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TEACHERS GUIDE with ANSWER KEY

Beatrice S. Mikulecky Linda Jeffries

Advanced Reading Power: Extensive Reading, Vocabulary Building, Comprehension Skills, Reading Faster Teachers Guide with Answer Key
Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606 Staff credits: The people who made up the Advanced Reading Power team, representing editorial, production, design, and manufacturing, are Christine Edmonds, Ann France, Gosia Jaros-White, Laura Le Dran, Edith Pullman, Jennifer Stem, and Paula Van Ells. Text composition: Rainbow Graphics Text font: 10/14 Stone Serif LONGMAN ON THE WEB Longman.com offers online resources for teachers and students. Access our Companion Websites, our online catalog, and our local offices around the world. Visit us at longman.com. 13-Digit ISBN: 978-0-13-199028-9 10-Digit ISBN: 0-13-199028-4 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10OPM11 10 09 08 07

Answer Key
Part 1: Extensive Reading
UNIT 3: Reading and Discussing Fiction
Exercise 2, page 18

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Main characters: Margot: a thin, pale, quiet girl, who feels different from the other children and does not play with them William: the class bully, who resents Margot and mistreats her because she is different The teacher: not clearly characterized, but distant and not very involved in the class or concerned about the children The other children: typical nine-year-olds, easily persuaded by William to gang up against Margot Setting (time): in the future Setting (place): at a school on the planet Venus
Exercise 3, page 19

Exposition Complicating action e, g Climax f Resolution a, c (Answers will vary for parts B
Exercise 5, pages 2021

Interpretation Interpretation #1 #2 b, d b, d, h, i, j, k e, g, f c a and C.)

a. b. c. d. e. f.

11 2 10 1 3 5

g. h. i. j. k.

4 6 8 9 7

Exercise 4, pages 1920

A. There can be more than one interpretation to a story like this, so alternative answers are possible. Answers based on two interpretations are shown below. Other answers are possible if students can justify them. The students do not have to use all of items ak

A. (Other answers are also possible.) 1. b. thousands upon thousands of days compounded and filled from one end to the other with rain c. a thousand forests had been crushed under the rain and grown up a thousand times to be crushed again d. It was the color of rubber and ash, this jungle, from the many years without the sun. 2. b. the rain had washed out the blue from her eyes and the red from her mouth and the yellow from her hair c. an old photograph dusted from an album, whitened away d. if she spoke at all her voice would be a ghost 3. b. the children pressed to each other like so many roses, so many weeds c. they turned on themselves like a feverish wheel, all tumbling spokes d. wildly, like animals escaped from their caves, they ran and ran in shouting circles 4. b. He gave her a shove. c. he seized her roughly d. The boy gave her another push.

Answer Key

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Part 2: Vocabulary Building


UNIT 1: Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary
Exercises 1, 2, pages 2627

Exercise 2, pages 3738

(Answers will vary.)


Exercise 3, page 28

1. three 2. adjective 3. You probably are worried that your teacher will find something wrong. 4. a piece of paper 5. Answers will vary. 6. on the first syllable 7. scrubbed
Exercise 4, page 30

A. (Answers will vary.) B. tamper: to change something without permission, especially in order to damage it forlorn: sad and lonely
Exercise 3, page 38

(Answers will vary.)

A. (Answers will vary.) B. woes: the problems and troubles affecting someone abducted: taken away illegally and by force; kidnapped
Exercise 4, page 40

UNIT 2: Learning New Words from Your Reading


Example, pages 3132

A. 3. F 4. T (Answers will vary for parts B and C.)


Exercise 1, pages 3233

A. 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F (Answers will vary for parts BD.)

A. a. Part of speech: noun Definition: 2 b. Part of speech: verb Definition: 1 B. a. the idea of something that is low and empty (with high sides) b. the idea of doing something very thoroughly over a period of time

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Answer Key

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5. b. a gold or a yellow crayon or a coin large enough to buy the world with c. a warmness, like a blushing in the face d. the sun on their cheeks like a warm iron 6. b. the sweet crystal fall of showers c. the concussion of storms so heavy they were tidal waves come over the islands d. the tatting drum, the endless shaking down of clear bead necklaces upon the roof 7. b. blazing blue tile color c. amazing blueness d. darkened into midnight

Exercise 2, pages 3435

A. 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F (Answers will vary for parts BD.)

UNIT 3: Inferring Meaning from Context


Exercise 1, page 37

A. (Answers will vary.) B. drenched: completely wet thrust: to push someone or something somewhere with a sudden or violent movement

Exercise 5, pages 4041

A. a. 1 b. 4 c. 3 d. 6 B. the idea of something that is level and then changes to a new position, literally or figuratively
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practiceand they rarely missed their zeem c. target


Exercise 9, page 45

Exercise 6, page 41

A. a. 3 b. 5 c. 2 d. 1 B. the idea of movement or change


Exercise 7, pages 4243

A. 1. verb 2. it could be so thoroughly substantiated that there would be no room to doubt its validity 3. no room to doubt its validity, proof of my contention, imperative for me to prove B. (Answers will vary.) C. proven
Exercise 10, page 46

A. 1. a. verb b. they tried to zep all the guns; the Germans zepped radios as well c. seize, take away 2. a. verb b. electronic signs along roads that zop drivers about dangers or problems ahead; drivers are zopped about the condition of the road; Do these systems work better to zop drivers c. warn
Exercise 8, page 43

A. (Answers will vary.) B. 1. set of beliefs 2. tools, instruments 3. was very popular and well-developed

UNIT 4: Word Parts


Exercise 1, pages 4849

A. 1. a. noun b. there were large dreels that went back and forth; when the dreel arrived; jumped into the dreel as it pulled out c. ferryboat 2. a. noun b. where they could be a zeem for enemies on the roofs; a sharpshooter might decide it was time for zeem

(Students definitions will vary.) A. 1. Word: manual Root: manus Dictionary definition: involving the use of the hands 2. Word: reverse Root: versum Dictionary definition: to go backwards, in the opposite direction 3. Word: located Root: locatum Dictionary definition: to be in a particular place 4. Word: predict Root: dictus Dictionary definition: to say that something will happen before it happens 5. Word: annual Root: annus Dictionary definition: happening once a year
Answer Key

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6. Word: dictator Root: dictus Dictionary definition: a ruler who has complete power over a country B.
Word from Related part A word reverse revert vision manual visualize manipulate Definition of related word to go back to a previous condition or habit to form a picture of something in your mind to make someone do what you want by deceiving or influencing them a date on which something special or important happened in a previous year the act of saying words for someone to write down connected with a particular place or area

