on the J30: Step 1: Turn the key on, engine off, and wait for a few seconds. Step 2: Move the shifter to 3. Step 3: Press the throttle to the floor, then release it. Step 4: Move the shifter to 2. Step 5: Press the throttle to the floor, then release it. Step 4: Move the shifter to the right this puts the shifter into Manual 1. Step 5: Press the throttle to the floor, then release it. After performing this procedure, the computer system will display any diagnostic trouble codes by flashing the A/T Check light on the dash.

Q45 Only
Heres how to set the system to display diagnostic trouble codes on the Q45: Step 1: Turn the odometer reset counter knob counterclockwise, and hold it there for the next step. Step 2: Turn the key on, engine off, and then release the odometer reset knob the odometer display should display AT CHECK. Step 3: Move the shifter to 3. Step 4: Press the throttle to the floor, then release it. Step 5: Move the shifter to 2. Step 6: Press the throttle to the floor, then release it. Step 7: Move the shifter to the right this puts the shifter into Manual 1. Step 8: Press the throttle to the floor, then release it. After performing this procedure, the computer system will display any diagnostic trouble codes on the digital odometer display.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

%

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Reading Codes Most Systems
Nissans and M30 Infinities display diagnostic trouble codes using an 11-flash sequence. The light flashes 11 times in a row; the sequence always starts with a long flash about two seconds long. Its followed by 10 shorter flashes. If there are no problems in the system, all ten flashes will be very short about 0.2 seconds each.
Heres how Nissans and most Infinities indicate no diagnostic trouble codes in memory.

On Off

But if the computer identifies a problem in the system, one of those 10 flashes will be longer nearly a full second long. Count the flashes: The long flash identifies the code in memory. For example, if the first flash after the two second flash is the long one, youre looking at code 1.
Heres how Nissans and most Infinities display diagnostic trouble code 1.

On Off

If the fourth flash is the longer one, youre looking at code 4.


And heres how Nissans and most Infinities display diagnostic trouble code 4.

On Off

If theres more than one code in memory, the computer displays all of the codes in the same pass. Heres how a system would display codes 1, 4 and 8 at the same time:
This is how Nissans and some Infinities would display codes 1, 4 and 8 at the same time.

On Off

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

%

Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Reading Codes Most Systems (continued)
After the code displays, the light remains off for about 21/2 seconds. If there are no other codes in memory, the computer repeats the code; if there are additional codes stored, the computer displays the next code in the sequence. If the light flashes on and off, in regular, one-second intervals, it indicates the battery is low or was disconnected long enough to interrupt the computer memory.
If the battery is low, or was disconnected long enough to affect the computers memory, the light will flash on and off in regular, one-second intervals.

On Off

If the light remains on or off, try performing the sequence again: You may have missed one of the steps in the procedure. If the light still remains off, look for a problem in one of these systems or circuits: shift lever position (inhibitor) switch 1-range switch kickdown switch idle switch (closed throttle position switch) overdrive switch display circuit system computer

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Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Reading J30 Codes
Infinity J30s display diagnostic trouble codes using a 13-flash sequence. The light flashes 13 times in a row; the sequence always starts with a long flash about two seconds long. Its followed by 12 shorter flashes. If there are no problems in the system, all twelve flashes will be very short about 0.2 seconds each.
Heres how J30s indicate there are no diagnostic trouble codes in memory.

On Off

But if the computer identifies a problem in the system, one of those 12 flashes will be longer nearly a full second long. Count the flashes: The long flash identifies the code in memory. For example, if the first flash after the two second flash is the long one, youre looking at code 1.
Heres how J30s display diagnostic trouble code 1.

On Off

If the fourth flash is the longer one, youre looking at code 4.


And heres how J30s display diagnostic trouble code 4.

On Off

If theres more than one code in memory, the computer displays all of the codes in the same pass. Heres how a system would display codes 1, 4 and 8 at the same time:
This is how the J30 computer would display codes 1, 4 and 8 at the same time.

On Off

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Reading J30 Codes (continued)
After the code displays, the light remains off for about 21/2 seconds. If there are no other codes in memory, the computer repeats the code; if there are additional codes stored, the computer displays the next code in the sequence. If the light flashes on and off, in regular, one-second intervals, it indicates the battery is low, or was disconnected long enough to affect the computer memory.
If the battery is low, or disconnected long enough to affect the computer memory, the light will flash on and off in regular, one-second intervals.

On Off

If the light remains on or off, try performing the sequence again: You may have missed one of the steps in the procedure. If the light still remains off, look for a problem in one of these systems or circuits: shift lever position (inhibitor) switch 1-range switch kickdown switch idle switch (closed throttle position switch) display circuit system computer

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Reading Q45 Codes
The Infinity Q45 indicates diagnostic trouble codes through a digital display. This display doubles as the odometer display. During the diagnostic trouble code retrieval, you have to turn the odometer reset knob counterclockwise; this changes the odometer display to read AT CHECK.

Q45s display diagnostic trouble codes through a digital display.

Digital Display

After youve gone through the diagnostic trouble code retrieval procedure, any codes in memory will display in a hexadecimal format; that is, it will display any codes as a 1 through 10, or as an A through D.

1
Heres how a Q45 would display diagnostic trouble code 1.

If there are no codes in memory, the odometer will display OK.

O
Heres how a Q45 indicates there are no codes in memory.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code Retrieval Procedures (continued)
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Here is a list of the diagnostic trouble codes that apply to Nissans. Remember, never condemn a component based solely on a code; always check the circuit and component before replacing any parts.
Diagnostic Trouble Codes All Except: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Q45 Code Definition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D AT CHECK Vehicle Speed Sensor (Revolution Sensor) Transmission Circuit Open or Shorted Vehicle Speed Sensor speedometer circuit Open or Shorted Throttle Position Sensor Circuit Open or Shorted Shift Solenoid A Circuit Open or Shorted Shift Solenoid B Circuit Open or Shorted Timing Solenoid or Overrun Clutch Solenoid Circuit Open or Shorted Lockup Solenoid Circuit Open or Shorted ATF Temperature Sensor circuit is Open, or the Computer Power Source is Insufficient Engine RPM Signal Circuit Open or Shorted Line Pressure Solenoid Circuit Open or Shorted Turbine Shaft Speed Sensor is Open or Shorted Line Pressure Solenoid Circuit Open or Shorted Engine Control Circuit between Engine and Transmission Computers is Open or Shorted Battery is Low, or Power was Disconnected Long Enough to Affect Computer Memory Inhibitor Switch, 1 Range Switch, Kickdown Switch, Idle Switch, Overdrive Switch, Display Circuit System or Computer

Regular Flashing On and Off Light Stays Off

Clearing Diagnostic Trouble Codes


Nissan clears any codes in memory automatically after youve repaired the problem, and started the engine twice.
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Code 1: Revolution Sensor
About the Sensor
The revolution sensor produces an AC signal that increases in voltage and frequency as output shaft speed increases. Typical voltage is about 0.5 VAC at a slow vehicle speed and can go as high as 1520 VAC in some cases. The sensor uses two wires, but the connector has three terminal cavities: terminal 3 is the ground wire for a shielded housing.
D
IA G N O S T IC

IP

While the computer uses the frequency to calculate vehicle speed, it wont recognize the signal if the voltage is below about 0.5 VAC. This is called the threshold voltage.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 1: Revolution Sensor (continued)
Conditions to Set Code
The computer must see a signal from the VSS while receiving no signal from the revolution sensor.

