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Filing of this Criminal Complaint by Plaintiff(s) is mandated by 18 USC 4

THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND IS WAITING FOR US TO USE IT TO PROTECT OUR CERTAIN UN-A-LIEN-ABLE RIGHTS ENDOWED BY OUR CREATOR AND SECURED BY CONSTITUTIONAL OBEDIENCE

CRIMINAL COMPLAINT
AFFIDAVIT AND BRIEF OF INFORMATION
THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL COURT
(DISTRICT COURT, SUPREME COURT, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, PRESIDENT, ETC.)

UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION CITATION

FOR THE DISTRICT OF _______________ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY (Plaintiff(s) / Accuser(s)) North American Law Center, ________________, and ______________________, legal citizens of the United States of America and lawfully registered voter(s). VS. (Defendant(s) / Accused) Barack Hussein Obama, Candidate for the Presidency of the United States. Leon Panetta, Secretary of Defense. Debbie Wasserman Schultz, National Chairman, Democratic National Committee. Mike Honda, Vice Chairman, Democratic National Committee. Linda Chavez-Thompson, Vice Chairman, Democratic National Committee. Donna Brazile, Vice Chairman, Democratic National Committee.
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Federal Criminal Case #

_________________
Date _________________
Citizens Criminal Complaint pursuant to 18 USC 4 Violation of Due Process, Violation of required Constitutional Oaths, Violation of Civil Rights, Violation of Voting Rights Act, Conspiracy Against Rights, Conspiracy Under Color of Law, Points of Law: U.S. Const. Art. 1 10; Art. 2, 1 IV I; Amend.1, 5, 6, 9,10, 14; 18 USC 3, 4, 241, 242, 592, 1001, 1341, 1621, 1622, 2382, 2383, 3571; 42 USC 1973,1982 - 1989, 1994;

CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)


Rights and Remedies: UCC 1-201, 1-308

Raymond Buckley, Vice Chairman, Democratic National Committee. R.T. Rybak, Vice Chairman, Democratic National Committee. Andrew Tobias, Treasurer, Democratic National Committee. Alice Travis Germond, Democratic National Committee Patrick Gaspard, Executive Director, Democratic National Committee Brad Woodhouse, Communications Director, Democratic National Committee Richard Lynn "Rick" Scott, Governor, State of Florida Ken Detzner, Secretary of State, State of Florida Gertrude Walker, Supervisor of Elections for St. Lucie County, Florida Dr. Brenda C. Snipes, Supervisor of Elections for Broward County, Florida John Kasick, Governor, State of Ohio Jon A. Husted, Secretary of State, State of Ohio Jeff Hastings, Chairman, Inajo Davis Chappell, Board Member, Mayor Deborah Sutherland, Board Member, Eben O. (Sandy) McNair, IV, Board Member, Cuyahoga County Board of Elections, Ohio Terry L. Burton, Director, Deborah Hazard, Director, Michael Marsh, Board Member, Matthew L. Reger, Board Member, Ricahrd Newlove, Board Member, Mike Zickar, Board Member,Wood County Board of Elections, Ohio Thomas W. "Tom" Corbett, Governor, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Carol Aichele, Secretary of State, Commonwealth of
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) Pennsylvania Bill Hansell, County Executive, Daniel K. McCarthy, Commissioner, Thomas C. Creighton III, Commissioner, Percy Dougherty, Commissioner, David S. Jones, Commissioner, Vic Mazziotti, Commissioner, Brad Osborne, Commissioner, Scott Ott, Commissioner, Lisa Scheller, Commissioner, Michael Schware, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Anthony Clark, City Commissioner, Al Schmidt, City Commissioner, Stephanie Singer, City Commissioner, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Notice to Agent is Notice to Principal; Notice to Principal is Notice to Agent Pursuant to 18 USC 3, 4, 241, 242, 872, 1001, 1341, 1581, 1621, 1622, 1623, 1951, 2071, 2076, 2381, 2382, and 2383; 42 USC 1983, 1985, 1986, 1994; Constitution Article IV 1.

CONSTRUCTIVE NOTICE
This Criminal Complaint lawfully submitted by lawful citizens of the United States, pursuant to the 1787 Constitution for the United States of America, and must then be submitted to a lawful Grand Jury in its entirety. Only a Grand Jury can dismiss a Criminal Complaint. No magistrate judge, district judge or prosecuting attorney has the jurisdiction to arbitrarily dismiss a criminal complaint; nor change a Criminal Complaint into a Civil Complaint. Any government official treating this lawful Affidavit with contempt through unlawful action and/or inaction is commercially liable.
ACCESSORY AFTER THE FACT 18 USC 3

If the judge or any other government official decides to do nothing and not submit this Criminal Complaint Affidavit to a grand jury, he has treated this affidavit in dishonor and with contempt. The next step in Commercial Law will then be enforced. Whoever dishonors this process will be added to the list of defendants. This step cannot be stopped by any judges unconstitutional ruling. The Criminal Complaint, if not submitted to a Grand Jury within 30 days, automatically turns into a lien against the defendants and their property, once the defendant has depleted all of his or her assets; the government which the defendant officially represented becomes responsible for the balance of the lien. To avoid the Dire Consequences of this Criminal Complaint, the accused/defendant(s) must present rebuttal by sworn counter-affidavit, specifically stating all rebuttal to be True, Correct, Materially Complete, and not Misleading, by Specific Documentary Proof to
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) the Contrary to each point, point-by-point within three months (90 days statutory) from the issuance of this Criminal Complaint by Certified Return Receipt Mail to the following address: North American Law Center PO Box 772 Boston, MA All points not denied and properly rebutted shall stand as being confessed / affirmed, by such default, and shall be accepted as dispositive, conclusive facts by accused/defendants and/or other properly delegated authority, who had the opportunity and failed to plead. [See the following: The courts must accept an affidavit as true if it is uncontradicted by a counter-affidavit or other evidentiary materials. 3 Am. Jur. 2d Affidavits 20 (Am. Jur. = American Jurisprudence)]. All counter-affidavits must be signed with the valid legal name of the respondent and properly notarized. Fictitious or incomplete names of respondents or those not containing complete lawful first, middle, last names and valid home addresses, shall not constitute a valid response because they are not properly authenticated. (Constitution Article IV I - authenticated by full faith and credit) All actions required by accusers/plaintiffs of the accused/defendants to avoid the consequences of this Criminal Complaint must present, in affidavit form, all objections and proof by the defendants and must be presented within three months (90 days) from the issuance of this Criminal Complaint. Any actions and/or inactions by the defendants, both named and unnamed, contrary to the lawful 1787 Constitution for the United States of America will immediately bring the full force of this Criminal Complaint upon them. The above named defendants have broken Constitutional law, this citation concerns the felonies committed against the 1787 Constitution for the United States of America and ignores all law in Admiralty (Private Law).

Purpose of this Criminal Complaint


This Criminal Complaint secures the Remedy for the herein named people (s) Right to obtain Lawful Remedy from any private person and/or public officials(s) who have and are continuing to violate our Creator-endowed certain Inalienable Rights, and Freedoms secured and protected by the Lawful Constitution for the United States of America.

Concerning the Filing of Criminal Complaints


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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) 18 USC 2 (a) declares that whoever commits an offense against the United States or aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces or procures its commission, is punishable as a principal. 18 USC 2 (b) declares that whoever willfully causes an act to be done which if directly performed by him or another would be an offense against the United States, is punishable as a principal. 18 USC 3 declares that whoever, knowing that an offense against the United States has been committed, receives, relieves, comforts or assists the offender in order to hinder or prevent his apprehension, trial or punishment, is an accessory after the fact. 18 USC 4 declares that Whoever, having knowledge of the actual commission of a felony cognizable by a court of the United States, conceals and does not as soon as possible make known the same to some judge or other person in civil or military authority under the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. This statute therefore compels the complainant (mandates under threat of prison) to give District Judges, Magistrate Judges or the Prosecuting Attorney the first opportunity to act. (18 USC 4). No judge can constitutionally dismiss a criminal complaint. Only a grand jury can do this, therefore if any judge does try to dismiss this criminal complaint, such judge violates 18 USC 3.

Statement of Facts
This instrument is being used to accuse the above-named defendant(s) of the offense of violation(s) of the herein listed and marked parts of the lawful United States Constitution -- the ORIGINAL and SUPREME Law of the Land. Allegation Number One Barack Hussein Obama is not an eligible candidate for the office of President of the United States. See Affidavit of Stephen Pidgeon, attached hereto. All defendants have personal knowledge that Barack Hussein Obama is not an eligible candidate for the office of President of the United States, and have acted intentionally to place him in the office, and to defraud the voters and citizens of the United States. Allegation Number Two Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of Federal Election Commission law regulating campaign finance concerning overseas donations from foreign entities, international money laundering and online credit and debit card fraud, using foreign contributions from stolen card numbers to finance a presidential campaign. Allegation Number Three Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in the state of Florida. Florida banned observers from seeing the absentee ballots being opened and there was no way to know whether the absentee ballots that were produced were the same ones
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) that were opened, or if all the ballots were produced. Allegation Number Four Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in St. Lucie County, Florida. Out of 175,554 registered voters, 247,713 vote cards were cast in St. Lucie County, Florida on November 6, 2012. Allegation Number Five Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in Broward County, Florida. Obama received over 99% of the vote in Broward County Precincts. Allegation Number Six Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in the state of Pennsylvania. See below. Allegation Number Seven Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Up to 10 percent of the ballots cast at a polling station in Pennsylvania reverted to a default to give Barack Obama a vote no matter who the voter had selected. In Upper Macungie Township, near Allentown, Pa., Robert Ashcroft, an election auditor, observed the election software change the selection back to default to Obama. Allegation Number Eight Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. 59 different Philadelphia voting divisions reported zero votes for Mitt Romney compared to Obamas 19,605. Allegation Number Nine Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in the state of Ohio. In one county alone in Ohio, Obama received 106,258 votes where there were only 98,213 eligible voters. Two election judges were replaced after illegally allowing unregistered voters to cast ballots. More than 20 percent of registered Ohio voters werent eligible to vote. In two counties, the number of registered voters actually exceeded the votingage population. In 31 other counties, registration was above 90 percent of the population. Ohio voters who are native to Somalia were being given a slate card saying, Vote Brown all the way down an apparent reference to the Democratic senator. Allegation Number Ten Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Romney received zero votes in nine Cleveland precincts, and in one Cleveland precinct, Obama beat Romney 542 to 0. In more than 50 different precincts, Romney received two votes or less.
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)

Allegation Number Eleven Prima facie evidence exists as to violations of federal law governing a national election in Wood County, Ohio. Obama received 106,258 votes from 98,213 eligible voters an impossible 108 percent of the vote. Allegation Number Twelve The votes of personnel in the United States military was unlawfully suppressed by the direct intervention of Barack Hussein Obama and the Secretary of Defense. VIOLATIONS OF CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS The Defendants have violated their Oath in person and in office, to support the lawful Constitution, to which I am a party. Article 1, Clause 3 of the lawful 1787 Constitution for the United States of America. All of the above named officials have broken their Oaths swearing to support the Constitution for the United States of America, and therefore have committed treason against all legal citizens. Article 6, Clause 3 of the Constitution for the United States of America. 18 USC 2382 Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States and having knowledge of the commission of any treason against them, conceals and does not, as soon as may be, disclose and make known the same to the President or to some judge of the United States, or to the governor or to some judge or justice of a particular State, is guilty of misprision of treason and shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than seven years, or both. All of the defendants have engaged in schemes to create a different election tally resulting from the votes cast in the general election of November 2012 for the office of the President of the United States, and are in violation of certain federal statutes set forth herein. It is a citizen's right to a vote free of arbitrary impairment by state action. This right has been judicially recognized as a right secured by the Constitution when such impairment resulted from dilution by a false tally, cf. United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299; or by a refusal to count votes from arbitrarily selected precincts, cf. United States v. Mosley, 238 U.S. 383, or by a stuffing of the ballot box, cf. Ex parte Siebold, 100 U.S. 371; United States v. Saylor, 322 U.S. 385. The citizens right to a free and fair election between constitutionally eligible candidates requires judicial recognition. The very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the right of every individual to claim the protection of the laws, whenever he receives an injury. Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137, 163. VIOLATIONS OF FEDERAL LAW The facts as alleged create federal questions requiring federal enforcement. See e.g., ACORN v. Edgar, 56 F.3d 791 (7th Cir. 1995); Voting Rights Coalition v. Wilson, 60 F.3d 1411 (9th Cir. 1995); 1. Federal affect. The objective of the conduct as alleged is to corrupt the outcome of a federal
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) elective contest, or where the consequential effect of the corrupt conduct impacts upon the vote count for federal office. See Anderson v. United States, 411 U.S. 211 (1974)). 2. Civil rights. The object of the scheme is to discriminate against certain voting groups, the voting rights of which have been specifically protected by federal statues such as the Voting Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. 1973 et seq. 3. Prosecutor of last resort. Federalization is required in order to redress longstanding patters of electoral fraud, either at the request of state or local authorities, or in the face of longstanding inaction by state authorities who appear to be unwilling or unable to respond under local law. 4. Link to other crimes. There is a factual basis to believe that fraudulent registration or voting activity is sufficiently connected to other forms of criminal activity such that perusing the voter fraud angle will yield evidence useful in the prosecution of other categories of federal offenses. The defendants named above have intentionally and knowingly engaged in or provided for schemes by polling officers to violate their duty under state law to safeguard the integrity of the election process by purposefully allowing void ballots to be cast (stuffed) in the ballot box, by intentionally rendering fraudulent vote tallies, and by unlawfully depriving military personnel from casting votes. Defendants have committed civil rights violations under 18 U.S.C. 241, 242 and 592. See U.S. v. Olinger, 759 F.2d 1293 (7th Cir. 1985) and its progeny. These two federal statutes prohibit, among many other things, intentional denigration by public officers acting under color of law of the one-person-one-vote principle of Equal Protection that is guaranteed in the 5th and 14th Amendments of the Constitution. The schemes used to manipulate voting equipment and to stuff ballot boxes required physical access to voting equipment that can only be achieved through authority conferred by state law, thus satisfying the state action jurisdictional peg in these two statutes as to ballot manipulation schemes. The cases that require this result are United States v. Bathgate, 246 U.S. 220 (1918); United States v. McLean, 808 F.2d 1044 (4th Cir. 1988). Schemes to stimulate or reward voter registration by offering or giving voters things having monetary value violate the payment for registering clause of 42 U.S.C. 1973(1)(c). Some states are currently considering enacting procedural reforms that will establish separate voting lists of voters who are entitled to vote only in federal elections for those who register under the relaxed procedures mandated by the 1993 National Voter Registration Act. However, most voter registrations are still unitary in nature, in the sense that a registrant becomes simultaneously entitled to vote for all candidates - federal and nonfederal alike. In these situations, the unitary nature of the registration act provides a sufficient federal nexus to permit federal regulation, and it thus does not matter what particular election the subjects were interested in affecting or when the payments were made. See United States v. Cianciulli, 482 F.Supp. 585 (E.D. Pa. 1979). Schemes to register voters fraudulently through providing election officials materially false information about the voter's eligibility for the franchise can be prosecuted in some situations without regard to when the underlying activity took place. As with payments for registering, this is because of the unitary nature of the registration act. However, the specific federal statutes that apply to fraudulent registration schemes do impose some limits on the prosecution of this type of case in nonfederal election years: - The false registration information clause of 42
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) U.S.C. 19731(c) reaches only schemes to provide false information concerning a voter's name, address or period of residence in the voting district. Schemes to provide other categories of false information (e.g.. citizenship) are not reached by this statute, regardless of how material that information may be to determining voter eligibility. The National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) contains a criminal provision that reaches schemes to provide any materially significant piece of information concerning entitlement to the federal franchise under state law. 42 U.S.C. 1973gg-10(2)(B). This new criminal law is broader than Section 1973i(c) in terms of the categories of false information to which it applies. It took effect on January 1, 1995. Schemes to obtain and cast ballots that are materially defective (and thus void under local law) in nonfederal elections can in theory still be prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. 1341. See McNally v. United States, 483 U.S. 350 (1987). The fraud in this situation lies in generating ballots that the defendants can be shown to have known were materially deficient under state election law, and in causing a false vote count by concealing those material defects from the vote tabulating authority. Federal jurisdiction rests on the fact that the mails are a federal instrumentality. The mail fraud statute in election cases post McNally, allows for the prosecution of conduct that constitutes voter fraud in the securing of a pecuniary object. There are two such objects that courts have to date recognized as satisfying McNally: Securing for a specific candidate a salary and pecuniarily valuable emoluments of the elected position being sought is actionable under this statute. See e.g., United States v. Cranberry, 908 F.2d 278 (6th Cir. 1990); United States v. Doherty, 867 F.2d 47, 54-57 (1st Cir. 1989); Ingber v. Enzor, 644 F.Supp. 814, 815-816, aff'd 841 F.2d 450 (2d Cir. 1988)); Causing a local election jurisdiction to expend pecuniary resources to run an election that the defendants knew would produce a defective result is also a violation of this statute. See. e.g., United States v. DeFries, 43 F.3d. 707 (D.C. Cir. 1995). DEMAND FOR IMMEDIATE HALT OF THE ELECTORAL PROCESS The votes of the several electors from the fifty states to put into the office of the Presidency an ineligible person is a violation of the United States Constitution and if done with knowledge an act of treason. This is a demand for the enforcement entities receiving this complaint to act within the full province of their authority to bring to an immediate halt all processes which would allow this fraudulent election to continue, including taking all necessary steps to enjoin the vote of the electoral college on December 17, 2012, until a constitutionally eligible candidate can be determined. AFFIDAVITS ARE PROTECTED IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS The Bill of Rights Amendments 1-10, guarantees the right to file lawful Affidavits. 3 Am. Jur. 2d
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) Affidavits 20.

Statement of Law
RESERVATION OF RIGHTS The fundamental purpose of the Bill of Rights is to guarantee the Power of an Affidavit and protect property rights. One's right to life, liberty, and property, to free speech, free press, freedom of worship and assembly, and other fundamental rights may not be submitted to a vote; they do not depend on the outcome of elections." The right to amend this and/or any other document if necessary, in order that the truth be more fully and certainly ascertained and justly determined is reserved. According to Article 6, Section 1, clause 3 of the Constitution, every Public officer and every citizen in the State is bound to obey the Constitution for the United States of America. A Public officer who violates this required Oath, violates the office held, because each such Public Officer is required to take an Oath to support the Constitution for the United States of America. The Acceptance of Compensation for Services binds each such Public Officer. All officers of the United States of America, the several states, counties and cities are bound by the lawful Constitution, the supreme law of the land, through their Oaths of office, and are all Citizens by the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, and all Soldiers by Oath to serve and protect the lawful Constitution for the United States of American. All GOD-Given and Constitutionally Protected Rights are reserved pursuant to UCC 1-207 & 1308 (Performance or Acceptance under Reservation of Rights) in relationship to any past and/or future action concerning this case. Notice is hereby given. Matter of Law Failure to provide a fair and accurate election is a violation of the several federal statutes set forth below and constitution a deprivation of due process and a species of criminal fraud. 18 USC 241 - Conspiracy against rights If two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or because of his having so exercised the same; or
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) If two or more persons go in disguise on the highway, or on the premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured They shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, they shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death. 18 USC 242 Deprivation of rights under color of law Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such person being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death. Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such person being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death. 18 USC 592 Troops at polls Whoever, being an officer of the Army or Navy, or other person in the civil, military, or naval service of the United States, orders, brings, keeps, or has under his authority or control any troops or armed men at any place where a general or special election is held, unless such force be necessary to repel armed enemies of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both; and be disqualified from holding any office of honor, profit, or trust under the United States.
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) This section shall not prevent any officer or member of the armed forces of the United States from exercising the right of suffrage in any election district to which he may belong, if otherwise qualified according to the laws of the State in which he offers to vote. Whoever, being an officer of the Army or Navy, or other person in the civil, military, or naval service of the United States, orders, brings, keeps, or has under his authority or control any troops or armed men at any place where a general or special election is held, unless such force be necessary to repel armed enemies of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both; and be disqualified from holding any office of honor, profit, or trust under the United States. This section shall not prevent any officer or member of the armed forces of the United States from exercising the right of suffrage in any election district to which he may belong, if otherwise qualified according to the laws of the State in which he offers to vote. Fraud Vitiates a Contract Vitiate: To impair; to make void or voidable; to cause to fail of force or effect. To destroy or annul, either entirely or in part. The legal efficacy and binding force of an act or instrument; as when it is said that fraud vitiates a contract. (Blacks law Dictionary 6th Ed.) 1) Fraud: 37 Am Jur 2d at section 8 states: "Fraud vitiates every transaction and all contracts. Indeed, the principle is often stated, in broad and sweeping language, that fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters, and that it vitiates the most solemn Contracts, Documents, and even Judgments." "A void act cannot be legally consistent with a valid one. An unconstitutional law cannot operate to supersede any existing valid law. Indeed, insofar as a statute runs counter to the fundamental law of the land, it is superseded thereby. NO ONE is bound to obey an unconstitutional law, and NO COURTS are bound to enforce it. (Sixteenth American Jurisprudence Second Edition, 1998 version, Section 203 (formerly Section 256)) A case stops at its first defect and/or at the first point fraud is found. All points not denied and properly rebutted shall stand as being confessed / affirmed, by such default, and shall be accepted as dispositive, conclusive facts by accused/defendants and/or other properly delegated authority, who had the opportunity and failed to plead. [See the following: The courts must accept an affidavit as true if it is uncontradicted by a counter-affidavit or other evidentiary materials. 3 Am. Jur. 2d Affidavits 20 (Am. Jur. = American Jurisprudence)]. All counter-affidavits (rebuttals) must be signed with the valid legal name of the respondent and properly notarized. Fictitious or incomplete names of respondents or those not containing
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) complete lawful first, middle, last names and valid address, shall not constitute a valid response because they are not properly authenticated. (Constitution Article IV I - authenticated by full faith and credit)

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)

Affidavit of Fact Commercial Processes Defined by the Bill of Rights The 5th Amendment of the Constitution for the United States of America determines the legitimate grounds for passing through the portals of the courthouse and for using the taxfinanced court. All processes in Commerce are legislated, judicated (adjudicated), executed, challenged, rebutted, and consummated by the parties in Commerce within the realm of Economics, labor, contracts, surety, credit, liens, distresses and honorable combat by reasonall without the Courts. Only those processes belong in the tax-financed court which will not be resolved without libel, slander, violence, and dueling, human sacrifice through mortal combat, double jeopardy, self destruction, adverse possession or eminent domain. The first four Amendments (1-4) of the Bill of Rights keep Commerce on the streets, outside of the courts and out of the public tax coffers. The second four Amendments (5-8) of the Bill of Rights keep violence off the streets and under the control of government. The last two Amendments (9-10) guarantee that all persons shall have a remedy by law, either natural law or social law. The First Amendment protects Truth by Affidavit. The Second Amendment protects Citizens acting under the First Amendment from government retaliation against witnesses. The Third Amendment keeps the agents of government from holding potluck dinner wherever its agents want to. The Fourth Amendment protects the public from a government, which takes from Citizens by bearing false witness. The Fifth Amendment is intended to keep the courthouse doors closed against the capricious and unlawful use of public tax money, and, for example, prohibits and outlaws the private use of its facilities by an organized labor union known as the Bar Association. The Sixth Amendment provides a method of maintaining the commercial continuity of the nation while at the same time it prevents the government from converting the courthouse into a profitable commercial enterprise, a witch hunting institution, a public slaughterhouse, and a political genocide institution.
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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) The Seventh Amendment provides and guarantees a method of accessing public wisdom and sensibility to establish the fair market value of commercial controversies, injuries, and violations. The Eighth Amendment forbids government to terrorize the public to assert governments will. It demands that the punishment of crimes be proportional to the degree of public offense. It is well known that all governments rule by force, that power corrupts, and that absolute power corrupts absolutely. Therefore the Eighth Amendment is provided and serves to limit the expansion of corruption. The Ninth Amendment allows the Citizen to create a remedy by Affidavit. The Tenth Amendment empowers the same Citizen to exercise an un-rebutted choice of remedy. ARTICLE 6, LAWFUL UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION: "THIS CONSTITUTION, and the laws of the United States of America which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States of America, SHALL BE THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding." ... 16 AM JUR 2D 177,178: The general rule is that an unconstitutional statute, though having the form and name of law, is in reality no law, but is wholly void, and ineffective for any purpose; Since an unconstitutional law is void, the general principles follow that it imposes no duties, confers no rights, creates no office, bestows no power or authority on anyone, affords no protection, and justifies no acts performed under it; No one is bound to obey an unconstitutional law, and no courts are bound to enforce it; An unconstitutional law cannot operate to supersede any existing valid law. Indeed, insofar as a statute runs counter to the Fundamental Law of the Land, it is superseded thereby; The general rule is that an unconstitutional act of the Legislature protects no one. It is said that all persons are presumed to know the law, meaning that ignorance of the law excuses no one; if any person acts under an unconstitutional statute, he does so at his peril and must take the consequences.