7. Word: meter Root: metron Dictionary definition: a machine that measures and shows the amount of something you have used B.
Word from part A pathetic Related word sympathy Definition of related word the feeling of being sorry for someone who is in a bad situation having the Earth as the central point a written record of events, especially historical events, written in the order in which they happened a conversation in a book, play, or movie a small part of a cell that controls the development of qualities that have been passed on to a living thing from its parents using or relating to the metric system of weights and measures capable of being broken down by biological agents, especially bacteria

annual

anniversary

chronological

chronicle

dictator

dictation

logical gender

dialogue gene

located

local

Exercise 2, pages 5051

(Students definitions will vary.) A. 1. Word: pathetic Root: pathos Dictionary definition: making you feel pity or sympathy 2. Word: gender Root: genos Dictionary definition: the fact of being male or female 3. Word: biologists Root: bios Dictionary definition: person who scientifically studies living things 4. Word: logical Root: logos Dictionary definition: seeming reasonable and sensible 5. Word: geography Root: geo Dictionary definition: the study of the countries, oceans, rivers, mountains, etc., of the earth 6. Word: chronological Root: chronos Definition: arranged according to when something happened

meter

metric

biologist

biodegradable

Exercise 3, pages 5253

A. 1. uncle 2. normal 3. inspire 4. diskette (Answers will vary for parts B and C.)
Exercise 4, pages 5354

A. 1. unimportant 2. biology 3. trial

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Answer Key

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geography

geocentric

4. quality 5. central 6. money 7. durable (Answers will vary for parts B and C.)
Exercise 5, pages 5455

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

A. 1. pretty 2. reason 3. poster 4. primrose (Answers will vary for parts B and C.)
Exercise 6, pages 5556

7. mysticism; the belief that there is a hidden meaning in life or that each human being can unite with God 8. commitment; a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way 9. effectiveness; the extent to which an intended result is produced 10. restriction; something that limits or controls what you can do or what is allowed to happen

Exercise 8, pages 5859

A. 1. comma 2. interest 3. syringe 4. exercise 5. subject 6. teller 7. superb 8. contract (Answers will vary for parts B and C.)
Exercise 7, pages 5758

1. endurance; the ability to suffer difficulties or pain with strength and patience 2. competence; the ability and skill to do what is needed 3. organizer; someone who makes the necessary arrangements so that an activity can happen 4. conqueror; someone who takes control of a land or country by attacking people or fighting a war 5. discussion; the act of talking about something with someone or a group in order to exchange ideas or decide something 6. deletion; the act or process of removing something from a piece of writing or from a computer

1. conceivable; able to be believed or imagined 2. seasonal; happening or needed only at a particular time of year 3. bountiful; generous 4. angelic; seemingly good, kind, and gentle, or behaving in this way 5. monotonous; boring because there is no variety 6. devious; using tricks or lies to get what you want 7. suggestive; reminding you of something 8. panicky; very nervous or anxious 9. strategic; done as part of a plan 10. lawless; not obeying the law, or not controlled by the law

Exercise 9, page 59

1. validate; to prove that something is true or correct, or to make a document official 2. justify; to give an acceptable explanation or reason for something 3. customize; to change something to make it more appropriate for you 4. equate; to consider that one thing is the same as something else 5. quantify; to measure something and express it as a number 6. economize; to reduce the amount of money, time, goods, etc., that you use
Answer Key

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Exercise 10, page 60

7.

8.

9.

Exercise 11, pages 6061

(There may be more than one word to analyze in some senteces.) 1. Word: revise Parts: re + vise Definition: to change your opinions, plans, etc., because of new information or ideas 2. Word: telepathy Parts: tele + pathy Definition: the communication of thoughts directly from one persons mind to someone elses mind without speaking or writing 3. Word: generate Parts: gene + rate Definition: to produce or make something 4. Word: dominance Parts: domin + ance

UNIT 5: Collocations
Exercise 1, page 63

(Answers may vary.) 1. roughly doubled 2. in the last few years 3. a series of studies 4. research group 5. startling findings
Exercise 2, page 64

(Answers may vary.) 1. statistically less important 2. to stay in instant touch 3. around the world 4. reduced to a minimum 5. rely the most on e-mail

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Answer Key

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1. harmonize; verb; to make two things work well or look well together 2. environmental; adjective; concerning or affecting the air, land, or water on Earth 3. differentiate; verb; to recognize or express the difference between things or people 4. ethnic; adjective; relating to a particular race, nation, or tribe and their customs and traditions 5. qualitative; adjective; relating to the quality or standard of something, rather than amount or number 6. optional; adjective; if something is optional, you do not have to do it or use it 7. negate; verb; to state that something does not exist or is not true 8. identical; adjective; exactly the same 9. precedence; noun; the condition of being more important than other things 10. investigative; adjective; work or activities that involve investigating something

5.

6.

Definition: the fact of being more powerful, more important, or more noticeable than other people or things Word: unconventional Parts: un + convention + al Definition: doing things ones own way or having different opinions from most other people Word: insensitive Parts: in + sensi + tive Definition: not noticing other peoples feelings Word: heroically Parts: hero + ic + ally Definition: with extreme bravery, like a hero Word: synchronized Parts: syn + chron + ized Definition: to make two or more watches or clocks show exactly the same time Word: universe Parts: uni + verse Definition: the whole of space, including all the stars and planets

Exercise 3, page 65

Exercise 5, page 67

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

1. unreasonable assumption; started from the assumption; rests on the further assumption; depends on the assumption; the shared assumption; dared to question the assumption; the general assumption; depends on the assumption; to question the assumption; the fundamental assumption 3. assumption made by; the assumption of; the assumption that; the assumption was that 4. Assumption is often followed by a phrase starting with that.
Exercise 4, page 66

1. adopt a development strategy; that any strategy; the only rational strategy; tended to adopt a strategy; is the truly best strategy; Its new strategy; a successful strategy; do not fit in the long-term strategy; plan a date and a strategy; The winning strategy; this is a reasonable strategy; According to the regional strategy 2. Certain verbs are used such as adopt, fit in, plan. Adjectives are used to describe the strategy: development, rational, truly best, successful, long-term, reasonable, regional. 3. strategy away from dependence; strategy could achieve; strategy for either of us; strategy for sampling the stimuli; strategy in a more general; strategy is called; strategy is one that; strategy of the group; strategy for the return; strategy remarkably, was the simplest; strategy since it tends to cut down energy; strategy the government aims to 4. Strategy is often followed by a preposition: away from, for, in. It can be followed by a verb: achieve, is, was. It can also be followed by a comma and a new clause.

1. a relatively simple process; the most ancient process; the political process; not a single process; not been a smooth process; the historical process; The main process; enjoy the process; extend the process; involved in the process; it is this process; is part of the process; been a gradual process 2. Process is often preceded by an adjective: relatively simple, most ancient, political, single, smooth, historical, main, gradual. Process can be preceded by certain verbs: enjoy, extend, involved in. 3. process and divides the egg; process and one which continues; process and understand what this; process as we know; process. During the preceding fifty; process has been very widely discussed; process is competition; process of change; process of dying through the use; process of production; process of revision; process of understanding and; process. Various stories lend 4. Process can be followed by a comma or period and a new clause or sentence. It can be followed by a prepositional phrase with of. It can be followed by certain verbs: be discussed, is.