Testing the Revolution Sensor


Pulse Generator Pin ID

Pin 1 2 3

Function Pulse Generator + Pulse Generator Shield Ground

Shown from the sensor side of the connector.

Resistance Test
The resistance should be between 500 600 ohms at normal operating temperature, but checking the resistance of the revolution sensor isnt a complete test. If the resistance is out of range, the sensor is bad. But even if the resistance is within specs, the sensor could still create insufficient voltage or a variation in frequency. Thats why you should always check sensor output too.

Revolution Sensor Output Test


With the sensor either connected or disconnected, probe the two wires with your digital meter or scope. With the drive wheels rotating, the signal voltage should be above 0.5 VAC. The frequency should be zero with the vehicle stopped, and should increase smoothly with vehicle speed.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 2: VSS (Vehicle Speed Sensor)
About the Sensor
The VSS produces an AC signal that increases in voltage and frequency with vehicle speed. Typical voltage is about 0.5 VAC at a slow vehicle speed and can go as high as 1520 VAC in some cases. The combination meter (speedometer) uses the AC signal to toggle a 5-volt DC reference, which the computer uses to calculate vehicle speed.

VSS

Transmission Computer

Combination Meter (Speedometer)

Conditions to Set Code


The computer must see a signal from the revolution sensor and receive no signal from the VSS.

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Code 2: VSS (continued)
Resistance Test
The resistance should be about 200 ohms at normal operating temperature, but checking the resistance of the VSS isnt a complete test. If the resistance is out of range, the sensor is bad. But even if the resistance is within specs, the sensor could still create insufficient voltage or a variation in frequency. Thats why you should always check sensor output too.

Testing the Vehicle Speed Sensor

Sensor Output Test


With the VSS either connected or disconnected, probe the two wires with your digital meter or scope. With the drive wheels rotating, the signal voltage should be above 0.5 VAC, and can rise as high as 1520 VAC. The frequency should be zero with the vehicle stopped, and should increase smoothly with vehicle speed.

VSS connector shown from the sensor side of the connector

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Code 2: VSS (continued)
VSS Signal to the Computer
While the VSS creates its own AC signal, the computer never actually receives that signal. Instead, the combination meter (speedometer) takes the AC signal, and creates a digital, 5-volt DC signal that varies in frequency; as the vehicle speed increases, the signal frequency increases with it. This is the signal that the TCM receives.

Testing the Vehicle Speed Sensor (continued)

Testing the DC Signal


To check the DC signal at the TCM, youll need a digital meter that reads DC frequency or an oscilloscope. Use the pin charts to find the VSS signal wire at the computer. Backprobe the VSS signal wire with your meter or scopes positive lead. Connect the negative lead to the computer signal ground. Rotate the drive wheels.

The signal from the speedometer should switch from zero to 5 volts. As you increase the wheel speed, the signal speed or frequency of the pulses should increase. On a meter, the signal voltage will average out to about 2.5 volts. The frequency of the signal should continue to increase with wheel speed. If the signal isnt correct, check these three items before condemning the speedometer: Make sure the VSS signal to the speedometer is correct. Make sure you have a good 5-volt reference signal to the speedometer. Make sure you have a good ground to the speedometer.

If these three items check out okay, the speedometer is probably the source of the problem.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 3: TPS (Throttle Position Sensor)
About the Sensor
The TPS provides a varying voltage signal to the computer. Inside the TPS are two additional switches: the idle switch and the full throttle switch. These switches supply the computer with a 12-volt signal, one at idle and the other at full throttle. But failure of the idle /full throttle switches will not set a code #3. The function and connector view is provided to avoid confusion while testing the TPS. The TPS signal travels through the short harness attached to the side of the TPS; the idle/full throttle signals use the connector molded to the TPS housing.

Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) harness connector shown from the switch side of the connector

Idle / Full Throttle Switch harness connector shown from the switch side of the connector

Conditions to Set Code


The computer must see a TPS signal below 0.2 volts or above 5 volts.

4 .5 4 .0 3 .5 3 .0 2 .5 2 .0 1 .5 1 .0 0 .5 0 .0

/1 4

/1 2

/3 4

lo

. u ll
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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 3: TPS (continued)
Testing the TPS
1 2 3

5-Volt Reference TPS Signal Ground Idle Switch

4 5 6

.ull Throttle Switch

Backprobe terminal #1 at the sensor. Reference voltage should be about 5 VDC. If incorrect most Nissans supply reference voltage to the TPS from the TCM and the ECM. One of the computers should be able to provide the correct voltage. Splice in a new wire from the correct voltage source to the sensor.

Backprobe terminal #3 at the sensor. The ground circuit should have no more than 0.1 V. If incorrect, splice in a wire to the battery () terminal.

Backprobe terminal #2 at the sensor. Signal voltage should increase steadily with throttle opening. Any sudden dropouts or glitches in the signal can indicate a faulty sensor or wire returning to the ECM or TCM.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 3: TPS (continued)
Testing the TPS at the Computer
Testing the TPS signal return voltage at the TCM is a valid test. Knowing that the return circuit is typically wired to the ECM first, and then is an output to the TCM can shorten diagnostic time. The circuit pin numbers and locations vary between vehicles at the computers. Check the signal output from the ECM. If the signal is incorrect, splice in a new wire from the input at the PCM to the input at the TCM.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis Solenoid Codes


About the Solenoids
All but one Nissan transmission use five solenoids: two shift solenoids, an overrun solenoid to control engine braking, a lockup solenoid, and a line pressure control solenoid.The R4AEL in a Mazda 929 uses a 6th solenoid together with a lockup PWM; this is an on-off solenoid. The chart indicates the code that each solenoid will set, and the specs for testing that solenoid.
Transmission Solenoid Specifications Solenoid A B Overrun Clutch Lockup Line Pressure Control R4AEL Lockup Control Normally Open Open Open Closed (PWM) Closed (PWM) Open Resistance 2030 2030 2030 2.55.0 2.55.0 2030 Current @ 13.0 VDC 0.430.65 amps 0.430.65 amps 0.430.65 amps Varies with Duty Cycle Varies with Duty Cycle 0.430.65 amps C ode 4 5 6 7 10

Conditions to Set Code


As soon as the ignition turns on, the computer begins monitoring current flow through each of the solenoid circuits. The computer will identify a solenoid problem if the current is either too high or too low.

