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CONTEMPORARY AUSTRALIAN MUSLIM HOMES: PERCEPTIONS OF PRIVACY IN THE CONTEXT OF MAINTAINING MODESTY AND HOSPITALITY

Confirmation of Candidature (Articulation) (BN71 to IF49)


Zulkeplee Othman N8438641

Structure of the presentation


1. Research Interest Research Problems Research Questions 2. Literature Review 3. Aims Conceptual Framework 4. Research Plan Methodology 5. Research Timeline Progress to Date

Research Interest Research Problems Research Questions

A home
1. Is place where one lives permanently, especially as a household (Oxford Dictionaries Resources, 2012) 2. Provides similar functions: Nostalgia
Shelter Refuge Social Affiliation Activity Personalisation Self-Identity Continuity Privacy RESEARCH INTEREST

Diversity
Culture and environment (Altman & Chemers, 1980)

Intimacy Domesticity Commodity & Delight Ease Light & Air Efficiency Style & Substance Austerity Comfort & Well-being

Home as an environmental and psychological concept (Hayward, 1975)

Home: a short history of an idea (Rybczynski, 1987)


quid enim sanctius, quid omni religione munitius, quam domus unusquisque civium? (What more sacred, what more strongly guarded by every holy feeling, than a man's own home?) (Cicero)

Environmental factors 1. Climate 2. Temperature 3. Terrain Cultural factors 1. World views 2. Environmental cognitions and perceptions 3. Privacy regulation 4. Religious and other values 5. Social structure 6. Family structure

Home is a reflection of culture/environment relations


RESEARCH INTEREST

Technological factors 1. Resources 2. Technological skills

The home in relation to other factors (Altman and Chemers, 1980)

Research interest
RESEARCH INTEREST

privacy modesty hospitality


Cultural factors 1. World views 2. Environmental cognitions and perceptions 3. Privacy regulation 4. Religious and other values 5. Social structure 6. Family structure

Muslim homes in Australia

Research Problems
2011 Census - 26% of Australian born overseas, 20% had at least one parent born overseas (ABS, 2012)
RESEARCH PROBLEM

476,300 Muslims in Australia (69% increment from 2001) (ABS, 2012) No knowledge how Australian Muslims perception on home privacy Their home environment needs have implications for home designs Current housing design may contradict with Muslim privacy requirements

Research Questions
RESEARCH QUESTION
How do Australian Muslims perceive privacy in their homes, and how do they achieve privacy?

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

SUB QUESTION 3 What are Australian Muslims levels of satisfaction with current Australian home designs with regard to privacy?

SUB QUESTION 1 To what extent do Australian Muslims perceive modesty to be important within their home environment, and how do they achieve this?

SUB QUESTION 2 How do Australian Muslims perceive hospitality within their home environment?

Literature Review

Religion & Islam


1. Religio - what retains, bond or moral 2. Durkheim - religion brings people together and unite in moral community LITERATURE 3. Islam = submission or surrendering in Arabic (total submission to God) REVIEW 4. Prophet Muhammad (570 AD 632 AD) was a messenger of Allah 5. Muslims do not worship Prophet Muhammad 6. Pillars in Islam: No Pillar of Iman Description a) Six Pillars of Beliefs (Iman) 1 Belief in One God Allah alone b) Five Pilars of Islam special beings to deliver messages to
2 Belief in Angels prophets mainly 25 prophets from Adam to Muhammad Books of Allah: Torah (Musa/Moses), Psalms 3 No Pillar of Islam Description 1 2 3 4 5 Shahada Salat Sawm Zakat Hajj testimony of faith Belief in Prophets

4 Belief in Scriptures (Daud/David), Gospel (Isa/Jesus) and AlSociologists and historians then increasingly come together in their common affirmation establishment of five daily prayers Quran (Muhammad - final that have that religion is the most primitive of all social phenomena. It is from it revelation)emerged, fasting (month of Ramadan) through successive transformations, all the other manifestations of collective activity 5 Belief in Qiamat Life after death / Judgement Day law, morality, art, science, political forms, etc. In principle everything is religious alms-giving (2.5% to the poor) predestination by Allah (good or bad) of all 6 Belief in Al-Qadar (Durkheim, 1982 [1897]:173) pilgrimage to Mecca (if can afford it) things

Islam in Australia
LITERATURE REVIEW

For those whove come across the seas Weve boundless plains to share With courage let us all combine To advance Australia fair. Excerpt from Advance Australia Fair (McCormick, 1878)

Traditional Muslim homes requirements


1. privacy
LITERATURE REVIEW

2. gendered space (space for women)

3. modesty

4. space for hospitality or receiving guests


And Allah has made for you from your homes a place of rest and made for you from the hides of the animals tents which you find light on your day of travel and your day of encampment; and from their wool, fur and hair is furnishing and enjoyment for a time (Al-Quran, 16:80).