Exercise 6, page 68

1. understand what sense-perception; motion and sense perception; the problem of visual perception; beyond direct perception; and that where this perception; whose theories of perception; not just a matter of my own perception; influence upon the popular perception; relationship between their perception; depends on the publics perception; there is a widespread perception; based on the general perception

Answer Key

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Part 3: Comprehension Skills


UNIT 1: Previewing
Exercise 1, pages 7576

Exercise 7, page 69

(Answers may vary.) 1. unreasonable, further, shared, fundamental 2. rational, successful, long-term, winning, regional 3. political, single, smooth, historical, main, gradual 4. visual, direct, popular, publics, widespread, general
Exercise 8, pages 6970

1. how dictionaries are written 2. explanation 3. from lots of examples of real use of the word 4. A dictionary writer is a collector (of examples) and a recorder (of meanings). 5. No, the meanings of words can change. 6. (Answers will vary.)
Exercise 2, page 77

(Answers may vary. Possible answers:) 1. general, fundamental, popular 2. fundamental, publics, widespread 3. regional, long-term, winning, successful 4. gradual, smooth 5. visual 6. smooth 7. historical, fundamental, basic 8. long-term, regional

1. 2. 3. 4.

16 (Answers will vary.) (Answers will vary.) Glossary, Name Index, Subject Index

Exercise 3, page 78

1. Socialization (Answers will vary for questions 25.)

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Answer Key

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2. Perception is often part of a prepositional phrase: the problem of, beyond, theories of, a matter of, influence upon, relationship between. It can also be preceded by a phrasal verb: depends on, based on. It is often preceded by an adjective: sense, visual, direct, this, own, popular, publics, widespread, general. 3. perception actually is; perception and is laid out; perception as a particular difficulty; perception. But he is not; perception is lacking; perception involved both material things; perception. It was definitely; perception of Islam; perception of the good of the state; perception of what life imprisonment; perception recorded in the surveys of; perception that pre-1939 aviation was 4. Perception is sometimes followed by a prepositional phrase with of. It can be followed by a comma or period and a new clause or sentence. Certain verbs can be used after it: involved, recorded.

Exercise 9, page 70

(Answers may vary. Possible answers:) 1. make the, start from the, rest on the, depend on the, question the 2. adopt a, fit in a, plan a 3. cause a, extend a, be involved in a 4. deal with the, depend on the, based on the
Exercise 10, page 71

(Answers may vary. Possible answers:) 1. depends on, is based on 2. starts, is part of, is included in 3. develop, adopt 4. make, question 5. was based on, rested on 6. developed, adopted 7. be involved in, be part of, be included in 8. made, questioned

6. Summary, Key Concepts, CriticalThinking Questions


Exercise 4, pages 7980

Exercise 9, pages 8687

1. It tells about a five-year-old girl who had had almost no contact with people. 2. (Answers will vary.) 3. no (Answers will vary for questions 45.)
Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

period authority thus occurrences illustrative tasks original bound by

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

incidentally apply influenced context credited decades principally reveal

Exercise 5, pages 8081

UNIT 2: Making Inferences


(In many of these exercises, the answers may vary. Any answer is acceptable if it can be justified by evidence or conclusions that arise from the text.)
Exercise 1, page 89

1. Social Isolation 2. It is about the effects of social isolation on monkeys and on children. 3. There are two parts: one about research with monkeys and one about isolated children. 4. Both the research with monkeys and the cases of isolated children demonstrate the harmful effects of social isolation. 5. (Answers will vary.)
Exercise 6, pages 8283

1. F

2. T

3. F

4. T

5. T

3. They dont contain the chemical compound. 4. Paul Breslin works at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. He and his colleagues have discovered that extra virgin olive oil contains a compound called oleocanthal. 5. He is a scientist. 6. It is a scientific journal.
Exercise 2, page 90

Exercise 7, pages 8485

1. b 2. b 3. c

4. c 5. a 6. c

7. b 8. a 9. b

10. a 11. a 12. b

13. c 14. a 15. c

16. b

Exercise 8, page 86
Noun authority bind, binding context credit illustration incident, incidence influence occurrence origin period principal revelation Verb authorize bind contextualize credit illustrate influence occur originate reveal Adjective authoritative bound contextual creditable illustrative incidental influential original periodic principal revealing, revelatory

1. Farmers in two states in India have sprayed Coca-Cola on their fields instead of chemical pesticides. 2. They are expensive.
Adverb authoritatively contextually creditably incidentally originally periodically principally revealingly

Answer Key

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Exercise 3, pages 9192

1. The writer has inferred that the man is scared, probably very disturbed, and doesnt want his picture taken. 2. He has probably worked in a job that requires formal clothes, such as a waiter in a fancy restaurant or a concert musician. 3. The fact that the labels had been cut out seems to imply that he (or someone else) did not want anyone to identify him. 4. It was clear to the police from the way he looked or behaved that he needed medical help. 5. They inferred that he was a pianist and wanted to play the piano. 6. You can infer that he really liked playing the piano and that when he was playing, he could escape from the feelings or thoughts that disturbed him. 7. They guessed that he must be from a northern or central European country (probably because he is blond).

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Answer Key

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3. Hundreds of farmers say they have sprayed Coca-Cola on their fields. According to the farmers, the insects on cotton plants die when they are sprayed with cola. 4. It must have something in it that kills insects. 5. The Coca-Cola Company already has legal problems in Andhra Pradesh because farmers believe it is taking water away from them for its bottling plants. 6. They are probably quite poor. Water for farming is in short supply. 7. If there are bottling plants, it must mean that Coca-Cola soft drinks sell quite well in India. At the same time, if farmers are suing the company over water use, there is evidently some negative feeling about the way the company operates in India.

8. You can infer that the doctors were convinced that he was seriously in need of psychiatric care.

Exercise 4, pages 9295

1. You can infer that they were not small and not one of the new species. 2. They inferred that it is a species of human because it walked upright, even though the skeleton is shaped more like that of a chimpanzee and it had a smaller brain than most humans. 3. Roberts has inferred that a volcanic explosion eliminated both the pygmy elephants and the Homo floresiensis population of the island. 4. The writer infers that this discovery means that other surprising discoveries are possible, and that there may even be other kinds of humans alive on the planet today. 5. Animals on islands may evolve to become much smaller or much larger than the similar species on the mainland. 6. Inference 7. Small brain size usually belongs to a chimpanzee, not a human. 8. He was surprised because he did not expect a creature with such a small brain size to be able to make fine tools. 9. Morwood inferred that the humans (Homo erectus) who had made the tools had arrived in boats on Flores from the mainland; that they had not been able to leave; and that they had then evolved into the smaller species of humans (Homo floresiensis). 10. He suggests that Homo floresiensis may have become small because resources were scarce on the island. 11. You can infer that both types of humans must have lived together on the island for at least 20,000 years.