Solenoid Diagnostic Tips


Solenoid codes are easy to fix as long as you keep in mind that only one or more of the following items can cause a solenoid code to set: Battery Voltage: Battery voltage directly affects current flow throughout all electrical circuits, including the solenoids. The system must maintain between 12.6 to 15.0 volts at all times. Insufficient Ground: Make sure the transmission case is well grounded. Poor Connections and Bad Wiring: Inspect the connectors first. If theyre good, consider replacing the wire in question, from the computer to the solenoid.
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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Solenoid Codes (continued)
Solenoid Diagnostic Tips (continued)
Bad Shift Solenoids: Shift solenoids dont go bad electrically that often. But if you suspect a bad solenoid, try connecting some known good solenoids to the harness, outside of the case, before pulling the pan. Bad Computer: Before replacing the computer, try connecting a solenoid directly to the computer. Try to get as close to the computer connector as possible, cut the wire near the computer connector, and connect it directly to the known good solenoid (refer to pin chart).

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 8: .luid Temperature Sensor Out of Range About the Sensor
The fluid temperature sensor is a thermistor; a variable resistor that changes resistance based on temperature. The fluid temperature sensor is a Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistor; that is, its resistance decreases as temperature increases. The computer supplies a 5-volt reference to the sensor. When the sensor is cold, its resistance is high, so the signal voltage will be high. As the temperature increases, the resistance through the sensor to ground decreases, so the voltage also decreases.
Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Specifications Fluid Temperature F 68 176 C 20 80 Resistance 2.5 k 0.3 k Voltage 1.56 V 0.45 V

Conditions to Set Code


The computer must read a signal that is out of range (open or shorted signal).

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 8: .luid Temperature Sensor (continued) Testing the .luid Temperature Sensor
The best way to test the fluid temperature sensor operation is to start when the system is cold, and then continue to monitor it as the system warms up. Heres how to check the sensor signal: Backprobe the fluid temperature sensor wire with the positive lead from your scope or digital meter. Connect the negative lead to a good ground. Start the engine, and check the signal. It should be high, depending upon the temperature outside.

Let the vehicle run with your meter connected. If possible, drive the vehicle while monitoring the sensor signal. As the transmission fluid warms up, the sensor signal voltage should continue to drop off smoothly. When the transmission temperature reaches normal operating temperature, the sensor signal should have dropped below about half a volt. If the sensor voltage is out of range, make sure you have a good connection to the sensor. If the connections are okay, but the sensor voltage drops off to zero or jumps to 5 volts, the sensors probably bad.

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Nissan Trouble Code Diagnosis


Code 9: Engine Revolution Signal
About the Signal
The engine revolution signal isnt like other signals to the computer. Instead of coming from a dedicated sensor, the engine revolution signal is created by the engine control module (ECM) for the transmission computer. Its based on the signal the ECM receives from the crankshaft sensor. This is a digital signal that switches from zero to five volts. It varies in frequency based on engine RPM.

Testing the Engine Revolution Signal


Since the engine starts and runs, we have to assume the crankshaft sensor is working properly. Without the reference signal from the crankshaft sensor, the engine wont start. So with that in mind, you can narrow down the engine revolution signal failure to a few areas: The ECM isnt developing the proper signal. Theres an open or short in the wiring between the ECM and the transmission computer. The transmission computer isnt acknowledging the signal properly.

Check the signal from the ECM at the transmission computer with the engine running, using a scope or digital meter. If youre getting a signal at the transmission computer, the TCM itself is most likely the problem. If you dont have a signal at the transmission computer, run a new wire from the ECM to the transmission computer. If you still dont get a signal, the problem is most likely in the ECM.

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Nissan Computer Pin Charts


All Up to 1998 Except RWD Vans and Wagons
 # ! " $ % & '    ! " # $ % & '  

! " # $ % & ' ! ! ! !! !" !#


!$ !% !& !' " " " "! "" "# "$ "% "&

Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Function Line Pressure Control Solenoid Line Pressure Control Solenoid w/Drop Resistor O/D Off Light Or Power Indicator Light Ignition TCC Solenoid Shift Solenoid A Shift Solenoid B Overrun Clutch / 3-2 Control Solenoid Ignition Inhibitor Switch P/N (Some Models) Idle Switch Ground Inhibitor Switch 1 Inhibitor Switch 2 Inhibitor Switch D Inhibitor Switch P or N

Conditions Idle Full Throttle Idle Full Throttle O/D Off or In Power Mode O/D On Key Off Key On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Key Off Key On In Park or Neutral All Other Ranges Idle Above Idle Always In Manual Low All Other Ranges In Manual 2 All Other Ranges In Drive All Other Ranges In Neutral or Park All Other Ranges

Signal 1.52.5 VDC <0.5 VDC 514 V D C <0.5 VDC <0.5 VDC B+ 0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 815 V D C <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ 0 VD C B+ <1.0 VDC 5.0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC <0.1 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC
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Nissan Computer Pin Charts


All Up to 1998 Except RWD Vans and Wagons (continued)
Pin 20 21 23 24 25 27 31 33 34 35 36 37 39 40 42 48 Function Inhibitor Switch R Full Throttle Switch Keep Alive Power Engine Speed Signal Revolution Sensor Vehicle Speed Sensor TPS Reference Voltage Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor TPS Signal TPS Ground A/T Power Switch (Some Models) Cruise Control Signal O/D Select Switch O/D Cut Signal from Cruise Control A/T Comfort Switch (Some Models) Ground Conditions In Reverse All Other Ranges Full Throttle All Other Throttle Openings Key On Key Off Engine Running: Voltage Should Rise with Engine RPM Wheels Rotating: Voltage Should Rise with Vehicle Speed Vehicle Stopped Vehicle Moving Key Off Key On ATF @ 68 F (20 C) ATF @ 176 F (80 C) Idle Rises Gradually to Full Throttle Always Switch in Power Position Switch Not in Power Position ASCD Cruise Being Performed ASCD Cruise Not Being Performed O/D Switch On O/D Switch Off ASCD Cruise Released ASCD Cruise Applied Comfort Position On Comfort Position Off Always Signal B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ B+ 0.6-2.5 VDC >0.5 VAC 0 or 5 V D C 2.5 VDC 0 VDC 5 VDC 1.56 VDC 0.45 VDC 0.20.6 VDC 3.04.0 VDC <0.1 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 514 V D C <0.1 VDC 4.5-5.5 VDC <1.0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC <0.1 VDC

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Nissan Computer Pin Charts


All RWD Vans and Wagons Up to 1998
   ! ! " " # # $ $ % % & & ' '    ' ! ! ! " ! # !! $ !" % !# & !$

Pin 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 17 19 20

Function Inhibitor Switch 2 Inhibitor Switch 1 A/T Power Switch (Some Models) Idle Switch O/D Cut Signal from Cruise Control Full Throttle Switch Cruise Control Signal O/D Select Switch TPS Reference Voltage TPS Signal Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor TPS Ground Revolution Sensor Full Throttle Switch Inhibitor Switch N or P Inhibitor Switch D

Conditions In Manual 2 All Other Ranges In Manual Low All Other Ranges Switch in Power Position Switch Not in Power Position Idle Above Idle ASCD Cruise Released ASCD Cruise Applied At Full Throttle All Other Throttle Openings ASCD Cruise Being Performed ASCD Cruise Not Being Performed O/D Switch On O/D Switch Off Key Off Key On Idle Rises Gradually to Full Throttle ATF @ 68 F (80 C) ATF @ 176 F (80 C) Always Wheels Rotating: Voltage Should Rise with Vehicle Speed At Full Throttle All Other Throttle Openings In Neutral or Park All Other Ranges In Drive All Other Ranges