Privacy
the right to be let alone (Warren and Brandeis, 1890)
LITERATURE REVIEW

Isolation

Affinity

Seclusion Marshall (1972)

Privacy
Reserve

Anonymity

Westin (1970)

Privacy in Muslim homes


O ye who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them: that is best for you, in order that ye may heed (what is seemly) (Al-Quran, 24:27)

LITERATURE REVIEW

Personal Psychological Bubble (Hall, 1966)

Hierarchy of privacy domains in traditional Muslim home (Bahammam, 1987)

Privacy in Muslim homes (Middle East)


Visual
Entrance door location Above eye level windows High parapet walls Location of rooms LITERATURE REVIEW

Can be achieved through

Acoustical

Thick walls Dense materials Zoned internal spaces: male, female, services

Smell

Oud (agarwood): incense

Types of privacy in Islamic teachings (Sobh and Belk, 2011; Mortada, 2003)

Gendered Space - Middle East


And when you ask the ladies for anything, ask them from before a screen. That makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs (Al-Quran 33:53)

LITERATURE REVIEW

Mens majlis (Alenazy, 2007)

Womens salon (Alenazy, 2007)

Modesty
Behaviour, manner, or appearance intended to avoid impropriety or indecency (Oxford Dictionaries Resources, 2012) 1. physical modesty (dress code, fashion) 2. self-improvement or self- motivation 3. social interaction (shyness, not boasting)
(Boulanouar, 2006) LITERATURE REVIEW

4. avoiding any excessive spending and showing wealth (Mortada, 2003)


Faith consists of more than seventy branches. And haya (modesty) is a part of faith (from hadith Al-Bukhari)

Hospitality - Middle East


MALE VISITORS DESCRIPTION
wifes muhrim such as father, father-in-law, sons, son-in-laws, brothers, nephews and uncles Intimate relatives of wife may enter house without presence of husband husbands brothers or male cousins Close family relatives host may allow guests in female areas only after female members change clothing and wear hijab may access to mens area or majlis only through mens reception area should seek permission to use bathroom Distant relatives and friends could enter dining area when invited by host after female members finished preparing food and out of sight

LITERATURE REVIEW

Categories of male visitors in relation to women in Saudi Arabian homes (Shraim, 2000) 2007) Mens majlis (Lockerbie Resources, 2012; Alenazy,

Hospitality in Traditional Malay House


Eat together and not separately, for the blessings is associated with the company (Ibn Majah)

LITERATURE REVIEW

Community spirit - Malay house

The Traditional Malay House (Nasir and Wan Teh, 2004)

The Malay House (Lim, 1987)

Contemporary Muslim Homes across the World


LITERATURE REVIEW

Traditional vs Modern (Alenazy, 2007)

Typical use of garage as mens majlis in Muslim homes in Dearborn, Michigan (Emmerson, 2011)

Terrace housing in Malaysia (Md Zohri, 2010)

Aims Conceptual Framework

Research Questions (Recap)


RESEARCH QUESTION
How do Australian Muslims perceive privacy in their homes, and how do they achieve privacy?

AIMS

SUB QUESTION 3 What are Australian Muslims levels of satisfaction with current Australian home designs with regard to privacy?

SUB QUESTION 1 To what extent do Australian Muslims perceive modesty to be important within their home environment, and how do they achieve this?

SUB QUESTION 2 How do Australian Muslims perceive hospitality within their home environment?