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) INSTRUCTION: Mark the boxes below where you believe the Law has been violated.
THIS SIMPLIFIES AND CODES U.S. CONSTITUTIONAL LAWS AS SHOWN FOR BETTER AND MORE COMPLETE UNDERSTANDING FOR ALL. (SEE NEXT BOX)

101/OC Obligation of Contracts Clause 1 AM14.1/EP Equal Protection


Section 10 Article 1 Section 1 Amendment 14

I. PROTECTIONS OF YOUR BASIC RIGHTS - (You can add more, such as attachments on the line below labeled "other") X X X AM1/FR No law shall be made limiting my freedom of religion and how I apply it to my life (conscience). AM6/AC The accused may have the assistance of anyone/anything in the presentation of his defense. AM6/AC, AM1/FR It is up to me to choose and have as counsel whoever can best understand and represent my conscience (what I think is right or wrong). AM 13.1/S, IS No law-abiding person shall be forced to do anything he does not want to do. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ AM1/FS No law shall limit my freedom of speech - I can say whatever I believe - especially if required (when someone requires me to tell the Truth, the whole Truth, and nothing but the Truth...). AM1/FP No law shall limit freedom of the press - or my freedom to express my ideas in writing or printing. AM6/INFO The accused must be informed why he is on trial (and the nature and cause of the complaint). AM6/WA The accused must be confronted by all witnesses against him. AM6/WF The accused has the right to compulsory process to get all people or materials in his favor. AM6/PT All trials involving the threat of jail, the accused shall have a public trial by a jury of their peers (incl. friends). AM5/IN No person shall be held to answer for any serious crime without a Grand Jury indictment. AM14.1/CUS All persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens and protected by the U.S. Constitution. AM14.1/EP All persons shall be equally protected and restricted by the law. 421/UP, UI People of each state can do anything that is allowed in any other state. 411/ARP No state shall refuse to acknowledge the actions and records of other states. AM14.1/CP, CI No state shall make or enforce any law limiting rights guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ AM4/PS I am safe from unwarranted searches/seizures of myself, or anything mine (or my responsibility). AM4/W, PC Any action taken against me must be fully described to me in writing, issued by a court of law (not an agency - like IRS), signed by a judge (not an agent - like IRS), and sworn on oath. 101/0C No state shall pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ AM5/DP No person shall be deprived of anything without a fair trial based on Constitutional law. AM14/DP No State shall deprive anyone of anything without a fair trial based on Constitutional law. 192/H C I have a right to further court process if I have been unlawfully confined (Writ of Habeas Corpus). 322/SCA I have a right to appeal my case to a higher court. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ 193/XL No law shall be passed today that can punish me for something I did yesterday (no retroactive laws). 101/XL No state shall pass any law today that can punish me for something I did yesterday (ex post facto). 411/CPE Congress determines the effect of state legal processes.
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II. GUARANTEES OF AN HONEST GOVERNMENT THAT GIVES FAIR AND EQUAL PROTECTION FOR ALL X X

X X X X X X

III. GUARANTEES OF REASONABLE ENFORCEMENT OF YOUR RIGHTS X X

IV. GUARANTEES OF DUE PROCESS (ACTION/REACTION PROCESS THAT PROVIDES JUSTICE FOR ALL) X X X

V. PROTECTIONS AGAINST UNREASONABLE GOVERNMENT BEHAVIOR (OVER CONTROLLING YOUR LIFE)

CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)


X X X X AM5/DJ No person shall suffer more than once for the same offense. 101/LMR No state shall declare war on a person (resort to force) in violation of the Constitution. AM8/XB No excessive bail shall be required - bail shall be proportional to crime. AM8/XF No excessive fines shall be imposed - fines shall be proportional to crime. AM8/CP No cruel punishment (torture) shall be inflicted on anyone. AM8/UP No unusual punishment shall be inflicted - there shall be equal suffering for equal crimes. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ AM6/INFO, AM14.1/EP I may require as much in writing as is required of me. 311/GB All judges may only hold office during their good behavior (lawful, patient, dignified, courteous, etc.). AM5/JC No one shall give up or lose anything (taxes) for public gain without fair compensation. AM7/JT All trials not involving the threat of jail, and involving over $20 shall be tried by jury of peers. AM6/ST, PT All trials involving the threat of jail shall be speedy and public. 323/JT All trials involving the threat of jail shall be by jury of peers (including friends). 323/TIS Trial must be in the state where the crime was committed. AM6/IJT A jury must impartially rule on facts (even ruling against any law they believe unfair). AM6/TWC A jury must be of the state and district where the crime was committed. AM6/DPA The trial district must be pre-established by law to insure a fair sampling of people in the jury. 101/GS Money is legal tender ONLY if it is made of, or exchangeable at a bank for, silver or gold. 101/GS, TD No state shall make anything but silver or gold legal tender for payment of debts. 101/CM No state is allowed to coin or print money. 101/EBC No state is allowed to print anything to be used in the place of money. 101/OC No state is allowed to weaken the dollar bill's obligation to be exchangeable for silver or gold. 185/CM Only Congress can coin money (not Federal Reserve, which is an unlawful private corporation). 185/VM Congress has valued Money at 371.25 of 0.999 fine or 412.5 grains of standard silver (or equivalent gold) to the dollar. (Federal Reserve notes do NOT promise any silver or gold at all! So, they are unlawful and cannot be used in any transactions with the Government (payment of taxes, bail, fees, fines, court costs, etc.). 186/PC Printing money without lawful authorization is counterfeiting; Congress must punish counterfeiters. 101/TN No state shall set anyone (including Bar Assoc., Esq., Nobility Title, etc.) above the Common Man. 101/TAC No state shall work against the U.S. Constitution with anyone (Bar Assoc., IRS, etc.). 431/NNS No controlling agency (Bar Assoc., IRS) shall be formed (or act) in violation of the U.S. Constitution. 331/TAU No controlling agency shall harass a U.S. Citizen (mixed war/treason). 111/SP Only Congress has the power to make laws. 311/SP Only courts can decide punishments and rewards with regard to the Supreme Law. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ AM5/WAH No person shall be forced to say or do anything that can be used against him later (for any reason). AM3/QS No public servant shall be quartered in a house unlawfully or without owners consent. 193/BA No person or group can make a law, judge on it, AND punish under it (this takes away ALL rights). 101/BA No state shall allow any person or group to make a law, judge on it, AND punish under it. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ VIII. GUARANTEES THAT IF SOMETHING IS WRONG, YOUR GOVERNMENT MUST DO SOMETHING X AM14.1/CUS All persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens and protected by the U.S. Constitution. AM14.4/PDQ) Taxes (public debt) spent for unlawful purposes may be questioned. 197/N UW No money may be withdrawn from the Public Treasury for unlawful purposes. AM16/TX Congress has the power to lay and collect taxes only for lawful purposes. AM5/JC No one shall give up or lose anything (taxes) for public gain without fair compensation. AM1/PA, RG I may assemble peaceably with others to ask the Government to protect my rights.
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VI. PROTECTIONS AGAINST GOVERNMENT SECRECY WHICH FORCES GOVERNMENT TO BE HONEST X X

X X X X

VII. PROTECTIONS AGAINST GOVERNMENT COMPLETELY CONTROLLING YOUR LIFE (DOMINATION)

CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)


X X X X X X X X X X X X X AM24/VPT The right to vote may not be denied to anyone because they fail to pay taxes. AM9/ER All rights belong to the people: some are stated, some are not. AM10/PR All government power comes from the consent of the people governed. AM5/DP No person shall be deprived of anything without a fair trial of peers based on Constitutional law. AM14/DP No state shall deprive anyone of anything without a fair trial of peers based on Constitution law. 441/GRG The U.S. guarantees a system of laws to protect the majority AND minority. 612/SL "This Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land." 613/BO All law makers, court officials, and enforcement officers are bound by oath to the U.S. Constitution. 218/OATH The President's oath is to "faithfully execute" his office and "defend the U.S. Constitution." 231/GX The President shall "take care that the laws be faithfully executed (enforced)." 612/JB All judges are bound by oath to support the United States Constitution. 441/PAI The U.S. will protect every U.S. Citizen against any attack upon themselves or their rights. 441/PADV The U.S. will protect every U.S. Citizen against local attack upon themselves or their rights. AM2/KBA The right of people to keep and bear arms shall never be limited or infringed. AM14.3/HO, IR No person shall hold office if he rebels against or violates the U.S. Constitution (treason). OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________

IX. GUARANTEES THAT IF SOMETHING IS WRONG, WHAT THE GOVERNMENT IS REQUIRED TO DO 241/IMP Any government employee (except Military) may be impeached. 136/STI Only the Senate shall try impeachments. 136/SCI Only the Senate shall convict in cases of impeachment. X 137/JI Impeachment bars one from office. X 137/LSL The impeached shall be subject to trial and punishment like anyone else. X 331/TC It takes at least two witnesses (see below) or a confession in court to convict anyone of treason. X 332/TP Congress shall decide the punishment for treason. X AM14.3/RD Congress shall impeach anyone who rebels against or violates the U.S. Constitution. THEREFORE, the Court shall judge according to 16 AM JUR 2D 177, 178. X 321/JUC The Court's power reaches into all cases involving the U.S. Constitution or any laws made under it. X 321/JUP The Court's power shall extend to any case involving the United States as a party. OTHER: ___________________________________________________________________________________ X

TITLE 18 SECTION 241 - (18 USC 241) - CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS
If two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him/her by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or because of his/her having so exercised the same; or if two or more persons go in disguise on the highway or the premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his/her free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured (they may be fined for a felony up to $250,000.00 per offense, per 18 USC 3571; organizations are double these fines) or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both: and if death results they shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for life.

TITLE 18 SECTION 242 - (18 USC 242) - DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS UNDER COLOR OF LAW
Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subject any inhabitant of any State, Territory, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such inhabitant being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, (they may be fined for a felony up to $250,000.00 per offense, per 18 USC 3571; organizations are double these fines) or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if death results shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for life.

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) 18 USC SECTION 2383 - REBELLION OR INSURRECTION


Whoever incites, sets on foot, assists, or engages in any rebellion or insurrection against the authority of the United States or the laws thereof, or gives aid or comfort thereto, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.

THEREFORE, the Court shall punish according to TITLE 18 SECTION 241, 242, 2383 & 3571.
NOTE: MARK THE FOLLOWING APPROPRIATE ITEMS HOWEVER DO NOT COUNT THESE IN THE FINAL LEDGER X. PUNISHMENTS PROVIDED FOR CORRUPT PEOPLE IN OFFICE, DRAWING PUBLIC FUNDS 161/CS Members of House and Senate will be paid with public 'funds for service - not disservice.' X 311/CS Judges will be paid for their service - but not for disservice. X 217/CS The President shall be paid for his service - but not for disservice. X AM14.4/OC, IR The United States shall not be bound to finance It's own destruction. X AM14.4/OC, V The debt incurred by the U.S. to finance It's own destruction is void. 101/OC No State shall pass any law impairing the obligations of contracts. X 231/GX The President shall "take care that the laws be faithfully executed (enforced) ." 231/CO The President gives power to the officers he appoints. THEREFORE, the Court shall judge according to 16 AM JUR 2D 177, 178. X 311/GB All judges may only hold office during their good behavior (lawful, patient, dignified, courteous, etc.). X 612/JB All judges are bound by oath to support the Constitution of the United States of America. X 613/BO All law makers, court officials, and enforcement officers are bound by oath to the U.S. Constitution. X AM14.3/HO, IR No person shall hold office if he rebels against, or violates the U.S. Constitution. 0THER: THEREFORE, the Court shall punish the defendant(s) for fraud (drawing a wage for disservice) and misprision (mis-use of public office or contempt against the U.S. Constitution, the Supreme Law of the Land).

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)

LEDGER
Notice to Credit/Bonding Companies: This Complaints Commercial Value is $43,000,000,000.00
This Criminal Complaint is an Affidavit of Obligation in the normal Commercial sense and as such is a Security Instrument representing Accounts Receivable and is a Lien upon the real and movable property, including but not limited to any Mal-Practice Insurance and/or Performance and/or Fidelity Bonds, etc. of defendants cited. All Claims are stated in lawful US Dollars, as defined by the lawful U.S. Constitution, which means for the purpose of this document, that the value of a lawful US Dollar is defined as 371.25 grains of 0.999 Fine Silver per the Coinage Act of 1792. One Troy Ozt of 0.999 Fine Silver = 480 Grains. 371.25 / 480 = 0.7734375 or 77.344% of One Troy Ozt. One lawful U.S. Dollar equals 77.344% of one ounce fine Silver. All Payments will be made using the equivalent value as 371.25 grains of 0.999 Fine Silver and the Spot Price of Silver as established by a lawful precious metals regulating agency, or the spot price on the U.S. Silver Market, whichever is the higher amount on or about the day of filing. For example, if the claim is to be paid in Federal Reserve Notes (FRN) and/or other acceptable Funds, these Federal Reserve Notes and/or Funds will only be accepted in payment as adjusted to the current Value of Silver as indicated above. This is the Silver Multiplier and also applies to any accrued interest calculations as a result of this Criminal Complaint. This is to mean for example, that if the Spot value of Fine Silver is $30.00 on the day of default, then $30.00 multiplied by 0.77344 equals $22.203 value. One US Dollar therefore equals 22.203 FRN. Note: I/We reserve the right to choose how we are compensated, and in which funds, currencies, denominations, etc., including but not limited to payment in 0.999 Fine Silver and/or other precious metal(s).

Note: Due to the Criminal Offense, once the 3 month 90 day (Statutory) time limit expires, interest shall be 1.00% per month for each month on any unpaid balance of the outstanding Debt.

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) I /we certify under penalties of perjury that I/we have grounds to, and do believe that the aboveaccused person(s) committed the above offense(s) contrary to law, and by the authority of the United States Constitution do hereby declare same to be under Citizen's Arrest, the actual physical arrest to be made by U.S. Marshall. (See Title 42. Sections 1983-1989.) Plaintiff(s) reserve the right to amend this document if necessary, in order that the truth be more fully and certainly ascertained and justly determined. I / we am/are personally appearing before Notary, and giving written and by spoken oath affirming, that the following is true, correct, materially complete, and not misleading to the best of my / our knowledge and belief, under my/our own commercial liability. Dated this _________________________ day of _________________________,A.D. 20_____, Sign Here: ____________________________________ Sign Here: ____________________________________ (Witness 1) Sign Here: ____________________________________ (Witness 2) (If you are a witness to treason, check box)

[STATE] ________________________ [COUNTY] ______________________

) ) ss. )

On this _________________________ day of __________________________,A.D. 20______ , the above signatory(s) personally appears before me with picture ID and executes the foregoing instrument and acknowledges it to be their own free-will act and deed. _____________________________________ ______________________________ (printed name) My Commission Expires: _______________ Notary Public

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.) This Criminal Complaint is recorded in Original with the Federal US Magistrate Judge, if refused then the Federal US Prosecuting Attorney, if refused then the US Marshall. Have it date and time stamped, as received with filing number. Get two copies to make photocopies to give out as Complementary copies. One Complementary copy each to: Court Clerk (for judge(s)), Prosecuting Attorney, Defendant(s) / Accused, Accuser(s), and others as necessary.
SUPPORTING EVIDENCE AND ADDENDUMS

EXHIBIT 1: Affidavit of Stephen Pidgeon EXHIBIT 2: Long Form Birth Certificate for Barack Hussein Obama EXHIBIT 3: F-1 Visa, for Barack Hussein Obama EXHIBIT 4: BREAKING: St. Lucie County, Florida Had 141.1% Turnout; Obama Won County EXHIBIT 5: Federal Certification Test for Vote-Counting Accuracy Cannot Determine the Error Rate of the Equipment EXHIBIT 6: Here's how touchscreens killed Romney votes EXHIBIT 7: THE BIG LIST of vote fraud reports EXHIBIT 8: America's Warriors Being Denied The Right To Vote EXHIBIT 9: Keeping the Military from voting in Ohio EXHIBIT 10: Obama Accused Of Suppressing Military Vote By Withholding Absentee Ballots

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CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (Cont.)


Lien Debtors/Defendants separately and jointly. THIS 101/OC 1Obligation of Contracts Clause
SIMPLIFIES AND CODES U.S. CONSTITUTIONAL LAWS AS SHOWN FOR BETTER AND MORE COMPLETE UNDERSTANDING FOR ALL. (SEE NEXT BOX) REF
111/SP 136/STI 136/SCI 137/JI 137/LSL 153/HJP 185/CM, VM 186/PC 189/CT 180/SP 192/HC 193/BA 193/XL 101/TAC 101/LMR 101/CM 101/EBC 101/GS, TD 101/BA 101/XL 101/OC 101/TN 211/SP 217/CS 218/OATH 221/ROW 221/GRP 222/AJ 222/AO 222/AOL 222/AV 231/GX 231/CO 241/IMP 311/SP 311/GB 311/CS 321/JUC 321/JUP 322/SCA 323/JT 323/TIS 331/TAU 331/TC 332/TP 411/ARP 411/CPE 421/UP, UI 431/NNS 441/GRG 441/PAI Section 10 Article 1

AM14.1/EP Equal Protection


Section 1 Amendment 14

TITLE
Separation (of) Powers Senate Tries Impeachment Senate Convict Impeachment Judgment Impeachment Liable, Subject to Law House Journal Proceedings Coin Money, Value Money Punish Counterfeiting Constitute Tribunals Separation of Powers Habeas Corpus Bill of Attainder Ex post facto Law Treaties, Alliance, Confederation Letters of Marque and Reprisal Coin Money Emit Bills of Credit Gold / Silver Tender Debt payment Bill of Attainder Ex post facto Law Obligation of Contracts Title of Nobility Separation of Powers Compensation of Service Oath of president Require Opinion in Writing Grant Reprieves and Pardons Appoint Judges Appoint Officers Appoint Officers by Law Appointment Vested Guarantee Execution Commission Officers Impeachment Separation of Powers Good Behavior Compensation of Service Judicial Power U.S. Constitution Judicial Power when U.S. is a Party Supreme Court Appeal Jury Trial Trial In State Treason Against U.S. Treason Conviction Treason Punishment Acts, Records and Proceedings Congress Prescribes Effect of acts, records and proceedings Uniform Privileges, Uniform Immunities No New State Guarantee Republican Government Protect Against Invasion

REF
441/PADV 612/SL 612/JB 613/BO AM1/FR AM1/FERB AM1/FERI AM1/FXR AM1/FS AM1/FP AM1/PA AM1/RG AM2/KBA AM3/QS AM4/PS AM4/W, PC AM5/IND AM5/DJ AM5/WAH AM5/DP AM5/JC AM6/ST AM6/PT AM6/IJT AM6/TWC AM6/DPA AM6/INFO AM6/WA AM6/WF AM6/AC AM7/JT AM7/FX AM8/XB AM8/XF AM8/CP AM8/UP AM9/ER AM10/PR AM11/JUC AM13.1/S, IS AM14.1/CUS AM14.1/CP, CI Am14.1/DP AM14.1/EP AM14.3/HO, IR AM14.3/RD AM14.4/PDQ AM14.4/OC, IR AM14.4/OC, V Am16/TX AM24/VPT

TITLE
Protect Against Domestic Violence Supreme Law of land Judges Bound by oath All Bound by Oath Freedom of Religion Freedom to Establish Religious Basis Freedom to Est. Religious Institute Freedom to Exercise Religion Freedom of Speech Freedom of Press Peaceful Assembly Redress Grievances Keep and Bear Arms Quartering Soldiers People Secure Warrant, Probable Cause Indictment Double Jeopardy Witness Against Himself Due Process Just Compensation Speedy Trial Public Trial Impartial Jury Trial Trial Wherein Committed District Previously Ascertained Information Witness Against Witness in Favor Assistance of Counsel Jury Trial Facts Examined Excessive Bail Excessive Fine Cruel Punishment Unusual Punishment Enumeration of Rights Powers Reserved Judicial power / U.S. Constitution Slavery, Involuntary Servitude Citizens of the U.S. Citizens privileges, Citizens Immunities Due Process Equal Protection of the law Hold Office, Insurrection, Rebellion Remove Disability Public Debt Questioned Obligation of Contracts, Insurrection, Rebellion Obligation of Contracts Claims void Tax Vote - Pay Tax

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EXHIBIT 1 Affidavit
State of Washington County of Snohomish ) ) ss. )