Signal B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 4.55.5 VDC <1.0 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 514 V D C <0.1 VDC 0 VDC 5 VDC 0.20.6 VDC 3.04.0 VDC 1.56 VDC 0.45 VDC <0.1 VDC >0.5 VAC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC
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Nissan Computer Pin Charts


All RWD Vans and Wagons Up to 1998 (continued)
Pin 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Function Overrun Clutch / 3-2 Control Solenoid TCC Solenoid O/D Off Light or Power Indicator Light Vehicle Speed Sensor Engine Speed Signal Inhibitor Switch R Keep Alive Power Ignition Ignition Ground Ground Line Pressure Control Solenoid w/Drop Resistor Line Pressure Control Solenoid Shift Solenoid A Shift Solenoid B Conditions Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On O/D Off O/D On or in Power Mode Vehicle Stopped Vehicle Moving Engine Running: Voltage Should Rise with Engine RPM In Reverse All Other Ranges Key On Key Off Key Off Key On Key Off Key On Always Always Idle Full Throttle Idle Full Throttle Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Signal <0.5 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 814 V D C <0.5 B+ 0 or 5 V D C 2.5 VDC 0.62.5 VAC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ B+ 0 VDC B+ 0 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC <0.1 VDC 514 V D C <0.5 VDC 11.5 VDC <0.5 VDC <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+

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Nissan Computer Pin Charts


1999-On
   '  !   " ! # " $ # % $ & % ! ' & " # $ % !$ & ' ! ! "$ ! " "% !! " "& !" !# !$ !& !' "

"! "" "#

Pin 1 2 3 10 11 12 13 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 25

Function Line Pressure Control Solenoid Line Pressure Control Solenoid w/Drop Resistor TCC Solenoid Ignition Shift Solenoid A Shift Solenoid B O/D Off Light Idle Switch Full Throttle Switch O/D Cut Signal from Cruise Control Ignition Overrun Clutch / 32 Sontrol Solenoid O/D Select Switch O/D Cut Signal from Cruise Control Ground

Conditions Idle Full Throttle Idle Full Throttle Solenoid Off Solenoid On Key Off Key On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On O/D Off O/D On or In Power Mode Idle Above Idle Full Throttle All Other Throttle Openings ASCD Cruise is Released ASCD Cruise is Applied Key Off Key On Solenoid Off Solenoid On O/D Switch On O/D Switch Off ASCD Cruise is Released ASCD Cruise is Applied Always

Signal 1.52.5 VDC <0.5 VDC 514 V D C <0.5 VDC <1.0 VDC 814 V D C 0 VD C B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ B+ <1.0 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC 4.55.5 VDC <1.0 VDC 0 B+ <0.5 VDC B+ 514 V D C < 0.1 VDC 4.55.5 VDC <1.0 VDC <0.1 VDC
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Nissan Computer Pin Charts


1999-On (continued)
Pin 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 39 40 41 42 45 47 48 Function Inhibitor Switch 1 Inhibitor Switch 2 Keep Alive Power Revolution Sensor EC M EC M TPS Reference Voltage EC M Inhibitor Switch D Inhibitor Switch R Inhibitor Switch N or P Engine Speed Signal VSS TPS Signal TPS Ground Brake Switch Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Ground In Drive All Other Ranges In Reverse All Other Ranges In N or P All Other Ranges Engine Running: Frequency Should Rise with Engine RPM Vehicle Stopped Vehicle at Speed (DC Frequency) Idle Rises Gradually to Full Throttle Always Brake Pedal Applied Brake Pedal Released ATF @ 68 F (20 C) ATF @ 176 F (80 C) Always B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC 0.62.5 VDC 0 or 5 V D C 2.5 VDC 0.20.6 VDC 3.04.0 VDC <0.1 VDC B+ 0 VD C 1.56 VDC 0.45 VDC <0.1 VDC Key Off Key On 0 VD C 5 VD C Conditions In Manual Low All Other Ranges In Manual 2 All other ranges Key On Key Off Wheels Rotating: Frequency Should Rise with Vehicle Speed Signal B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ B+ >0.5 VAC

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Subaru Computer Pin Charts


Early Models
   ! ! " " # # $ $ % % & & ' '    ' ! ! ! " ! # !! $ !" % !# & !$

Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18

Function Inhibitor Switch 3 Inhibitor Switch 2 Brake Switch Idle Switch Speed Sensor 2 O/D Cut Signal from Cruise Control Cruise Control Signal 1 Gear Hold Switch FWD Switch TPS Signal Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Manual 2 Indicator Light Inhibitor Switch Park TPS Ground Revolution Sensor Keep Alive Power
st

Conditions In Manual 3 All Other Ranges In Manual 2 All Other Ranges Brake Pedal Applied Brake Pedal Released Idle Above Idle Drive Wheels Stopped Drive Wheels Rotating ASCD Cruise Released ASCD Cruise Applied ASCD Cruise Being Performed ASCD Cruise Not Being Performed Switch On Switch Off FWD On FWD Off Idle Rises Gradually to Full Throttle ATF @ 68 F (20 C) ATF @ 176 F (80 C) In Manual 2 All Other Ranges In Park All Other Ranges Always Wheels Rotating: Frequency Should Rise with Vehicle Speed Key Off Key On

Signal <0.1 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC B+ B+ <1.0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC <0.1 or 5 VDC 5.0 V Pulses 4.55.5 VDC < 1.0 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 514 V D C < 0.1 VDC <0.1 VDC B+ 0.20.6 VDC 3.04.0 VDC 1.56 VDC 0.45 VDC <0.1 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC >0.5 VAC B+ B+
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Subaru Computer Pin Charts


Early Models (continued)
Pin 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Function Inhibitor Switch N Inhibitor Switch D Overrun Clutch / 32 Control Solenoid TCC Solenoid O/D Off Light or Power Indicator Light Transfer Clutch Solenoid Engine Speed Signal Inhibitor Switch R Oil Temperature Light Ignition Ignition Ground Ground Line Pressure Control Solenoid w/Drop Resistor Line Pressure Control Solenoid Shift Solenoid A Shift Solenoid B Conditions In Neutral All Other Ranges In Drive All Other Ranges Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Off On or in Power Mode 2WD Mode 4WD Mode Engine Running: Frequency Should Rise with Engine RPM In Reverse All Other Ranges Light On Light Off Key Off Key On Key Off Key On Always Always Idle Full Throttle Idle Full Throttle Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Signal <0.1 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC 814 V D C <0.5 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC Varies 0.62.5 VDC <0.1 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC B+ 0 VD C B+ 0 VD C B+ <0.1 VDC <0.1 VDC 514 V D C <0.5 VDC 514 V D C <0.5 VDC <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+

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Subaru Computer Pin Charts


Late Models
 ! " # $ % & '    ! " # $ % & '   ! " # $ % & '     ! " # $ % & '    ! " # $

