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Chapter-1 OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER NETWORK

Objective:

Describe the benefit of networking Understand peer-to-peer and server based networks Describe the different types of Physical Topologies Understand major types of network cabling

1.1 Introduction Networks are changing the way we do business. Business decisions have to be made more even more quickly, and the decisions makers require immediate access to accurate information. When an organization adds a new division, the technology has to flexible enough to reflect changing configurations. Is a particular design robust enough to handle the growth? Understanding what it does and when to use each type of technology is essential to providing the right system in todays dynamically changing information environment. Data communication is the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium (such as cable). Data communication is considered local if the communicating devices are in a similarly restricted geographical area and is considered remote if devices are further apart. A data communication system is made up of five components 1. Message - The message is the data to be transferred. 2. Sender - The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be a computer, work station, telephone handset, etc. 3. Receiver - The receiver is the device that receives the message. It can be a computer, work station, telephone handset, etc. 4. Medium - The transmission medium is the path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. It can consist of twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, fiberoptic, laser or radio waves, etc. 5. Protocol - A protocol is a set of rules that governs the data communication. It represents an agreement between communicating devices. Without protocol, two devices may be connected but not communicating just like person speaking French cannot be understood by another who speaks only Arabic.

1.2 What Is Internet? INTERNET is a large network made up of a number of smaller networks. (Upper case "I"nternet) The largest network in the world. It is made up of more than 100 million computers in more than 100 countries covering commercial, academic and government endeavors. Originally developed for the U.S. military, the Internet became widely used for academic and commercial research. Users had access to unpublished data and journals on a variety of subjects. Today, the "Net" has become commercialized into a worldwide information highway, providing data and commentary on every subject and product on earth. "Internet" refers to the global information system that -1. is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons; 2. is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and 3. provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein. The most popular features of the Internet include electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups (called newsgroups or bulletin boards, where users can post messages and look for responses on a system called Usenet), on-line conversations (called chats), adventure and role-playing games, information retrieval, and electronic commerce (e-commerce).

1.3 History of Internet:

1956: United States formed the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense, for the science and technology advancement in the military. 1962: Paul Barans paper On Distributed Communications Networks became the architectural ground work for ARPAnet. 1967: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Symposium on Operating Principles - - plan for nationwide network. 1968: Network presentation to the ARPA. 1969: ARPANET commissioned by the DoD for research into networking. 1970: Norman Abramson, University of Hawaii, developed ALHOAnet. ARPANET begin using Network Control Protocol (NCP). 1971: ARPANET expanded to 15 nodes (23 hosts).

1972: Demonstration of networking technology Creation of the Internetworking Working Group to standardize networking protocols. Invention of Email program. 1973: International connections to the ARPANET. 1974: Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BB&N) opens Telnet. 1975: The Defense Communications Agency (the present Defense Information Systems Agency) took over the operational management of Internet. 1976: Unix-to-Unix Copy (UUCP) developed by AT&Ts Bell Labs. 1977: University of Wisconsin began to provide Email to more than 100 computer science researchers using UUCP. 1979: USENET established using UUCP. 1981: A Computer Science research computer network ( CSNet ) provided nationwide access to Email. The City University of New York started a cooperative network BITNET( Because Its Time NETwork ). French Telecom started Minitel( Teletel ) in France. 1982: Internetworking working group established the Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) and Internet Protocol ( IP ). 1983: University of Wisconsin developed the name server. CSNet was linked to the ARPANET. IBM PC developed. 1986: NSFNET created. 1990: ARPANET cease to exist. 1991: Wide Area Information Service ( WAIS ) released by Thinking Machines Corporation. Gopher released by University of Minnesota. The National Research and Education Network ( NREN ) established. 1992: World Wide Web released by CERN. 1993: The Internet Network Information Centre ( InterNIC ) created to provide specific Internet services. White House went Online. 1994: Communities and schools start to connect directly to the Internet. U.S. Senate and House provide information servers. 1995: Internet became commercial. Amazon launched by Jeff Bezos . eBay basis set by Pierre Omidyar . Yahoo launched by David Filo and Jerry Yang. 1996: World Wide Web came into picture. Looksmart directory came. 1998: Google opens its doors. ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, is born. 2004: Google stock market launch.