Stephen Pidgeon, a duly licensed attorney in good standing, a natural born citizen of the United States, a registered voter in the state of Washington, being over the age of 18 years, and legally competent to testify to the matters set forth herein, who, having voted in the general election of November, 2012 for national candidates, now declares on oath and subject to the laws of perjury as established and enforced in the state of Washington as follows: I am a registered voter in the state of Washington, who participated as a voter in the general election of November 6, 2012, and I have standing to challenge the eligibility of the candidate pursuant to RCW 29A.68.020(2) (Because the person whose right is being contested was not at the time the person was declared elected eligible to that office.) The Secretary of State is the chief election officer for all federal, state, county, city, town, and district election in the state of Washington pursuant to RCW 29A.04.230 . The Secretary of State has a duty pursuant to his oath of office to support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution and laws of the state of Washington to the best of his ability. RCW 43.01.020. The Secretary of State has a constitutionally authorized duty to certify the election results to the state legislature pursuant to Article III, Section 4 of the Washington State Constitution. STATEMENT OF FACTS For purposes of this affidavit, I so stipulate that Barack Hussein Obama was born in the State of Hawaii, on August 4, 1961. Plaintiff relies upon the long form birth certificate issued by the White House, and adopted by Barack Hussein Obama as a true copy of his birth certificate. An accurate and complete copy is attached hereto as Exhibit 1. For purposes of this affidavit, I so stipulate that the mother of Barack Hussein Obama (hereafter, Obama) was Stanley Ann Dunham as declared on the Birth Certificate (Ex. 1), and I so stipulate that Stanley Ann Dunham was a natural-born citizen of the United States, and eighteen years of age when Obama was born. For purposes of this affidavit, I so stipulate that the father of Barack Hussein Obama was Barack Hussein Obama (hereafter, Obamas father), of African nationality and a resident of Kenya, Africa as declared on the Birth Certificate (Ex. 1). I state further that Obamas father was a British subject admitted into the United States on a temporary student visa, with the express condition that he was a nonimmigrant student. See Exhibit 2, attached hereto. Obamas father never became a U.S. citizen; never applied for U.S. citizenship; never declared an intention to become a U.S. citizen; never became a resident alien; and was never domiciled in the United States, and I certify that no record exists that Obamas father ever applied for U.S. citizenship, that no record exists of him applying to become a resident alien, and that no record exists indicating that he intended to domicile in the United States.
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PROCEDURAL HISTORY On November 6, 2012, a general election was held across the nation in due course. This election included candidates for federal office, including for the office of the President of the United States. Obama claims to have prevailed by vote tally over Mitt Romney, the Republican candidate. At no time was Barack Hussein Obama constitutionally qualified to hold the office of President of the United States. Additionally, evidence exists as to voter fraud, significantly in three states: Florida, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Evidence also exists that a material number of votes of military personnel stationed overseas were improperly denied. SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT AS TO ELIGIBILITY Obama is not a natural-born citizen of the United States, as defined by The Law of Nations - Book 1 - Chapter 19 - Sections 212, 213, 214 and 215 or the United States Supreme Court in Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874). In Minor, the Court identified, as naturalborn citizens, only those who are born in the United States of citizen parents. The Holding in Minor v. Happersett was confirmed in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), where the Court approvingly reiterated the exact passage from Minor that defined the natural-born citizen class, not modifying it, or questioning it all. Since the Supreme Court in Minor directly construed the Article 2, Section 1, naturalborn citizen clause to determine the citizenship status of the petitioner, the Courts definition of the natural-born citizen class is binding precedent. There is no contrary precedent. Since Obama does not qualify as a member of the class of persons identified as naturalborn citizens by the U.S. Supreme Court, he is not eligible to be President of the United States, the Secretaries of State of the various states are constitutionally prohibited from certifying the election of a candidate for the office of the Presidency who is ineligible as a matter of law. The integrity of the elections in the United States are conspicuously the duty of the Secretaries of State. The duties of each Secretary of State is established in their oath of office, which typically provides as follows: I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution and laws of the state of _____________, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of (name of office) to the best of my ability. The integrity of the election system in the several states is not non-justiciable or purely a political issue. Each Secretary of State has a mandatory duty to discharge the office by supporting both the United States Constitution and the various state Constitutions. It is emphatically the duty of the Judicial Department to say what the law is. Those who apply the rule to particular cases must, of necessity, expound and interpret the rule. If two laws conflict with each other, the Court must decide on the operation of each. If courts are to regard the Constitution, and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the
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Constitution, and not such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they both apply. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 1 Cranch 137, 137 (1803). Article III, 2, of the Federal Constitution provides that: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority. . . . The cause of action is one which "arises under" the Federal Constitution. This affidavit alleges that the certification of an ineligible candidate to the office of the Presidency deprives affiant of the equal protection of the laws in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Dismissal upon the ground of lack of jurisdiction of the subject matter would, therefore, be justified only if that claim were "so attenuated and unsubstantial as to be absolutely devoid of merit," Newburyport Water Co. v. Newburyport, 193 U.S. 561, 579, or "frivolous," Bell v. Hood, 327 U.S. 678, 683. That the claim is unsubstantial must be "very plain." Hart v. Keith Vaudeville Exchange, 262 U.S. 271, 274. 369 U.S. 186 This affidavit plainly sets forth a case arising under the Constitution, the subject matter is within the federal judicial power defined in Art. III, 2, and so within the power of Congress to assign to the jurisdiction of the District Courts. Congress has exercised that power in 28 U.S.C. 1343(3): The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action authorized by law to be commenced by any person . . . [t]o redress the deprivation, under color of any State law, statute, ordinance, regulation, custom or usage, of any right, privilege or immunity secured by the Constitution of the United States. . . . While it is a citizen's right to a vote free of arbitrary impairment by state action has been judicially recognized as a right secured by the Constitution when such impairment resulted from dilution by a false tally, cf. United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299; or by a refusal to count votes from arbitrarily selected precincts, cf. United States v. Mosley, 238 U.S. 383, or by a stuffing of the ballot box, cf. Ex parte Siebold, 100 U.S. 371; United States v. Saylor, 322 U.S. 385, so the citizens right to a free and fair election between constitutionally eligible candidates should be judicially recognized. The very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the right of every individual to claim the protection of the laws, whenever he receives an injury. Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137, 163. This affidavit does not raise purely a political question not subject to adjudication by this Court. It is the relationship between the judiciary and the coordinate branches of the Federal Government, and not the federal judiciary's relationship to the States, which gives rise to the "political question." In determining whether a question falls within the political question category, the appropriateness under our system of government of attributing finality to the action of the political departments and also the lack of satisfactory criteria for a judicial determination are dominant considerations. Coleman v. Miller, 307 U.S. 433, 454-455. The non-justiciability of
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a political question is primarily a function of the separation of powers. Much confusion results from the capacity of the "political question" label to obscure the need for case-by-case inquiry. Deciding whether a matter has in any measure been committed by the Constitution to another branch of government, or whether the action of that branch exceeds whatever authority has been committed, is itself a delicate exercise in constitutional interpretation, and it is a responsibility of this Court as ultimate interpreter of the Constitution. Political questions include foreign relations, dates of the duration of hostilities, validity of enactments, Coleman v. Miller, 307 U.S. 433, the status of Native American Tribes, or the Republican Form of Government. See Taylor & Marshall v. Beckham (No. 1), 178 U.S. 548 (claim that Kentucky's resolution of contested gubernatorial election deprived voters of republican government held non-justiciable); Pacific States Tel. Co. v. Oregon, 223 U.S. 118 (claim that initiative and referendum negated republican government held non-justiciable); Kiernan v. Portland, 223 U.S. 151 (claim that municipal charter amendment per municipal initiative and referendum negated republican government held non-justiciable); [p224] Marshall v. Dye, 231 U.S. 250 (claim that Indiana's constitutional amendment procedure negated republican government held non-justiciable); O'Neill v. Leamer, 239 U.S. 244 (claim that delegation to court of power to form drainage districts negated republican government held "futile"); Ohio ex rel. Davis v. Hildebrant, 241 U.S. 565 (claim that invalidation of state reapportionment statute per referendum negates republican government held non-justiciable); Mountain Timber Co. v. Washington, 243 U.S. 219 (claim that workmen's compensation violates republican government held non-justiciable); Ohio ex rel. Bryant v. Akron Metropolitan Park District, 281 U.S. 74 (claim that rule requiring invalidation of statute by all but one justice of state court negated republican government held non-justiciable); Highland Farms Dairy v. Agnew, 300 U.S. 608 (claim that delegation to agency of power to control milk prices violated republican government rejected). The Constitution of the United States protects the right of all qualified citizens to vote, in state as well as in federal, elections. A consistent line of decisions by this Court in cases involving attempts to deny or restrict the right of suffrage has made this indelibly clear. It has been repeatedly recognized that all qualified voters have a constitutionally protected right to vote, Ex parte Yarbrough, 110 U.S. 651, and to have their votes counted, United States v. Mosley, 238 U.S. 383. In Mosley, the Court stated that it is "as equally unquestionable that the right to have one's vote counted is as open to protection . . . as the right to put a ballot in a box." 238 U.S. [p555] at 386. The right to vote can neither be denied outright, Guinn v. United States, 238 U.S. 347, Lane v. Wilson, 307 U.S. 268, nor destroyed by alteration of ballots, see United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299, 315, nor diluted by ballot box stuffing, Ex parte Siebold, 100 U.S. 371, United States v. Saylor, 322 U.S. 385. As the Court stated in Classic: Obviously included within the right to choose, secured by the Constitution, is the right of qualified voters within a state to cast their ballots and have them counted. . . . 313 U.S. at 315. History has seen a continuing expansion of the scope of the right of suffrage in this country. (The Fifteenth, Seventeenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Amendments to the Federal Constitution all involve expansions of the right of suffrage. Also relevant in this
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regard is the civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in 1957 and 1960.) The right to vote freely for the candidate of one's choice is of the essence of a democratic society, and any restrictions on that right strike at the heart of representative government. And the right of suffrage can be denied by a debasement or dilution of the weight of a citizen's vote just as effectively as by wholly prohibiting the free exercise of the franchise. Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533, 566 (1964). When the right to vote of certain citizens is effectively impaired, debased and diluted, the effect presents a justiciable controversy subject to adjudication by federal courts. Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533, 566, citing Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186 (1962). POINTS AND AUTHORITIES A candidate for office is presumed to hold the qualifications to seek and hold that office, unless and until a party proves to a court of competent jurisdiction that the candidate is not qualified. Dumas v. Gagner, 137 Wn.2d 268, 285, 971 P.2d 17 (1999). The burden of demonstrating that Obama is not eligible to hold the office of the Presidency is on plaintiff. Baldwin v. Sisters of Providence, 112 Wn.2d 127, 135, 769 P.2d 298 (1989); see also Ankeny v. Governor of Indiana, 916 N.E.2d 678, 681 (Ind. Ct. App. 2009). Affiant relies exclusively on the fact record contained herein; namely the Birth Certificate of Barack Hussein Obama as posted on the White House website, and expressly adopted by Obama. Here is the official statement from the White House website: In 2008, in response to media inquiries, the Presidents campaign requested his birth certificate from the state of Hawaii. The state sent the campaign the Presidents birth certificate, the same legal documentation provided to all Hawaiians as proof of birth in state, and the campaign immediately posted it on the internet. When any citizen born in Hawaii requests their birth certificate, they receive exactly what the President received. In fact, the document posted on the campaign website is what Hawaiians use to get a drivers license from the state and the document recognized by the Federal Government and the courts for all legal purposes. Thats because it is the birth certificate. This is not and should not be an open question. The President believed the distraction over his birth certificate wasnt good for the country. It may have been good politics and good TV, but it was bad for the American people and distracting from the many challenges we face as a country. Therefore, the President directed his counsel to review the legal authority for seeking access to the long form certificate and to request on that basis that the Hawaii State Department of Health make an exception to release a copy of his long form birth certificate. They granted that exception in part because of the tremendous volume of requests they had been getting. Here is the comment of Barack Hussein Obama concerning the release of this Birth Certificate: We've posted the certification that is given by the state of Hawaii on the Internet for everybody to see. Transcript of Presidents remarks following the release of the long form
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Birth Certificate, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, April 27, 2011 at 9:48 a.m. PDT. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/04/27/remarks-president Federal Rules of Evidence, 804(3) provides for the admissibility of this evidence, and plaintiff submits that judicial notice should be taken thereof: (3) Statement Against Interest. A statement that: (A) a reasonable person in the declarants position would have made only if the person believed it to be true because, when made, it was so contrary to the declarants proprietary or pecuniary interest or had so great a tendency to invalidate the declarants claim against someone else or to expose the declarant to civil or criminal liability; and (B) is supported by corroborating circumstances that clearly indicate its trustworthiness, if it is offered in a criminal case as one that tends to expose the declarant to criminal liability. Because Plaintiff has statutorily-granted standing to bring this charge, and because the issue is justiciable in the United States District Court, (see Marbury v Madison, op. cit.), this court must therefore consider the law regarding the precondition of facts as admitted by Barack Hussein Obama and consider whether he is actually able to hold the office of the Presidency. Because Barack Hussein Obama is not eligible to hold the office of the Presidency pursuant to Article II, Section 1, paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution, the Secretary of State cannot in good faith certify his election to the electors on December 6, 2012. Therefore, this court should enjoin the Secretary from so certifying this election. Plaintiff alleges that the condition of the law regarding the qualification demanded by Article II, Section 1, paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution requiring that the President be a natural born citizen of the United States is as follows: A. The 14th Amendment Has Not Repealed Or Modified The Natural Born Citizen Clause. The U.S. Constitution provides the requirements for the office of President at Article 2, Section 1, Clause 5: "No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; The 14th Amendment states: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside."

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The "natural born Citizen" clause pertains to the civic status required to be eligible for public office, whereas the 14th Amendment specifically confers the political status of membership in the nation. Neither clause contradicts, nor limits the other. While 14th Amendment citizens may be eligible for the office of President, the Amendment does not automatically establish eligibility. If the 14th Amendment had been intended to repeal the natural-born citizen clause, then it would contain specific language to that extent. To imply that it does, would require a complete abandonment of long-established rules of statutory construction: "Where there is no clear intention otherwise, a specific statute will not be controlled or nullified by a general one, regardless of the priority of enactment. See, e. g., Bulova Watch Co. v. United States, 365 U.S. 753, 758 (1961); Rodgers v. United States, 185 U.S. 83, 87 -89 (1902). The courts are not at liberty to pick and choose among congressional enactments, and when two statutes are capable of co-existence, it is the duty of the courts, absent a clearly expressed congressional intention to the contrary, to regard each as effective. "When there are two acts upon the same subject, the rule is to give effect to both if possible . . . The intention of the legislature to repeal `must be clear and manifest.' United States v. Borden Co., 308 U.S. 188, 198 (1939)." Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535, 550-551 (1974). The 14th Amendment and the natural-born citizen clause are very capable of coexistence. The Amendment is our general citizenship clause, while Article 2, Section 1, provides the specific requirement for Presidential eligibility. If the legislature had intended to repeal or modify the natural-born citizen clause with enactment of the 14th Amendment, then, according to Supreme Court precedents in Morton v. Mancari, et al., the Amendment's intention to do so would have been clear and manifest, containing language stating that all persons born in the country, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are natural-born citizens. Instead, the Amendment simply states that they are citizens. The rule of statutory construction was reiterated in Crawford v. Gibbons: "As always, "[w]here there is no clear intention otherwise, a specific statute will not be controlled or nullified by a general one, regardless of the priority of enactment.' ... Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535, 550 -551 (1974). . . Any argument that a federal court is empowered to exceed the limitations [of a statute]. . . without plain evidence of congressional intent to supersede those sections ignores our longstanding practice of construing statutes in pari materia. See United States v. United Continental Tuna Corp., 425 U.S. 164, 168 -169 (1976); Train v. Colorado Public Interest Research Group, 426 U.S. 1, 24 (1976)." Crawford v. Gibbons, 482 U.S. 437, 445. According to the Morton line of precedent, the rule requires this Court to give effect to both clauses. And this firm tenet of statutory construction was stated even more rigidly by Chief Justice Marshall in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803):