Connector A
Pin A1 A2 A3 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A 10 A11 A 14 A 16 A 20 Function Ground FWD Switch Cruise Control Signal ABS Signal Manual Switch Brake Switch Inhibitor Switch N Inhibitor Switch P Inhibitor Switch R VSS Keep Alive Power Idle Switch Ground

Connector B

Connector C
Signal <0.1 VDC B+ <0.1 VDC B+ <1.0 VDC <0.1 VDC 610 V D C <0.1 VDC B+ B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC 0 or 5 V D C 2.5 VDC B+ B+ <0.1 VDC 36 V D C <0.1 VDC

Conditions Always Fuse Removed Fuse Installed ASCD Cruise Being Performed ASCD Cruise Not Being Performed Switch On Switch Off Switch On Switch Off Brake Pedal Applied Brake Pedal Released In Neutral All Other Ranges In Park All Other Ranges In Reverse All Other Ranges Vehicle Stopped Vehicle at Speed (DC Frequency) Key On Key Off Idle Off Idle Always

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

'&

IMPORT UPDATES AND CHANGES

Subaru Computer Pin Charts


Late Models (continued)
Pin B1 B2 B3 B4 B6 B7 B8 B 10 B 12 C1 C3 C5 C7 C8 C 10 C 13 C 14 C 15 Function Inhibitor Switch D Inhibitor Switch 3 Inhibitor Switch 2 Inhibitor Switch 1 Ignition Ground TPS Signal Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor Pulse Generator Ignition FWD Solenoid TCC Solenoid Line Pressure Control Solenoid w/Drop Resistor Line Pressure Control Solenoid Ground Shift Solenoid B Shift Solenoid A Overrun Clutch / 32 Control Solenoid Conditions In Drive All Other Ranges In Manual 3 All Other Ranges In Manual 2 All Other Ranges In Manual 1 All Other Ranges Key Off Key On Always Idle Rises Gradually to Full Throttle ATF @ 68 F (20 C) ATF @ 176 F (80 C) Wheels Stopped Wheel Rotating Key Off Key On FWD Fuse In FWD Fuse Out Solenoid Off Solenoid On Idle Full Throttle Idle Full Throttle Always Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Solenoid Off Solenoid On Signal B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC 0 B+ <0.1 VDC 0.20.6 VDC 3.04.0 VDC 1.56 VDC 0.45 VDC 0 0.5 AC 0 B+ B+ 0.5 VDC <1.0 VDC 814 V D C 2.5 VDC <0.5 VDC 514 V D C <0.5 VDC <0.1 VDC <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+ <0.5 VDC B+

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE

''

Reference
Contents
Conversion Tables ............................................................... 200 Resistor Values ................................................................... 203 Ohms Law .......................................................................... 204 Electrical Power .................................................................. 204 Electrical Formulas ............................................................. 205 Resistors in a Series Circuit ............................................. 205 Two Resistors in a Parallel Circuit .................................... 205 Multiple Resistors in a Parallel Circuit ............................. 205 Two Capacitors in a Series Circuit.................................... 205 Multiple Capacitors in a Series Circuit ............................. 205 Capacitors in a Parallel Circuit ........................................ 205 Schematic Symbols ............................................................. 206 Glossary of Electrical Terms ................................................ 208 Abbreviations ...................................................................... 213 Numeric Equivalents ........................................................... 213

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.



RE.ERENCE

Conversion Tables
Area
Multiply By To Obtain Multiply

Distance
By To Obtain

In In In Ft Ft m cm mm

645.2 6.452 0.0069 0.0929 144.0 10.764 0.155 0.00155

mm cm Ft m In Ft In In

in in mm cm ft ft meter mile km

25.4 2.54 0.0394 0.3937 0.3048 5280.0 3.2808 1.6093 0.6214

mm cm in in meter miles ft km mile

area of a circle = r area of a cylinder = rh


= 3.14

r = Radius

h = Height
Multiply

Pressure
By To Obtain

Temperature
(F 32) x 5 9 = C (C x 9 5) + 32 = F

PSI PSI PSI kPa bar kg/cm Hg mbar

0.0703 0.0689 6.8948 0.14503 14.503 14.2233 34.0136 0.0294

kg/cm bar kPa PSI PSI PSI mbar Hg

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE



Conversion Tables (continued)


Torque
Multiply in-lbs in-lbs in-lbs ft-lbs ft-lbs ft-lbs Nm Nm kg-cm kg-m By 0.0833 0.113 1.152 12.0 1.3558 0.138 0.73756 8.8507 0.8679 7.233 To Obtain ft-lbs Nm kg-cm in-lbs Nm kg-m ft-lbs in-lbs in-lbs ft-lbs
Multiply

Weight
By To Obtain

Grams Ounces Ounces Pounds Pounds Pounds Tons Tons Kilograms Kilograms

0.03527 28.3495 0.0625 16.0 0.0005 0.4536 2000.0 907.18 2.20462 0.001102

Ounces Grams Pounds Ounces Tons Kilograms Pounds Kilograms Pounds Tons

Volume (Cubic Measure)


Multiply Cubic in. (in 3) Cubic in. (in 3) Cubic in. (in 3) Liters Cubic cm (cm 3) Cubic mm (mm3) By 0.01639 16.387 16387.0 61.025 0.06103 To Obtain Liters Cubic cm (cm 3) Cubic mm (mm3) Cubic in. (in 3) Cubic in. (in 3)

Volume (Liquid Measure)


Multiply By To Obtain

Quarts Pints Ounces LIters LIters Liters

0.94633 0.4732 0.02957 1.05672 2.11344 33.81497

Liters Liters Liters Quarts Pints Ounces

0.000061 Cubic in. (in 3)

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE

Conversion Tables (continued)


Duty Cycle/Dwell/Voltage
Duty Cycle (%)
Feed Controlled

Degrees Dwell Voltage*

Ground Controlled 4-Cyl Scale 6-Cyl Scale 8-Cyl Scale

100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

90.0 85.5 81.0 76.5 72.0 67.5 63.0 58.8 54.0 49.5 45.0 40.5 36.0 31.5 27.0 22.5 18.0 13.5 9.0 4.5 0.0

60 57 54 51 48 45 42 39 36 33 30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0

45.00 42.75 40.50 38.25 36.00 33.75 31.50 29.25 27.00 24.75 22.50 20.25 18.00 15.75 13.50 11.25 9.00 6.75 4.50 2.25 0.00

14.0 13.3 12.6 11.9 11.2 10.5 9.8 9.1 8.4 7.7 7.0 6.3 5.6 4.9 4.2 3.5 2.8 2.1 1.4 0.7 0.0

* The voltage values are based on a 14-volt system voltage. Variations from this level will affect all of the voltage readings.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE

!