Exercise 5, pages 9599

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2. Warren probably used to be active and have friends, and he has been in a wheelchair for many years. Arthurs ironic and rather dark sense of humor about his situation may be a way of coping with his difficulties. Junie Moon had the bad luck to meet up with a violent man, though we dont know what her relationship was with this man. 3. Since it says they had no place to go, you can infer that all three patients have no close family ties. They either dont have families or they are not in contact with their families (perhaps they do not want to make contact). 4. It seems that that they dont have any money except the small allowances (pittances) they receive for their disabilities. 5. Junie Moon and Arthur probably get annoyed with Warren sometimes when he tells them what to do. 6. They are used to his ways, and they care about him and want to comfort him. 7. Since Arthur is probably thinking that Warren represents the minority group of
Noun alteration appearance capacity diversity evolution implication persistence presumption proportion

disabled people, we can infer that Junie Moon and Arthur must belong to other ethnic or racial minorities (such as African-Americans or Native Americans). 8. There seems to be some rivalry between them and some resentment on Arthurs part about Warren deciding things. 9. She may be more sensitive about her deformities and perhaps more damaged psychologically than she seems at first from her rather tough way of speaking. 10. He doesnt easily become offended, hes good at convincing people, and hes not afraid to challenge authority (as with the landlord and the nurse). 11. She does not like or trust them, and they feel the same way about her. 12. It seems probable that one or both of the men will fall in love with Junie Moon. 13. (Answers will vary.)
Exercise 7, pages 101102

1. c 2. b 3. a

4. c 5. a 6. a

7. b 8. c 9. b

10. b 11. c 12. a

13. c 14. a 15. c

16. b

Exercise 8, page 103


Verb alter appear diversify evolve imply persist presume proportion signify survive Adjective altered apparent capacious diverse evolutionary, evolving implicit persistent presumable previous proportional, proportionate resourceful significant sole survivable, surviving Adverb apparently diversely implicitly persistently presumably previously proportionally, proportionately resourcefully significantly solely

resource significance survival, survivor

Answer Key

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Exercise 9, pages 103104

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

previous persistent capacity implication altered significance survived sole

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

wiped out proportions evolutionary presumably elsewhere resources apparently diversity

Exercise 1, pages 106107

1. Topic: The causes of water shortages in Mexico City 2. Topic: The history of Mexico Citys water supplies 3. Topic: How Mexico City is sinking
Exercise 2, pages 107109

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

c a d f e

Exercise 5, pages 112114

Exercise 3, page 110

Topic: Floodplains Main idea: c Supporting facts and ideas: Floodplains can control flooding. They also help clean rivers and streams.
Exercise 4, pages 111112

1. Topic: Flooding in the Netherlands Main idea: c Supporting fact and ideas: The Netherlands is more than 60 percent near or below sea level. The greatest risk of flooding comes from the North Sea. Flooding can occur along the Rhine, Maas, and Scheldt Rivers. When major

1. Topic: A description of Lake Baikal Main idea: a Supporting facts and ideas: It measures 395 miles by 50 miles and has 1,245 miles of coastline. It is 1 mile deep. It is at least 25 million years old. 2. Topic: Lake Baikals ecosystem Main idea: c Supporting facts and ideas: More than 1,000 species exist nowhere else. Among its unique fauna is the Baikal freshwater seal. Another unique creature is a fish called the omul. 3. Topic: The clear water of Lake Baikal Main idea: a Supporting facts and ideas: The lake contained certain small zooplankton and crustaceans. The water consisted of rainwater and melted snow. Most of the watershed has a rocky surface.

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Answer Key

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UNIT 3: Understanding Paragraphs

rivers meet at the North Sea, they form a delta region. 2. Topic: The Dutch system of flood barriers Main idea: b Supporting fact and ideas: The Dutch barriers are the strongest in the world. The first line of defense is made up of dikes, dams, and storm barriers. These are aided by secondary defenses. 3. Topic: Climate change and Dutch water protection strategies Main idea: b Supporting fact and ideas: According to the study, higher rainfall and rising sea levels would lead to increased risk of flooding and hotter summers could lead to weakening of the dikes. The new approach will rely more on natural protection. The government has begun buying land along major waterways.

Exercise 6, page 116

The increase in paid employment for women may have contributed to various changes in social attitudes, but it has not completely changed the role of women in the home. Women who work outside the home still usually end up playing the leading role
Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

in managing the care of the house and family. Husbands may contribute by taking out the trash or mowing the lawn, but on average they spend a lot less time doing these and other household tasks than women do. This is true even for women who are working full-time and for those who can afford to pay

PronounsReferents: itthe increase in paid employment for women whowomen working outside the home theyhusbands thesetaking out the trash and mowing the lawn Thisthe fact that men spend a lot less time doing household tasks than women do whowomen working full time thosewomen who can afford to pay for help shea woman whothe one (the woman) managing the help this help Sheworking women
Example, page 117

Main idea: A transnational corporation is a corporation that has investments in two or more countries.
Exercise 7, 118119

for help in the home. In fact, if a woman can afford to pay for help, she is usually the one who has to manage this help, hiring and overseeing the babysitters, cleaners, repairmen, and so on. She is also more likely to attend school meetings, make appointments with teachers, and in general, attend to the needs of the children.

Main idea: Although they are working more, women are still responsible for most household tasks and responsibilities.

1. Main idea: In order to be sure of having enough rubber for his cars, Henry Ford started his own rubber plantation in Brazil. Transitions: However, at times, In fact, But, Thus PronounsReferents: whoHenry Ford heHenry Ford hisHenry Ford 2. Main idea: Fords plantation began producing rubber but then was closed due to a number of difficulties. Transitions: However, In fact, Before long, Finally PronounsReferents: hisFord heFord Onefactor

Answer Key

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Exercise 8 pages 121122

1. d Main idea: Since ancient times, gold has had special and lasting value. 2. b Main idea: Gold is valuable because people believe it is valuable and there is a strong demand for it. 3. a Main idea: The price of gold could be pushed higher because of the high social and environmental costs of mining it.
Exercise 9, pages 123124

Exercise 11, pages 126128

1. c Main idea: Because Johnson & Johnson acted quickly and decisively in the Tylenol crisis, there were no serious consequences for the company. 2. a Main idea: Firestone lost sales and millions of dollars because it did not immediately recall defective tires.

1. b Main idea: In order to sell the plastic containers he had invented, Earl Tupper also invented a new marketing strategy the home party. 2. a Main idea: At home parties, products are sold at someones home to friends and acquaintances of the host. 3. d Main idea: The Longaberger Company has used the home party to market its products successfully.

Exercise 13, pages 129131

1. c 2. a 3. b

4. a 5. b 6. c

7. a 8. a 9. a

10. a 11. a 12. b

13. c 14. a 15. c

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Answer Key

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3. Main idea: Instead of trying to control all phases of production, most companies today order supplies just when they need them. Transitions: In fact, Whereas, For this reason, However, For example PronounsReferents: thisbecause they are afraid of having too many supplies theycontemporary car makers theycar makers theycar makers itwhat they need thisbuying what they need when they need it itsApple Computer Company itApple

3. d Main idea: A company must react immediately and decisively to a crisis in order to keep the trust of customers.

Exercise 10, pages 125126

1. c Main idea: In the early twentieth century, Andr Level started a fund that invested in art and made a substantial profit. 2. d Main idea: People are investing in art today in order to make a profit as Levels investors did. 3. c Main idea: Buying artwork may not be a good investment for several reasons.