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"It cannot be presumed that any clause in the constitution is intended to be without effect; and therefore such construction is inadmissible, unless the words require it." Id. 174. According to Chief Justice Marshall, it's not even admissible to allege that the 14th Amendment establishes Presidential eligibility, as such a construction would render the naturalborn citizen clause to be inoperative. The only possible exception is if the words of both clauses are not capable of co-existence, which is not the case here. The natural-born citizen clause requires birth in the country to parents, both of whom are citizens. A parental citizenship requirement for Presidential eligibility does not infringe upon birthright citizenship for persons born in the country to alien parents. Eligibility for public office is a civic status, whereas membership in the nation as a citizen is a political status. These are two vastly different statuses. Construing them independently, as is required by the rule of statutory construction, allows them to co-exist so that both are given a separate and unique effect. Therefore, by the controlling rules of statutory construction, the 14th Amendment does not establish Presidential eligibility for all native-born citizens. The proper construction of the natural-born citizen clause, therefore, must require something more than simple jus soli birthright citizenship. Based upon this analysis alone, it is established that simply being born in the country, subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S., does not establish Presidential eligibility. B. Nomenclature of the British Common Law. Since the Constitution does not define natural born Citizen, the first source to be consulted with regard to the definition of legal terms in the Constitution, must be the English common law: The constitution nowhere defines the meaning of these words, either by way of inclusion or of exclusion, . . . In this, as in other respects, it must be interpreted in the light of the common law, the principles and history of which were familiarly known to the framers of the constitution. Minor v. Happersett, 21 Wall. 162; Ex parte Wilson, 114 U.S. 417, 422 , 5 S. Sup. Ct. 935; Boyd v. U. S., 116 U.S. 616, 624 , 625 S., 6 Sup. Ct. 524; Smith v. Alabama, 124 U.S. 465 , 8 Sup. Ct. 564. The language of the constitution, as has been well said, could not be understood without reference to the common law. 1 Kent, Comm. 336; Bradley, J., in Moore v. U. S., 91 U.S. 270 , 274. In Minor v. Happersett, Chief Justice Waite, when construing, in behalf of the court, the very provision of the fourteenth amendment now in question, said: 'The constitution does not, in words, say who shall be natural-born citizens. Resort must be had elsewhere to ascertain that.' And he proceeded to resort to the common law as an aid in the construction of this provision. 21 Wall. 167. U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 654-655 (1898). The common law generally provides the nomenclature of legal terminology. But the entire common law system was never adopted as the federal law of the United States. The common law simply acts as a dictionary in defining legal terms of art: "There is no common law of the United States, in the sense of a national customary law, . . . Wheaton v. Peters, 8 Pet. 591. . . There is, however, one clear
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exception to the statement that there is no national common law. The interpretation of the constitution of the United States is necessarily influenced by the fact that its provisions are framed in the language of the English common law, and are to be read in the light of its history. The code of constitutional and statutory construction which, therefore, is gradually formed by the judgments of this court, in the application of the constitution and the law and treaties made in pursuance thereof, has for its basis so much of the common law as may be implied in the subject, and constitutes a common law resting on national authority. Moore v. U. S.,91 U.S. 27. Smith v. Alabama, 124 U.S. 465, 478 (1888). The English common law should be consulted to define words and terms of legal art that originated in English jurisprudence. This approach was taken by Chief Justice Waite in Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874): "The Constitution does not, in words, say who shall be natural-born citizens. Resort must be had elsewhere to ascertain that. At common-law, with the nomenclature of which the framers of the Constitution were familiar, it was never doubted that all children born in a country of parents who were its citizens became themselves, upon their birth, citizens also. These were natives, or natural born citizens, as distinguished from aliens or foreigners." Id. 167. (Emphasis added.) Nomenclature is defined as a system of naming things. And the English common law provides our general understanding of legal terms. The etymology of the ancient common law designation "natural-born subject" must therefore be consulted with regard to both jus soli, and jus sanguinis concepts. i). Natural Allegiance - Via Jus Soli - Was A Uniquely Christian Point Of Law Repugnant To The First Amendment Of The United States Constitution. The common law rule of jus soli subjection is a complex spiritual concept, which does not simply relate to birth on British soil. Despite popular belief, the common law meaning of "natural-born" is not synonymous with "native-born". The true nomenclature of "natural-born subject" is rooted in natural subjection to the spiritual body of Christ, and therefore our Constitution forbids any construction of the "natural-born citizen" clause that alleges the term to be synonymous with "natural-born subject." In 1608, the English common law, as to jus soli, was determined in the famous decision of Calvin's Case, 7 Coke Report 1a, 77 ER 377 (1608): The fundamental principle of the common law with regard to English nationality was birth within the allegiance-also called 'ligealty,' 'obedience,' 'faith,' or 'power'-of the king. This fundamental principle, with these qualifications or explanations of it, was clearly, though quaintly, stated in the leading case known as 'Calvin's Case,' or the 'Case of the Postnati,' decided in 1608, after a hearing in the exchequer chamber before the lord chancellor and all the judges of England, and reported by Lord Coke and by Lord Ellesmere. Calvin's Case, 7 Coke, 1, 4b-6a, 18a, 18b; Ellesmere, Postnati, 62-64; s. c. 2
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How. St. Tr. 559, 607, 613-617, 639, 640, 659, 679. U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 655-656. (See Appendix). Calvins Case established the English common law rule of subjection at birth, with its famous holding that all persons born on soil where the King's power was in force, to parents who owed obedience to the King, were natural-born subjects. The status of the parents as aliens made no difference, and the rule did not require the parents to have been domiciled in the King's dominions. Calvin's Case was a direct result of a unifying succession, through King James, of the separate kingdoms of England and Scotland. Despite sharing the same monarch, each kingdom retained its own laws and parliaments. In England, only British subjects could inherit and be inheritable, so the question before the court was whether a person born in Scotland, after the unification of the thrones, was an English subject who could inherit lands in England. The Court of Kings Chamber held that the plaintiff (Calvin) could inherit as an English subject because, despite being born in Scotland as a subject thereof, he was naturalized at birth by the law of nature which vested the spiritual power of God in the physical body of the King, so that the subjects of each of the two separate nations owed direct allegiance to the one natural body of the King, rather than to his separate body politic of each nation: "Wherefore to conclude this point (and to exclude all that hath been or could be objected against it) if the obedience and ligeance of the subject to his sovereign be due by the law of nature, if that law be parcel of the laws, as well of England, as of all other nations, and is immutable, and that postnati and we of England are united by birthright, in obedience and ligeance (which is the true cause of natural subjection) by the law of nature; it followeth that Calvin the plaintiff being born under one ligeance to one King, cannot be an alien born;" 7 Coke Report 14 b, 77 ER pg. 394. (Emphasis added.) (App. Pgs. 71-72.) The subjects of Scotland and England were naturalized, one to another, by the fact of their being born under one allegiance to the King. Natural allegiance was not directly owed to the laws or government of England or Scotland, nor did the soil create natural allegiance. The natural allegiance that creates natural subjection is owed to the same natural body of the King. It is this natural allegiance, born of the law of nature, which unifies the subjects: "That ligeance or obedience of the subject to the Sovereign is due by the law of nature: 2. That this law of nature is part of the laws of England: 3. That the law of nature was before any judicial or municipal law in the world:, 4. That the law of nature is immutable, and cannot be changed." 7 Coke Report 4 b, 77 ER pg. 382. (App. Pg. 60.) And the law of nature was held to be the law of God: "The Law of Nature is that which God at the time of creation of the nature of man infused into his heart, for his preservation and direction; and this is lex aeterna, the Moral Law, called also the Law of Nature. And by this Law, written with the finger of God in the heart of man, were the people of God a long time governed, before that Law was written by Moses, who was the first Reporter or Writer of Law in the world. . . By
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this Law of Nature is the Faith, Ligeance, and Obedience of the Subject due to his Sovereign or Superiour. . . This Law of Nature, which indeed is the eternal Law of the Creator, infused into the heart of the creature at the time of his creation, was two thousand years before any Laws written, and before any Judicial or Municipal Laws. . . 7 Coke Report 13 a, 77 ER pg. 392. (Emphasis added.) (App. Pg. 70.) Calvin's Case is often misunderstood with regard to the general popular understanding of the jus soli rule, and more specifically to the exact meaning of the term, natural-born. To be a "natural-born subject" of England, according to the ruling of Calvin's Case, does not, technically, relate directly to birth on the soil, but rather to birth within the power of the King, as the spiritual head of God's church. Natural allegiance is born from that power being in force throughout the King's dominions and realms. So, despite Scotland and England being separate nations, with separate laws and governments, the subjects of each, born after unification of the thrones, were naturalized one to another by the spiritual power of the King, to whom the subjects of each separate nation owed a single, unified allegiance from birth: "The 2d. is an union of ligeance and obedience of the subjects of both kingdoms, due by the law of nature to their sovereign: and this union doth suffice to rule and overrule the case in question: and this in substance is but a uniting of the hearts of the subjects of both kingdoms one to another, under one head and sovereign." 7 Coke Report 14 b, 77 ER pg. 394. (App. Pg. 72.) Those born in England were naturalized as Scottish subjects, and those born in Scotland were naturalized as English subjects. The natural allegiance that creates a natural-born subject was directly owed to the King's physical person as the spiritual leader of God's Kingdom on Earth: "It is true, that the King hath two capacities in him: one a natural body, being descended of the blood Royal of the realm; and this body is of the creation of Almighty God, and is subject to death, infirmity, and such like; the other is a politic body or capacity, so called, because it is framed by the policy of man (and in 21 E. 4. 39. b. is called a mysticall body;) and in this capacity the King is esteemed to be immortal, invisible, not subject to death, infirmity, infancy, (a) nonage, &c. Pl. Com. in the case of The Lord Barkley, 238. and in the case of The Duchy 213. 6 E. 3. 291. and 26 Ass pl. 54. Now, seeing the King hath but one person, and several capacities, and one politic capacity for the realm of England, and another for the realm of Scotland, it is necessary to be considered, to which capacity ligeance is due. And it was resolved, that it was due to the natural person of the King (which is ever accompanied with the politic capacity, and the politic capacity as it were appropriated to the natural capacity), and it is not due to the politic capacity only, that is, to his Crown or 'kingdom distinct from his natural capacity, and that for divers reasons. First- every subject (as it hath been affirmed by those that argued against the plaintiff) is presumed by law to be sworn to the King, which is to his natural person, and likewise the King is sworn to his subjects, (as it appeareth in Bracton, lib. 3. de Actionibus, cap. 9. fol. 107) which oath he taketh in his natural person: for the politic capacity is invisible and immortal; nay, the politic body hath no
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soul, for it is framed by the policy of man." 7 Coke Report 10 b, 77 ER pgs. 388-389. (Emphasis added.) (App. Pg. 67.) The King has two bodies; a natural body, and a political body. The political body has no soul. It is unnatural. And therefore, natural allegiance is due to the King in his natural body. It is this natural allegiance that is referred to in the phrase, natural-born subject. Any other allegiance due to the laws and government of each nation ruled by the same monarch was deemed to be unnatural, and inapplicable: Now seeing power and protection draweth ligeance, it followeth, that seeing the Kings power, command and protection, extendeth out of England, that ligeance cannot be local, or confined within the bounds thereof. He that is abjured the Realm, Qui abjurat regnum amittit regnum, sed non Regem, amittit patriam, sed non patrem patriae: for notwithstanding the abjuration, he oweth the King his ligeance, and he remaineth within the Kings protection; for the King may pardon and restore him to his country again. So as seeing that ligeance is a quality of the mind, and not confined within any place; it followeth, that the plea that doth confine the ligeance of the Plaintiff to the kingdom of Scotland, infra ligeantiam Regis regni sui Scotica, et extra ligeantiam regis regni sui Angliae, whereby the Defendants do make one local ligeance for the natural subjects of England, and another local ligeance for the natural subjects of Scotland, is utterly unsufficient, and against the nature and quality of natural lineage, as often it hath been said. 7 Coke Report 9 b, 77 ER pg. 388. (App. Pg. 66.) As the King of both Scotland and England, he has one body politic for each country, but as a man he has but one natural body. If the subjects owed allegiance to the body politic, then they would be aliens to each other, but since the tie of natural allegiance was owed to the natural body of the King, the subjects share the same allegiance by the same ligament of faith. Hence, though there were two nations, the subjects of each, were, at birth, naturalized, one to another. The common law meaning of the term - natural-born subject - is absolutely religious in nature; so much so, that, at common law, "infidels" - all non-Christians - were never considered to be natural-born subjects, even if born in England (or Scotland) to parents who were domiciled there. This would change according to modern statutes and Royal consent, but the English common law, as discussed by Lord Coke in Calvins Case, was absolutely certain on this point. It is a popular fallacy that Calvin's Case created a rule by which all persons born on the soil were natural-born subjects, for it was held in that case, that natural allegiance, as it creates natural subjection, was a completely spiritual, and uniquely Christian, tenet of law: "All infidels are in law perpetui (d) inimici, perpetual enemies (for the law presumes not that they will be converted, that being remota potentia, a remote possibility) for between them, as with the devils, whose subjects they be, and the Christian, there is perpetual hostility, and can be no (a) peace; for as the Apostle saith, 2 Cor. 6. 15. Qu autem conventio Christi ad Belial, aut qu, pars fideli cum infideli, and the law saith, Judo Christianum nullum serviat mancipium, nefas enim est quem, Christus redemit blasphemum, Christi in servitutis vinculis detinere. Register 282. Infideles sunt Christi et Christianorum inimici. And herewith agreeth the book in 12 H. 8.
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fol. 4. where it is holden that a Pagan cannot have or maintain any action at all (I)." 7 Coke Report 18 a, 77 ER pg. 397. (App. Pg. 75.) It is a well-known maxim of the common law that children born in the Kings realms of hostile enemy parents are not natural-born subjects, but aliens at birth. Yet, the above quoted passage makes clear that the children of spiritual enemies are also aliens born. The hostile enemies rule was discussed by Justice Gray in Wong Kim Ark, where, unfortunately, he chose to ignore the spiritual aspect of the rule. This oversight has led to a fundamental misunderstanding, in the United States, of the jus soli concept as applied by the English common law: "'Subject to the exceptions hereinafter mentioned, any person who (whatever the nationality of his parents) is born within the British dominions is a natural-born British subject. This rule contains the leading principle of English law on the subject of British nationality.' The exceptions afterwards mentioned by Mr. Dicey are only these two: '(1) Any person who (his father being an alien enemy) is born in a part of the British dominions, which at the time of such person's birth is in hostile occupation, is an alien.' '(2) Any person whose father (being an alien) is at the time of such person's birth an ambassador or other diplomatic agent accredited to the crown by the sovereign of a foreign state is (though born within the British dominions) an alien.' ...Dicey, Confl. Laws, pp. 173-177, 741. U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 657-658. (Emphasis added.) Justice Gray failed to mention that alien enemies, at the common law, included all infidels. All non-Christians were infidels. Even if the parents were pacifists from nations not at war with the throne, their status as infidels made them, at the common law, alien enemies of the King, since, as Lord Coke put it, they were considered to be subjects of devils who "the law presumes" will never be converted. Spiritual enemies are not recognized by the laws of the United States, and neither is natural law part of our secular jurisprudence. Therefore, a necessary and proper consultation of the nomenclature of the common law, forbids any construction of the natural-born citizen clause that relies upon the English common law concept of natural allegiance. Many colonial statutes in force prior to the Revolution granted the status of "natural-born subject" only to members of the Christian faith, so the framers were certainly aware of the spiritual element governing the term "natural-born subject". For example, two naturalization statutes in New York contained similar provisions. The title of an act passed on Nov. 1, 1683, was: "AN ACT for naturalizing all those of foreigne Nations at present inhabiting within this province and professing Christianity, and for Encouragement of others to come and settle within the same." LAWS OF THE COLONY OF NEW YORK, Vol. I, pg. 123. (App. Pg. 96.) The title of an act passed on July 5, 1715, was: "An Act declaring that all Persons of Foreign Birth Inhabiting within this Colony and dying Seized of any Lands Tenements or Hereditaments shall be forever hereafter
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Deemed Taken and Esteemed to have been Naturalized, and for Naturalizing all Protestants of Foreign Birth now Inhabiting within this Colony." LAWS OF THE COLONY OF NEW YORK, Vol. I, pg. 858. (App. Pg. 97.) Based upon these statutes, it is obvious that the colonies brought with them the spiritual elements of the common law. But after the Revolution, with the adoption of the Constitution (which never would have been ratified without the promised Bill of Rights), and the subsequent ratification of the 1st Amendment, this country abandoned all spiritual elements of the common law in favor of a secular government, which, by intellectual design, specifically forbid the establishment of religion. Therefore, with regard to the term, "natural-born subject", as it relates to the jus soli rule, this nation specifically rejected that our citizens owed natural allegiance - as defined by the common law - with specific reference to the natural law of God. Instead, the citizens of this nation owe allegiance to the collective body politic, to which each member is a sovereign part. And, according to the common law, as announced in Calvin's Case, allegiance to the body politic is unnatural, since, "[T]he politic body hath no soul, for it is framed by the policy of man." 7 Coke Report 10 b, 77 ER pg. 389. (Emphasis added.) As such, it is both, intellectually dishonest, as well as absolutely unconstitutional, for the "natural born Citizen" clause to be interpreted as being synonymous with the common law term, "natural-born subject", as that term is understood in relation to jus soli subjection. The issue of allegiance being owed to the natural body of the King was briefly, and erroneously, alluded to by Justice Gray in Wong Kim Ark: " 'The doctrine of the common law is that every man born within its jurisdiction is a subject of the sovereign of the country where he is born; and allegiance is not personal to the sovereign in the extent that has been contended for; it is due to him in his political capacity of sovereign of the territory where the person owing the allegiance was born.' Kilham v. Ward (1806) Id. 236, 265." U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 663. Justice Gray quotes a Massachusetts case, where the opinion expressed above was by a single Judge, not the opinion of the entire court. Furthermore, Justice Sewell (and Justice Gray) simply got it wrong. This quotation completely misstates the common law rule of natural allegiance established in Calvin's Case. And Justice Gray added further confusion to the issue: "It may here be observed that in a recent English case Lord Coleridge expressed the opinion of the queen's bench division that the statutes of 4 Geo. II. (1731) c. 21, and 13 Geo. III. (1773) c. 21 (hereinafter referred to), 'clearly recognize that to the king in his politic, and not in his personal, capacity, is the allegiance of his subjects due.' Isaacson v. Durant, 17 Q. B. Div. 54, 65." U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 663. Isaacson v. Durant was decided in 1886, and could not have possibly influenced the framers. Furthermore, the decision in that case, decided one hundred years after the adoption of the Constitution, was that the statutes modified the pre-existing common law. It is well established that the United States looks to the English common law for nomenclature clarification, and not to English statutory law. Furthermore, since there was no
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judicial determination which observed this modification of the common law until 1886, the framers would certainly not have taken it upon themselves to imagine, and invoke, a statutory modification that wasnt observed by the English courts until one hundred years later. Additionally, no American Judge has the ability to change the common law of England: "No courts other than English courts can determine definitely and finally what the law of England is, and the common law of England on any subject cannot possibly be different from the final and settled determinations of the highest court in England. The common law of England is what the English courts make it. The courts of New York and Illinois may express an opinion as to the common law of England, but they cannot by any possibility make the law of England as the English courts in fact make it . . ." THE ENGLISH COMMON LAW IN THE UNITED STATES, by Herbert Pope, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, pg. 6, 13-14 (Nov., 1910.) (App. Pg. 108-109.) Calvin's Case was decided in the Court of King's Bench, which was the tribunal for all matters involving the monarch. Therefore, its determination in Calvin's Case has always been held as the common law on the issue of natural allegiance. The common law is established by the first judicial determination on the point in question: "As it does not rest on any statute or other written declaration of the sovereign, there must, as to each principle thereof, be a first statement. Those statements are found in the decisions of courts, and the first statement presents the principle as certainly as the last. Multiplication of declarations merely adds certainty. For after all, the common law is but the accumulated expressions of the various judicial tribunals in their efforts to ascertain what is right and just between individuals in respect to private disputes." Kansas v. Colorado, 206 U. S. 46, 96-97 (1907). Since religion was the basis for the English common law designation, natural-born subject, the natural-born citizen clause cannot be synonymous with it, as this construction would be directly repugnant to the Constitution. The 1st Amendment forbids the establishment of religion, so the framers must have relied upon something else when they enacted the natural-born citizen clause. Therefore, based on all of the above, it is clear that invocation by the framers, of the term, "natural born Citizen", in Article 2, Section 1, could not have embraced the meaning of "naturalborn subject" as that term relates to the concept of jus soli under the English common law. Therefore, we must look elsewhere to ascertain the true definition of "natural born Citizen". ii). Jus Sanguinis In The British Common Law Emanates From The Natural Relation Of Parent To Child. We must look again to the English common law to see whether its nomenclature embraces the term "natural-born subject" with regard to a jus sanguinis rule, which is associated with the blood of ones parents, rather than the soil upon which one is born. Indeed, the nomenclature of the common law does associate the jus sanguinis rule with the term "naturalborn subject". But in doing so, its the blood of the parents, which is said to communicate nature to the child, rather than the spiritual power of the King emanating throughout his realms. With
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regard to jus sanguinis subjection, the blood of nature initiates natural allegiance, rather than the place of birth. It is well known that many English statutes, going all the way back to the 14th century, deem persons born abroad to English parents to be "natural-born subjects". But there exists an ongoing dispute in British law as to whether these statutes were declaratory of the common law, or whether the statutes enacted new law. This dispute began in 1351 with the Statute De Natis Ultra Mare, 25 Edw. III, and the dispute has never been affirmatively settled. Justice Gray raised the issue in Wong Kim Ark: "It has sometimes been suggested that this general provision of the statute of 25 Edw. III. was declaratory of the common law. See Bacon, arguendo, in Calvin's Case, 2 How. St. Tr. 585; Westlake and Pollock, arguendo, in De Geer v. Stone, 22 Ch. Div. 243, 247; 2 Kent, Comm. 50, 53; Lynch v. Clarke, 1 Sandf. Ch. 583, 659, 660; Ludlam v. Ludlam, 26 N. Y. 536. But all suggestions to that effect seem to have been derived, immediately or ultimately, from one or the other of these two sources: The one, the Year Book of 1 Rich. III. (1483) fol. 4, pl. 7, reporting a saying of Hussey, C. J., 'that he who is born beyond sea, and his father and mother are English, their issue inherit by the common law, but the statute makes clear,' etc.,-which, at best, was but obiter dictum, for the chief justice appears to have finally rested his opinion on the statute. The other, a note added to the edition of 1688 of Dyer's Reports, 224a, stating that at Trinity term 7 Edw. III. Rot. 2 B. R., it was adjudged that children of subjects born beyond the sea in the service of the king were inheritable,-which has been shown, by a search of the roll in the king's bench so referred to, to be a mistake, inasmuch as the child there in question did not appear to have been born beyond sea, but only to be living abroad. Westl. Priv. Int. Law ( 3d Ed.) 324. The statute of 25 Edw. III. recites the existence of doubts as to the right of foreign-born children to inherit in England; and, while it is declaratory of the rights of children of the king, and is retrospective as to the persons specifically named, yet as to all others it is, in terms, merely prospective, applying to those only 'who shall be born henceforth.' U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 669-670. Justice Gray's opinion appears to have been that the 25 Edw. III statute, as it related to the children of subjects born abroad, was not declaratory, but that it created new law. He therefore concluded that jus sanguinis was not a common law principle, but only a statutory creation, and therefore was not adopted by the United States as a general rule of citizenship embraced by the Constitution. Whether this view was a correct interpretation of the common law is not important to the issue at bar. What is important is that the nomenclature of the common law embraced jus sanguinis, and associated it directly with the term "natural-born subject. Important English authorities on the common law were listed by Justice Gray as having taken the position that jus sanguinis was a legitimate principle of the common law. The authorities cited include Francis Bacon's argument in Calvin's Case. These English authorities contradict Justice Grays contention that jus sanguinis was not a common law principle. And he failed to acknowledge a legal text published in London in 1785, just three years before the
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Constitution was adopted, which provided a strong argument that jus sanguinis was an ancient part of the common law. In, A Supplement To The Investigation Of The Native Rights Of British Subjects, by Francis Plowden, Esq., (London, 1785), Solicitor General Francis Bacon's statement to the court in Calvin's Case, concerning jus sanguinis, was quoted as follows: "I will conclude my observations upon the statute de natis ultra mare with a repetition of Lord Bacon's words, 'By the Law of England it should suffice either place or parents. If he be born in England, it is no matter though his parents be Spaniards or what you will. On the other fide, if he be born of English parents, it killeth not though he be born in Spain, or in any other place of the world.' Such then is the common Law of England and with this agree Hussey, Rastal, Brook, Fitzherbet . . ." Id. pg. 79. (App. Pg. 127.) Plowden's text was a contemporary work, published in London only two years prior to the Constitution having been adopted. It was available to the framers. And it thoroughly discussed the dispute, holding that jus sanguinis subjection was, indeed, part of the English common law, and that the 25 Edw. III was declaratory thereof. Whether Plowden's view, or Justice Gray's opposing view, was correct has never been firmly settled by English authorities. But the final determination of that theoretical dispute is irrelevant to the issue now before this court. What is, however, extremely relevant to a determination of the framers intent behind the natural-born citizen clause, is that the nomenclature of the common law embraced the term "natural-born subject" in relation to the jus sanguinis rule. Since the nomenclature of the common law (if not the actual principle) acknowledged the theory of natural-born subjection via jus sanguinis, it is perfectly rational to consider that the framers may have enacted the natural-born citizen clause with reference to the jus sanguinis rule, which is based upon the organic relationship of parent and child. Furthermore, since the natural-born citizen clause only relates to the civic right of holding public office, and not to one's political status as a citizen, it is possible for the jus sanguinis to be incorporated into Article 2, Section 1, without infringing upon the general rule of jus soli citizenship under the 14th Amendment, as was established by the holding in Wong Kim Ark. And since we have established that the common law's spiritual usage of the jus soli rule could not have been a Constitutional source of the natural-born citizen clause, it becomes much more likely that the words "natural born" in Article 2, Section 1, require citizen parents. While "natural-born" at common law, with regard to jus soli - as per the holding in Calvin's Case - is based entirely upon spiritual grounds, "natural born" at common law, with regard to jus sanguinis, is initiated by the science of nature, as conveyed by the blood of the parent giving birth to the child. The issue was discussed in another famous case, Bacon v. Bacon, where an English merchant married a Polish woman, and had children in Poland. The Court stated the common law of England to be partus sequitur patrem, which means that the child follows the condition of
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the father. The child born in Poland was, therefore, held to be a natural born subject of England. Bacon v. Bacon was analyzed by Charles Viner, Esq. in his text, A General Abridgment of Law and Equity, Vol. 2 (1791), at pg. 262: "A merchant trading in Poland married an alien and died leaving her big with child. . . And per Brampfton, though the civil law is that partus sequitur ventrem, yet our law is otherwise, and the child shall be of the father's condition, and he being an English merchant, and residing there for merchandize, his children shall by the common law, or rather, as Berkley said, by the statute 25 E. 3 be accounted the king's lieges, as their father was. . . So where such merchant had several children born in Poland of a Polish woman, and devised his lands in England to such children; and it being demanded of all the justices of England at Serjeant'sinn, as Yelverton J. said, they made no scruple any of them but that the issue should inherit, and were not aliens, because the father went with licence, being a merchant, and in our law partus sequitur patrem: and also there is blood between him and his issue, and he communicates nature to them;" (Emphasis added.) (App. Pg. 131.) Therefore, when the common law considers jus sanguinis subjection, the father is said to "communicate nature" to the children by the blood between them. That the nomenclature of the common law embraced jus sanguinis in relation to creating natural-born subjects is made perfectly clear in Bacon v. Bacon, and Viner's text. Since the common law application of jus soli requires, as its basis of power, submission to Christ, the framers could not have intended to incorporate the jus soli element of natural allegiance into Article 2, Section 1. Therefore, it begins to look more and more likely that the specific intention of the natural-born citizen clause was to require both, jus soli, and, jus sanguinis. iii.) Not All Natural-Born Subjects Shared The Same Civic Rights. In the United States, a natural-born citizen is entitled to obtain the highest public office of the nation. Such a person holds the political status of being a member of this nation, and also stands at the pinnacle of civic status. If it is contended that the term "natural-born subject" is synonymous with "natural-born citizen", then we should expect that all natural-born subjects were also entitled to stand at the pinnacle of civic status bestowed by the country. But this is not the case in England, where many natural-born subjects, born in England, suffered a lower civic status due to their parents having been aliens. While their political status was protected as natural-born subjects, many were deprived of a variety of civic rights, even by the Crown, on account of their not being born of English parents. The plight of this class of natural-born subjects was discussed in a book, titled, Diversity and Difference in Early Modern London, by Jacob Selwood, Ashgate Publishing (2010). In Chapter 3, English-born Reputed Strangers: Birth and Descent in Theory and Practice, Selwood highlights an English statute which recognized that persons born in England of English parents enjoyed certain civic rights denied to natural-born subjects born of alien parents:
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"The 1660s were, in fact, a mixed bag, bringing new measures for the naturalization of strangers together with the ongoing exclusion of their Englishborn children. A 1662 statute for preventing frauds and regulating abuses in his Majestys customs contained a provision that no children of aliens under the age of twenty-one years be permitted to be traders or any goods or merchandizes to be entered in their names. The full rights of all English-born were, apparently, open to question in Westminster too, and in a manner that received royal assent." Id. 119. (App. Pg. 133.) The chapter discusses numerous instances where natural-born subjects were denied, by the City of London, the same civic rights as subjects born of English parents. But in this particular statute, the Crown itself recognized that those born of English parents enjoyed a higher civic status. The statute illustrates that, in England, jus sanguinis was considered relevant to civic status, and public rights. Even after statutes were enacted to change the common law, which restricted non-Christians from being subjects, the civic rights of non-Christians were still restricted: Charles II, after his return, allowed Jews to remain, and their English-born children became subjects under the jus soli rule. Although, like other non-Anglicans, these Jewish subjects were excluded from public life and the universities. . . Subjects, Citizens, Aliens And Others, by Ann Dummett and Andrew Nicol, Fred B Rothman & Co (1990), pg. 77. (App. Pg. 135.) The term, natural-born subject, covered a multiplicity of subjection devices, including; jus soli, jus sanguinis, and all forms of naturalization. Being a natural-born subject, however, most certainly did not confer upon the subjects an equal civic status, whereas the natural-born citizen clause infers the pinnacle of civic status. From the first naturalization act in 1790, and ever since, the United States has required a federal statute to establish citizenship for persons born abroad, even those born to citizen parents. This leads to an implication, that, with regard to general citizenship, prior to the 14th Amendment, birth on U.S. soil was necessary for birthright citizenship. This was later absolutely established by the 14th Amendment. Whether, prior to the Amendment, U.S. citizenship required citizen parentage as well as birth on the soil, remains an open issue, unless Justice Grays opinion in Wong Kim Ark, that the jus soli rule was in force before, during, and after July 4, 1776, is precedent on that issue, and not dicta. Since (as will be discussed in great detail below) Justice Grays opinion from Wong Kim Ark contains numerous objective errors with regard to Supreme Court decisions on citizenship prior to the 14th Amendment, the decision in Wong Kim Ark ought to be strictly confined to the holding, and should, therefore, only be applied to citizenship issues which involve the 14th Amendment. Regardless, even if jus soli were enough to establish the general political status of citizenship, the issue of whether a citizen has the specific civic status necessary to be considered a natural-born citizen, requires a completely separate construction and definition of the term natural-born. Since we know birth in the country was necessary for general citizenship, and since Presidential eligibility requires, by the very words of the Constitution, something more
