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CONVERTIBLE AUTOMOBILE TOP

Akmal B. Ismail Amirrudin B. Mat Ngu Ya May

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan & Teknologi Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Convertible automobile top mechanism is a mechanism that can open the car roof. The mechanism of
convertible automobile top is widely use in automotive fields nowadays. So, here the convertible automobile
top and related will be discussed.

INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY

Nowadays, a convertible automobile top is very In order to create the convertible automobile top
popular among consumers. The reason is that they mechanism, there are several methods that will
want to be part of the nature while driving and lead into the fabrication. The methods are shown
also a convertible automobile top is looks very in the flowchart below:
stylish. So, this project is about to create a
convertible automobile top mechanism using all
the knowledge learned in Mechanism Design Start
subject.

The convertible automobile top consists of a lot of Kinematics Diagram


links that related to each others. In this project, the
given convertible automobile top will be redesign
according to its requirements. The original design
of convertible automobile top cannot move Theoretical Calculation Method
smoothly and met problem during fold back due
to the links position and its length. Also, all of the
links needs to fit into the predefined space (1.36m Determination of Position and
x 0.44m) as mentioned. The specified Length of Links/Elimination
requirements must be met while the employing the
given number of links and kinematics pair.
Finally, after the redesign process was finished, Simulation via Cosmos Motion
the model will be fabricated in scale dimension in
order to show it is practically function.
Fabrication of
OBJECTIVES Kinematics Model

There are several objectives that need to be


achieving in this project which are: Product

• to create the convertible automobile top


mechanism Figure 1: Flowchart of Methodology
• to calculate the position, velocity, and
acceleration of the point of interest from
the driver link
• to design the top and rear panel, and all
links be able to fold back and fit within the
predefined space

1
i. Kinematics Diagram The Piston with length Lp will retract and rotates
clockwise. As given, the retraction,
s = sin (x) ; x = θp
= sin (θp - ∆θp ) , ∆θp =change in angle

Step 2: Calculation displacement for Link E which


is attached to piston actuator.

Figure 2: Kinematics diagram of convertible automobile top

The Degree of Freedom (DoF) for this kinematics


diagram is as below:

n = 10 as labeled 1- 10
j p = (12 pins + 1slider ) as labeled A-L
jh = 0
∴ F = 3(10 − 1) − 2(13) − 0
= 27 − 26
=1 hEf = hEi – s, hEf = final length of link E and hEi =
final length of link E
ii. Theoretical Calculation Method
⎡ hE f ⎤
θ E = sin −1 ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ LE ⎥⎦
f

Position Analysis
⎡ hEi ⎤
Step 1: Firstly, calculation is started from piston
θ E = sin −1 ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LE ⎦
i

actuator which retraction length is a


function of sinusoidal. Δθ E = θ E i − θ E f

Step 3: Calculation angular displacement for Link


D which is attach to top panel

Lp θA

θp
D

LR = Length of rear panel


p = piston

2
2
3
Rear linkage is assumed has the same amount of 1
angular displacement as link E, then 4

10
Δ θ D = θ D f − θ Ei = Δ θ E
5

9
LR = Length of rear panel 6
Rear linkage is assumed has the same amount of 8
7
angular displacement as link E, then 2
3
1
Δ θ D = θ D f − θ Ei = Δ θ E
4
⎡L ⎤ 10
θ D = sin ⎢ A sin θ AD ⎥
−1

⎣ LR ⎦ 5
⎡L ⎤ 9
θ AD = sin −1 ⎢ R sin θ D ⎥ 6
⎣ LA ⎦ 8
⎡L ⎤
7
Δ (θ AD ) = sin −1 ⎢ R sin Δ(θ D )⎥
⎣ LA ⎦ Possible Instant Center:
Finally, the position of top panel as the piston 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
actuator retracted is:
12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910
θ A = 180° − θ AD − θ D 13 24 35 46 57 68 79 810
14 25 36 47 58 69 710
15 26 37 48 59 610
Velocity Analysis
16 27 38 49 510
The velocity analysis here is conducted by using 17 28 39 410
instant center method. 18 29 310
19 210
110

Acceleration Analysis

There are two methods to be used in acceleration


analysis which are determination of acceleration
of general point on a floating point and coriolis
acceleration.

Total links, n = 10 iii. Determination of Position and Length of


Total number of instant center Links/Elimination

n(n − 1) 10(10 − 1) In order to redesign the convertible automobile


= = = 45 top, the position and also the length of the links
2 2
that related should be determined. It is to easier
the process of fabrication. The (sub) links position
and dimension are adjusted through CAD
software which is SolidWorks.