1.4 Bandwidth The measurement of how much information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps) Bandwidth is important because the more bandwidth you have, the more data can be sent and can be sent quicker. It is a key component of any network.

1.5 Types of Computer Network Peer to Peer Networks


No dedicated server or hierarchy also called a workgroup. Usually 10 or fewer workstations. Users act as their own administrator and security. Computers are in same general area. Limited growth.

Server Based Networks


10 or more users. Employs specialized servers. 1. File and Print 2. Application 3. Mail 4. Fax 5. Communications (gateways) Central administration. Greater security. Centralized backup. Data Redundancy. Supports many users

Combination Networks

Combines the features of both Peer to Peer and Server based networks Users can share resources among themselves as well as access serverbased resources.

1.6 LAN, MAN & WAN Network type can be divided on the basis of the area it covers. It can be Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN). Local Area Networks (LAN):- Typically connects computer in a single building or campus. Medium used for LAN are optical fibers, coaxial cables, twisted pair, wireless. It has low latency (except in high traffic periods). Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):- Generally covers towns and cities (50 kms) .It is developed in 1980s. the mediums used for this are optical fibres and cables. Data rates adequate for distributed computing applications.

Wide Area Network (WAN):- Generally covers large distances (states, countries, continents). The medium used for wan are communication circuits connected by routers. Routers forwards packets from one to another following a route from the sender to the receiver. Hosts are typically connected (or close to) the routers. 1.7 Network Topologies LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. Commonly used LAN topologies are bus, ring and star. A bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations.

Bus Topology A ring topology is a LAN architecture that consists of a series of devices connected to one another by unidirectional transmission links to form a single closed loop. Both Token Ring/IEEE 802.5 and FDDI networks implement a ring topology.

Ring Topology A star topology is a LAN architecture in which the endpoints on a network are connected to a common central hub, or switch, by dedicated links. Logical bus and ring topologies are often implemented physically in a star topology.

Star Topology 1.8 Transmission Mode Transmission mode is used to define the direction of signal flow between two linked devices. There are three types of transmission modes Simplex: Here transmission can take place in only one direction devices used are send only or receive only devices, for example line printer (receive only)
SENDER RECEIVER

Simplex However it is very much required for a sender to get acknowledgement from receiver on receiving the data but due to one way flow, it is not possible and it might happen that a user sending data will never know that it is not received by the receiver. Hence simplex modes are rarely used. Half Duplex: Here data is transmitted in both directions but only one direction at a time. Common example is wireless set where only one person is supposed to speak at a time during communication.
or receiver SENDER Half-Duplex or or sender RECEIVER

Full Duplex: It is the system that allows information to flow simultaneously in both directions at any given point of time, during communication.
Full-Duplex SENDER and RECEIVER and RECEIVER and SENDER

1.9 Transmission Media There are 2 basic categories of transmission media: guided and unguided. Guided transmission media uses a cabling system that guides the data signals

along a specific path. The data signals are bound by the cabling system. Guided media is also known as bound media. "Cabling" is meant in a generic sense, and is not meant to be interpreted as copper wire cabling only. Unguided transmission media consists of a means for the data signals to travel but nothing to guide them along a specific path. The data signals are not bound to a cabling media and are therefore often called unbound media.

Twisted-pair a) UTP - Unshielded Twisted Pair b) STP - Shielded Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Fiber-optic

Unshielded Twisted Pair The degree of reduction in noise interference is determined specifically by the number of turns per foot. Increasing the number of turns per foot reduces the noise interference. To further improve noise rejection, a foil or wire braid "shield" is woven around the twisted pairs. This shield can be woven around individual pairs or around a multi-pair conductor (several pairs).