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than being a citizen, it is perfectly logical that the true intention of the natural-born citizen clause was to require both, jus soli, and jus sanguinis, so that Obama/Commander In Chief, would not have been born with divided loyalties. Requiring Obama to have a singular allegiance to the United States avoids complications with regard to treaties, and treason, both of which relate to our relationships with other countries, such issues always having been determined with respect for the Law of Nations. C. The Law Of Nations. Now that we have closely examined the English common law for guidance, it is proper to consult the Law of Nations, which is specifically referred to the U.S. Constitution: The Congress shall have powerTo define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations; U.S. CONSTITUTION, Art. I, Sec. 8, Cl. 10. Lord Chancellor Ellesmeres opinion in Calvins Case determined that the Law of Nations was also adopted as part of the English common law. And the end they have in this question what is the common law is to shake and weaken the ground and principles of all government and in this particular question of the law of England to overthrow that law whereby this realme hath many hundred yeares beene governed in all honour and happinesse: or at least to cast an aspersion upon it, as though it were weake and uncertaine. I will therefore declare mine opinion in this point plainely and confidently, as I thinke in my conscience, and as I finde to be sufficiently warranted by ancient writers, and good authorities voide of all exception. The common law of England is grounded upon the law of God and extendes itselfe to the original law of nature and the universal law of nations. Calvins Case, Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, Exchequer Chamber, STATE TRIALS, 6 James I., 1608 The Case of the Postnati, pgs. 669-670. (App. Pg. 142.) The Law of Nations is, in all actuality, a universal common law of international jurisprudence. That the framers of the Constitution were influenced by the Law of Nations cannot be disputed. It has always been considered, by the Supreme Court, as relevant to international legal disputes in American tribunals. In 1775, Benjamin Franklin wrote a gracious note to Charles Dumas, for the kind present you have made us of your edition of Vattel. It came to us in good season, when the circumstances of a rising state make it necessary frequently to consult the law of nations. Franklin also stated that Vattels treatise was, continually in the hands of the members of our Congress. (From a letter, Benjamin Franklin to Charles Dumas, Dec. 19, 1775.) From the 1775 edition of Vattels text, The Law of Nations or Principles of the Law of Nature: Les citoyen font les member de la societe civille: lies a cette societe par certain devoirs, & foumis a fon autorite, ils participent avec egalite a fes avantages. Les
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naturels, ou indigenes, font ceux, qui font nes dans le pays, de parens citoyens.LE DROIT DES GENS OU PRINCIPES DE LA LOI NATURELLE, E. de Vattel, (Amsterdam, 1775), 212, pg. 115. (App. Pg. 157.) Vattels treatise was first published in 1758, in French. The first edition contains the exact same passage as the 1775 edition give to Franklin by Dumas. In 1759, the first English edition was published in London, translated as follows: The citizens are the members of the civil society: bound to this society by certain duties, and subject to its authority, they equally participate in its advantages. The natives, or indigenes, are those born in the country of parents who are citizens. THE LAW OF NATIONS OR PRINCIPLES OF THE LAW OF NATURE, E. de Vattell, (London, 1759), 212, pg. 92. (App. Pg. 159.) Les naturels, ou indigenes, was not accurately translated. The proper translation of indigenes is natives. The 1759 London edition makes the mistake of repeating the same word twice, once in English and once in French; natives or indigenes means natives or natives. The influence of the U.S. Constitution may have played a part in correcting the error, since, in the 1797 London edition, and thereafter, the French passage was correctly translated as follows: The citizens are the members of the civil society: bound to this society by certain duties, and subject to its authority, they equally participate in its advantages. The natives, or natural-born citizens, are those born in the country of parents who are citizens. (Emphasis added.) THE LAW OF NATIONS OR PRINCIPLES OF THE LAW OF NATURE, E. de Vattell, (London, 1797), 212, pg. 101. (App. Pg. 161.) The passage was first introduced to American Jurisprudence in the case of The Venus, 12 U.S. 253 (1813): The whole system of decisions applicable to this subject, rests on the law of nations as its base. It is, therefore, of some importance to enquire how far the writers on that law consider the subjects of one power residing within the territory of another, as retaining their original character, or partaking of the character of the nation in which they reside. Vattel, who, though not very full to this point, is more explicit and more satisfactory on it than any other whose work has fallen into my hands, says, 'the citizens are the members of the civil society; bound to this society by certain duties, and subject to its authority, they equally participate in its advantages. The natives, or indigenes, are those born in the country, of parents who are citizens. Id. 289. Vattel first introduces the citizens as the general members of civil society. He then identifies a specific subset of citizens, the natives ou naturels, who are born in the country of parents who are citizens. General citizenship is determined by the will of each separate nation. It is not suggested that the Law of Nations need be consulted in determining whether a nation adopts jus soli, or jus
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sanguinis. However, the advantages of having a chief executive who was not born owing allegiance to an alien power makes obvious that a requirement of jus soli, and jus sanguinis, as to the chief executive, avoids all possible conflicts of allegiance, with regard to the chief executives power to execute and enforce treaties, and to declare and conduct war. If the chief executive is confronted with the possibility of war with the foreign nation to which he was born owing a second allegiance, he may choose treason against one of the two nations. This would be a very unnatural situation. Similar conflicts of interest are possible with regard to the negotiation and execution of treaties. Requiring a singular allegiance in the chief executive avoids all possible conflicts of interest, and simply makes common sense. John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, is credited with being the first to suggest that the Commander In Chief be a natural-born citizen. In a letter to George Washington, dated July 25, 1787, Jay wrote: "Permit me to hint, whether it would be wise and seasonable to provide a strong check to the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national Government; and to declare expressly that the Commander in Chief of the American army shall not be given to nor devolve on, any but a natural born Citizen. (App. Pg. 162.) Jay underlined born in his own hand. More interesting, perhaps, is that the letter is concerned with the capacity of Commander In Chief. This provides clarity that the natural-born citizen clause is a national security measure. Jay appears to have been uniquely focused upon a fear that the military might be infiltrated by foreign powers. Considering that he called for, a strong check to the admission of foreigners into the administration of our national government, it makes sense that the natural-born citizen clause was designed to guarantee a singular allegiance to this nation. Anything less would not be a very strong check at all. If the natural-born citizen clause was intended as a unification of jus soli, and jus sanguinis, we would expect to have at least one Supreme Court decision in our national judicial history, which confirms that the natural-born citizen clause does, in fact, require a unified allegiance , via birth in the country to citizen parents. Minor v. Happersett is that case. D. Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874). The only Supreme Court decision which has directly construed the natural-born citizen clause from Article 2, Section 1, is Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874). In that case, Virginia Minor petitioned the court to determine whether women were equal citizens to men, and further argued that if she was a citizen, her right to vote was protected by the 14th Amendment, which she also claimed made her a citizen. The Court's unanimous decision declined to construe the 14th Amendment's citizenship clause. Instead, the Court held that Minor was a citizen prior to the adoption of the 14th Amendment. The Court established her citizenship by defining the word "citizen", and then identifying the class of natural-born citizens, to which she belonged. Their holding was that natural-born citizens were citizens at birth who do not require the 14th Amendment to establish their
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membership in the nation. The Court also noted that persons, who were not eligible to the class of natural-born citizens, might, however, be citizens under the 14th Amendment: "The Constitution does not, in words, say who shall be natural-born citizens. Resort must be had elsewhere to ascertain that. At common-law, with the nomenclature of which the framers of the Constitution were familiar, it was never doubted that all children born in a country of parents who were its citizens became themselves, upon their birth, citizens also. These were natives, or natural born citizens, as distinguished from aliens or foreigners." Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162, 168. There are two classes of persons discussed in the above quotation. Those born in the country of citizen parents were labeled by the Court as natives, or natural-born citizens, but these were also further identified as being distinguished from aliens or foreigners. The distinction is crucial. On one side are those who have no citizenship other than that of the United States, as distinguished from those on the polar opposite side, who have absolutely no claim to citizenship in the United States; These were natives, or natural-born citizens, as distinguished from aliens or foreigners. Id. Those who fall in between these two extremes make up a third class of persons whose citizenship status, the Court noted, was subject to doubt: Some authorities go further and include as citizens children born within the jurisdiction without reference to the citizenship of the parents. As to this class there have been doubts, but never as to the first. Id. (Emphasis added.) Had this third class been contemplated as having any claim to natural-born citizen status, the distinction employed by the court would not make sense. The distinction appears to have been created to more specifically identify the class of persons who were natural born citizens under Article 2, Section 1, since the two classes discussed are in direct opposition to each other. For example, a person born in the U.S., to a British father and U.S. citizen mother, would be considered a British subject. Whether this child would be, at his birth, a citizen under the 14th amendment, was left undecided by the Supreme Court in Minor. Where does the child, assuming the child is a U.S. citizen, fit into the distinction offered by the Court in Minor? The child is not on either polar extreme, since the child was not exclusively a U.S. citizen at birth, nor was the child exclusively a British subject at birth. He would not fit into the distinction. By choosing two extremes those who, at their birth, are nothing but U.S. citizens as distinguished from aliens or foreigners those who, at their birth, have absolutely no claim to U.S. citizenship the Supreme Court in Minor provided extra criteria to properly discern their holding, so that nothing has been left open as to the Courts identification of the specific naturalborn citizen class. This is made even more clear by the other federal citizenship holding from Minor v. Happersett: The very idea of a political community, such as a nation is, implies an association of persons for the promotion of their general welfare. Each one of the persons associated becomes a member of the nation formed by the association For convenience it has been found necessary to give a name to this membership. The object is
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to designate by a title the person and the relation he bears to the nation. For this purpose the words subject, inhabitant, and citizen have been used, and the choice between them is sometimes made to depend upon the form of the government. Citizen is now more commonly employed, however, and as it has been considered better suited to the description of one living under a republican government, it was adopted by nearly all of the States upon their separation from Great Britain, and was afterwards adopted in the Articles of Confederation and in the Constitution of the United States. When used in this sense it is understood as conveying the idea of membership of a nation, and nothing more. Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162, 165-166 (1874). (Emphasis added.) Therefore, when the Court uses the words, citizen or citizenship, no other meaning may be implied other than, membership of a nation, whereas, the natural-born citizen clause only pertains to a requirement for holding public office. Those who are natural born meet that qualification, but all who are citizens, natural-born, naturalized abroad, naturalized here, at birth, or later in life, are members of the nation. The word citizen, according to the Supreme Court in Minor, refers to membership of a nation, and nothing more. The following statement only left open the issue of whether persons born here of aliens were citizens. The Court did not leave open the class of natural-born citizens: Some authorities go further and include as citizens children born within the jurisdiction without reference to the citizenship of their parents. As to this class there have been doubts, but never as to the first. For the purposes of this case it is not necessary to solve these doubts. It is sufficient for everything we have now to consider that all children born of citizen parents within the jurisdiction are themselves citizens. Id. at 167-168. (Emphasis added.) When the Court stated that, according to the nomenclature of the common law, it was never doubted that natives were citizens, it clearly drew a distinction between the general class of all members of the nation (citizens), and the specific subset of that class, the natives, or natural-born citizens. When the Court returned to the word, doubts, it was related only to the general issue of membership in the nation, and nothing more. Reading the above quoted passage in light of the definition of citizen from pg. 166 of Minors unanimous opinion, it becomes evident that what is referred to here is membership in our nation, and nothing more. Any attempt to insert the words natural born into this statement would be in direct opposition to the Courts very holding of the case. More light may be shed on the issue by examining the opinion of the Supreme Court in The Slaughter-House Cases, decided two years earlier than Minor, when the Court was composed of 8 of the 9 Justices involved with Minors unanimous opinion. The Court issued the following statement concerning the meaning of subject to the jurisdiction thereof in the 14th Amendment: The phrase, 'subject to its jurisdiction' was intended to exclude from its operation children of ministers, consuls, and citizens or subjects of foreign States born within the United States. The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36, 73 (1872).
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Only two years prior to Minor, the Court was of the opinion that persons born in the country to alien parents were not even citizens, never mind natural-born. Then, two years later, in Minor, the Court identified the specific class of natural-born citizens as those born in the country of citizen parents, but left open the issue of who was eligible to the general class of citizens. While the Court in Minor v. Happersett humbly recognized authorities that ran counter to their dicta from the Slaughter-House Cases, they were firm in their identification of the naturalborn citizen class. Since Virginia Minor was a member of that specific class, she was automatically a member of the general class, and therefore, the 14th Amendment was held to be unnecessary to determine the citizenship of anyone eligible to the specific natural-born class. When the Supreme Court eventually revisited the 14th Amendment citizenship clause in Wong Kim Ark, it could not include the petitioner in the specific class, so the Court was required to invoke the 14th Amendment to establish the petitioners membership in the general class as a citizen. Had Wong Kim Ark been a natural-born citizen, the Court would not have been required to reach for the 14th Amendment, just as it didnt reach it in Minor v. Happersett. E. Precedent v. Dicta. In 1996, the US Supreme Courts majority opinion by Justice Breyer in Ogilvie Et Al.,Minors v. United States, 519 U.S. 79 (1996), stated that when the Court discusses a certain reason as an independent ground in support of their decision, then that reason is not dictum: Although we gave other reasons for our holding in Schleier as well, we explicitly labeled this reason an independent ground in support of our decision, id., at 334. We cannot accept petitioners claim that it was simply a dictum. Id. 84. The Minor Courts construction of the natural-born citizen clause was the independent ground by which the Court avoided construing the 14th Amendments citizenship clause. Therefore, such construction is precedent, not dicta, despite Presidential eligibility not being an issue in that case. The Court determined it was necessary to define the class of naturalborn citizens, and the definition remains current legal precedent. The Minor Courts unanimous opinion has never been overruled or even questioned. In fact, the very passage defining the natural-born citizen class was re-stated in Justice Grays opinion from Wong Kim Ark: That neither Mr. Justice Miller, nor any of the justices who took part in the decision of the Slaughter House Cases, understood the court to be committed to the view that all children born in the United States of citizens or subjects of foreign states were excluded from the operation of the first sentence of the fourteenth amendment, is manifest from a unanimous judgment of the court, delivered but two years later, while all those judges but Chief Justice Chase were still on the bench, in which Chief Justice Waite said. . .At common law, with the nomenclature of which the framers of the constitution were familiar, it was never doubted that all children born in a country, of parents who were its citizens, became themselves, upon their birth, citizens also. These were natives or natural born citizens, as distinguished from aliens or foreigners. Some authorities go further, and
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include as citizens children born within the jurisdiction, without reference to the citizenship of their parents. As to this class there have been doubts, but never as to the first. For the purposes of this case, it is not necessary to solve these doubts. It is sufficient, for everything we have now to consider, that all children, born of citizen parents within the jurisdiction, are themselves citizens.' U.S. v Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 679-680. In this passage, Justice Gray has cited to the unanimous opinion from Minor v.Happersett to counter dicta from The Slaughter-House Cases, which excluded children of aliens from the general citizenship class, while, at the same time, the Minor Courts identification of the specific natural-born citizen class was not questioned at all. In fact, it appears to have been cited as an example of precedent, as contrasted with the dicta from The Slaughter-House Cases. Surely, if the majority from Wong Kim Ark had taken issue with the Minor Courts natural-born citizen definition, this was the place for them to speak up and be heard. Since no issues were raised, its fair to conclude that the Court approved. While it is true that the dissent in Wong Kim Ark appeared to believe the majority holding would have made Ark eligible to be President (Id. 715), the majority having cited the exact definition of natural-born citizen from Minor v. Happersett may have been intended to lay the dissents fears to rest. Directly after quoting the Minor Court's definition of natural-born citizen, Justice Gray noted that the holding in Minor incorporated two citizen parents: "The decision in that case was that a woman born of citizen parents within the United States was a citizen of the United States, although not entitled to vote, the right to the elective franchise not being essential to citizenship." U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 680. Had the Court in Wong Kim Ark identified the petitioner as a natural-born citizen, there would have been no need to construe the 14th Amendments citizenship clause, just as it wasnt necessary to construe it to determine Virginia Minors citizenship. But Wong Kim Ark was not natural-born, and, therefore, the Court was required to construe the 14th Amendment to determine his citizenship. F. Citizenship Cases Prior To Adoption of the 14th Amendment. In 1898, the Supreme Court, in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, construed the 14th Amendments citizenship clause, and determined that all persons born in the U.S. to parents who were domiciled in the country, were, upon their birth, citizens. While Justice Grays majority opinion indicates that the holding is restricted to citizenship issues after the adoption of the 14th Amendment, the opinion discusses many important citizenship decisions leading up to the Amendment. Unfortunately, Justice Gray made some obvious mistakes with regard to these cases, and other points of authority. As such, the decision of the Court ought to be restricted to its holding. And since we are searching for the framers intent with regard to the natural born citizen clause, the earliest decisions of the Supreme Court, though superseded by the 14th Amendment, and the
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accompanying general citizenship holding in Wong Kim Ark, remain relevant to this discussion for their probatory value as to the specific issue now before this Court. i.) Inglis v. Trustees Of Sailors of Snug Harbor, 28 U.S. 99 (1830). In Wong Kim Ark, Justice Gray discussed this case as follows: In Inglis v. Sailors' Snug Harbor (1830) 3 Pet. 99, in which the plaintiff was born in the city of New York, about the time of the Declaration of Independence, the justices of this court (while differing in opinion upon other points) all agreed that the law of England as to citizenship by birth was the law of the English colonies in America. Mr. Justice Thompson, speaking for the majority of the court, said: 'It is universally admitted, both in the English courts and in those of our own country, that all persons born within the colonies of North America, while subject to the crown of Great Britain, were naturalborn British subjects.' Id. 120. Mr. Justice Johnson said: 'He was entitled to inherit as a citizen born of the state of New York.' Id. 136. Mr. Justice Story stated the reasons upon this point more at large, referring to Calvin's Case, Blackstone's Commentaries, and Doe v. Jones, above cited, and saying: 'Allegiance is nothing more than the tie or duty of obedience of a subject to the sovereign under whose protection he is; and allegiance by birth is that which arises from being born within the dominions and under the protection of a particular sovereign. Two things usually concur to create citizenship: First, birth locally within the dominions of the sovereign; and, secondly, birth within the protection and obedience, or, in other words, within the ligeance, of the sovereign. That is, the party must be born within a place where the sovereign is at the time in full possession and exercise of his power, and the party must also at his birth derive protection from, and consequently owe obedience or allegiance to, the sovereign, as such, de facto...' Id. 155 'Nothing is better settled at the common law than the doctrine that the children, even of aliens, born in a country, while the parents are resident there under the protection of the government, and owing a temporary allegiance thereto, are subjects by birth.' Id. 164. U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 659, 660. All of the above is well and good as a restatement of the English common law principles of allegiance, but Justice Gray completely ignored the actual holding of the majority opinion of the Court in the Inglis case. Instead, he focused on the minority concurring opinions of Justice Johnson, and Justice Story, which only served to mislead from the fact that the holding in this case is exactly opposite to the principles contended for by Justice Gray. The issue in Inglis was whether the plaintiff could inherit land in the United States, and the question turned on whether he was to be considered a British subject, or an American citizen. If British, he could not inherit, but if he was an American, he could. The date of his birth was uncertain, so the court was required to analyze the facts based upon three different birth date scenarios. The Court held that if the plaintiff was born in New York, prior to July 4, 1776, then he was an alien, and could not inherit. On July 4th, 1776, the Colonial army officially took possession of New York, which was, therefore, United States land. But the British managed to take back possession of New York on
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September 15, 1776. And the Court held that if the plaintiff was born on, or after September 15th, he was also a British alien and could not inherit. But if the plaintiff was born between July 4th, and September 15th, he was born in the United States. And this was the only issue in the case that was directly relevant to the Courts decision in Wong Kim Ark. If, as Justice Gray contended, the general rule in this country had always been that persons born here were recognized as citizens, regardless of the citizenship of their parents, then we would expect that the Supreme Court, in the Inglis case, would have held that the plaintiff if born when New York was in possession of the colonial forces - was a United States citizen at birth. And this is certainly the impression given by Justice Grays discussion of the case. But that impression is proved false by Justice Thompsons majority opinion of the Court: 1. If the demandant was born before the 4th of July 1776, he was born a British subject; and no subsequent act on his part, or on the part of the state of New York, has occurred to change that character; he of course continued an alien, and disabled from taking the land in question by inheritance. 2. If born after the 4th of July 1776, and before the 15th of September of the same year, when the British took possession of New York, his infancy incapacitated him from making any election for himself, and his election and character followed that of his father, subject to the right of disaffirmance in a reasonable time after the termination of his minority; which never having been done, he remains a British subject, and disabled from inheriting the land in question. 3. If born after the British took possession of New York, and before the evacuation on the 25th of November 1783, he was, under the circumstances stated in the case, born a British subject, under the protection of the British government, and not under that of the state of New York, and of course owing no allegiance to the state of New York. (Emphasis added.) Inglis v. Trustees Of Sailors of Snug Harbor, 28 U.S. 99, 126 (1830). The holding makes clear that, even if born between July 4, 1776, and September 15, 1776, when New York was United States soil, Inglis took the national character of his British father from birth, and throughout his minority. The Court also stated that the child had a right of disaffirmance after reaching majority. But the opinion does not recognize a dual allegiance at birth. It clearly states that the child was incapable of making an election, and therefore, until he was so capable, he would remain British, having taken his fathers national character at birth. By relying so heavily on the minority concurring opinions, rather than the majority holding of the case, Justice Gray made it appear as if the Inglis Court had held that the plaintiff was a U.S. citizen at birth, when, in reality, under all three scenarios, it was held that the plaintiff was born a British subject. Rather than supporting the holding in Wong Kim Ark, the majority opinion in Inglis v. Trustees of Sailors of Snug Harbor goes directly against it. Justice Grays faulty analysis was further compounded in Shanks v. Dupont: ii.) Shanks v. Dupont, 28 U.S. 242 (1830).
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In Wong Kim Ark, Justice Gray discussed this case as follows: In Shanks v. Dupont, 3 Pet. 242, decided (as appears by the records of this court) on the same day as the last case, it was held that a woman born in South Carolina before the Declaration of Independence, married to an English officer in Charleston during its occupation by the British forces in the Revolutionary War, and accompanying her husband on his return to England, and there remaining until her death, was a British subject, within the meaning of the treaty of peace of 1783, so that her title to land in South Carolina, by descent cast before that treaty, was protected thereby. It was of such a case that Mr. Justice Story, delivering the opinion of the court, said: 'The incapacities of femes covert, provided by the common law, apply to their civil rights, and are for their protection and interest. But they do not reach their political rights, nor prevent their acquiring or losing a national character. Those political rights do not stand upon the mere doctrines of municipal law, applicable to ordinary transactions, but stand upon the more general principles of the law of nations.' Id. 248. This last sentence was relied on by the counsel for the United States, as showing that the question whether a person is a citizen of a particular country is to be determined, not by the law of that country, but by the principles of international law. But Mr. Justice Story certainly did not mean to suggest that, independently of treaty, there was any principle of international law which could defeat the operation of the established rule of citizenship by birth within the United States: for he referred (page 245) to the contemporaneous opinions in Inglis v. Sailors' Snug Harbor, above cited, in which this rule had been distinctly recognized, and in which he had said (page 162) that 'each government had a right to decide for itself who should be admitted or deemed citizens.' U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 660-661. In point of fact, there was never an established rule of citizenship by simple birth in the United States. What was distinctly recognized in the Inglis case was the general English common law rule, that birth within the Kings realms, even to alien parents, made one a natural-born subject. But this general common law rule was definitely not distinctly recognized by the Court in Inglis as having been adopted by the United States, since it was held that the child followed the condition of his father at birth, and throughout his minority. Furthermore, in Shanks v. Dupont, Justice Gray again ignored the holding of the majority opinion of the Court, which directly opposed his analysis. The issue in Shanks was similar to the Inglis case, turning on whether Ann Scott was British or American. Justice Story delivered the opinion of the Court: Ann Scott was born in South Carolina, before the American revolution; and her father adhered to the American cause, and remained and was at his death a citizen of South Carolina. There is no dispute that his daughter Ann, at the time of the revolution, and afterwards, remained in South Carolina until December 1782. Whether she was of age during this time does not appear. If she was, then her birth and residence might be deemed to constitute her by election a citizen of South Carolina. If she was not of age, then she might well be deemed under the circumstances of this case to hold the citizenship of her father; for children born in a country, continuing while under age in
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the family of the father, partake of his national character, as a citizen of that country. Shanks v. Dupont, 28 U.S. 242, 245 (1830). Justice Grays opinion from Wong Kim Ark failed to quote this passage, where the Supreme Court on the same day they decided Inglis - held again that children, at birth, and throughout their minority, take the national character of the father. The holding in Shanks further calls into question Justice Grays analysis in Wong Kim Ark. The tandem cases of Shanks and Inglis are consistent in their reflection of early American citizenship law, which did not uniformly follow the English common law rule of jus soli. iii.) Levy v. McCartee, 31 U.S. 102, 109 (1832) Again, in Levy v. McCartee (1832) 6 Pet. 102, 112, 113, 115, which concerned a descent cast since the American Revolution, in the state of New York, where the statute of 11 & 12 Wm. III. had been repealed, this court, speaking by Mr. Justice Story, held that the case must rest for its decision exclusively upon the principles of the common law, and treated it as unquestionable that by that law a child born in England of alien parents was a natural-born subject; quoting the statement of Lord Coke in Co. Litt. 8a, that 'if an alien cometh into England, and hath issue two sons, these two sons are indigenae, subjects born, because they are born within the realm'; and saying that such a child 'was a native-born subject, according to the principles of the common law, stated by this court in McCreery v. Somerville, 9 Wheat. 354.' U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 662. There is absolutely nothing in Levy v. McCartee that concerns the citizenship status of a relevant party. The decision turned upon statutes in New York that had incorporated older English statutes. The issues strictly concerned New York law. And the case has absolutely no bearing on the issue of federal citizenship. It provides no support at all for the holding in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark. iv.) McCreery v. Somerville, 22 U.S. 354 (1824). One of the foundational building blocks for Justice Grays opinion in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark is the case, McCreery v. Somerville, 22 U.S. 354 (1824), to which Justice Gray made a flawed assumption based upon his failure to acknowledge a judicially recognized misquote. Justice Gray failed to inform his opinion in Wong Kim Ark with the fact that the U.S Supreme Court had questioned the McCreery opinion in 1881, just prior to Justice Gray having joined the Court. In Sullivan v.Burnett, 105 U.S. 334 (1881), the Court stated: This view is controverted by the plaintiffs on the authority of McCreerys Lessee v. Somerville, 9 Wheat. 354, where this Court had occasion to determine the meaning of the statute of 11 & 12 William III. c. 6,We remark in reference to that case that the English statute is not accurately quoted in the opinion of the Court, as an examination of 10 British Stat. at Large 319(Pickerings Ed.) will show. but without deciding that the words omitted ought to have produced a judgment different from that rendered, we are of opinion that the present case is not governed by McCreerys Lessee v. Somerville. Sullivan v. Burnett, 105 U.S. 334, 340-341. (Emphasis added.)
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Justice Storys misquote would not have changed the outcome of the case. However, the correct citation to the statute would have prevented the following assumption made by Justice Gray in Wong Kim Ark: In McCreery v. Somerville (1824) 9 Wheat. 354, which concerned the title to land in the state of Maryland, it was assumed that children born in that state of an alien who was still living, and who had not been naturalized, were native born citizens of the United States; and without such assumption the case would not have presented the question decided by the court, which, as stated by Mr. Justice Story in delivering the opinion, was whether the statute applies to the case of a living alien ancestor, so as to create a title by heirship, where none would exist by the common law, if the ancestor were a natural-born subject. Id. 356. U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 661. (Emphasis added.) We have, in the passage above, a very misleading quote. Justice Gray cites to pg. 356 of McCreery at the end of the passage wherein he placed quotes around native-born citizens of the United States. But no such quote appears on pg. 356 of the McCreery opinion. In fact, the Courts opinion in McCreery nowhere states that the plaintiff was a U.S. citizen, native-born or otherwise. The headnote and facts agreed upon by the parties call the plaintiff a citizen, but these are not part of the Courts opinion, and are not law. Since the plaintiffs ancestor was alive, the Court held that the plaintiff could not inherit from him. And this would have been the holding regardless of the plaintiffs citizenship status. Having determined that the plaintiff couldnt inherit from that particular ancestor, the Court never reached the direct issue of her citizenship. And a thorough review of the facts and the British statute construed in McCreery reveals that the Court, contrary to Justice Grays unfounded assumption, would not have been required to determine she was a native-born citizen of the U.S. in order for her to inherit. Grays assumption is culled from this passage in McCreery: The only point, therefore, is whether the statute applies to the case of a living alien ancestor, so as to create a title by heirship where none would exist by the common law, if the ancestor were a natural born subject. McCreery v. Somverville, 22 U.S. 354, 355-356. The Courts use of the only point is the basis for Grays assumption. The title to the statute in question is: An act to enable his Majestys natural-born subjects to inherit the estate of their ancestors, either lineal or collateral, notwithstanding their father or mother were aliens. Id. 356. With regard to the title, Justice Story also stated, The title is not unimportant, and manifests an intention merely to remove the disability of alienage. Justice Grays analysis assumed the title to the act meant that it pertained only to natural-born subjects. And if that were true, then Grays assumption would be fair. This is because the only point stated in McCreery was whether the plaintiff could inherit despite the ancestor being alive. If the