3
2519

iv. Simulation via Cosmos Motion 2204

1889

Displacement (mm)
To make sure that all of the links that have been 1574

modified are reliable, the modified design, the 1259

modified design will be tested in Cosmos Motion 944

630
to see whether the simulation is according to its
315
requirements.
0
0.00 0.36 0.71 1.07 1.43 1.79 2.14 2.50 2.86 3.21 3.57 3.93 4.29 4.64 5.00
Time (sec)

v. Fabrication of Kinematics Model


Figure 5: Displacement within 10 seconds

Fabrication is the process after all of the links 368

related are confirmed at the right position and at 238

the right dimension. 108

-22

Acceleration (mm/s^2)
-153

-283

-413
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
-543

-674

Simulation Result for Convertible Automobile -804

Top: 0.00 0.36 0.71 1.07 1.43 1.79 2.14 2.50 2.86
Time (sec)
3.21 3.57 3.93 4.29 4.64 5.00

Original Design: Figure 6: Velocity within 10 seconds

482

338

194

51
Velocity (mm/s)

-93

-237

-381

-525

-669

-813
0.00 0.36 0.71 1.07 1.43 1.79 2.14 2.50 2.86 3.21 3.57 3.93 4.29 4.64 5.00
Figure 3: Original Position - SolidWorks Assembly Time (sec)

Figure 7: Acceleration within 10 seconds


Cosmos Motion Output (Traced Path,
Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration): Modified Design:

Figure 8: Original Position - SolidWorks Assembly


Figure 4: Displaced Position - Traced Path

4
Cosmos Motion Output (Traced Path, 273

Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration):


171

Acceleration (mm/s^2)
68

-34

-137

-240
0.00 0.91 1.82 2.73 3.64 4.55 5.45 6.36 7.27 8.18 9.09 10.00
Time (sec)

Figure 13: Acceleration within 10 seconds


Figure 9: Original Position

Discussion:

Figure 10: Displaced Position - Traced Path

2422

2017
Displacement (mm)

1612

1207

Figure 14: Original Position Given


802

398
0.00 0.91 1.82 2.73 3.64 4.55 5.45
Time (sec)
6.36 7.27 8.18 9.09 10.00
Original Design of Convertible Automobile Top

Figure 11: Displacement within 10 seconds As seen from figure 4, there are two arrows (green
and red color) which pointed to different
336.21
direction. These are actually indicating the error
during the simulation. Moreover, there is also
183.49 fluctuation on the links which making the time
cycle of the mechanism cannot be completed.
Velocity (mm/sec)

30.77

-121.94
Meanwhile, the links especially link C and top
panel also are not fitted within the predefined
-274.66
space – coordinate E (1.36, -0.44).
-427.38
0.00 0.91 1.82 2.73 3.64 4.55 5.45
Time (sec)
6.36 7.27 8.18 9.09 10.00 Figure 5, 6, 7 is the displacement, velocity and
acceleration graph.
Figure 12: Velocity within 10 seconds

5
Modified Design of Convertible Automobile Top

After several corrections have been done to the


original design, those entire links finally can be
fitted into predefined space without any error or
fluctuation. The time cycle is assigned with 10s,
and the mechanism is fully being performed
within 10s also.

Figure 11, 12, 13 is the displacement, velocity and


acceleration graph. All of these graphs are
illustrated its smoothness which mean no
fluctuation.

Overall, modified design that has been getting


through this simulation is the best design.
Fabrication for convertible automobile top will be
fabricated according to the modified design that
performed from the simulation.

CONCLUSION

As the conclusion, the objectives of this project


are achieved successfully where all the
requirements were obtained. Hopefully, in the
future, there is many more research about the
convertible automobile top mechanism in order to
improve its application.

REFERENCES

[1] Matthew Edward Doyle (1997). The


Foundation for CADSPAM: Computer Aided
Design of SPAtial Mechanisms. Master
Thesis of Faculty Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University.

[2] Nilesh and G. K. Ananthasuresh (2002).


Contact Aided Compliant Mechanism:
Concept and Preliminaries. Design
Engineering Technical Conferences, Montreal,
Quebec, Canada (DETC2002/MECH-34211)

[3] S. –J.Kwon, M.-W.Suh. Design Program for


the Kinematics and Dynamic Characteristic of
the Bus Door Mechanism, Vol 6, NO.4 (2005)
403-411