Resistor Values
If you can read the bands on a ceramic resistor, you can determine its resistance value and its tolerance: The first two bands indicate the first two digits of its resistance value. The third band indicates the number of zeros to add. The fourth band indicates the tolerance. Resistance Values
Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Brown Gold Silver Plain 1st Band 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2nd Band 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3rd Band 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4th Band 1% 5% 10% 20%

So if the bands are: Blue 6 Red 2 White 9 Green 5 Violet 7 Yellow 0,000 Brown 0 Silver 10% Gold 5% Plain 20%

Orange Violet 3 0,000,000

54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321

4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321

54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321 54321

4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321 4321

The resistor value is: = 650 k, 10% = 270 , 5% = 930 M, 20%


2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"

RE.ERENCE

Ohms Law
VOLTS AMPS OHMS
With Ohms Law, as long as you have any two circuit values, you can easily calculate the third: Volts Amps = Ohms Volts Ohms = Amps Amps x Ohms = Volts

Electrical Power
WATTS VOLTS AMPS
A measurement of power developed in an electrical circuit. Just like with Ohms Law, whenever you have two measurements, you can calculate the third. Watts Volts = Amps Watts Amps = Volts Volts x Amps = Watts

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE

#

Electrical .ormulas
Resistors in a Series Circuit
RTOTAL = R1 + R2 + R3

Two Resistors in a Parallel Circuit


RTOTAL = R1 x R 2 R1 + R 2

Multiple Resistors in a Parallel Circuit


RTOTAL = 1 + R1 1 1 + R2 1 R3

Two Capacitors in a Series Circuit


CTOTAL = C1 x C2 C1 + C2

Multiple Capacitors in a Series Circuit


CTOTAL = 1 + C1 1 1 + C2 1 C3

Capacitors in a Parallel Circuit


CTOTAL = C1 + C2 + C3

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

$

RE.ERENCE

Schematic Symbols
+ V

Battery

Power

Ground

Connected Wires

Unconnected Wires

.use

Circuit Breaker

Bulb

Meter

Pushbutton Switches

On/Off Switches

NC Switch

NO Switch

NC Switch

NO Switch

Transformer (Coil)
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

Relay

RE.ERENCE

%

Schematic Symbols (continued)


.ixed Resistor Variable Resistor Potentiometer

Diode

Zener Diode

LED

Photodiode

+ .ixed Capacitor .ixed Capacitor (Polarized) Variable Capacitor

B
B

NPN Transistor

PNP Transistor

Phototransistor

Crystal

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

&

RE.ERENCE

Glossary of Electrical Terms


Ammeter Electrical test device that measures current flow in a circuit. Displays measurement in amperes, or amps. Amperage Measurement of current flow in a circuit. Amperes; Amps Unit of measurement for reading current flow. Amperage is actually a reading of how many electrons are moving through a circuit at any given moment. One amp is the amount of current that one volt will push through one ohm of resistance. Analog Meter Measurement device that provides readings using a needle, instead of a digital output. Analog meters measure constantly, so the reading you see is the value taking place right now. But analog meters tend to be less accurate than digital meters, and the reading only updates as quickly as the needle can move. B+ Battery power. Closed Circuit A complete electrical path that provides the means for electricity to perform work. A closed circuit allows current to flow from its source, through the resistances, and back to its source. Computer Also controller; microprocessor. Device that provides the commands necessary to operate the engine or transmission, based on inputs from a series of sensors and switches. Controller See Computer. Conventional Electrical Theory Electrical circuit model which indicates
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

that electrical flow is from positive to negative. More recent studies show that electrons actually flow from negative to positive, but most texts still prefer to use the conventional model. Current Electron flow through a circuit, current is measured in amps. De-energize To turn off, or shut down a circuit or component. Digital On/off signal. A series of pulses that are either on or off, which provide information by varying frequency, or which control a circuit by varying frequency, duty cycle or ontime. Digital Multimeter Also DMM; DVOM; Digital Volt-Ohmmeter. Electrical device that provides measurements of electrical circuits, using a digital display. Digital meters and oscilloscopes read a circuit through sampling; how accurate your measurement is depends on how many samples the meter takes per second. Digital Volt-Ohmmeter See Digital Multimeter. Distributorless Ignition System Also Electronic Ignition. A type of ignition that doesnt use a distributor to provide spark to the cylinders. These systems usually provide spark through a process known as wastespark; a process which provides spark to two cylinders at once. One cylinder fires; the other receives spark on its exhaust stroke that cylinders spark is wasted. Ford uses this term to identify one of its electronic ignition system.

RE.ERENCE

'

Glossary of Electrical Terms (cont)


Diode An electrical one-way shutoff valve. A diode is a semiconductor, designed to allow current flow in one direction, but not in the other direction. These devices are commonly used to control the spark that develops when an electromagnetic coil de-energizes, and the magnetic field collapses. Duty Cycle A signal that varies its relationship between on-time and off-time. Duty cycle signals usually control a computer output device, such as an electronic pressure control solenoid: The longer the signal on-time, the longer the solenoid remains open, so the lower mainline pressure becomes. Electrostatic Discharge Electrical potential that releases suddenly; the shock you feel when you touch a doorknob on a dry day is electrostatic discharge. That shock can damage or destroy electronic components. Thats why its important to take precautions wear a static strap, never touch the terminals, etc. when working with electronic devices. Energize To turn on a circuit or component; provide with power and ground, to enable an electrical device to operate. Engine Control Module Also ECM. SAE J-1930 term for a device that controls only engine operation. See also PCM, TCM, Computer. Frequency The number of complete oscillations, or cycles, that occur each second. Measured in Hertz. Ground The return side of an electrical circuit, as defined by the conventional electrical theory. More recent studies show that electrons actually flow in the opposite direction of that shown by conventional theory, but its still the most common model for electrical circuits. Grounded Circuit An electrical circuit failure that keeps the circuit energized all the time, regardless of switch or relay position. Also known as a short-to-ground. Hertz Also Hz. Unit of measurement for frequency; the number of complete cycles that take place in one second. A signal that repeats itself 20 times every second has a frequency of 20 Hertz. High Impedance Having high resistance to electrical flow. Usually used to describe electrical meters. When used to test an electronic circuit, a low impedance meter would affect the characteristics of the circuit. The higher the meters impedance, the less effect it will have on the circuit, so the less change it will make to the circuit operation when connected. Intermittent Taking place in an irregular or unpredictable cycle. An intermittent problem or failure may happen one moment, then not be there the next. Thats why intermittent failures are often difficult to isolate. Light-Emitting Diode Also LED. A semiconductor that lights when energized, much like a light bulb. But, unlike a light bulb, an LED requires very little current, and that current flow must be in a specific direction, or the LED wont light.
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.