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plaintiffs citizenship were in question, then there would have been more than one point to decide. Therefore, if the statute applied only to natural-born subjects, the Courts opinion in McCreery could be said to have recognized the plaintiff as a native-born citizen of the U.S., despite her being born here to an alien father. But, in true actuality, the statute specifically refers to natural-born subjects as well as subjects within any of the Kings realms or dominions. In the United Kingdom, subjects within any of the Kings realms or dominions, pertains to resident aliens. These are persons permanently domiciled within the UK who are neither naturalborn nor naturalized. A natural-born subject is a subject wherever he goes in the world, but a resident alien is only a subject of the United Kingdom when he is actually in the Kings realms. Therefore, Grays assumption is misplaced, since the plaintiff in McCreery was within the statute regardless of whether she was considered by the Court to be a U.S. citizen or a resident alien. Since the Courts opinion doesnt mention the citizenship status of the plaintiff, it should not have been assumed by Justice Gray that the McCreery Court had assumed the plaintiff was a U.S. citizen rather than a resident alien. Justice Storys reference in McCreery to the only point, while being correct, does not establish that the Court assumed the plaintiff to be a native-born citizen. Regardless, if the Court in McCreery did make the assumption attributed to it by Justice Gray, that assumption was unfounded according to the relevant statute, which, as the Supreme Court noted in Sullivan v. Burnett, had been misquoted by Justice Story. The Supreme Courts opinions in McCreery, Shanks, Inglis, and Levy, provide no genuine support for Justice Grays opinion in Wong Kim Ark. In fact, prior to Wong Kim Ark, there is not one U.S. Supreme Court decision that establishes the English common law rule of jus soli citizenship. Justice Gray simply overruled every prior decision of the Supreme Court that ran against his analysis, while making it appear as if those cases supported his argument. G. The 1790 Naturalization Act. In 1790, the first naturalization act was passed by Congress. It contained a provision which deemed all persons born abroad of United States citizens to be "natural born citizens", provided that the father had, at some time, resided in the United States. This was the only congressional statute that attempted to infringe upon Article 2, Section 1's authority. There is no provision in the U.S. Constitution that grants Congress any power, as to citizenship, beyond their exclusive control over naturalization. Accordingly, the words "natural born" were repealed in the 1795 naturalization act. Regardless, this, the one and only time that Congress passed legislation using the words natural born citizen, was directly related to the citizenship of the parents. Additionally, the 1790 act, as well as the naturalization acts of 1795, and 1802, specifically conferred naturalization at birth. Therefore, while it is true that citizenship may only be gained by birth or naturalization, one may certainly be naturalized at birth. And if one requires naturalization, then citizenship is not natural-born. Rather, it is completely dependent upon an act of Congress.
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H. Chester Arthur Was Not a Natural Born Citizen Chester Arthur's father, William ,did not naturalize until 1843, fourteen years after Chester was born. (Naturalization certificate for William Arthur, 1843; Library of Congress, Chester Arthur Papers.) (App. Pg. 163.) Therefore, Chester Arthur was, at birth, a British subject. On Nov 3, 1884, President Arthur's Fourth Annual Message to Congress included the following cryptic statement: "An uniform rule of naturalization such as the Constitution contemplates should, among other things, clearly define the status of persons born within the United States subject to a foreign power (section 1992) and of minor children of fathers who have declared their intention to become citizens but have failed to perfect their naturalization...A just and uniform law in this respect would strengthen the hands of the Government in protecting its citizens abroad and would pave the way for the conclusion of treaties of naturalization with foreign countries." (Emphasis added.) President Chester Arthur, Fourth Annual Message to Congress, Dec. 1, 1894., pg. 8. (App. Pg. 173.) The statement is rich with context. President Arthur indicated that persons born in the U.S., subject to a foreign power, required naturalization. Additionally, he calls for the status of such persons to be clarified. Which class of persons subject to a foreign power does he refer to? Certainly not ambassadors and ministers, since their status has always been clear. And only four weeks earlier, in Nov. 1884, the status of Indians was declared in Elk v. Wilkins, so he's not making reference to them. That leaves the third class of persons discussed on page 73 of The Slaughter-House Cases, "citizens or subjects of foreign States born within the United States". Since Justice Gray cited to that exact page as precedent, just four weeks earlier, in the Supreme Court's opinion in Elk v. Wilkins, President Arthur, having been born to an alien father, had good reason to be alarmed. Justice Gray, at that time (Nov. 1884), certainly appeared to have adopted the opinion stated in the Slaughter-House Cases, that children of aliens, born in the country, were not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States: "The main object of the opening sentence of the fourteenth amendment was to settle the question, upon which there had been a difference of opinion throughout the country and in this court . . . and to put it beyond doubt that all persons . . . born or naturalized in the United States, and owing no allegiance to any alien power, should be citizens of the United States and of the state in which they reside. The Slaughter-House Cases, 16 Wall. 36, 73; Elk v. Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94, 101 (1884). (Emphasis added.) Note that Justice Gray cited to pg. 73 of The Slaughter-House Cases, and the statement bears repeating: "The phrase, 'subject to its jurisdiction' was intended to exclude from its operation children of ministers, consuls, and citizens or subjects of foreign States born within the United States." The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36, 73 (1872). Furthermore, Justice Gray, at this point in time, treated the 14th Amendments citizenship clause requirement, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, as synonymous with owing no allegiance to any alien power.
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Chester Arthurs Message makes clear he believed that persons born to aliens in the U.S. required naturalization. And since those who require naturalization are not natural-born, Chester Arthurs statement appears to be a veiled admission that he was not eligible to be President. Furthermore, that the Civil Rights Act of 1866 was an act to naturalize the children of aliens born in the U.S. was discussed in Congress during the debates, such discussion actually having been quoted by Justice Gray in WKA: "During the debates in the senate in January and February, 1866, upon the civil rights bill, Mr. Trumbull, the chairman of the committee which reported the bill, moved to amend the first sentence thereof so as to read: 'All persons born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States, without distinction of color.' Mr. Cowan, of Pennsylvania, asked 'whether it will not have the effect of naturalizing the children of Chinese and Gypsies, born in this country?' Mr. Trumbull answered, 'Undoubtedly;'...Cong. Globe, 39th Cong. 1st Sess. pt. 1, pp. 498, 573, 574." U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 698. Justice Gray took no issue with the indication that persons born in the U.S. of alien parents require naturalization. His approving citation further confirms that the Civil Rights Act of 1866 was a naturalization act. This is because the only congressional power to regulate citizenship pertains to naturalization. For example: The simple power of the national Legislature, is to prescribe a uniform rule of naturalization, and the exercise of this power exhausts it, so far as respects the individual." Osborn v. Bank of United States, 9 Wheat. 738, 827. And see Luria v. United States, 231 U.S. 9, 22 ; United States v. MacIntosh, 283 U.S. 605, 624; Knauer v. United States, 328 U.S. 654, 658. Schneider v. Rusk, 377 U.S. 163, 166 (1964). The simple power of Congress over citizenship is strictly limited to naturalization. Therefore, if native-born persons of alien parents required naturalization prior to the 14th Amendment, they can never be considered natural-born citizens, since, whatever the 14th Amendment may have done to cure their need for naturalization, it did not contain the phrase "natural-born", and it did not confer any new privileges or immunities: "The amendment did not add to the privileges and immunities of a citizen. It simply furnished an additional guaranty for the protection of such as he already had. Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162, 171 (1874). Therefore, no citizen is eligible to be President who wouldn't have been eligible prior to the enactment of the 14th Amendment. President Arthur's Fourth Annual Message was also concerned with children born of fathers who had failed to complete their naturalization after declaring intent to naturalize. This point would be moot if such a person, born in the U.S. to an alien father, was eligible to be President. Chester Arthur made this statement while he was President. Therefore, the Fourth Annual Message appears to be a cryptic admission his own ineligibility. If all children born in the U.S. to a domiciled father who had declared his intention
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to be a citizen still required naturalization, then Chester Arthur was not a citizen at the time of his birth, and was not eligible to be President. There is no other way to read his Fourth Annual Message other than as an implied admission of guilt. If the fact of Arthur's birth to an alien father had been known, there would have been no need for him to raise this particular issue with the public in his Fourth Annual Message. But when we consider the timing of the message, only four weeks after the Supreme Courts decision in Elk v. Wilkins was issued, Chester Arthurs statement becomes even more relevant and telling. Since Justice Gray was appointed to the Supreme Court by Chester Arthur, its incredible that Gray never mentioned Arthur anywhere in his 55 page opinion from Wong Kim Ark. If a person born of an alien father was eligible to be President, there would have been no need for the Supreme Court to decide the fate of Arks citizenship. The very issue before the Court would have been rendered moot if the nation had knowingly embraced a person born to an alien father as President and Commander In Chief. Either Justice Gray was ignorant of the fact that Chester Arthur was born to an alien father, or Justice Gray purposely excluded that fact from the Courts opinion. When Charles Evans Hughes was running for President, this very issue was brought to the attention of the public by former Secretary of State and Ambassador to Italy, Breckenridge Long, in an article written for the Chicago Legal News in 1916: "Whether Mr. Hughes is, or is not, a 'natural born' citizen within the meaning of the Constitution, so as to make him eligible or ineligible, to assume the office of President, presents an interesting inquiry. He was born in this country and is beyond question 'native born.' But is there not a distinction between 'native born' and 'natural born? At the time he was born his father and mother were subjects of England. His father had not then been naturalized. The day after Mr. Hughes was born his father had a right, as an English subject, to go to the British consul, at New York, and to present his wife and infant and to claim any assistance he might need from the consul as the representative of the English government. If war had broken out between this government and England this government would have had a right to interne the father, the mother and the son as subjects of an enemy power." CHICAGO LEGAL NEWS, Vol. 146-148, pp. 220-222. (1916) (App. Pg. 187.) The article does not address the issue of Chester Arthur's father having been an alien. Again, had the nation at large been aware of that fact, such knowledge would have determined the very issue in question thereby rendering it moot as well. However, Long does mention Chester Arthur in the article for a separate reason. In a strange turn of events, Breckenridge Long specifically quotes Chester Arthur's Fourth Annual Message, the very passage discussed above, in support of his questioning the eligibility of Hughes!
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President Arthur, in his Fourth Annual Message, in 1884, said: Our existing naturalization laws also need revision. * * * Section 2172, recognizing the citizenship of the children of naturalized parents, is ambiguous in its terms* * *. An uniform rule of naturalization, such as the Constitution contemplates, should, among other things, clearly define the status of persons born within the United States subject to a foreign power and of minor children of fathers who have declared their intention to become citizens* * *. Id. This ironically establishes that Breckenridge Long, and the nation at large, certainly had no idea Chester Arthur was British at birth. I. Obama's Citizenship Has Not Been Established Under The Constitution. While analyzing whether a person is eligible to the specific natural-born citizen class, an analysis as to the source of membership in the general citizen class ought to be helpful. The 14th Amendment states: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside." This clause was directly interpreted by the Supreme Court in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, where the Court held: "The evident intention, and the necessary effect, of the submission of this case to the decision of the court upon the facts agreed by the parties, were to present for determination the single question, stated at the beginning of this opinion, namely, whether a child born in the United States, of parents of Chinese descent, who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of the emperor of China, but have a permanent domicile and residence in the United States, and are there carrying on business, and are not employed in any diplomatic or official capacity under the emperor of China, becomes at the time of his birth a citizen of the United States." U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 705. Since the Court could not establish citizenship for the petitioner under the natural-born citizen standard invoked by the Court in Minor, resort was made to the 14th Amendment to do so. The holding, and question presented, directly refer to the domicile of the parents. And the Court's opinion specifically indicates that a permanent domicile is required for the native-born children of aliens to be entitled to citizenship: "In a very recent case, the supreme court of New Jersey held that a person born in this country of Scotch parents who were domiciled, but had not been naturalized, here, was 'subject to the jurisdiction of the United States,' within the meaning of the fourteenth amendment, and was 'not subject to any foreign power,' within the meaning of the civil rights act of 1866; and in an opinion delivered by Justice Van Syckel, with the concurrence of Chief Justice Beasley, said: . . .unless the general rule that, when the parents are domiciled here, birth establishes the right to citizenship, is accepted, the fourteenth amendment has failed to accomplish its purpose . . . ' Benny v. O'Brien (1895) 58 N. J. Law, 36, 39, 40, 32 Atl. 696.
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The foregoing considerations and authorities irresistibly lead us to these conclusions . . .The amendment, in clear words and in manifest intent, includes the children born within the territory of the United States of all other persons, of whatever race or color, domiciled within the United States. Every citizen or subject of another country, while domiciled here, is within the allegiance and the protection, and consequently subject to the jurisdiction, of the United States." U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, 692-693 (Emphasis added.) In Benny v. O'Brien, the N.J. Supreme Court reversed a lower court's determination that a candidate for local office was disqualified based upon a holding that, despite birth in the U.S., the candidate, having been born of domiciled alien parents, was not a citizen of the U.S. The N.J. Supreme Court held that the general rule of citizenship in this country, by virtue of birth on U.S. soil, required the parents to be permanently domiciled here: "Persons intended to be excepted are only those born in this country of foreign parents who are temporarily traveling here, and children born of persons resident here in the diplomatic service of foreign governments. Such children are, in theory, born within the allegiance of the sovereign power to which they belong or which their parents represent. . . In my opinion, therefore, Allan Benny is a citizen of the United States in virtue of his birth here of alien parents who at the time of his birth were domiciled in this country." Benny v. O'Brien, 58 N.J. 36, 39-40. (Emphasis added.) (App. Pg. 202.) The requirement, for citizenship at birth under the 14th Amendment, that the alien parents must be domiciled here, was upheld in Kwok Jan Fat v. White, 253 U.S. 454 (1920): "It is not disputed that if petitioner is the son of Kwock Tuck Lee and his wife, Tom Ying Shee, he was born to them when they were permanently domiciled in the United States, is a citizen thereof, and is entitled to admission to the country. United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649." Kwok Jan Fat v. White, 253 U.S. 454, 457. President Obama's father was never a permanent resident of the United States, never applied for citizenship, or declared an intent to become a citizen, and never had a permanent domicile in this country. He was here as a nonimmigrant student (See App. 1.) on a temporary visa. Since President Obamas father was not domiciled here, the holding in Wong Kim Ark does not cover him. Regardless, it has been a custom in this country to presume that persons born here, whether the parents are domiciled or not, are citizens. But the nation is still waiting for the Supreme Court to clarify the citizenship status of persons born here who, because their parents are not domiciled here, do not fall within the holding of Wong Kim Ark. In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, No. 03-6696 (April 28, 2004), Justice Scalias dissent (joined by Justice Stevens) referred to Hamdi, a person born in the U.S. to parents here via the fathers temporary work visa, as a presumed citizen. The Foreign Affairs Manual, published by the U.S. Department of State, from 1995 through August 20, 2009, stated, at 7 FAM 1116.2-1(c), with regard to the holding in Wong Kim Ark:
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c. Pursuant to this ruling, it has been considered that: (1) Acquisition of U.S. citizenship generally is not affected by the fact that the parents may be in the United States temporarily or illegally; (App. Pg. 204.) This was the language used by the Clinton and Bush administrations, and even the Obama administration up until August 20, 2009. The words considered and generally were placed in italics by the State Department to emphasize that the practice stated above has never been clarified as law by the Supreme Court. On this point, the Foreign Affairs Manual had been a rational document, in that it reflected the true state of affairs. It stated the common presumption, but it refrained from listing what was considered to be law, as if it actually was law. On August 21, 2009, eight months into the Obama administration, the Foreign Affairs Manual was changed to read: d. Subject to the Jurisdiction of the United States: All children born in and subject, at the time of birth, to the jurisdiction of the United States acquire U.S. citizenship at birth even if their parents were in the United States illegally at the time of birth. (1) The U.S. Supreme Court examined at length the theories and legal precedents on which the U.S. citizenship laws are based in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898). In particular, the Court discussed the types of persons who are subject to U.S. jurisdiction Pursuant to this ruling: (a) Acquisition of U.S. citizenship generally is not affected by the fact that the parents may be in the United States temporarily or illegally; (App. Pg. 206.) This was a unilateral alteration. The language, which had been approved by the two prior administrations, was scrapped, and replaced by the Obama administration with language more suitable to Obamas very own situation. The holding in Wong Kim Ark did not provide conclusive grounds to determine Obamas citizenship. At best, he was presumed to be a citizen under the 14th Amendment, but not conclusively so. Furthermore, according to well established legal principles, President Obamas citizenship status followed that of his father, an alien, according to the common law rule, long adapted in this country, partus sequitur patrem. J. Partus Sequitur Patrem. The English common law rule - partus sequitur patrem means that the child follows the condition of the father. This rule has also been established by a multitude of federal and state decisions, including those of the U.S. Supreme Court. It has arisen most often in cases where the issue concerned whether a person, born of one American Indian parent, and one non-Indian parent, was to be considered an Indian. The issue often required determination in criminal cases where a person was trying to avoid jurisdiction of an American court, at a time when our courts had no jurisdiction over Indian affairs between Indians who lived on reservations.
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The most extensive discussion of partus sequitur patrem comes from Ex Parte Reynolds, 20 F. Cas. 582, 1879 U.S. App. LEXIS 1666, 5 Dill. 394 (W.D. Ark., 1879), where the rule was strictly followed: [B]y the common law. . . [the] offspring follows the condition of the father, and the rule partus sequitur patrem prevails in determining their status. 1 Bouv. Inst., 198, 502; 31 Barb. 486; 2 Bouv. Law Dict. 147; Shanks v. Dupont, 3 Pet. [28 U.S.]242. This is the universal maxim of the common law with regard to freemen -- as old as the common law, or even as the Roman civil law. . . No other rules than the ones above enumerated ever did prevail in this or any other civilized country. In the case of Ludlam v. Ludlam, 31 Barb. 486, the court says: The universal maxim of the common law being partus sequitur patrem, it is sufficient for the application of this doctrine that the father should be a subject lawfully, and without breach of his allegiance beyond sea, no matter what may be the condition of the mother. The law of nations, which becomes, when applicable to an existing condition of affairs in a country, a part of the common law of that country, declares the same rule. Vattel, in his Law of Nations (page 101), says: As the society cannot exist and perpetuate itself otherwise than by the children of the citizens, these children naturally follow the condition of their fathers and succeed to their rights. * * * The country of the father is, therefore, that of the children, and these become true citizens merely by their tacit consent. Again, on page 102, Vattel says: By the law of nature alone, children follow the condition of their fathers and enter into all their rights. This law of nature, as far as it has become a part of the common law, in the absence of any positive enactment on the subject, must be the rule in this case. Ex Parte Reynolds, 20 F. Cas. 582, 585. (Emphasis added.) Besides being directly relevant to our prior discussion of the Law of Nations definition of natural-born citizen, this holding from Ex Parte Reynolds was cited approvingly by Justice Gray in Elk v. Wilkins: The Case of Reynolds was an indictment, in the circuit court of the United States for the Western district of Arkansas, for a murder in the Indian country, of which that court had jurisdiction if either the accused or the dead man was not an Indian, and was decided by Judge PARKER in favor of the jurisdiction, upon the ground that both were white men, and that, conceding the one to be an Indian by marriage, the other never was an Indian in any sense. 5 Dill. 397, 404. Elk v. Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94, 108 (1884). The Courts holding in Ex Parte Reynolds on the partus sequitur patrem rule was also followed in U.S. v. Ward, 42 F. 320, 1890 U.S. App. LEXIS 1586, 14 Sawy. 472 (S.D. Cal., 1890), where the above passage and holding were directly quoted. And the rule was also followed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Halbert v. U.S., 283 U.S. 753, 763 (1931), subject to an exception if the father has abandoned the child:
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The children of a marriage between an Indian woman and a white man usually take the status of the father, but if the wife retains her tribal membership and the children are born in the tribal environment and there reared by her, with the husband failing to discharge his duties to them, they take the status of the mother. Partus sequitur patrem was also followed in In Re Thenault, 47 F. Supp. 952, 1942 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2195 (1942), where a French diplomat father was married to a natural-born citizen of the United States. Their child was born in the U.S., but was required to petition for naturalization. The child followed the condition of the father and was not entitled to U.S. citizenship on account of his native-born status to a citizen mother. For purposes of allowing the child to petition for naturalization, a fiction was observed by the Court, which held that, since the father was not subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S., the child was considered to have been born on French soil, and was therefore allowed to petition for naturalization as if he had truly been born abroad. If the holding of Wong Kim Ark (as confirmed by Kwok Jan Fat v. White, 253 U.S. 454) is applied to President Obamas situation, a similar result as In re Thenault should apply. If the father of the child is not subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. to the extent by the holding in Wong Kim Ark, then the child takes the fathers national character. President Obamas birth status is not covered by the holdings in Wong Kim Ark, and Kwok Jan Fat. Therefore, his status as a 14th Amendment citizen remains questionable. He is, at best, presumed, or considered, to be a citizen under the 14th Amendment, but his political status thereunder is certainly not conclusive, despite his administration having changed the State Department Manual to indicate otherwise. K. President Obama Is A Naturalized Citizen Under Title 8 U.S.C. 1405. If President Obama had been born in any other State but Hawaii, his status as a U.S. citizen would only be presumed, as discussed above. Assuming birth in Hawaii, President Obama was naturalized at birth by Title 8 U.S.C. 1405, which states: 1405. PERSONS BORN IN HAWAII A person born in Hawaii on or after August 12, 1898, and before April 30, 1900, is declared to be a citizen of the United States as of April 30, 1900. A person born in Hawaii on or after April 30, 1900, is a citizen of the United States at birth. A person who was a citizen of the Republic of Hawaii on August 12, 1898, is declared to be a citizen of the United States as of April 30, 1900. This statute was first enacted as part of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (aka the McCarren Act). It served to naturalize anyone born in Hawaii. But in 1959, when Hawaii became a State, the Hawaii Statehood Act, Sec. 20, continued this provision, unchanged or modified, and the statute is still in force today. It should be noted, however, that the statute does not require anyone born in Hawaii to also be subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. In that regard, it is more relaxed than the 14th Amendment. If the statute was invoked to establish citizenship outside of the naturalization
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power of Congress, the statute would be subversive to the 14th Amendment. Congress has no authority to modify the Constitutional requirements of the 14th Amendment, other than by a new amendment. Therefore, this statute must be a naturalization act. If the Supreme Court were to restrict the application of Wong Kim Ark to its holding, this naturalization statute would be President Obamas only source of citizenship. But those who require naturalization are not natural-born citizens: We start from the premise that the rights of citizenship of the native born and of the naturalized person are of the same dignity and are coextensive. The only difference drawn by the Constitution is that only the "natural born" citizen is eligible to be President. Art. II, 1. Schneider v. Rusk, 377 U.S. 163, 165 (1964). This is a very important statement by the Supreme Court, in that it appears to specifically recognize natural-born citizens as a subset of native-born citizens. It also clarifies that, to be considered a natural-born citizen, one must be native-born. Therefore, all naturalized persons, even those born of citizen parents outside of the United States are not eligible to be President. While some might argue that the Court used native-born and natural-born as synonyms here, the Courts use of quotation marks around natural born signals otherwise, and is indicative of the Courts respect for the exact words of the Constitution. While its possible the Court was purposefully evasive as to the exact definition of natural-born citizen, had they meant to say that all native-born citizens were eligible to be President, they certainly could have phrased their statement clearly to that effect. That the Court specifically declined to identify all native-born persons as natural-born, should be respected as intentional. For the purposes of the McCarren Act, naturalization was defined as the conferring of nationality upon a person after birth, while 1405 confers citizenship at birth. Regardless, Congress has no authority to increase its power in the citizenship lexicon, which is directly limited to naturalization, simply by redefining the word. Furthermore, the State Department Foreign Affairs Manual, at 7 FAM 1111 C., confirms that naturalization may also take place at birth: i. Naturalization Acquisition of U.S. Citizenship Subsequent to Birth: Naturalization is the conferring of nationality of a State upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever (INA 101(a)(23) (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(23)) or conferring of citizenship upon a person (see INA 310, 8 U.S.C. 1421 and INA 311, 8 U.S.C. 1422). Naturalization can be granted automatically or pursuant to an application. (See 7 FAM 1140.) (Emphasis added.) Plaintiff faces a substantial threat of irreparable damage or injury should an ineligible candidate be certified as elected in Washington. As the writing above elaborates, the nature of citizenship and the requirement of natural born citizenship was of keen interest to the founders in the creation of a secular state, one that did not make requisite a Christian confession of faith to obtain subject status, but one that made requirements consistent with the legal terms of art in place throughout the Western World concerning the proper governance of an independent state.
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It is the very essence of things American that the Presidency be occupied by a person who is not just an American citizen, but who is a natural born citizen. However, the critical harm here is the harm to the rule of law under the Constitution of the United States, the Constitution of the State of Washington, and the mandatory oath of office required by the statutes of the State of Washington for the Secretary of State, and the oath of office associated with this court. See 28 USC 453: I, __________, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as XXX under the Constitution and laws of the United States. So help me God. All of these oaths will be violated if a candidate who is not constitutionally authorized to hold the office of the Presidency is nonetheless certified as an eligible candidate duly elected in the state of Washington. If Article II, Section 1, paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution has no meaning, than any and every clause of the Constitution is at risk. That is a substantial threat of irreparable damage and injury. I, as a citizen of the state of Washington and the United States of America, have citizenship predicated upon the clauses of the United States Constitution, and made lawful by its due adoption. I have no other citizenship as a matter of civil law anywhere else on earth. As a consequence, I have an expectation that the law of the land will be observed, and that even the President must be accountable to the laws of the land, particularly the eligibility clause of the U.S. Constitution. The vision that the founding fathers had of rule of law and equality before the law and no one above the law, that is a very viable vision, but instead of that, we have quasi mob rule. James Bovard. The bedrock of our democracy is the rule of law and that means we have to have an independent judiciary, judges who can make decisions independent of the political winds that are blowing. Caroline Kennedy. When freedom does not have a purpose, when it does not wish to know anything about the rule of law engraved in the hearts of men and women, when it does not listen to the voice of conscience, it turns against humanity and society. Pope John Paul II. Freedom prospers when religion is vibrant and the rule of law under God is acknowledged. Ronald Reagan. We either believe in the dignity of the individual, the rule of law, and the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, or we don't. There is no middle ground. Leon Panetta. The American people have a right to except that the rule of law will guarantee that even if we don't like the policy, that it's done properly. Darrell Issa. I firmly believe in the rule of law as the foundation for all of our basic rights. Sonia Sotomayor. A judge can't have any preferred outcome in any particular case. The judge's only obligation - and it's a solemn obligation - is to the rule of law. Samuel Alito.
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One thing, however, is certain. Although we may never know with complete certainty the identity of the winner of this years presidential election, the identity of the loser is perfectly clear. It is the nations confidence in the judge as an impartial guardian of the rule of law. John Paul Stevens. Judges rule on the basis of law, not public opinion, and they should be totally indifferent to pressures of the times. Warren E. Burger. The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on Earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but only to have the law of nature for his rule. Samuel Adams. The clearest way to show what the rule of law means to us in everyday life is to recall what has happened when there is no rule of law. Dwight D. Eisenhower. A resilient people cherishing liberty and equality and the rule of law will endure. Nick Rahall. I am convinced that the majority of American people do understand that we have a moral responsibility to foster the concepts of opportunity, free enterprise, the rule of law, and democracy. They understand that these values are the hope of the world. Richard Lugar We stand in the shadow of Jefferson who believed that a society founded upon the rule of law and liberty was dependent upon public education and the diffusion of knowledge. Matt Blunt. Unfortunately, the true force which propels our endless political disputes, our constant struggles for political advantage, is often not our burning concern for democracy, it is often of our dedication to the principle of the rule of law. Olusegun Obasanjo. The United States and the European Union do want to have a rule of law, and that rule of law should be for a fair trial. And that fair trial needs to have an impartial jury. Maria Cantwell. The rule of law should be upheld by all political parties. They should neither advise others to break the law, nor encourage others to do so even when they strongly disagree with the legislation put forward by the government of the day. James Callaghan. The balance of harms weighs in favor of Plaintiff. The Plaintiff has a right as a citizen of the United States, a registered voter therein, and as one who voted in the 2012 general election to a free and fair election between eligible candidates, and this is a due process right guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. The right to vote is regarded as a fundamental political right, because it is preservative of all rights. Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, 370 (1886). An ineligible candidate to an office has no articulable right in law or equity to that office, even if unanimously elected by the general population.
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Plaintiff, in strict reliance on the admissions against interest of Barack Hussein Obama as disclosed herein, and upon no other facts, has demonstrated that as a matter of law, Barack Hussein Obama does not meet the constitutional standards for eligibility. Therefore, Obama has no articulable harm as a matter of law. He simply returns to being a civilian. The Court has more than once recognized the close nexus between the freedoms of speech and assembly. De Jonge v. Oregon, 299 U.S. 353, 364 ; Thomas v. Collins, 323 U.S. 516, 530 . It is beyond debate that freedom is an inseparable aspect of the "liberty" assured by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which embraces freedom of speech. See Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652, 666 ; Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 324 ; Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296, 303 ; Staub v. City of Baxley, 355 U.S. 313, 321 . Of course, it is immaterial whether the beliefs sought to be advanced pertain to political, economic, religious or cultural matters, and state action which may have the effect of curtailing the freedom to associate is subject to the closest scrutiny. NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449, 460-461 (1958). In the domain of these indispensable liberties, whether of speech, press, or association, the decisions of this Court recognize that abridgment of such rights, even though unintended, may inevitably follow from varied forms of governmental action. NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449, 461 (1958). The certification of an election that is fraudulent is violative of all liberty interests protected under the United States Constitution and creates an unimaginable harm to all political interests which have been protected in this nation since its founding. The grant of an injunction would serve the public interest. The public is served by having free and fair elections; elections where registered voters in Washington chose between candidates who are eligible to hold office. Defendants may argue that the issue should have been raised before the general election, and they are in part, correct. Yet it was the duty of every officer in this nation to have raised the issue previously, yet not one Senator, not one Congressman, not one Governor, not one Attorney General, not one Federal Judge, not one federal law enforcement agency, not one political party, and not one leader among the political parties ever raised the issue of constitutional eligibility. Yet, the ineligibility of Obama based on his own admission is clearly established as a matter of law. The Court should act to enjoin the Secretary of State from certifying an election where the candidate who prevailed is ineligible to serve. The preservation of the integrity of the voting system requires it. CONCLUSION Since Obama does not qualify as a member of the class of persons identified as naturalborn citizens by the U.S. Supreme Court in Minor v. Happersett, he is not eligible to be President of the United States. Secretary of State Sam Reed, in his capacity as Secretary of State for the state of Washington, is therefore duty bound to uphold Article II, Section 1, paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution. The Secretary, as witnessed by his own response pleadings in similar actions, intends to certify this election, notwithstanding the facts to the
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contrary. Therefore, Sam Reed, in his capacity as Secretary of State of the State of Washington must be enjoined from certifying the election of November 2012 of an ineligible candidate to the office of Presidency. Respectfully submitted this 15th day of November, 2012.

