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# The Structure of The Atom

Chapter 2

## Matter and Substance

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Made up of tiny and discrete particles (atoms, molecules and ions)

Atoms
The smallest particle, which can participate in a chemical reaction bonded together

## Molecules Group of two or more atoms which are chemically

Ions
Positively or negatively charged particles

## Kinetic theory of matter

Explain the energy and forces between particles in matter Three basic assumptions:
Matter is made up of _____ particles. tiny

speed The tiny particles are in constant ______. higher When the temperature is _______, the particles gain more kinetic energy and move in greater speeds.

Diffusion

A process in which the particles of occupy substance move and _________ the spaces in between the particles of another substance.
liquids Occurs in gases, _______ and solids.

## Diffusion Brownian Motion

The movement of particles in all direction collision _______ caused by the _______ among the particles or between particles and the container wall.

## Diffusion Brownian Motion

Examples: Movement of smoke particles in air Movement of pollen grains in water

in water

Diffusion

## Diffusion in solid, liquid and gas

SOLID
Arrangement of particles Description
Particles are held together forces by very strong _______ of attraction

Property
Cannot be compressed

Closely packed together in Has a fixed manner an orderly ________ shape and volume The kinetic energy of the low particles is _____. Particle can vibrate and rotate in their fixed position. -

LIQUID
Arrangement of particles
Description
The forces of attraction between particles are weaker solid _______ than in ________ but stronger than in gas state Packed closely but not in manner an orderly ________

Property
Cannot be compressed easily

## Has a fixed volume and takes the shape of its container -

The kinetic energy of the particles is greater than in solid ______ state. Particle can vibrate, rotate and move.

GAS
Arrangement of particles Description
Weak ______ forces of attraction between particles far Particles are very _____ apart from each other.

Property
Can be compressed easily
Has no fixed volume and takes the shape of its container -

The particles have very high ________ kinetic energy. Particles can move freely random in ________ motion.

Inter-conversion of matter

Gas
F C A D B E

Heating Cooling

Solid

Liquid

## Changes in the state of matter

Inter-conversion process

Melting

B
C D E F

Boiling
Sublimation

Freezing
Condensation

Sublimation

Inter-conversion Processes
Process
Melting

Description
Solid to liquid, heat is absorbed, particles gain energy and vibrate vigorously to break away from their fixed position. Liquid to vapour, heat is absorbed, particles gain enough energy to break away completely from the liquid to form steam. Solid to vapour, heat is absorbed, particles get enough energy to break away completely from the solid and form a gas. Liquid to solid, heat is liberated, particles slow down their vibration and stop moving. Vapour to liquid, heat is liberated, particles lose energy and move more and more slowly to form liquid.

## Evaporation / Boiling Sublimation

Freezing Condensation

Temperature (C)

F
Boiling point

D B C

Melting point

A
Time (Min)

Temperature (C)

P
Boiling point

R
S T U
Time (Min)

Freezing point

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