Exercise 14, page 131


Noun consideration consumption, consumer contrast currency distribution evidence excess factor inadequacy location phenomenon recycling supplement Verb consider consume contrast distribute evidence exceed factor locate recycle supplement underlie Adjective considerable consumable contrasting current distributional evident excessive inadequate phenomenal recycled supplemental underlying Adverb considerably currently evidently excessively inadequately phenomenally

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Exercise 15, pages 132133

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

contrasts distribute evident inadequate supplement furthermore consumes considerable

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

current factors recycle locate phenomenon exceeded underlying

UNIT 4: Patterns of Organization


Exercise 1, pages 141144

1. Topic: The landing of men on the Moon Main idea: The first moon landing was very different from the last one. Key words in the main idea: very different from Pattern: Comparison/Contrast Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details But while The first landing was an enormous achievement. far more The last landing contributed far more scientific knowledge.

The first mission lasted only a few hours. however On the last mission, the three men spent more time on the Moon. much further They could travel much further from the landing site. wider They could collect a wider range of samples. 2. Topic: The impact of the Apollo moon landings Main idea: The Apollo moon landings had a significant impact on scientific and technological development in the twentieth century. Key words in the main idea: a significant impact Pattern: Cause/Effect Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details affected by Computer research was affected by the moon landings.

only

Answer Key

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The space program pushed engineers to develop personal computers. attributed to The invention of the Internet could be attributed to the Apollo program. motivation for Scientists and engineers were motivated to look for ways to communicate from computer to computer. 3. Topic: The lack of water on the Moon Main idea: The lack of water on the Moon limits exploration of the Moon. Key words in the main idea: lack of water, limits Pattern: Problem/Solution Supporting facts and ideas: Problem: The lack of water is a serious problem for future Moon exploration; for this reason, scientists are looking for evidence of water on the Moon. Solution: Rockets are sent to crash into the Moon so that scientists can analyze the vapor and dust created by the crash to see if there is water. 4. Topic: Lunar craters Main idea: Lunar craters are circular depressions that were created by the impact of various objects on the surface of the Moon. Key words in the main idea: are Pattern: Extended Definition Supporting facts and ideas: Explanation or description: Lunar craters are deep holes visible from the earth. There are millions of lunar craters. Some are a few feet across; others are many hundreds of kilometers across. They can be surrounded by mountains. They

pushing

remain unchanged because the Moon has no atmosphere.


Exercise 2, pges 144147

1. Topic: The first optical telescopes Main idea: The first optical telescope was invented in Holland in 1608, but was not used successfully until Galileo developed his version in 1610. Key words in the main idea: first, 1608, until, 1610 Pattern: Sequence Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details 1600s The first optical telescope was invented in a Dutch optical shop 1608 Hans Lippershey tried to sell his invention. Also in 1608 Galileo made his version of the device. 1610 Galileo used his telescope. 1611 He showed his device to guests at a banquet. 2. Topic: Newtons invention of the reflector telescope Main idea: Newton invented the reflector telescope because of problems with the refractor telescope. Key words in the main idea: problems Pattern: Problem/Solution Supporting facts and ideas: Problem: Newton noticed that in Galileos refraction telescope, a ring of colors sometimes interfered with viewing. Solution: Newton designed the reflector telescope with a curved mirror that concentrated light and reflected it to the eyepiece. 3. Topic: Large modern optical telescopes Main idea: Today, there are a number of very large optical telescopes built on hills or mountains in many parts of the world.

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Answer Key

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Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Key words in the main idea: a number of Pattern: Listing Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details For example the worlds largest refracting telescope Another reflecting telescope on Mount Palomar in California an even larger reflecting telescope in the Caucasus Mountains A fourth the Keck Telescope in Hawaii 4. Topic: Radio telescopes Main idea: Radio telescopes are similar to optical telescopes in some ways, but they are different in important ways. Key words in the main idea: similar, different Pattern: Comparison/Contrast Supporting facts and ideas: Signal words Details very different Radio telescopes look different from optical telescopes. instead They do not collect light waves, but radio waves. distinctive appearance

different

while

both

They use different methods to record information. Radio telescopes use radio receivers to record radio waves, not cameras to take photographs. For both kinds, the larger the telescope, the better it works.

Exercise 3, pages 147149

1. Pattern: Sequence (S) Missing sentence: b 2. Pattern: Problem/Solution (P/S) Missing sentence: a 3. Pattern: Sequence (S) Missing sentence: e 4. Pattern: Comparison/Contrast (C/C) Missing sentence: c

Exercise 5, pages 151152

1. a 2. c 3. b

4. a 5. c 6. a

7. b 8. b 9. c

10. a 11. a 12. b

13. a 14. c

Exercise 6, page 153


Noun achievement affect, affectation analysis attribution, attribute availability conclusion conduct environment exposure impact investigation motivation potential vehicle Verb achieve affect analyze attribute avail conclude conduct expose impact investigate motivate Adjective achievable affected, affecting analytical attributable, attributive available conclusive environmental exposed investigative motivated potential vehicular Adverb analytically attributively conclusively environmentally potentially

Answer Key

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Exercise 7, pages 153154

Exercise 4, pages 161162

UNIT 5: Reading Longer Passages Effectively


Exercise 1, pages 158159

Topic: Human responses to disaster Thesis statement: Psychologists have theorized that responses to extreme natural and human-caused disasters occur in five stages.
Exercise 2, pages 159160

Topic: Cultural universals in emotional expression Thesis statement: But does raising the eyebrows and rounding the mouth say the same thing in Minneapolis as it does in Madagascar? Much research on emotional expression has centered on such questions. (In some of the following exercises, there may be more than one correct answer for the pattern.)
Exercise 3, page 161

Thesis statement: But does raising the eyebrows and rounding the mouth say the same thing in Minneapolis as it does in Madagascar? Much research on emotional expression has centered on such questions. Pattern: Comparison/Contrast OR Listing Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: All people speak and understand substantially the same facial language. Paragraph 3: People everywhere can recognize at least seven basic emotions, but there are cultural differences in the rules about displaying emotion. Paragraph 4: Young children show and perceive emotions through facial expressions. Paragraph 5: There is a biological basis to emotional expression. Paragraph 6: Culture can influence certain emotional responses.
Exercise 5, pages 162163

Thesis statement: Psychologists have theorized that responses to extreme natural and human-caused disasters occur in five stages. Pattern: Sequence

Thesis statement: Why are girls fighting more and what can we do to stop them? Pattern: Problem/Solution OR Cause/Effect Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: Recently the roles of men and women have changed and tended to become more equal. Paragraph 3: Socializing girls like boys cause girls to be more violent. Paragraph 4: The entertainment media

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Answer Key

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1. exposed 2. motivate 3. availability 4. achievement 5. investigating 6. attribute (attributed) 7. potential 8. conducted 9. affected 10. environment 11. conclusive 12. vehicles 13. analyzed 14. impact

Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: The first stage is psychological numbness, shock, and confusion. Paragraph 3: In the second stage, victims continue to lack awareness. Paragraph 4: In the third stage, victims turn to each other. Paragraph 5: The fourth stage brings depression and letdown. Paragraph 6: In the final stage, victims adapt to the changes in their lives.

