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Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development

Chapter 2: Towards

Sustainable Development

Academic Year : 2012

Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development

I. The Concept of Sustainable Development II. Equity and the Common Interest III. Strategic Imperatives 1. Reviving Growth 2. Changing the quality of Growth 3. Meeting Essential Human Needs 4. Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population 5. Conserving and Enhancing the Resource Base 6. Reorienting Technology and Managing Risk 7. Merging Environment and Economics in Decision Making Conclusion

Gro Brundtland
Chair of WCED, 1987

Chapter 01 : A Threatened Future

Symptoms and Cause : Poverty Growth Survival The Economic Crisis

What is

Sustainable Development?

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 2 Key concepts:
The concept of needs The idea of limitations Thus the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries : developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned.

Why do we need sustainable development?

Pressing global realities: The rapid growth of the worlds population and its changing distribution The persistence of widespread poverty The growing pressures on the natural world The continuing denial of democracy and human rights The very notion of development itself, what it has come to mean and how it is measured.

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development

* The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations in the major objective of development. The essential needs of vast numbers of people in developing countries (basic needs) for food, clothing, shelter, jobs - are not being met

* Sustainable development requires meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspirations for a better life.

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)

Economic growth can cause high levels of productive activity and widespread poverty can coexist, and can endanger the environment A: sustainable development requires that societies meet human needs both by increasing productive potential and by ensuring equitable opportunities for all.

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)

An expansion in population size can increase the pressure on resources and slow the rise in living standards in areas. Sustainable development can only be pursued if demographic developments are in proportion with the changing productive potential of the ecosystem.
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I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)

Human intervention in natural systems during the course of development can lead to more and more serious in scale and impact, and more threatening to life-support systems both locally and globally.

At a minimum, sustainable development must not endanger the natural systems that support life on Earth: the atmosphere, the waters, the soils, and the living beings.

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)

As for non-renewable resources, like fossil fuels and minerals, their use reduces the stock available for future generations. With minerals and fossil fuels, the rate of depletion and the emphasis on recycling and economy of use should be calibrated to ensure that the resource does not run out before acceptable substitutes are available.

Sustainable development requires that the rate of depletion of non-renewable resources should foreclose as few future options as possible.

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)

Development tends to simplify ecosystems and to reduce their diversity of species.

Sustainable development requires the conservation of plant and animal species.


II- Equity and the Common Interest

How are individuals in the real world to be persuaded or made to act in the common interest?


education, institutional development, law enforcement

*But many problems of resource depletion and environmental stress arise from disparities in economic and political power.

Interdependent dimensions of sustainable development

Sustainable development takes into account four interdependent dimensions:

Economic Ecological



III- Strategic Imperatives

The world must quickly design strategies that will allow nations to move from their present, often destructive, processes of growth and development onto sustainable development paths. Critical objectives for environment and development policies:

1- Reviving growth; 2- Changing the quality of growth; 3- Meeting essential needs for jobs, food, energy, water, and sanitation; 4- Ensuring a sustainable level of population; 5- Conserving and enhancing the resource base: 6- Reorienting technology and managing risk; and 7- Merging environment and economics in decision making.


III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

1- Reviving growth

Large number of people who live in absolute poverty (not even satisfy their basic needs), most in developing countries A necessary but not a sufficient condition for the elimination of absolute poverty is a relatively rapid rise in per capita incomes in the Third World (5% in Asia, 5.5% in Latin American, 6% in Africa and west Asia-normally 5% annual growth can be acceptable in most countries) Growth must be revived in developing countries because that is where the links between economic growth, the alleviation of poverty, and environmental conditions operate most directly.

