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Cells are the basic unit of all living things.

There are a great variety of cells whose structures are specialised to suit their functions. These specialised cells are arranged into layers called tissues. There is great variation between tissues with some tissues containing only one cell type and others having more than one. SPECIALISED ANIMAL CELLS The following shows three examples of specialised animal cells. RED BLOOD CELLS A red blood cell is biconcave in shape. This provides a large surface area for the uptake of oxygen. In addition there is no nucleus. This allows it to be filled with haemoglobin to pick up oxygen. PHAGOCYTES These white blood cells defend against illness. They have the ability to change shape and engulf microorganisms in a process called phagocytosis. They contain lysosomes which contain powerful digestive enzymes to digest microbes.

NERVE CELLS Nerve cells have a long fibre (insulated extension of cytoplasm). This is able to transmit nerve impulses long distances.

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There are many more and you should be able to learn four examples.
Cell type Smooth Muscle
Squamous Epithelium ( Cheek Lining ) Columnar Epithelium ( Cheek base )

Specialised Features Spindle shaped and form sheets Flat irregular shape Tall wide and can make squamous cells
Small, biconcave discs = large surface area. No nucleus and filled with Haemoglobin Can change shape and have lysosomes with digestive enzymes Produce antibodies and have receptors on membrane

How structure suits function Lets them contract and relax to push food
Lets them form a loose covering for protection
Provides a foundation on which squamous cells built and protects lower layers

Red Blood Cells


Lets lots of O2 diffuse in and be carried (Hb) Engulf and destroy microbes Detect and inactivate microbes Mucus traps dust and germs Cilia move mucus to back of the throat Carry electrical impulses


Epithelial ( Goblet cells) Epithelial ( Hair cells) Nerve Cells

Cup shaped and produce mucus Cilia on outer membrane Long insulated fibres

SPECIALISED PLANT CELLS There is great variety in plant cells as well. Look at this picture of a leaf which has many specialised cell types within it.

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They are long hollow tubes allowing water to easily move up through the plant. They are strengthened by rings or spirals of lignin. This helps to support the plant.

PHLOEM VESSELS There are 2 types of cells. 1. Cells belonging to a sieve tube. The end walls of these cells are perforated to allow cytoplasm to move from one cell to another carrying food. These perforated end walls are called sieve plates. 2. Companion cells The companion cells contain a nucleus which controls the movement of soluble carbohydrates (sugars) down the sieve tube. GUARD CELLS Guard cells found mainly on the bottom surface of a leaf and are sausage shaped with a thick inner cell wall facing stoma pores The guard cells control gas exchange and water loss by changing shape and opening or closing the pores.
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There are many more plant cell types and you should be able to learn at least four of the following examples.
Cell type Xylem vessels Tracheids Phloem Sieve cells Companion cells Epidermal cells Root Hair Cells Spongy Mesophyll Palisade Mesophyll Guard Cells Specialised Features Hollow tubes which are lignified and dead Hollow spindle shaped lignified cells Perforated end walls and no nucleus Contains large nucleus Box or irregular shape that fit tightly together Long extension into the soil Round shape and chloroplasts Columnar and packed with chloroplasts Sausage shaped with thicker inner wall How structure suits function Allows water transport and gives stem support Gives stem extra support Allows cytoplasm to move carrying food Allows control of itself and sieve cell Produce a strong protective coat Produces a large surface area for water absorption Produces air spaces for gas diffusion and can do secondary photosynthesis Produces a tightly packed layer of photosynthetic cells Allows stomata to open and close for gas exchange

UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS Some living things are made up of only one specialised cell. These unicellular organisms contain many specialised structures which allow them to carry out all the processes required for life. AMOEBA
Cell Membrane Nucleus Contractile Vacuole Pseudopod

Specialised features include:Pseudopodia these surround the food source. Food vacuole this contains digestive enzymes which breakdown the food Contractile vacuole controls water balance 4


Food being engulfed

Food vacuole Cytoplasm

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Cilia Food Vacuoles Oral Groove Cell Mouth Micronucleus Macronucleus

Contractile Vacuole

Paramecium, like amoeba, is a single celled animal and contains many specialised structures. Macronucleus Contains genetic information which controls daily cell reactions Micronucleus Contains genetic information which is passed on through Ciliated Groove Small hairs sweep food down into food vacuole Food Vacuole Digests food and allows end products to diffuse to all parts of cell Macronucleus Contains genetic information which controls daily cell reactions Anal Pore Expels digested material from cell Contractile Vacuole Removes water which passes into cell by osmosis EUGLENA
Euglena show plant and animal features. Cell membrane Food store / reserve Nucleus Light detector Contractile Vacuole Second Flagellum Eyespot


Euglena is a plant and has many features which aid photosynthesis :Chloroplasts Trap light energy for photosynthesis. Eye Spot Detect light source Flagellum help Euglena move towards the light



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CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE All cells contain many specialised organelles which can only be seen with the aid of high magnification electron microscopes. During this unit you will learn about most of them in more detail so dont freak out when you see the following diagrams and descriptions as they will make more sense by the time you have finished this unit. ANIMAL CELLS
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum mitochondrion nucloeolus

Plasma membrane


lysosomes nuclear membrane

Golgi body Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum centrioles Secretory vesicles

The cell is like a factory with the organelles being similar to specialised machines which provide energy, build the proteins needed for life and transport them about the cell. The code for all proteins is found in the nucleus in the form of DNA.

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Nucleus Contains DNA packed into chromosomes Cytoplasm This is the main site of chemical activity and has many specialized organelles Mitochondria main site of respiration and energy release Ribosomes bodies involved in protein synthesis Endoplasmic reticulum transport of proteins (rough) and lipids (smooth) Golgi apparatus involved in packaging proteins for secretion Lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes and break down worn out organelles or food engulfed by the cell. Cell membrane Controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell PLANT CELLS

Channels Cellulose Cell Wall

Large Vacuole

Plant cells contain all the organelles present in animal cells and even have a few more which are unique to plants.


Cell walls with cellulose give plant cells their shape and add mechanical strength Channels - connections linking plant cells Large permanent vacuole fluid filled organelle Chloroplasts Site of photosynthetic light and dark reactions

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