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EXHIBIT 2

Source: http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/04/27/president-obamas-long-form-birth-certificate

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EXHIBIT 3

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EXHIBIT 4
BREAKING: St. Lucie County, Florida Had 141.1% Turnout; Obama Won County Posted by Aurelius at 10:01 PM Out of 175,554 registered voters, 247,713 vote cards were cast in St. Lucie County, Florida on Tuesday. Barack Obama won the county. When faced with the astronomical figures, Gertrude Walker, Supervisor of Elections for St. Lucie County, said she had no idea why turnout was so incredibly high. She was flabbergasted, saying, "We've never seen that here." Coincidentally (or not), St. Lucie County is also in Allen West's district, where 6,000 votes mysteriously "shifted" from Mr. West to his challenger.

141.1% Out of the 247,713 cards cast, somehow election machines counted 123,591 total votes. Along with this questionable result, Mr. Obama also received over 99% of the vote in numerous districts in Broward County. In various districts in Cleveland, he received 100% of the vote. In Florida, Mr. Obama received over 99% of the vote in precincts where GOP inspectors had been removed. As for the Presidential race, there's no connection between Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Florida, right?

Source: http://www.punditpress.com/2012/11/breaking-st-lucie-county-florida-had.html

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EXHIBIT 5 Federal Certification Test for Vote-Counting Accuracy Cannot Determine the Error Rate of the Equipment
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By Ellen Theisen, VotersUnite.Org March 21, 2009, revised March 30, 2009 We live in a world of complex computerized systems -- medical equipment such as MRIs and CAT scans; flight control software; an automotive fuel injection system; databases that store, retrieve, and collate data. All these systems undergo stringent testing. The primary purpose of any testing of computerized systems is to show either that the system works as designed or that it doesnt. If the system does not work as designed, then the test results are expected to provide information on the nature, and perhaps the cause, of the defective behavior. Using these criteria, this report evaluates one specific test -- a test designed to confirm or refute that a specific computerized vote-counting system meets the accuracy level required by federal law. The details that follow contain many numbers and many technical details, but the discussion centers on a single, simple question: did the test, which was approved by the federal agency tasked with certifying voting equipment, provide evidence that the accuracy requirement was met, or did the test provide evidence that the accuracy requirement was not met? As the author demonstrates in this specific instance, the answer is: the test provided neither. The test, which was designed by a federally-accredited test lab for the sole purpose of testing the accuracy of the vote-counting equipment, cannot prove whether or not the system accurately counts votes, nor can the test yield any measure of the accuracy rate. The author wants the reader to understand that such testing provides false assurance that a federally-certified vote-counting machine meets the accuracy requirements of federal law. The Requirements of Federal Law Federal law mandates that voting systems meet a very stringent standard for accuracy in counting
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votes. The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA), Section 301(a)(5) states: The error rate of the voting system in counting ballots shall comply with the error rate standards established under section 3.2.1 of the voting systems standards issued by the Federal Election Commission which are in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

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The error rate standard referenced in the law is a target error rate of no more than one in 10,000,000 ballot positions, with a maximum acceptable error rate in the test process of one in 500,000 ballot positions. A ballot position, also called vote position is any choice presented to the voter, such as a single candidate in a contest or a single response to an issue. For example, a ballot with 10 contests and 3 candidates in each contest would have 30 vote positions. While the maximum legal error rate of 0.00001% may be unrealistic, it is law. However, it is rare that any officials analyze the error rate of a voting system used in a real election. So, for practical purposes, the error rate allowed for the test process is the acceptable rate 0.0002% still a very high standard of accuracy. Testing properly to such a high standard would be extremely time consuming. Federal Certification Test for Vote-Counting Accuracy Cannot Determine Error Rate of Equipment Page 1 Ellen Theisen, VotersUnite.Org March 21, 2009, revised March 30, 2009 HAVA tasked the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) with establishing a process for certifying that a voting system meets a set of standards (which states may voluntarily adopt or not), including the accuracy standard. But the accuracy standard is not voluntary; federal law requires it. Therefore it is logical to assume that the EAC would pay very close attention to the test process to ensure that it proved the maximum error rate was not exceeded. It is also reasonable to assume that a national testing lab accredited by the EAC would treat federal law very seriously and pay special attention to ensuring that its test plan for the accuracy of any voting system could prove whether or not the system yielded an error rate below the legal maximum. However, neither of these assumptions is correct. A Hypothetical Test Plan Consider a test plan in which 2,000 ballots are counted, and every candidate in every race receives the exact same number of votes. Even if the actual test results match the expected results, the error rate cannot be known. The test engineer has no way of knowing whether the votes for Candidates A and B in Race Z were counted correctly or switched with each other. Further, the test engineer has no way of knowing whether the votes for Candidate A in Race Z were counted correctly or whether they were switched with the votes for Candidate C in Race Y. The error rate might be 0.0%. But if the system made multiple tabulation errors that canceled each other out in the totals, the actual test results would match the expected results, and yet the test would have failed to yield information about the true error rate.
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The Test Plan for the Premier Assure 1.2 OSX Optical Scanner Now consider a test plan in which 792 ballots are counted. Each ballot has 30 contests with 66 candidates in each contest for a total of 1980 candidates in all contests, so there are 1980 vote positions on the ballot; and all but 200 of those candidates all receive the same number of votes as other candidates. It would be impossible for a test engineer to know whether the votes for those 1780 candidates had been accurately counted or whether they had been switched with other candidates who received the same totals.
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Since votes in real elections have been switched to opposing candidates, it is obvious that the equipment must be tested for just such a situation. Yet, SysTest, a national test lab accredited by the EAC, designed a plan similar to the one described in this scenario, and the EAC approved the plan. SysTest executed the plan on the Premier Assure 1.2 AccuVote OSX optical ballot scanner and claimed the system passed accuracy testing. SysTest explained its methodology for determining accuracy as simply: Review the outcome of the test(s) against the expected result(s). Neither the test plan nor the test report describes any method of verifying that the machine correctly counted each voted and non-voted voting target area on each ballot. It appears that the lab merely compared the actual tabulated results to the expected results and concluded that the votes had been counted accurately. Federal Certification Test for Vote-Counting Accuracy Cannot Determine Error Rate of Equipment Page 2 Ellen Theisen, VotersUnite.Org March 21, 2009, revised March 30, 2009 Before all the testing was complete, the EAC removed SysTests accreditation and another national test lab, iBeta, took over. iBeta reviewed SysTests documentation and recommended accepting SysTests accuracy testing. The EAC agreed: After a careful technical review of iBetas review and audit the EAC approves the above
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recommendations made by iBeta. For those interested in details of the test plan, they are presented below, along with the calculations that led to the authors easily reproducible conclusion that at least 89.5% of the candidates received the same number of votes as other candidates. If SysTest did nothing more than compare actual results to expected results (as their test plan indicates), the testing evaluated the ability of the OSX to accurately count at most 10.5% of the ballot positions. This design, approved by the EAC, cannot ensure that the error rate was less than one vote in 500,000 ballot positions. In fact, there is no way of determining the number of errors that occurred in a test process using this design. The EACs certification of the system would,

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without any justification, assure jurisdictions purchasing the AccuVote OSX ballot scanner that the equipment complies with federal accuracy requirements. Details of the OSX Test Plan A description of the AccuVote OSX test plan, formulated and used by SysTest, and subsequently approved by iBeta and the EAC, is provided in the latest version
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of the SysTest test plan. # of Contests # of Candidates Ballots per batch Vote Positions per ballot Vote Positions per batch # of batches # of times a batch is run Total Vote Positions scanned 66 66 1,980 130,680 12 1 1,568,160

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EXHIBIT 6
ROB THE VOTE Here's how touchscreens killed Romney votes

You won't believe what machine expert claims


by Bob Unruh A Chicago voting-machine tech is sounding the alarm, claiming he witnessed multiple error messages on the voting touch-screens this election but only in cases where people voted for Mitt Romney. Steve Pickrum said he worked for Chicagos election system during the early voting and Election Day voting for the 2012 race. As an equipment manager for the system, Pickrum said, he responded whenever there was a glitch with a voting machine. On early voting, when I did work on the floor when voters needed help using the equipment, I was able to see the preference of the voter, and every time that I saw [a] voter voted for Romney a voter save failure message came up on the screen, he reported. Then when he went on Election Day to cast his own vote, he picked Romney and experienced the same error message. Pickrum said he worked at both the Matteson voting area as well as in Precinct 70, and although he discussed the anomalies with his boss, had not yet filed a formal report. He said when he voted, he was told by a precinct worker to just go ahead and assume that his vote had been tabulated, despite the error message. But since he knew the operations of the machines, he asked the poll workers to check the vote report, and they found his vote had not been counted. He insisted on completing his ballot on another machine, he told WND. Curiously, he reported he never saw the error message when the voter was choosing Barack Obama. Another poll worker, this one assigned at the University of Michigan, reported a list of irregularities, including that the precinct captain told her at one point, You go sit down, you are bothering me, when she was trying to observe the proceedings.
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I was only standing there and looking at voter documents, she told WND. It was clear that what bothered him was my very presence. She said a short time later a young man arrived and identified himself as a Democrat poll challenger. The first time he said anything was to object to my challenge of a voter. He tried to anger the voter by telling her, She does not believe you are who you say you are. He was trying to create a scene. It then happened again, and I told him, You are not here to challenge me! His reply was a very loud, Yes I am! You are a Republican, and you are here to prevent people from voting. You are holding up the line and creating obstructions, she reported. She told WND, in fact, no one waited more than about 15 minutes to vote the entire day, and there were no obstructions. The balloting is unofficial until the Electoral College electors designated by each state meet Dec. 17 to cast their ballots. Other reports of questionable vote tabulations include:

Byron York of the Washington Examiner reports that some 200,000 fewer white voters were recorded in Ohios election this year than in 2008. There are several theories about those missing white voters, but the most plausible is that the ones who were undecideds or weak Republicans were deeply influenced by Obamas relentless attacks on Romney. And in Florida, the Sun Sentinel reported that election workers a week after the election said they found 963 unaccounted-for ballots in a warehouse. How can you lose them? This is terrible, candidate Chickie Brandimarte told officials. Election supervisor Brenda Snipes, however, said its routine for various vote totals to be adjusted up until the Nov. 18 final certification. Also in Florida, residents began demanding changes in the electoral system that handed voters chaos, frustration and delays at polling stations. The Florida League of Women Voters and other groups are demanding from Gov. Rick Scott a plan to draft reforms for the states elections. WND reported just a day ago about an observer who noted up to 10 percent of the ballots cast at a polling station in Pennsylvania reverted to a default, which gave Barack Obama a vote no matter who the voter had selected. The poll watcher reported the incident took place in the state where officials claimed Obama got a total of 19,605 votes in 59 voting divisions to zero for Mitt Romney and not far from the 100 precincts in Ohio where Obama got 99 percent of the vote, a feat not even achieved by ThirdWorld dictators, according to Market Daily News. With evidence mounting that the vote tabulation did not reflect the true choices of voters, talkradio icon Rush Limbaugh echoed the Daily News, saying Monday: Third-world, tin-horn
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dictators dont get [these percentages]. I mean, the last guy that got this percentage of the vote was Saddam Hussein, and the people that didnt vote for him got shot. This just doesnt happen. Even Hugo Chavez [of Venezuela] doesnt get 100 percent or 99 percent of the vote. It was in Upper Macungie Township, near Allentown, Pa., where an auditor, Robert Ashcroft, was dispatched by Republicans to monitor the vote on Election Day. He said the software he observed would change the selection back to default to Obama. He said that happened in about 5 percent to 10 percent of the votes. WNDs newest forum is your opportunity to report voter fraud He said the changes appeared to have been made by a software program. Ashcroft said the format for computer programming has a default status, and in this case it appeared to be designating a vote for Obama each time it went to default. He found it suspicious that Romney and Obama were in a virtual tie in most polls, but Obama then suddenly surged ahead by a number of points on election night. How the heck does that happen? he wondered. He said as a poll watcher, he was not allowed to communicate with officials there, so his concerns were submitted later to the state GOP. Officials with the Republican Committee in Harrisburg did not respond to a WND request for comment. WND previously reported Obamas success was nominal in states where authorities required voter identification, while he was very successful in states that did not require it. WND also reported prior to Election Day that officials in Virginia were asked to investigate after a video caught the field director for Democratic U.S. Rep. Jim Morans campaign in an apparent conspiracy to commit election fraud. The video sting by James OKeefes Project Veritas, first reported by WND, prompted the resignation of Patrick Moran, who is also Jim Morans son, and a criminal investigation by the Arlington County Police Department in Northern Virginia, near Washington, D.C.

