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TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON REDUCTION FROM SLUDGE OIL _ BY PETROPHILIC BACTERIA IN A SLURRY-PHASE REACTOR

Yohanes Fred Paristua Nadapdap1) and Edwan Kardena2) Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of technology, Ganesha street no. 10 Bandung 40132

1) hnz_ndp@yahoo.com, 2) kardena@pusat.itb.ac.id

INTRODUCTION Petroleum is the result from natural process in the form hydrocarbon that in atmosphere pressure and temperature in form as liquid phase or solid phase, include asphalt, wax, mineral, or ozokerit and bitumen that result from mining process, but not include or another hydrocarbon sediments in solid form thats result from activity that unrelated to business activity and petroleum. (Kepmen LH no. 128, year 2003) Petroleum production result the pollution with hig quantity to environment and it unable to accept the impact from this phenomenon. To answer this phenomenon, its important to handling the residual thats result from petroleum production for decrease the impact for environment. Treatment that happen awile for petroleum residual oil in biological process is with bioremidiation process. Bioremidiation is biological process manipullation that happen for spesific microorganism who can do mineralization process for contaminant in some area (Thomas et al, 1992). Degradation that we want is a mineralization process to result CO2 and H2O. Released of these element to environment will give lower responsibility than before degradation done. Bioremidiation is the process with bacteria exploitation that have an abillity to separate the aromatic subtances until degradation process can go faster. Bioremidiation need spesific microorganism who can degradated matters in crude oil (Cookson, 1995) Sludge oil, as one of high volume petroleum residual oil, need oil treatment in order to decrease the resposibillity for environmental. That for, we must do the pre-treatment oil before do bioremidiation. One of alternatife that we can use is slurry-phase bioreactor. On this reactor, microbe that have an abilitty to separate petroleum conscience in sludge oil. That was caused hydrocarbon conscience in sludge oil decreasing because of mineralization as CO2 and H2O. METHODOLOGY The methodologies that used in this final assignment is : o Laboratory analysis First Condition test kind of tests TPH C-organic pH Methods Grvitimetric ekstraction Elektrodepotensiometry

Ph meter TPH pH Grvitimetric Elektrodepotensiometri Petrophilic Ph meter Bactria Impact microorganisme Total Plate Test Count o Data analysis Data analysis that will be doing are with analyze the data from laboratory analysis for find the optimal reactor for petrophilic bacteria activities to do degradation petroleum substace in sludge oil. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Slurry-phase bioreactor which used in this research was reactor that had been used by Leli Fitriani for her research at 2005 with some modification.

Figure 1. Slurry-Phase Bioreactor Spesification: 1. Impeller : - 5 impeller - 7cm length of blade - rotation speed 80 rpm 2. Reactor tubes : - 5 tubes - diametre : 12 cm - 1cm under the blade TPH Content Degradation of Sludgse Oil
50 45 40 35 30

TPH (% 25
20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Microbe Content 10 % Microbe Content 20 %

Day

Figure 2. TPH Content Degradation of Oil Sludge

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Analyzation was do with 2 tubes for compare petrophilic bacteria activity in degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in sludge oil with bacteria injection variation volume 10 % and 20% from 200 gram sludge oil and then will give 100 gram addittion sludge on 16th day. Graphic in Figure 2. Explain comparation activity petrophilik bacteria in 1st and 2nd tube to reduce TPH in sludge oil. From this figure, can be known that bacteria adaptation abillity in 1st tube go faster than 2nd tube. But, data result from TPH test for 2nd tube still acceptable. Data result for 1st tube cant be used because of high fluctuation of result and its be hard to analyze. In those tubes, petrophilic bacteria can not yet do optimal degradation. The lowest point for these tests is TPH 25,648%. This point so far with bioremidiation limits, 15%. This is because of high load of pollutant in this sludge oil, and it makes these bacteria hard to adaptation with substrate. Moreover high load of pollutant, then so much long chain carbon cinsience there, then efficiency of degradarion get low (Cookson, 1995). To rich TPH 15 %, then needed more time for petrophilic bacteria to adaptation of substrat and can do the increase oil sludge dissolve with additing water to reduce load of polluttant. The Influence of tubes reactor environmental acidity
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2nd tubes higher than 1st tubes, so result more secretion subtances. For those things, control of pH must do continously in the way to manage pH of substrate was in range of microorganism live. TPC Test For Bacterial Growth

Figure 4. TPC Test Result Bacteria growth test with TPC method didnt go in the right way, because there is only one petry plate that rise the bacteria from much test. This is because of water hard to take the bacteria from sludge oil. For that, to take the bacteria from oil sludge, water need to be exchange with sterilized biosurfactant. Surfactant goal is to increase the use of bio-availability compound pollutant that has a high solid content so that it can make them more soluble or solvent to the media (Crowford, 1996). CONCLUSION AND REPORT From this research we can conclude that : 1. Biodegradation can do by petrophilic bacteria with slurry-phase bioreactor. 2. Microorganism needs time for adaptation to polluted condition that infected them. 3. pH, nutrition, and pollutant load impact to microorganism activity in contaminant degradation. 4. Slurry phase bioreactor can not yet to optimalize of petrophilic bacteria activity. 5. Data result from 2nd tube better than 1st tube and can be analized.

pH
3

Microbe content 10 % Microbe content 20 %

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Day

Figure 3. Reactor environmental acidity


Figure 3 show that after additing water, the value of pH get increase. Additing water have to do for additing mineral asa substance that microorganisme need and to manage value of pH in order to save the live of microorganism. Figure 3 also show about bacteria activity in these tubes. At 14th day, 2nd tubes have value of pH lower than 1st tubes. This acid get from metabolism of microorganism. Microorganism has an abillity to used organic subtance from petrolum oil. Petroleum oil degradation will result CO2, water, microorganism biomass, andside result in form simple subtances (Leisinger, 1981). Biomass and essence subtances that result from this activity have acid character. From that theory, we can know that activity that microorganisme in

REFERENCE
Abbas, P. (2006), bioremidiasi Tanah Tercemar Petroleum Hidrocarbon dengan Penambahan Surfactan. Thesis of Magister Program, Bandung Institute of Technology Crawford R.L. and Crawford D.L., (1996), Bioremidiation : Principles and Application, Cambridge Universitu Press, British, 1-10, 47, 109113 Leisenger (1981). Microbial degradation of xenobiotic and recalcitrant compound. Academi Press, London. Thomas, J. M., Ward C. H., Raymond R. L., Wilson J. T., dan Loehr R. C. (1992) Encyclopedia of microbiology. Vol. 1. Academic Press inc.

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