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TERM PAPER

Sub. :- Mathematics (MTH-141) Topic :- Application of Eigen values

Submitted to, Mr Vinay sir,

Submitted by, Omkar Kumar Jha

RH-4901-A12
1090
2923

MECHANICAL ENGG. (III rd TERM)

Application of Eigen values:

How to find Eigen value:-

A x = λ x matrix Eigen value problem.

A value of λ for which x (0 ) is a solution Eigen value (also known as characteristic Value).

Solution x (0 ) corresponding to a λ called Eigenvectors.

The set of Eigenvectors is called the spectrum of A.

Largest of absolute value of Eigen value is spectral radius of A.

Determination of Eigen values and Eigen

vectors:-

A x = λ x = λ I

matrix).

x (where I is the identity

(A- λ I) x = 0 ,homogeneous linear system with non-trivial solution

( x 0 ) if and only if D(λ)=det (A- λ I)=0

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Q. An elastic
membrane in the x 1 - x 2 plane
1 + x
2
2
with boundary circle x
2 =1 is stretched so
that a point P: ( x 1 , x 2
)
goes
over into the
y
 5 3 
x
 
1
point Q: ( y 1 , y 2 ) given by y=
1
= A x =
.
 y
 
3
5
 
x
 
 
2
2
Find the principal directions, that is, the
directions of the position vector X of P for which
the direction of the position vector y is the same
or exactly opposite. What shape does the
boundary circle take under this deformation?
Ans.
An elastic membrane in the x 1 - x 2 , plane
2
+ x 2
with boundary circle x
1
2 =1 is stretched so
that points p: ( x 1 , x 2 ) goes over into point
Q:( y 1 , y 2 ); given by
y =
y
 5 3 
 
x
1  
=A x =
x
1  
; in components
 
 y
 
3
5
2 
2  

So,

y 1 = 5 x 1 + 3 x 2

y 2 =3 x 1 + 5 x 2

Here vectors ( x ) such that y x since y =A x ,

This gives A x = λ x

Then the equation is;

5 x 1 + 3 x 2

= X 1

(5 - λ) x 1 + 3 x 2

3 x 1 + 5 x 2

= X 2

=0 ---------- (1)

3 x 1 + (5 - λ)

x 2 =0 ---------- (2)

Or,

Now, The values may be written as,

5

3

3 5

= (5

) 2

-9 = 0

25+ 2 -10-9=0

And,

2 -10+16 = 0

8 2 = 0

So, 1 =8 and 2 =2 (Eigen values of the system)

So now eigen vectors are (after putting the values into the equation (1) and (2) we get;

if 1 =8 ; then

-3 x 1 +3 x 2 = 0

Or,

x 1 = x 2

= 1;

 If  2 =2 ; then 3 x 1 +3 x 2 = 0

x 1 = - x 2

Or,

x 1 = 1 ;

x 2

= -1

So the Eigen vectors are,

A1 =

 1     1      1   1 

;

A2 =

45

0 and

0 angles with

These vectors makes

the positive x1 - direction. The Eigen values show that the member is stretched by factors 8 and 2 in the principle direction.

If we choose the principle direction of a new Cartesian u 1 u 2 -coordinates system, say, with

the positive u 1 -semi-axis in the first quadrant

and the positive u 2 -semi-axis in the second

135

quadrant of the x 1 - x 2 system, and if we set

u 1 = r cos , u 2 = r sin , then a boundary point of unstretched circular member has coordinates cos , sin hence, after the stretch we have,

z1

= 8 cos( in terms of cartesian)

z 2 = 2 sin

2

sin cos

2

Since

deformed boundary is an ellipse;

So, the equation of ellipse becomes:-

1 , this shows that the

 2 2 z 1 z 2 = 1 2

8

+ 2 2