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EXHIBIT 7
ROB THE VOTE THE BIG LIST of vote fraud reports

108% of voting population endorses Obama


WASHINGTON The outcome of the Nov. 6 presidential election shocked almost everyone, with very few analysts expecting Barack Obama to win so decisively and to take so many of the battleground states that seemed to be pulling toward Romney. But then the reports of voting irregularities started leaking out, then gushing out like the 59 different Philadelphia voting divisions in which Mitt Romney received zero votes compared to Obamas 19,605. And the Cleveland precinct in which Obama beat Romney 542 to 0. (In fact, Romney received zero votes in nine Cleveland precincts.) And in one Ohio county widely considered ground zero for the election Obama received 106,258 votes from 98,213 eligible voters an impossible 108 percent of the vote. And thats just the beginning. WND is compiling a list of reports documenting voting irregularities and apparent fraud during the 2012 presidential tabulation. These reports include: The Market Daily News reported on those 100 precincts in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, that on election day gave Romney zero votes, and Obama got 99 percent. In more than 50 different precincts, Romney received two votes or less, the report said. One would think that such improbable results would get the attention of somebody out there. According to Philly.com, 59 voting divisions in Philadelphia produced a head-spinning figure, not one vote for Romney. The unanimous support for Obama in these Philadelphia neighborhoods clustered in almost exclusively black sections of West and North Philadelphia fertilizes fears of fraud, despite little hard evidence, the newspaper said. A poll watcher told WND up to 10 percent of the ballots cast at a polling station in Pennsylvania reverted to a default, which gave Barack Obama a vote no matter who the voter had selected. The incident took place in the state where officials claimed Obama got a total of 19,605 votes in 59 voting divisions to zero for Mitt Romney and not far from the 100 precincts in Ohio where Obama got 99 percent of the vote, a feat not even achieved by third-world dictators. It was in Upper Macungie Township, near Allentown, Pa., where an auditor, Robert Ashcroft, was dispatched by Republicans to monitor the vote on Election Day. He said the software he observed would change the selection back to default to Obama. Chicago elections worker Steve Pickrum told WND as an equipment manager for the elections system, he was called when a voting machine malfunctioned. On early voting when I did work on the floor when voters needed help using the equipment, I was able to see the preference of the
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voter, and every time that I saw [a] voter voted for Romney a voter save failure message came up on the screen, he reported. Then when he went on election day to vote himself, he picked Romney and experienced the same error message. He reported he never experienced the error message when the voter was choosing Barack Obama. Another poll worker, this one assigned at the University of Michigan, reported to WND a list of irregularities, including that the precinct captain told her at one point, You go sit down, you are bothering me, when she was trying to observe the proceedings. I was only standing there and looking at voter documents, she told WND. It was clear that what bothered him was my very presence. She said a short time later a young man arrived and identified himself as a Democrat poll challenger. The first time he said anything was to object to my challenge of a voter. He tried to anger the voter by telling her She does not believe you are who you say you are. He was trying to create a scene. It then happened again and I told him You are not here to challenge me! His reply was a very loud Yes I am! You are a Republican and you are here to prevent people from voting. You are holding up the line and creating obstructions, she reported. She told WND in fact no one waited more than about 15 minutes to vote the entire day, and there were no obstructions. Byron York of the Washington Examiner reports that some 200,000 fewer white voters were recorded in Ohios election this year than in 2008. There are several theories about those missing white voters, but the most plausible is that the ones who were undecideds or weak Republicans were deeply influenced by Obamas relentless attacks on Romney And in Florida, the Sun Sentinel reported that election workers a week after the election said they found 963 unaccounted-for ballots in a warehouse. How can you lose them? This is terrible, candidate Chickie Brandimarte told officials. Election supervisor Brenda Snipes, however, said its routine for various vote totals to be adjusted up until the Nov. 18 final certification. Also in Florida, residents began demanding changes in the electoral system that handed voters chaos, frustration and delays at polling stations. The Florida League of Women Voters and other groups are demanding from Gov. Rick Scott a plan to draft reforms for the states elections. Fox News reported that voters in Nevada, North Carolina, Texas and Ohio also said they had pushed a button on a touch-screen voting machine for Romney, but the machines recorded their vote for Obama. At the White House website, a report in the Examiner explains, there was posted a petition seeking a recount of the race. In one county alone in Ohio, which was a battleground state, President Obama received 106,258 votes but there were only 98,213 eligible voters. Its not humanly possible to get 108 percent of the vote, the petition claims. Fox News reported that two election judges were replaced after illegally allowing unregistered voters to cast ballots.
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The Columbus Dispatch estimated that more than 20 percent of registered Ohio voters arent eligible. In two counties, the number of registered voters actually exceeds the voting-age population, the report said. And, it said, in 31 other counties, registrations are above 90 percent of the population, a rate regarded as unrealistic by most voting experts. Fox News also documented how Senate candidate Wendy Long, an attorney who was a clerk for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, recounted her voting experience. A poll worker who was at the scanner studied my private ballot and proceeded to tell me that it was rejected because I did not fill in every space. She then proceeded to indicate that I should mark the Democratic line all the way down. On YouTube was the testimony of a computer programmer, telling the Ohio Legislature that he was able to write a program that would rig elections by flipping the total vote from the real winner to a pre-selected candidate. The Washington Times reported that officials in Florida banned observers from seeing the absentee ballots being opened and there was no way to know whether the absentee ballots that were produced were the same ones that were opened, or if all the ballots were produced. Human Events claimed Ohio voters who are native to Somalia were being given a slate card saying, Vote Brown all the way down an apparent reference to the Democratic senator. The Washington Times reported its suspicions of voter fraud in Pennsylvania, including that in Philadelphia, the [New] Black Panthers are currently standing outside polling booths, intimidating voters just like they did in 2008. It said, too, that 70 Republican polling inspectors were blocked from access. A blog, Punditpress, reported In Florida: Obama Got Over 99% in Broward County Precincts The same site reported: What Luck! Obama Won Dozens of Cleveland Districts with 100% of the Vote There also was the report about Good News: Obama Won County in Ohio with 108% Voter Registration And Punditpress also reported: BREAKING: St. Lucie County, Florida Had 141.1% Turnout; Obama Won County Further, it said: Fraud in PA: Obama Got Over 99% of Vote at Polls Where GOP Inspectors Were Removed; Turnout Somehow 30% Above Govt Numbers Out of 175,554 registered voters, 247,713 vote cards were cast in St. Lucie County, Florida, on Tuesday
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Exhibit 8

America's Warriors Being Denied The Right To Vote


Election 2012: Indifference of the administration and the Defense Department will cause a record low military vote this year, particularly in swing states. Those who protect our right to vote deserve better. A new report by the Military Voter Protection Project found that absentee ballot requests by the military have dropped significantly since 2008 and are on track to make 2012 a record low for the military vote. As of Sept. 22, requests were down 46% in Florida, 70% in Virginia and 70% in Ohio. "These are (the) lowest numbers we've seen in the last decade," Eric Eversole, founder and executive director of the project, told U.S. News & World Report's Washington Whispers. "There are a number of factors that go into this, but if the Pentagon was doing what it was supposed to be, this would be a nonissue." The Pentagon is not doing its job, and the Obama administration doesn't seem to care. Under the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE), which was signed into law in 2009 by President Obama, the Federal Voter Assistance Program (FVAP) is supposed to assist service members with voting on military installations. A Defense Department Inspector General report released in August found that FVAP hadn't set up those voter assistance offices, using budget cuts as an excuse. May we not-so-cynically suggest that the Obama administration is in no hurry to deal with the issue. While often using our troops as backdrops for photo ops, making sure their vote, unlike that of other groups, isn't suppressed is not a top priority. It couldn't possibly have anything to do with the fact that John McCain won 54% of the military vote in 2008 or that a May 2012 Gallup poll showed Mitt Romney pulling 58% to Obama's paltry 34%. A new Rasmussen poll found that 59% of likely voters who have served in the military favor the Republican challenger, while 35% support the president. The law also requires that states mail absentee ballots to their servicemen 45 days before an election so that there is sufficient time to count them. The Justice Department can file suit to ensure compliance but in 2010 was content to grant failing states waivers. As a result, one-third of overseas troops who wanted to vote in 2010 couldn't, according to congressional testimony in February.
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Romney's campaign has sent letters to election officials in Wisconsin, Mississippi, Michigan and Vermont demanding that the deadline for receiving ballots from military and overseas voters be extended. As reported by the MacIver Institute, "At least 30 Wisconsin municipalities failed to send absentee ballots to military voters before the 45-day deadline." The administration showed its true appreciation for military service on July 17, when the Obama for America Campaign, the Democratic National Committee and the Ohio Democratic Party filed suit in that swing state to strike down part of that state's law governing voting by members of the military that gives them three extra days to cast their ballots. Democrats objected that the exception discriminated against nonmilitary voters. The National Defense Committee, a veterans group, notes that "for each of the last three years, the Department of Defense's Federal Voting Assistance Program has reported to the president and the Congress that the number one reason for military voter disenfranchisement is inadequate time to successfully vote." "You guys make a pretty good photo op," Obama joked during a 2009 visit to Osan Air Base in South Korea, greeting roughly 1,500 airmen, soldiers, sailors and Marines, many in camouflage, in an airport hanger. But suppressing the military vote is no joke. It's a national disgrace.

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Exhibit 9

Keeping the Military from Voting in Ohio


By Hans von Spakovsky August 6, 2012 at 5:23 pm Numerous military veterans groups have expressed consternation over a recent lawsuit filed by Obama for America as well as the Democratic National Committee and the Ohio Democratic Party against the Ohio Secretary of State over early voting in Ohio. They are right to be concerned. The lawsuit is over a series of election bills passed by the state legislature that imposed a deadline for early voting for most voters of the Friday before election day. This makes perfect sense, because it allows election officials time to update their records of who has voted to ensure no one who voted early is able to vote again on election day. However, Ohio still allows the relatively small number of voters qualified under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) to vote early through the end of the day before the election. The essence of the Obama campaigns complaint is that providing any extra time to such a special class of voters is arbitrary and capricious and therefore a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. The lawsuit demands that all other voters be given the same extension. UOCAVA is a federal law passed in 1986 that guarantees the right of members of the military and overseas American civilians to vote by absentee ballot in federal elections. It was passed because of the horrendously high disenfranchisement rate of military voters, which is caused by the unpredictability of military life and military deployments. UOCAVA was amended in 2009 to require states to mail out requested absentee ballots to members of the military at least 45 days prior to election day because of the long delays in overseas mail service, particularly in war zones like Afghanistan. Regular voters have the ability to vote by absentee ballot in all states, and many also allow inperson early voting prior to election day. But civilian voters in the continental U.S. simply do not have the unforeseen problems faced by military voters. Many members of the military dont know where they will be a week from now, let alone three or four months from now. This is especially true for those services running high-tempo operationsthey are here today and gone tomorrow. A lot of military personnel who are deployed may come home for some brief R&R and having those few extra days before the electionespecially over the weekendmay make a big difference in their ability to vote. Contrary to the claims being made by the Obama re-election campaign, there is no comparison between the average resident of Ohio who knows he may be on a business trip on election day,
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and therefore should vote by absentee ballot or vote early, and a Marine who is suddenly given orders to deploy to Helmand province or is ordered on a field exercise with little advance notice. Another good example is Air Force reserve pilots at Wright-Patterson AFB where the 445th Airlift Wing is located. Those pilots may be flying missions all over the country and, by virtue of that service, may be away from their residences on election day. Even though they are reservists, they are on active duty when they fly these missions and qualify to vote under UOCAVA. The extra days may be the only time they can exercise their franchise. Contrary to the claims of the Obama campaign, there is nothing wrong with giving military voters extra time to vote. As already demonstrated, men and women in our armed forces have unique obstacles to exercising their franchise that are in place because of the exigencies of military service. It is neither arbitrary nor capricious to ameliorate those government-imposed obstacles. This is particularly true when one looks at the shockingly low participation rates of military voters, which is currently as severe as any in our nations history, including the low participation rate that led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to strike down barriers to voting for black Americans. In 2008, when election turnout was the highest since the 1964 election at almost 62 percent, the U.S. Election Assistance Commission reported that only 5.5 percent of the eligible military and overseas voters under UOCAVA cast ballots that were counted. This compares unfavorably to historically low voter participation rates. The Obama campaign is not just wrong on policy hereit is also wrong on the law. The courts have already held that it is not a violation of the Equal Protection Clause for states to treat UOCAVA voters differently than other voters. In Igartua De La Rosa v. U.S. (1995), residents of Puerto Rico brought a lawsuit claiming that UOCAVAs differing treatment of voters violated the Equal Protection Clause and was unconstitutional. The First Circuit Court of Appeals dismissed the claim, concluding that Congress had rational reasons for providing extra help to UOCAVA voters. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals issued a similar ruling in 2001 in Romeu v. Cohen. In fact, the Supreme Court in McDonald v. Board of Election Commrs (1969) upheld absentee voting statutes that were designed to make voting more available to some groups who cannot easily get to the poll, without making voting more available to all such groups. None of these cases are mentioned in the motion for a temporary restraining order filed by the plaintiffs. Ohio has a rational and practical reason to provide members of the military, many of whom put their lives on the line for us every day, extra time to vote. This is not arbitrary, capricious, or somehow unfair to other voters. And it has a perfectly rational reason related to election administration to end early voting for other Ohio voters three days before election day. The courts should rule against Obama and the DNC to ensure that those who defend and serve will have every opportunity to vote in November.
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Exhibit 10

Obama Accused Of Suppressing Military Vote By Withholding Absentee Ballots


Those who caught last weeks episode of Real Time With Bill Maher were treated to an extraordinary new line of attack against the Obama campaignone that has gained surprisingly little attention in the days that have passed. As MSNBCs Chris Matthews, a participant on Mahers Friday night panel, was making an impassioned point about GOP efforts to suppress the vote in various states throughout the nation, his co-panelistconservative talk radio host and one-time Mayor of San Diego, Roger Hedgecockresponded to the Matthews narrative by leveling a voter suppression charge of his own. According to Hedgecock, it is not the GOP working hard to suppress the votes of key elements of the Democratic base, but rather it is President Obama who is guilty of disenfranchisement due to his efforts to deny the vote to our soldiers serving far from homea voting block that Hedgecock would have us believe is decidedly unfriendly to the President. On first hearing the accusation, I presumed that Hedgecock was simply reviving an old narrative the GOP had sought to ride to glory a few months back when the Obama Campaign, the Democratic National Committee and the Ohio Democratic Party sued to block implementation of a voter suppression law passed in the State of Ohio by a Republican controlled legislature. That particular effort to hold down the vote permitted members of the military to cast early votes right up through the Monday immediately preceding Election Day, while shutting down early voting for everyone else who might wish to do so at 6:00 P.M. on the Friday before the election. Prior to passage of this law, every registered voter in Ohio was permitted to cast an early vote right through the eve of Election Day. In challenging the Ohio legislationa challenge that was ultimately successfulthe plaintiffs never asked that the extended early voting period awarded to members of the military be curtailed, they asked only that everyone be permitted the same right to vote early right up to the day of the election, just as they had in the previous election. But Hedgecock was not returning to that lost cause, after all. He had something else in mind when he made his startling accusationsomething new and far more insidious. The talk show host declared for all to hear that President Obama was purposely subverting the voting process by seeing to it that military absentee ballots not be sent out in enough time to
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allow our soldiers to complete their votes and get them back to be counted by established deadlines. The charge immediately struck me as odd. So far as I knew, neither the President nor anyone else in the federal government has much of anything to say about the process of delivering absentee ballots beyond a few statutes that Congress has passed instructing the states on the timing of delivery for military absentee ballots. Indeed, the process of absentee voting, for both civilians and military, is strictly the jurisdiction of the Secretaries of State serving in each of our 50 state governments. Still, remembering the extraordinary role Florida Secretary of State Kathleen Harris played in delivering the 2000 election to George W. Bush, this struck me as an accusation worth checking out. There would appear to be but two ways Obama could exercise his authority to interfere with military absentee voting. The first would involve muscling friendlies occupying the office of the Secretary of State in key swing states where denying the vote to those who might go against the President could produce meaningful results. The second would come via instructing the Department of Justice to hold back on enforcing the laws designed to protect and encourage voting by soldiers serving overseas. The first option turns out to be a complete non-starter. In the most critical of swing statesOhio, Florida and Virginiathe Secretary of State operations are, in each instance, firmly in the control of Republicans. And if we move on to the next level of key decider statesColorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, and North Carolinawe find two Republicans and two Democrats holding down the job. Therefore, it appears exceedingly difficult to support an argument that the Presidents henchmen have been busy pushing around these state officials in the effort to convince them to violate election laws for the benefit of the Obama campaign. However, playing games with state officials does not appear to be what Mr. Hedgecock had in mind. Rather, in making his accusations, Hedgecock appears to be skewing more towards the second option involving manipulation of the Justice Department, as touched upon in an article he wrote for the conservative magazine, Human Events, published in July under the title Suppressing The Military Vote. In that piece, Hedgecock discusses the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE), passed in 2009 and signed into law by President Obama, which requires states to mail absentee ballots at least 45 days before an election; use electronic delivery systems where possible; and require express mail delivery for returning absentee ballots. This is a law that was created by Congress in response to concerns that the small number of absentee ballots cast
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by our soldiers engaged in foreign wars in 2008 was the result of the states failing to make ballots available to military voters in time to get their choices sent home to be counted. So this must be it. Hedgecock must be making the point that the Justice Department has failed to push the states to follow through on this law in the effort to lessen the impact of military votes that would tally up against the Presidents re-election. Worse still, Hedgecock must have evidence that the DOJ is dragging its feet at the express instructions of the President. Clearly, this must be the basis for Mr. Hedgecocks very serious charge that the President of the United States is involved and directing voter suppression, yes? Wellas it turns out, no. Amazingly, while Hedgecock provides a very provocative title to his piece in Human Events and later appears to use the article as a basis to charge the President with engaging in voter suppression during his appearance on national televisionthe very same article actually credits the Justice Department with becoming involved with the effort to enforce this law, if only because President Obama now believes that military voting habits are moving in his direction. He writes, Obamas DOJ has become involved since surveys showed that the traditional Republican advantage with military voters could be changing. The New York Times reports that while military voters gave George Bush a 16 point advantage over John Kerry in 2004, and gave John McCain a ten point lead over Barack Obama in 2008, Obama has targeted military voters in 2012. So, did Roger Hedgecock simply get confused by Chris Matthews and, in the struggle to come up with some sort of defense, say the first thing that came to into his mind? Or did Mr. Hedgecock decide he could make a little noise for himself by accusing the President of the United States of voter suppression, completely forgetting that his own words argue against the very premise? Either way, unless Mr. Hedgecock can present some sort of rational basis for his claim, it should not go unnoticed that the man has accused the President of either breaking the law or conspiring to break the lawa charge that is complete nonsense and well beyond the pale. While I wont be holding my breath waiting for Hedgecock to cop to his exceedingly bad behaviorpeople like him never doI do hope Bill Maher or Chris Matthews will pick up on this and further out Mr. Hedgecock for being the fraud and liar that he so clearly has demonstrated himself to be.

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NOTICE
Failure of the clerk and/or other public official(s) to file (record) Public Records requested by any Citizen may be a Felony Violation offense against the United States Constitution Article IV 1. 18 USC 1001: Statements or Entries Generally: Whoeverknowingly and willfully (1) falsifies, conceals, or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device, a material fact; imprisoned not more than 5 years

18 USC 2071 - CONCEALMENT, REMOVAL, OR MUTILATION GENERALLY (a) Whoever willfully and unlawfully conceals, removes, mutilates, obliterates, or destroys, or attempts to do so, or, with intent to do so takes and carries away any record, proceeding, map, book, paper, document, or other thing, filed or deposited with any clerk or officer of any court of the United States, or in any public office, or with any judicial or public officer of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (b) Whoever, having the custody of any such record, proceeding, map, book, document, paper, or other thing, willfully and unlawfully conceals, removes, mutilates, obliterates, falsifies, or destroys the same, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both; and shall forfeit his office and be disqualified from holding any office under the United States. As used in this subsection, the term office does not include the office held by any person as a retired officer of the Armed Forces of the United States.

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