Culture / Environment Relations Theory


NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - topography - climate - flora - fauna
ENVIRONMENTAL ORIENTATIONS / VIEWS - cosmology - religion - values - norms
ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS / PROCESSES - privacy - personal space - territoriality - crowding

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES - built environment - homes - farms - cities

ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITIONS - perceptions - coding - memory - judgements

Altman and Chemers (1980)

Modified Culture / Environment Relations Theory


NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - topography - climate - flora - fauna
ENVIRONMENTAL ORIENTATIONS / VIEWS - cosmology - religion - values - norms

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES - Australian Muslim homes

NE
ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITIONS - perceptions - coding - memory - judgements

EO/V EB/P

ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS / PROCESSES - privacy - modesty - hospitality

EO

EC

Altman and Chemers (1980)

Privacy Regulation Theory (Altman, 1975)


Privacy is dialectic (own experiences) and dynamic (continuous management) 1. Privacy = temporal dynamic process changes depending on internal/external conditions 2. 2 levels of privacy - desired (required) and actual (achieved) 3. Privacy - non-monotonic function - (more privacy is not necessarily better) 4. Privacy is bi-directional nature - involves input / output from others 5. Privacy can be analysed in two levels - individual & group

Desired level

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

too much privacy = social isolation

too much social = crowding

Actual level

Research Significance
AIMS

1. First study of Muslim homes in Australia

2. New knowledge how Australian Muslims adapt western lifestyle

3. New privacy patterns and devices not considered before

4. Expand understanding of influence of culture and religion in home designs

Research Plan Methodology

Research Approach
1. Qualitative approach: lived experience of a phenomenon 2. Two-step process: a) explore connections conceptual framework factors b) explore patterns of privacy in Queensland Muslim homes
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - topography - climate - flora - fauna ENVIRONMENTAL ORIENTATIONS / VIEWS - cosmology - religion - values - norms

RESEARCH PLAN

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES - Australian Muslim homes

BEHAVIOURS / PROCESSES - privacy - modesty - hospitality

ENVIRONMENTAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

COGNITIONS - perceptions - coding - memory - judgements

Research Sample
1.Kuraby (1497 Muslims) 2.Woodridge (2484 Muslims) 3.Inala (630 Muslims) 4.Eight Mile Plains (470 Muslims) 5.Logan (432 Muslims) 6.Morooka (321 Muslims) 7.Holland Park (295 Muslims) 8. Algester (237 Muslims) Research Sites (ABS, 2012) 1.Invitation letters/ emails and phone calls to Islamic communities 2.Follow up calls to those interested 3.Screen participants 4.Sign forms prior interview 1.In a family situation 1. 20 to 60 samples: a) 10 to 30 males b) 10 to 30 females 2.Have children or extended families 3.25 to 55 years old - first generation OZ Muslims or more 4.Home owners or rented properties Sample Size Participant Selection METHODOLOGY

Recruitment Method

Research Sample

Measurements and Assessment Tools


1. Semi-structured interviews
1) How does your home enable you to do the things that are important to you?

METHODOLOGY

2. Open-ended questions

2) How do you make your house work so as to satisfy the level of privacy you desire for yourself and your family? 3) How do your neighbourhood and community enable you to do the things you like to do and to spend with your family? 4) Who (the person in your household) will be responsible in the design of your interiors and arrangements of the furniture?

3. Observations

4. Drawings and photographs

Methods of Analysis
1. Coding:
Open Coding Axial Coding Selective Coding

METHODOLOGY

Methods of Analysis

Themes

Themes Outcomes Discussions

2. Successive Approximation

Social Research Methods (Neuman, 2011)

Timeline Progress To Date

Timeline and Progress to Date


RESEARCH TIMELINE Time Elapsed Milestones Stage 2 Articulation Confirmation Annual Progress Final Seminar Lodgement of thesis Generic Capabilities Advanced information processing skills, IT & research technologies Research planning & execution Theoretical, analytical, methodological, research design & problem-solving skills Research health & safety, ethical clearance & intellectual property Project management, academic writing & oral skills Research results , scholarly publications & presentations, policy, & career planning Health & Safety AIRS Develop tools Develop method Ethics Articulation process & seminar Intellectual Property ATN Leap Seminar skills Project Assess journals EndNote Data Collection ATN More Data Analysis 0 Sep-Dec 2011 3 Dec 2011Mar 2012 6 Mar-Jun 2012 9 12 15 18 Mar-Jun 2013 21 24 27 30