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

encourages girls to be more violent. Paragraph 5: Factors such as gun availability, poverty, and history of abuse have not changed, so they are not responsible for the increased violence. Paragraph 6: Solutions used in schools in the past on boys will not work with girls either. Paragraph 7: To find a solution, we have to examine the values of American society and try to change it so it is less harmful to young people.
Exercise 6, pages 163164

Pattern: Listing Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraphs 3 and 4: Conservers sought the security of marriage, family life and traditional female occupations. Paragraphs 5 and 6: Achievers cherished social recognition and career advancement. Paragraph 7: Seekers valued unconventional pursuits, creativity and selfdiscovery.
Exercise 8, pages 166167

Thesis statement: There are at least three different, but equally effective paths that lead to psychological maturity for women.

1. c 2. a 3. a

4. b 5. c 6. b

7. a 8. c 9. a

10. b 11. c 12. a

13. a 14. c 15. b

Exercise 9, page 168


Noun abandon, abandonment adaptation, adaptability awareness circumstance(s) collaboration community consequence(s) coordinate, coordination ethic(s) focus function involvement phase volunteer Verb abandon adapt collaborate commune coordinate focus function involve phase volunteer Adjective adaptive, adaptable aware circumstantial collaborative communal consequent, consequential ethical focused functional involved, involving phased volunteer, voluntary Adverb adaptively circumstantially collaboratively communally consequently, consequentially ethically functionally voluntarily

Answer Key

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Exercise 10, pages 168169

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

coordinate circumstances function community undergone abandon phase focuses (focused) on

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

ethics adapt to aware involved collaborated volunteer consequences

Exercise 1, pages 170172

2. positive 3. yes 4. The reviewer is most interested in the message of the film about the unhealthiness of McDonalds food and about the poor eating habits of Americans in general.
Exercise 2, pages 172174

1. negative 2. no 3. The reviewer is most interested in the directors point of view and his very personal approach to the subject, which the reviewer thinks is unscientific. (Answers will vary for parts B and C.)
Exercise 3, pages 174178

Exercise 5, page 180

B. 1. yes 2. yes
Noun comprehension conviction elimination feature innovation portion promotion source statistic(s)

1. c. 2. a 3. c

4. c 5. c 6. b

7. c 8. a 9. c

10. a

Exercise 6, page 181


Verb comprehend convince eliminate feature innovate portion promote source Adjective comprehensive convincing innovative promotional statistical Adverb comprehensively convincingly innovatively promotionally statistically

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Answer Key

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UNIT 6: Skimming

3. The higher number of premature births; the higher rates of infant mortality among African-Americans and other ethnic minorities. 4. yes 5. yes 6. Women receiving less prenatal care or losing their jobs; cuts to nutrition programs; climbing poverty rates; an increase in premature births. 7. yes 8. yes 9. Disparities among racial and ethnic groups. Among African Americans, causes include congenital abnormalities, preterm/low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, problems related to complications of pregnancy, and respiratory distress syndrome. Other causes include: behaviors, lifestyles, and conditions that affect birth outcomes such as smoking, substance abuse, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal care, medical problems, and chronic illness. (Answers will vary for parts C and D.)

Exercise 7, pages 181182

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

convince source statistics portions feature

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

innovate comprehensive promoter eliminated guidelines

UNIT 7: Study Reading


Example, pages 183184

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Pattern: Sequence Thesis statement: The pineapple has been cultivated and enjoyed by humans for thousands of years. Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: In the fifteenth century, Europeans discovered the pineapple and fell in love with it. Paragraph 3: In the sixteenth century, they brought pineapples from Central and South America to other parts of the world. Paragraph 4: Pineapples remained a luxury food until the early twentieth century, when they became more easily available.
Exercise 1, pages 185186

Paragraph 3: Early pizza had no tomatoes because there were no tomatoes in Europe until the sixteenth century. Paragraph 4: The classic pizza we know now was invented in 1889 in Naples. Paragraph 5: Pizza remained a southern Italian specialty until the 1950s and 60s, when it became popular in other parts of Italy. Paragraph 6: Pizza is so common in so many countries that its Italian origins are often forgotten.

Exercises 25, pages 187191

(Answers will vary.)

Example, pages 191192

1. 2. 3. 4.

the Germans the Russians less than 5 percent about 8 percent

Exercise 6, pages 193194

A. (Answers will vary.) B. Pattern: Sequence Thesis statement: Before the 1950s, pizza was a purely Italian food with a long history in southern Italy. Supporting points (main ideas): Paragraph 2: Pizza may have originated in Greece and then spread to Italy.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Hispanic women White men African-American men White women

Exercise 8, pages 196197

1. c 2. a 3. c

4. b 5. a 6. b

7. a 8. c 9. a

10. b 11. a 12. c

Answer Key

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Exercise 9, page 198


Noun collapse construction core distinction Verb collapse construct core distinguish Adjective collapsible constructive distinct, distinctive, distinguished, dishtinguishable distinguishing emergent, emerging extractive facilitating major regulation, regulatory virtual Adverb constructively distinctively

Exercise 10, pages 198199

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

distinction regulated virtually posed facilitate major

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

emerged constructed core adjacent collapsed extract

UNIT 8: Summarizing
Exercise 1, pages 201203

1. Main idea: Until recently, people have considered wetlands to be land that was wasted and could be put to better use. Pattern: Sequence Supporting facts and ideas: Wetlands are areas of land covered by water all or part of the year. Throughout history, wetlands have been drained and filled. Wetlands have been converted into land that could be used for human activity. Now people are realizing that wetlands are valuable. Summary sentence: Throughout history, wetlands were considered to be land that was wasted and could be put to better use for human activity, but recently, people have begun to realize that wetlands are valuable.

2. Main idea: From a biological point of view, wetlands are not wastelands at all, but are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Pattern: Extended Definition Supporting facts and ideas: They contain an immense variety of animal and plant species. These species depend on the habitat of the wetlands for survival. Wetlands have a rich mixture of water and organic materialdetritus. This feeds many small animals, which attract other, larger animals that feed on them. Summary sentence: Wetlands are very productive ecosystems, containing an immense variety of animal and plant species that depend on the detritus (mixture of water and organic material) in the wetland habitat. 3. Main idea: A comparison of the effects of a flood in two cities has led city planners and politicians to recognize that wetlands are a valuable defense against flooding. Pattern: Comparison/Contrast Supporting facts and ideas: In 2006, a lot of rain fell on two cities in Massachusetts, Haverhill, and Newburyport. Haverhill suffered lots of damage from flooding, but Newburyport