III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

2- Changing the quality of Growth

Sustainable development involves more than growth. It requires a change in the content of growth, to make it less Material- and energy-intensive and more equitable in its impact Income distribution is one aspect of the quality of growth Economic development is unsustainable if it increases vulnerability to crises (drought, drop in prices)(Using technologies that lower production risks)


III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

2- Changing the quality of Growth

Changing the quality of growth requires changing our approach to development efforts to take account of all of their effects Economic and social development can and should be mutually reinforcing. Money spent on education and health can raise human productivity

III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

3- Meeting Essential Human Needs

Goods & Services Poverty => Dissatisfy World population growing = employment must increasing follow-suit More food required not only to feed more people but to attack undernourishment (Increasing calories and protein in-use: C5% & P5.8% in Africa, C3.4% & P4.5% in Asia in 2000) Staple food projections highlight the need for a high rate of growth of protein availability. Energy needs ( third world use fuelwood /charcoal => correction ) Basic needs housing, water supply, sanitation, and health care. ( In third world, lack of this => disease; Cause: Population growth and migrate into cities)

III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

4- Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population

The sustainability of development is intimately linked to the dynamics of population growth. (Children born in richer countries use greater burden on the Earths resources) Sustainable development can be pursued more easily when population size is stabilized at a level consistent with the productive capacity of the ecosystem.

Population Growth rate (Birth rate) :

In Industrial countries is 1%-0% (In 2025: in crease from 1.2 billions to 1.4 billions) In Developing countries between 1985 (3.7billions) and 2025 (6.8billions)



Population Growth Chart



Hence the challenge now is to quickly lower population growth rates, especially in regions such as Africa, where these rates are increasing.


III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

4- Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population

Population grow between rural and urban areas (< gap >).
Third World: nearly 90% of growth take place in urban areas (1.15billion to 3.25billion in 2025)

Urbanization is itself part of the development process. (the challenge)


III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

5- Conserving and Enhancing the Resource Base

Pressure on Resource increase when people lack alternative. Extension of cultivation to marginal land, fishery and forestry are overexploited so the conservation of agricultural resources is an urgent task. Increasing productivity for crop and livestock production can create ecological stress. Promote the use of organic manures and non-chemical means of pest control. Help preventing and reduction on water and air pollution by enforce emission standards, promoting low-waste technologies, and anticipating the impact of new products, technologies and wastes. Exploitation on renewable sources (fuelwood and hydropower)


III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

6- Reorienting Technology and Managing Risk


-The role of public policy to ensure for environmental factor in the technology they develop - New techniques and technology



- Capacity for technological innovation - Reorientation of tech. dev. - Updating, selecting, adapting imported tech. should be informed by En. Resource concerns.

-Risk arising from techno and developmental decision. -Arrangement are required for major interventions.


III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

7- Merging Environment and Economics in Decision Making

The common theme throughout this strategy for sustainable development is the need to integrate economic and ecological considerations in decision making. Economic and ecological concerns are not necessarily in opposition. The energy-industry connection is also changing, with a strong tendency towards a decline in the energy intensity of industrial production in industrial countries. Not law only, but also knowledge and support. Some large-scale projects require participation on a different basis. Change in attitude and procedures both public and private-enterprises

III- Strategic Imperatives (Con.)

7- Merging Environment and Economics in Decision Making

In every development planning or development issue as much as possible to listen and to include, to consult the people concerned. If that is taken care of, at least one step of the problem is resolved.
Ismid Hadad Chief Editor, Prisma, 1985


* The strategy for sustainable development aims to promote harmony among human brings and between humanity and nature
Political system Economic system Social system

Secures effective citizen participation in decision making. able to generate surpluses and technical knowledge solutions for the tensions arising from disharmonious development

Production system technological system

international system administrative system

respects the obligation to preserve the ecological search continuously for new solutions
fosters sustainable patterns of trade and finance flexible and has the capacity for self-correction



www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/dtt/resources/ http://esa.un.org/wpp/unpp/p2k0data.asp
Ruth S.. Guzman, ppt, Board Chair, PATLEPAM and Vice-President for Research and Extension, Rizal Technological University


The End Thank You for Your Attention !