TIMELINE & PROGRESS


33 36 Jun-Sep 2014 Sep-Dec 2014

Dec 2012-Mar Jun-Sep 2012 Sep-Dec 2012 2013

Dec 2013-Mar Jun-Sep 2013 Sep-Jun 2013 Mar-Jun 2014 2014

Research Commercial Journal articles Conference

Final Seminar timeline Journal article

Timeline and Progress to Date


RESEARCH TIMELINE Time Elapsed Coursework Advanced Information Retrieval Skills (AIRS) (IFN001) Thesis Writing Title & Abstract Introduction Literature Review Methodology Journal article 1 Journal article 2 Journal article 3 Discussion Conclusion Research Process Access Literature Consider Methodological Approaches Consider Resourcing (Scholarship) Develop Tools Implement & Analyse Pilot Revising Tools Access Sample Fieldwork Data Analysis for Articles 1, 2 & 3 Gather Results Approvals & applications Intellectual Property Ethics Industry Health & safety Scholarships Grants in Aid Write Up Scholarship Outputs & options Conference Papers Journal articles 0 Sep-Dec 2011 3 Dec 2011Mar 2012 6 Mar-Jun 2012 9 12 15 Dec 2012-Mar 2013 18 Mar-Jun 2013 21 24 27 30 33 36 Jun-Sep 2012 Sep-Dec 2012 Jun-Sep 2013 Sep-Jun 2013 Dec 2013-Mar Mar-Jun 2014 2014 Jun-Sep 2014 Sep-Dec 2014

TIMELINE & PROGRESS

References
Alenazy, T. H. (2007). The privacy and social needs of women in contemporary Kuwaiti homes. MFA, Master of Fine Arts, Florida State University, Florida. [Electronic Thesis]. Al-Kodmany, K. (1999). Residential visual privacy: traditional and modern architecture and urban design. Journal of Urban Design, 4(3), 283-311. Altman, I., & Chemers, M. M. (1980). Culture and environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior: privacy, personal space, territory, crowding. Monterey, Calif: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). Reflecting a nation: stories from the 2011 Census. Cultural diversity in Australia Retrieved 21 June, 2012, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2071.0main+features902012-2013 Bahammam, A. S. (1987). Architectural patterns of privacy in Saudi Arabian housing. Master of Architecture Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, McGill University, Montreal. Available from McGill Library Boulanouar, A. W. (2006). The notion of modesty in Muslim womens clothing: an Islamic point of view. [Discussion Paper]. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, 8(2), 134-156 Durkheim, E. (1982 [1897]). The rules of sociological method and selected text on sociology and its method London: Macmillan Press Emmerson, N., OConnell, J., & Peirson, D. (Writers). (2011). All-American Muslim. USA: TLC. Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday. Hayward, D.G. (1975). Home as an environmental and psychological concept. Landscape, October, pp. 2-9. Lim, J. Y. (1987). The Malay house: rediscovering Malaysia's indigenous shelter system. [Pinang], Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Institut Masyarakat. Marshall, N. J. (1972). Privacy and environment. Human Ecology, 1(2), 93-110. doi: 10.1007/bf01531349 McCormick, P. D. (1878). Advance Australia Fair [National Anthem]. Sydney. Mortada, H. (2003). Traditional Islamic principles of built environment. New York: RoutledgeCurzon. Nasir, A. H., & Wan Teh, W. H. (2004). The traditional Malay house (Third ed.). Shah Alam, Malaysia: Penerbit Fajar Bakti. Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). Unversity of Wisconsin: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Rybczynski, W. (1987). Home: a short history of an idea. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Shabani, M. M., Tahot, M. M. T., Arjmandi H., Che-Ani A.I. , Abdullah, N. A. G., & Usman, I. M. S. (2010). Achieving privacy in the Iranian contemporary compact apartment through flexible design. In Power Systems and Remote Sensing. Sobh, R., & Belk,. (2011). Domains of privacy and hospitality in Arab Gulf homes. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(2), 125-137. Warren, S. D., & Brandeis, L. D. (1890). The right to privacy. Harvard Law Review, 4(5), 193-220. Westin, A., (1970). Privacy and freedom (first ed. 1967). Atheneum, New York.

Thank You
Laurie Buys | Rosemary Aird | Evonne Miller | Jeff Sommerfeld | John Lockerbie | Peter Gould | Bachar Houli | Panel Members | Lynda Lawson |SEF and CIF staff | HDR colleagues | QUT Library | and everyone attending this seminar

Any questions?