RE.ERENCE

Glossary of Electrical Terms (cont)


Microprocessor See Computer. Ohm Unit of resistance measurement. It takes one volt to push one amp of current through one ohm resistance. Ohmmeter Electrical device for measuring resistance in a circuit or component. Ohms Law Principle that defines the relationship between pressure (voltage), flow (amperage) and resistance (ohms). Ohms x Amps = Volts; Volts Ohms = Amps; Volts Amps = Ohms. Open Circuit An incomplete electrical path that wont provide the means for electricity to perform work. An open circuit prevents current flow, so the circuit wont operate. Oscilloscope An electrical test device that maps voltage changes in a circuit over a specific amount of time. An oscilloscope displays the voltage signal as a picture, to show how voltage changes through the components operating cycle. Parallel Circuit An electrical circuit designed with multiple paths through the circuit, so that not all of the current must pass through all of the loads in the circuit. If one leg of a parallel circuit opens, it wont prevent the other legs from operating. Potentiometer A three-wire sensor that modifies a voltage signal based on movement or position. Potentiometers receive a regulated voltage signal to one end of a resistor, and ground to the other; a wiper slides along the resistor, and picks up the voltage signal, based on its position
2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

along the resistor. Powertrain Control Module Also PCM. SAE J-1930 term for a computer that controls engine and transmission operation. A PCM may also control other systems, including cruise control, A/C system, antilock brakes, etc., but it must control engine and transmission to be called a PCM. See also ECM, TCM. Pulse Generator An AC generator that develops a frequency signal that varies with the rotational speed of an internal transmission component, such as a sun shell, turbine shaft or output ring gear. The computer uses this signal to measure the components RPM. From this, the computer can determine when to shift, when a shift is complete, or if a clutch is slipping. Pulse Width Modulated Also PWM. A signal that varies its relationship between on-time and off-time. Pulse width modulated signals usually control a computer output device, such as an electronic pressure control solenoid: The longer the signal on-time, the longer the solenoid remains open, so the lower mainline pressure becomes. See Duty Cycle. Relay An electrical device that allows a low current circuit to control a high current circuit. Energizing a relay energizes an electromagnet, which opens or closes a set of contacts, to provide power or ground to a circuit that would normally require too much current for the device controlling the circuit.

RE.ERENCE



Glossary of Electrical Terms (cont)


Resistance The ability of a circuit or device to reduce or limit current flow. Resistor A device that limits or reduces current flow in a circuit. Sensor A device that provides signals to the computer, based on engine or transmission operating conditions. The computer uses these signals to control engine operation more precisely. Serial Data A digital signal from the computer, to communication information with other computers or scan tools. Scan tools can provide the actual sensor readings the computer sees, and outputs from the computer, by interpreting serial data signals. Series Circuit An electrical circuit in which all of the loads are wired end to end, in such a way that forces all of the current passing through the circuit to travel through all of the loads. If one load in a series circuit opens, it will prevent the other loads from operating. Short Circuit An electrical circuit without the resistance necessary to operate properly. Because of this lost resistance, these circuits will often burn up, unless protected by a fuse or circuit breaker. Not to be confused with a grounded circuit. Shrink Tubing An insulating material that shrinks to seal a connection when you apply heat. Solenoid An electrical device that turns electrical signals into movement or work. Solenoids can control lever movement, such as throttle kickers, or can control vacuum or hydraulic flow. The solenoids youll most likely be dealing with open and close to control hydraulic flow, to allow the transmission to shift gears, control lockup, and control line pressure. Thermistor A semiconductor that varies resistance based on temperature. There are two types of thermistor: negative temperature coefficient (NTC) and positive temperature coefficient (PTC). The NTC thermistor is more common as the temperature goes up, its resistance goes down. Transistor A semiconductor that operates as an electronic relay. Transistors allow a low current circuit to control power or ground to a high current circuit. Variable Resistor A one- or two-wire sensor that modifies a voltage signal based on stress or temperature. Thermistors are the most common type of variable resistor in todays cars and trucks. Voltage The pressure in an electrical system, that pushes current through the circuit. One volt of pressure is necessary to push one amp of current through one ohm of resistance. Sometimes called the circuits potential. Voltmeter Electrical test device that measures the voltage potential in a circuit. Displays its reading in volts.

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE

Abbreviations
Abbr. A AC B, b base C C C, c cm cu db DC dm DPDT DPST E, e E, e mf F F, f flu FM g gnd, grd Hg Hz I IB IC IE k kg kHz Description Ammeter Alternating current Base electrode, units with single Degrees Celsius or centigrade Capacitance, capacitor Collector electrode Centimeter Cubic Decibels Direct current Decimeter Double-pole, double-throw switch Double-pole, single-throw switch Emitter electrode Voltage Microfarad Degrees Fahrenheit Frequency Fluid Frequency modulation Gram Ground Mercury Hertz Current Base current (DC) Collector current (DC) Emitter current (DC) x1000 Kilograms Kilohertz Abbr. kV kW kWH lb M m 0.001 mf, mfd MHz mm NC Nm NO R SPDT SPST t T V, v VBB VBC VBE VCB VCC VCE VEB VEC vee vF W w wh, whr Description Kilovolt Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Pound Mega; x1,000,000 Milli; one-one thousanth; 1/1000; Microfarad Megahertz Millimeter Normally closed Newton-meter Normally open Resistance; resistor Single-pole, double-throw switch Single-pole, single-throw switch Time Temperature Volt; voltmeter Base supply voltage (DC) Base-to-collector voltage (DC) Base-to-emitter voltage (DC) Collector-to-base voltage (DC) Collector supply voltage (DC) Collector-to-emitter voltage (DC) Emitter-to-base voltage (DC) Emitter-to-collector voltage (DC) Emitter supply voltage (DC) Forward voltage (DC) Watt; work Watt Watt-hour

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

RE.ERENCE

!

Numeric Equivalents
Decimal Inches 0.0078 0.0135 0.0145 0.0156 0.0160 0.0180 0.0200 0.0210 0.0225 0.0234 0.0240 0.0250 0.0260 0.0280 0.0292 0.0310 0.0312 0.0320 0.0330 0.0350 0.0360 0.0370 0.0380 0.0390 0.0400 0.0410 0.0420 0.0430 0.0465 0.0469 0.0520 0.0547 0.0550 0.0595 0.0625 0.0635 0.0670 0.0700 0.0730 0.0760 0.0781 0.0785 0.0810 0.0820 0.0860 0.0890 0.0935 0.0938 0.0960 0.0980 0.0995 0.1015 0.1016 0.1040 0.1065 0.1094 0.1100 0.1110 Fraction Inches
1

Millimeters 0.1981 0.3429 0.3683 0.3962 0.4064 0.4572 0.5080 0.5334 0.5715 0.5944 0.6096 0.6350 0.6604 0.7112 0.7417 0.7874 0.7925 0.8128 0.8382 0.8890 0.9144 0.9398 0.9652 0.9906 1.0160 1.0414 1.0668 1.0922 1.1811 1.1913 1.3208 1.3894 1.3970 1.5113 1.5875 1.6129 1.7018 1.7780 1.8542 1.9304 1.9837 1.9939 2.0574 2.0828 2.1844 2.2606 2.3749 2.3825 2.4384 2.4892 2.5273 2.5781 2.5806 2.6416 2.7051 2.7788 2.7940 2.8194

Drill Size 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56

Tap Size

Decimal Inches 0.1130 0.1160 0.1172 0.1200 0.1250 0.1285 0.1328 0.1340 0.1360 0.1405 0.1406 0.1440 0.1470 0.1476 0.1484 0.1495 0.1520 0.1540 0.1563 0.1570 0.1590 0.1610 0.1641 0.1650 0.1660 0.1690 0.1695 0.1719 0.1730 0.1770 0.1797 0.1800 0.1653 0.1820 0.1850 0.1875 0.1890 0.1910 0.1935 0.1953 0.1960 0.1990 0.2010 0.2031 0.2040 0.2050 0.2055 0.2090 0.2109 0.2130 0.2188 0.2210 0.2266 0.2280 0.2340 0.2344 0.2380 0.2400