Relies on cancellation to reduce EMI Precise specifications for the number of twists per braid Resistance = 100 ohms

Advantages

Easy to install Least expensive of all media Small diameter of cable Proper termination procedures insures reliable connection

Disadvantages

More prone to EMI/RFI than any other cable Shortest allowable length of any other cable.

Shielded Twisted Pair Uses a woven copper braid jacket and a higher quality protective jacket. Also uses foil wrap between and around the wire pairs.

All the advantages and disadvantages of UTP. Foil shields provide greater protection against EMI & RFI. Increased cost of cable

Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of two conductors. The inner conductor is held inside an insulator with the other conductor woven around it providing a shield. An insulating protective coating called a jacket covers the outer conductor. Advantages

Longer cable runs than UTP & STP (up to 500m) Cheaper than using fiber for your backbone Technology is well known (Cable TV) Better at reducing EMI than UTP or STP

Disadvantages

Thickness of cable Copper shielding must be grounded at both ends of the connection. No longer used as a LAN media.

The outer shield protects the inner conductor from outside electrical signals. The distance between the outer conductor (shield) and inner conductor plus the type of material used for insulating the inner conductor determine the cable properties or impedance. Typical impedances for coaxial cables are 75 ohms for Cable TV, 50 ohms for Ethernet Thinnet and Thicknet. The excellent control of the impedance characteristics of the cable allow higher data rates to be transferred than with twisted pair cable.

Optical fiber Optical fiber consists of thin glass fibers that can carry information at frequencies in the visible light spectrum and beyond. The typical optical fiber consists of a very narrow strand of glass called the core. Around the core is a concentric layer of glass called the cladding. A typical core diameter is 62.5 microns (1 micron = 10-6 meters). Typically Cladding has a diameter of 125 microns. Coating the cladding is a protective coating consisting of plastic, it is called the Jacket. Advantages

Longer runs than any other cable (2km) Higher data rates than any other cable (>100Mbps) NO EMI!!

Disadvantages

Very expensive!! Difficult to install

Therefore, fiber is used only for backbone installations.

Review Questions: 1. What is the biggest disadvantage of the Star topology? A: There isn't one B: If one node goes down, it brings down the entire ring C: If the hub goes down, it brings down all of the nodes on that section D: If the hub goes down, it brings down all of the nodes on all of the rings 2. The .............. of the network concerns how network devices are physically (or optically) interconnected. A: Physiology B: Topology C: Both A and B D: None of the above 3. The principal topologies used with LANs are: A: Bus B: Star C: Ring D: All of the above 4. In a ............... , each work station is directly connected to a common communications channel. A: Ring Topology B: Bus Topology C: Star Topology D: Mesh Topology 5. In a.............. , each workstation attaches to a common backplane via its own physical cable that terminates at the hub. A: Ring Topolgy B: Bus Topology C: Star-wired Bus D: Mesh Topology 6. In a .............. , the cable system forms a loop with workstations attached at various intervals around the loop. A: Ring Topology

B: Bus Topology C: Star-wired Bus Topology D: Mesh 7. What is the name for a network that connects two or more local area networks (LANs) together, sometimes across a large geographic area? A: Metropolitan area network (MAN) B: Wide area network (WAN) C: Internetwork D: Intranet 8. You work for a small company, where four users need network access. The budget is tight, so the network must be as cheep as possible. What type of network should you install? A: Server based network B: Peer-to-Peer network 9. If you have only two computers to connect to a network, which of the following cable types is the most appropriate? A: STP B: Fiber Optic C: Thickwire D: Thinnet 10. Of the following cabling elements, which does not commonly occur in coaxial cable? A. wire braid B. center conductor C. outer sheath D. optical fiber Short Answer Questions:
1. Name 4 types of media used in LANS/WANS today. 2. How is coaxial cable constructed? 3. What is one disadvantage of coaxial over UTP? 4. What is one BIG advantage of fiber media over copper media? 5. What is the definition of a star topology?

6. What is one disadvantage of using a star topology?