50

Answer Key

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emergence extraction, extract facilitation major, majority position, pose regulation

emerge extract facilitate major pose regulate

virtually

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

did not. Both cities are built along the Merrimack River. In Haverhill, the area along the river has been developed and covered with buildings; in Newburyport, the area along the river has remained marshland (wetlands). Flood waters could spread out in the wetlands. Wetland plants and soil absorbed water. In Haverhill, the water could not spread out so it rose over the banks and flooded the city. Summary sentence: Wetlands are a valuable defense against flooding, as was demonstrated in Massachusetts in 2006, where the city of Haverhill flooded because its wetlands had been developed, but the city of Newburyport did not flood because the floodwaters could spread out and be absorbed by the wetlands.
Exercise 2, pages 203204

Summary paragraph: Throughout history, people have considered wetlands to be land that was wasted and could be put to better use for human activity. However, in recent years, people have begun to realize that wetlands are a valuable part of the environment for two reasons. First, wetlands are very productive ecosystems, containing an immense variety of animal and plant species that depend on the detritus (mixture of water and organic material) in the wetland habitat. Second, wetlands are a valuable defense against flooding, as was demonstrated in Massachusetts in 2006. The city of Haverhill flooded because its wetlands had been developed, but the city of Newburyport did not flood because the floodwaters could spread out and be absorbed by the wetlands.
Exercise 3, pages 204205

Pattern: Cause/Effect Summary of paragraph 1: In the 1960s, scientists and WHO made a huge effort to eradicate mosquitoes and malaria, using a pesticide called DDT, but the effort failed and the plan was dropped. Summary of paragraph 2: A new type of pesticide usually gives positive results at first, but then the insects become resistant to the pesticide and it becomes less effective. Summary of paragraph 3: Pesticide resistance is an example of how organisms adapt to their environment through the process of natural selection and change over time. Summary paragraph: In the 1960s, scientists and WHO made a big effort to eradicate mosquitoes and malaria using a pesticide called DDT, but the effort failed and the plan was dropped. A new type of pesticide usually gives positive results at first, but then the insects become resistant to the pesticide and it becomes less effective. Pesticide resistance is an example of how organisms adapt to their environments through the process of natural selection and change over time.
Exercise 4, pages 206208

A. Part 2: paragraphs 4 through 5 Part 3: paragraphs 6 through 8 Thesis: But what Spain has in abundance compared with northern European nations apart from more sunis what the researchers in this study call social support structures. Pattern: Cause/Effect Part 1Topic: A study of the prevalence of depression in Europe Summary sentence: One of the most striking results of a study about the prevalence of depression in Europe is the geographical distribution and the fact that

Thesis: How could a tiny mosquito thwart the best efforts of a large group of wellfunded scientists?

Answer Key

51

Exercise 5, pages 209211

(Textbook passages may contain complex ideas that do not fit easily into a one-sentence summary. Students should be as concise as possible and aim for one sentence, but may use two sentences if necessary.) A. Statement of purpose: We can identify three periods in their history: the preindustrial, industrial, and metropolitanmegalopolitan stages.

52

Answer Key

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there is much less depression in Spain than in northern Europe. Part 2Topic: Spains social support structures Summary sentence: According to the study, Spain has a lower rate of depression because it has more social support structures; that is, families tend to stay together and to help each other through problems. Part 3Topic: Examples of family solidarity from the authors experience Summary sentence: From his own experiences living in Spain, the author has learned about the importance of family ties in Spanish daily life, and how they can help overcome negative feelings like anger and depression. B. Summary paragraph: One of the most striking results of a study about the prevalence of depression in Europe is the geographical distribution and the fact that there is much less depression in Spain than in northern Europe. According to the study, Spain has a lower rate of depression because it has more social support structures; that is, families tend to stay together and to help each other through problems. From his own experiences living in Spain, the author has learned about the importance of family ties in Spanish daily life, and how they can help overcome negative feelings like anger and depression.

B. Part 1Topic: The preindustrial city Pattern: Cause/Effect AND Sequence Summary sentence(s): Because of technological advances that allowed people to begin farming, they settled into villages about 10,000 years ago. Then, about 5,000 years ago, due to further technological advances, the first cities emerged, though these were small for various reasons. Part 2Topic: The industrial city Pattern: Cause/Effect Summary sentence(s): The Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to an increase in population, the displacement of people from rural to urban areas, and the development of the industrial city, which was larger, more densely settled and more diverse than earlier cities. Part 3Topic: Metropolis and megalopolis Pattern: Extended Definition AND Sequence of Events Summary sentence(s): In the twentieth century, the automobile allowed wealthier classes to move to the suburbs, so U.S. cities began to spread outward. Today most Americans live in a metropolis (a large urban area that includes a city and its surrounding suburbs), or even a megalopolis (an area in which many metropolises merge). C. Summary paragraph: Because of technological advances that allowed farming about 10,000 years ago, people began to settle in villages. Then, with further advances about 5,000 years ago, the first cities emerged, though these were relatively small for various reasons. The Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led to an increase in population, the displacement of people from rural to urban areas and the development of the industrial city, which was larger, more densely settled and more diverse than earlier

cities. In the twentieth century, the automobile allowed wealthier classes to move to the suburbs, so U.S. cities began to spread outward. Today most Americans live in a metropolis (a large urban area that includes a city and its surrounding suburbs), or even a megalopolis (an area in which many metropolises merge).
Exercise 6, page 212
Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

A. Part 1Topic: Research with infant monkeys Pattern: Cause/Effect Summary sentence(s): The Harlows research on infant monkeys, whose behavior is similar to humans, revealed that the monkeys showed permanent negative effects after six months of social isolation. They suffered less developmental harm if they received some physical contact (even artificial) or if the period was shorter. Part 2Topic: Isolated children Pattern: Listing Summary sentence(s): In two cases where children grew up in isolation (Anna and Genie), the children suffered similar damage to their social and mental development, and in spite of later socialization and care, the

damage was permanent. These cases demonstrate the importance of social experience in human development. B. Summary paragraph: Since researchers cannot subject human beings to experimental isolation, they have studied monkeys and cases of isolated children. Research on infant monkeys, whose behavior is similar to humans, revealed that the monkeys showed permanent negative effects after six months of isolation. They suffered less developmental harm if they received some physical contact (even artificial) or if the period was shorter. In two cases where children grew up in isolation (Anna and Genie), the children suffered similar damage to their social and mental development, and in spite of later socialization and care, the damage was permanent. These cases demonstrate the importance of social experience in human development.
Exercise 8, pages 213214

1. a 2. c 3. b

4. b 5. b 6. a

7. a 8. c 9. a

Exercise 9, pages 214215


Verb document enable estimate fund predominate transmit Adjective documentary dynamic enabling estimated well-funded predominant subsequent transmittable Adverb dynamically predominantly subsequently

Noun document, documentation dynamics enabler estimate, estimation fund, funding predominance transmission, transmittal

Answer Key

53

Exercise 10, page 215

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

transmitted funds subsequent goal enabled

6. 7. 8. 9.

predominant dynamics document estimated

UNIT 9: Critical Reading


Exercise 1, page 217

Exercise 3, page 222

1. to persuade readers that performanceenhancing drugs should be permitted 2. The language includes many phrases that show the author is trying to convince readers: perhaps we should, it might be better, should be allowed, and Maybe the answer is to . . .
Exercise 4, page 223

Exercise 2, pages 218220

Online article 1 1. Jonathan James probably wrote it. 2. No, it belongs to an individual because it includes the name and the word blog. 3. Probably not, since it is someones point of view. 4. (Answers will vary.) 5. Yes, it could give an idea of how this person, and perhaps others, reacted to the story. Online article 2 1. Stephen Moyes and Jon Kaila 2. Yes, because it includes mirror.co. Co. is an abbreviation for company.