Fraction Inches

Millimeters 2.8702 2.9464 2.9769 3.0480 3.1750 3.2639 3.3731 3.4036 3.4544

Drill Size 33 32 31 30

Tap Size 6-40 NF 6-48 NS

/128 /16

15

/128 /8

17

/128

/128

29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19

/64

/32

19

/128

/32

/128

21

/128

/64

0-80 NF 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 3-48 NC 3-56 NF 4-36 NS 4-40 NC 4-48 NF 1 /8-32 NC 3mm - 0.50


1

11

/64

/128

23

/128

1-64 NC 1-72NF

/16

/16

/128

2-56 NC 2-64 NF

25

/128

/64

3.5687 3.5712 3.6576 3.7338 3.7500 3.7694 3.7973 3.8608 3.9116 3.9700 3.9878 4.0386 4.0894 4.1681 4.1910 4.2164 4.2926 4.3053 4.3663 4.3942 4.4958 4.5644 4.5720 4.2000 4.6228 4.6990 4.7625 4.8006 4.8514 4.9149 4.9606 4.9784 5.0546 5.1054 5.1587 5.1816 5.2070 5.2197 5.3086 5.3569 5.4102 5.5575 5.6134 5.7556 5.7912 5.9436 5.9538 6.0452 6.0960

4mm - 0.70 4mm - 0.75 8-32 NC 8-36 NF 8-40 NS /16-24 NC 4.5mm - 0.75 10-24 NC
3

3 /16-32 NF 10-32 NF

5mm - 0.90 5mm - 0.80 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 6mm - 1.00 5 4 3 2 1 A B 7mm - 1.00


1 1

12-24 NC 5.5mm - 0.80 12-28 NF 12-32 NEF

14-20 NS

/4-20 NC 14-24 NS

11

/128 /32

13

/64

/4-24 NS /4-28 NF /4-32 NEF /4-40 NS

27

/128 /32 /128 /64

1 1

/8-40NF 5-40NC

13

/128 /64

29

5-44 NF 6-32 NC 6-36 NS

15

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.

"

RE.ERENCE

Numeric Equivalents (continued)


Decimal Inches 0.2420 0.2422 0.2460 0.2500 0.2570 0.2578 0.2610 0.2656 0.2660 0.2720 0.2734 0.2770 0.2800 0.2810 0.2813 0.2891 0.2900 0.2950 0.2969 0.3020 0.3047 0.3110 0.3125 0.3160 0.3190 0.3203 0.3230 0.3270 0.3281 0.3320 0.3359 0.3390 0.3430 0.3438 0.3480 0.3500 0.3516 0.3580 0.3594 0.3672 0.3680 0.3750 0.3770 0.3820 0.3828 0.3860 0.3906 0.3970 0.3984 0.4040 0.4063 0.4130 0.4141 0.4210 0.4219 0.4290 0.4297 0.4375 0.4453 Fraction Inches
31

Millimeters 6.1468 6.1519 6.2484 6.3500 6.5278 6.5481 6.6294 6.7462 6.7564 6.9088 6.9444 7.0358 7.1120 7.1374 7.1450 7.3431 7.3660 7.4930 7.5413 7.6708 7.7394 7.8994 7.9375 8.0264 8.1026 8.1356 8.2042 8.3058 8.3337 8.4328 8.5319 8.6106 8.7122 8.7325 8.8392 8.8900 8.9306 9.0932 9.1288 9.3269 9.3472 9.5250 9.5758 9.7028 9.7231 9.8044 9.9212 10.0838 10.1194 10.2616 10.3200 10.4902 10.5181 10.6934 10.7163 10.8966 10.9144 11.1125 11.3106

Drill Size C D E F G H I J

Tap Size

Decimal Inches 0.4531 0.4609 0.4688 0.4766 0.4800 0.4844 0.4922 0.5000 0.5039 0.5156 0.5312 0.5469 0.5590 0.5625 0.5781 0.5787 0.5938 0.6094 0.6220 0.6250 0.6406 0.6562 0.6614 0.6719 0.6875 0.7008 0.7031 0.7187 0.7344 0.7500 0.7656 0.7812 0.7969 0.8125 0.8228 0.8281 0.8425 0.8437 0.8594 0.8750 0.8779 0.8906 0.9062 0.9219 0.9375 0.9531 0.9687 0.9844 1.0000

Fraction Inches
29

Millimeters 11.5087 11.7069 11.9075 12.1056 12.1920 12.3038 12.5019 12.7000 12.8000 13.0962 13.0962 13.8913 14.2000 14.2875 14.6837 14.7000 15.0825 15.4788 15.8000 15.8750 16.2712 16.6675 16.8000 17.0663 17.4625 17.8000

Drill Size
1 1

Tap Size /2-20 NF /2-24 NS

/64

/128 /4

59

/16-18 NC

/128 /32 61 /128


15

33

/128 /64

17

/64 63 /128 1 /2
33 17

31

14mm - 2.00 9 /16-12 NC 14mm - 1.50 14mm - 1.25 9 /16-18 NF 5 /8-11 NC 16mm - 2.00 /8-18NF /8-18NPT 16mm - 1.50 11 /16-11 NS
3 5

8mm - 1.25 5 /16-24 NF 8mm - 1.00

35

/128

/64 /32 35 /64 /16 37 /64


19 9

K
5

9 37

/32 /128 /64

/16-32 NEF

L M N 9mm - 1.25 3 /8-16 NC O 9mm - 1.00 P 9mm - 0.75 Q R S 10mm - 1.25 T U V 11mm - 1.50 W
7 3

19

/32 39 /64 /8 41 /64 21 /32


43 11 5

39

/128 /16 /128 /64

18mm - 2.50 11 /16-16 NS


3 /4-10 NC 18mm - 1.50

41

/64 /16

45 23

21

/8-24 NF

43

/128 /32

/8-27 NPT 10mm - 1.50

11

/64 /32 47 /64 3 /4 49 /64 25 /32 51 /64 13 /16 20.9000


53

/4-16NF 20mm - 2.50 1 /2-14 NPT

/8-9 NC

45

/128

/64 21.4000

10mm - 1.0
7

7 /8-14 NF 22mm - 1.50 7 /8-18 NS 24mm - 3.00

/64 47 /128
3

23

27

/16-14 NC

/32 55 /64 7 /8 22.3000


57 29

/8

1-8 NC 24mm - 2.00 1-12 NF 3 /4-14 NPT 1-14 NS

49

/128 /64

/64 /32 59 /64


15 61

25

/16-20 NF

X Y Z 12mm - 1.75 12mm - 1.50 1 /2-13 NC 12mm - 1.25


1

51

/128 /32

13

/16 /64 31 /32 63 /64 1

53

/128 /64

27

55

/128 /16 57 /128


7

/4-18NPT

2001 ATRA. All Rights Reserved.