1. to entertain the reader 2. The tone is informal, and the writer uses language to catch your attention and make you laugh, as for example, when he says The stuff is like kudzu, or when he uses exaggerated language like I find it appalling to sometimes get responses within a minute . . .
Exercise 5, pages 224225

A. 1. to persuade readers to buy this coffee 2. to inform readers about Fair Trade Certified coffee and indirectly to persuade them to buy it 3. to inform readers about the health aspects of caffeine (Answers will vary for part B.)

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Answer Key

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1. URL c. belongs to an individual because it includes the name of a person Jonathan James and it includes the word blog. 2. URL a. belongs to a newspaper called The Mirror; URL b. belongs to the NHS, or National Health Service (Great Britain) in Kent and Medway; URL d. belongs to CNN, the news organization. 3. URLs b. and d. probably provide reliable information. The Mirror is the web site for the Daily Mirror, a British tabloid (sensationalist newspaper), so its information may be less reliable. 4. URLs b., c., and d. all include piano man in the web address, so they probably include information about him.

3. You cant tell from this information. You would need to look at the home page of the web site and see whether it is a tabloid or a newspaper that publishes articles about serious news. 4. (Answers will vary.) 5. Yes. There may be useful information here about the Piano Man, but since this newspaper tends to emphasize the sensational aspects of an event, you would need to check the information against other sources.

Exercise 6, pages 226227

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Paragraph 1 1. The writer is in favor of laws that ban smoking in public places. 2. The writer uses phrases such as at last, destructive habit, and positive effect. 3. (Answers will vary.) Paragraph 2 1. The writer does not think that fast food is responsible for Americans being overweight. 2. The writer uses sentences such as . . . we cant blame the restaurants, We should blame ourselves, and No one forces us to buy those hamburgers! 3. (Answers will vary.)

Exercise 7, pages 228229

2. a. neutral 3. a. biased b. against it

Article 2 1. The writers purpose is to inform and persuade at the same time. She presents both sides of the issue, but she uses language that is clearly intended to persuade readers. 2. It describes a trend (a number of companies with bans against off-duty smoking) and the issues connected with it, emphasizing the fact that the smoking bans may not be legally acceptable because they violate workers rights. 3. She is against the smoking bans. The language includes many non-neutral words: extreme trend, troubling, crackdown, zero-tolerance, discriminating, class of unemployable citizens, fear, control. 4. The writer seems biased against the smoking bans. She presents more information and quotations in support of people who are against the smoking ban. Article 3 1. The writers purpose is to persuade. Through the tone and language, one can tell the writer is against the ban and is persuading the readers that its wrong. 2. It argues against the new WHO policy of not hiring people who are smokers. 3. The writer is clearly against the policy. The article includes strong negative language: goes too far, in a worrisome way, and raids by the lifestyle police. 4. The writer seems to be biased since he/she only presents one side of the issue.

Exercise 8, pages 229231

Article 1 1. The writers purpose is to inform. The article presents both sides, the tone and language is neutral, and it ends with a quotation that gives a neutral summary of the issue. 2. It describes an event (Weycos firing of four workers) and explains how this sets a legal precedent that could raise important issues. 3. The writer is mostly neutral since the article presents both sides of the issue. 4. The writer may have some bias in favor of the company policy because he/she quotes the company president twice, but never quotes the workers or anyone on their side.

Exercise 10, pages 234235

1. c 2. a 3. b

4. a 5. c 6. a

7. a 8. b 9. c

10. b 11. a 12. c

Answer Key

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Exercise 11, page 235


Noun challenge confirmation discrimination issue precedent randomization submission suspension violation Verb challenge confirm discriminate issue precede randomize submit suspend violate Adjective challenging confirmed discriminating, discriminatory preceding random submissive suspended, suspenseful Adverb challengingly randomly submissively
Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

Exercise 12, page 236

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

site policy precedent status violation challenge

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

issues random discriminated suspended confirmed submit

Part 4: Reading Faster


UNIT 1: Learning to Read Faster
Exercise 2, page 243

(Answers may vary, but the phrases must be meaningful.) Archeologists have found / the earliest known evidence / of a special connection / between humans and cats. / Last month in Cyprus / they discovered the grave / of a 30year-old villager / who died 9,500 years ago. / With the body, / they found / jewelry, seashells and other items. / Less than a meter (3 feet) away, / in another grave / almost certainly / made at the same time, / lay the bones / of a young cat. / Cat bones / have been found before / near early human settlements, / but scientists believe / they belonged to wild cats. / These cats probably stayed / around human villages / to catch the mice and rats / attracted by / the supplies of food. / The new find on Cyprus, / however, / seems to indicate / that

the cats / in this village / were tamed / and had some special role / to play / in human activities / or a special relationship / with certain individuals. / These bones / showed no signs / of having been butchered / for eating. / And since they were / in the right places / in the skeleton, / the animal / must have been buried / soon after death; / otherwise, / the bones / would have been taken / by other animals. / Other animals / were tamed before cats. / The first dogs / (actually a type of wolf) / are known to have lived with humans / as early as 15,000 years ago. / Their importance / in early human settlements / is shown / by the evidence / of dog graves / from 12,500 years ago / in Israel. / The goat was probably / the first animal / to produce milk for humans, / around 10,000 years ago. / But until now, / the first evidence / of household cats / came from Egypt / only 4,000 years ago. / The discovery / of the skeleton / of this cat, / which had clearly / been handled with care, / is very exciting / for archaeologists. /
Exercise 3, page 244

A. 1. no 2. every year 3. children from the Park School in Roxbury 4. the marches 5. bouquets of flowers (Answers will vary for part B.)

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Answer Key

Timed Reading Example, pages 248251

C. 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. b 6. a (Answers will vary for parts DF.)

7. a

8. d

UNIT 2: New Technology and Its Impact Around the World


Passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 b c c a c d 2 a a a d d c Questions 3 4 5 b d d b b b d b a b a b c a b d a d 6 a a a b d a 7 a b b a b b 8 c c d b b b

Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.

UNIT 3: People Who Have Made a Difference


Passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 d c b d b a 2 c b a b d c Questions 3 4 5 b d c a a d a b a c a a b c c a c a 6 a a d c c b 7 d a a b a d 8 a d a d a b

UNIT 4: Inventions That Are Changing Our Lives


Passages 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 c a d c d b 2 a c b d a a Questions 3 4 5 b b a c b b a c b a b c b d d a c d 6 a b b b b c 7 b a a b a b 8 c a c d b b

Answer Key

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