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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m
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(2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


cefYtyfcJhonfh &mxl;ae&mESihfyk*dKvfrsm;? wkdif;a'oBuD;vTwaf wmfEiS hf jynfe,f
vTwaf wmftoD;oD; ceft
Y yfxm;aom vTwaf wmfOu|rsm;? 'kwd,0efBuD;rsm;?
wkdif;a'oBuD;vTwfawmfESifh jynfe,fvTwfawmftoD;oD; zGJUpnf;xm;aom
0efBuD;Xmersm;? jynfaxmifpk a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif? b@ma&;aumfr&Sif?
jrefrmEkdifiH trsKd;om;vlYtcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif? aus;vufa'ozGHUNzdK;a&;ESifh
qif;&JErG ;f yg;rIavQmch sa&; A[kad umfrwD? vkyif ef;aumfrwD? ajrvGw?f ajrvyf
ESifh ajrkdif;rsm; pDrHcefYcGJa&; A[kdaumfrwD? jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf yl;aygif;
aumfrwDrsm;? jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS fh trsK;d om;vTwaf wmfwiG f zGUJ pnf;xm;onfh
aumfrwDrsm;? 2011 ckESpf jrefrm-wkwfqufqHa&;? jrefrm-tar&duef
qufqaH &;? jrefrmEkid if H tpk;d &tqufqufwiG f vGwNf ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf y;cJo
h nfh
jzpfpOfrsm;? jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmf tpkd;&opfvufxufwGif
vGwNf ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf y;cJah om jzpfpOfrsm;? jynfaxmifpo
k rwjrefrmEkid if aH wmf
tpkd;&vufxuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;rItajctaersm;? yxrtBudrf
jynfaxmifpv
k w
T af wmf? jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf? trsK;d om;vTwaf wmf ykrH eS t
f pnf;
ta0;? yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf? jynfolYvTwfawmf? trsKd;om;
vTwfawmf 'kwd, ykHrSeftpnf;ta0;? jynfe,fESifh wkdif;a'oBuD;toD;oD;\
zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufrrI w
S w
f rf;rsm;? wyfrawmfqidk &f m odrw
S zf ,
G &f mrsm;? jrefrmEkid if H
&JwyfzUJG qkid &f m odrw
S zf ,
G &f mrsm;? Ekid if w
H uma&;&m odrw
S zf ,
G &f mrsm;? jrefrm
EkdifiH? EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'? bmoma&;qkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;? usef;rma&;
qkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm; ponfwkdYukd A[kokwjzpfzG,f azmfjyxm;onf/
vlwidk ;f odxm;oifhonfrsm;ukd pkpnf;xm;onft
h wGuf pmzwforl sm; tusK;d
&SdapEkdifonfh pmtkyaf umif;wpftyk f jzpfygonf/
xkaYd Mumifh A[kow
k &SmrS;D vko
d rl sm;? &mxl;0ifpmar;yGJ ajzqkMd urnfo
h rl sm;?
q&m? q&mrrsm;? ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm; vufukdifjyKxm;&rnfh
pmtkyjf zpfonf/ tem*wfEidk if aH wmftwGuf vlcRev
f al umif;rsm;? acgif;aqmif
aumif;rsm;? todynm&Sif twwfynm&Sifrsm; ay:xGef;vma&;twGuf
taxmuftuljyKrnf[k ,kHMunfvsuf xkwfa0vkduf&ygonf/
pmwnf;tzGJU
jyefMum;a&;ESifhjynfolYqufqHa&;OD;pD;Xme

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmEkdifiH\ ordkif;jzpfpOf
jzpfay:ajymif;vJcJh&aom jrefrmEkdifiH\ orkdif;jzpfpOfrsm;rSm atmufyg
twkdif;jzpfygonfat'D 1 &mpk
... AdEd;k ? [efvif;? oa&acw&ma'orsm;wGif
ya'o&mZf EdkifiHi,frsm;udk ]ysL} vlrsdK;rsm;u
xlaxmifcJhMuonf/
1044 - 1297
... yk*Hacwf? taemf&xmrif;(1044- 1077)u
yxrjrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk xlaxmifonf/
1552 - 1595
... awmif i l a cwf ? bk & if h a emif r if ; w&m;BuD ;
(1552-1581)u 'kwd,jrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk
xlaxmifonf/
1752 - 1885
... ukef;abmifacwf? tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD ;
(1752-1760)u wwd,jrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk
xlaxmifonf/
1824 - 1826
... t*Fvdyf-jrefrm yxrppfyGJjzpfyGm;onf/
1852 - 1854
... t*Fvdyf-jrefrm 'kwd,ppfyGJjzpfyGm;onf/
1885
... t*Fvyd -f jrefrm wwd,ppfyjJG zpfymG ;Ny;D aemuf
NAw
d o
d Quv
kd ekd eD ,fcsUJ vufatmufoY k d jrefrm Edik if H
usa&mufco
hJ nf/
1906
... Ak'b
momuvsmP,k0toif; (0dik t
f rfbaD t)
udk xlaxmifum trsdK;? bmom? omoem
twGuf BuKd ;yrf;Muonf/ 1918 ckEpS f 'DZifbm
18&uf NAdwdoQtpdk;&u u&ufa'guf pDrH
udef;udk xkwfjyefonf/

14

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

... jrefrmhurk m &Dtoif;ac: jrefrmtrsK;d orD;or*


toif;udkzGJUpnf;onf/
1920 atmufwdkbm ... Ak'bmomuvsmP,k0toif;BuD;\ t|r
(29-31)
tBurd n
f v
D mcHu jrefrmjynfv;kH qdik &f mtoif;
csKyBf u;D (*spD b
D aD t) [l trnfajymif;onf/
1920 'DZifbm 5
... &efukefwuodkvf yxrausmif;om;oydwf
pwifarSmufonf/
1930 ar 30
... wdkYArmtpnf;tHk; xlaxmifonf/
1930 'DZifbm 22 ... q&mpHO;D aqmifonfh awmifov
l ,form;ta&;
awmfyk H om,m0wDcdik ?f a&wdu
k &f mG rS pwifonf/
25-2-1936
... &efukefwuodkvf 'kw,
d ausmif;om;oydwf
arSmufonf/
1923 - 1937
... 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;umvjzpfonf/
1-4-37 rS 10-12-42 ... ud;k q,fw
h pfXme tkycf sKyaf &;pepf usio
hf ;kH csed f
jzpfonf/
8-1-1938
... acsmufa&eHajroydwfpwifonf/ 1300jynfh
ta&;awmfyHk ay:aygufonf/
27-12-1941
... xdik ;f Edik if ?H befaumufNrKd UwGif Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;
wyfrawmf (bDtdkifat) zGJUpnf;onf/
27-7-1942
... ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfudk ArmhumuG,f
a&; wyfrawmf (bD'Dat) tjzpf ajymif;vJ
zGJUpnf;onf/
1-8-1943
... *syefwu
Ykd twkta,mifvw
G v
f yfa&;ay;onf/
27-3-1945
... zufqpfawmfveS af &; pwifqifETJonf/
1945 - 1947
... e,fcsJUNAdwdoQwdkY\ puLjzLtkyfcsKyfa&;acwf
jzpfonf/
1947
... qd&k efwAkd v
D mjyefvnfxal xmifa&; pDru
H ed ;f rsm;
csrSwfonf/
12-2-1947
... yifvo
kH abmwlncD suu
f kd Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

16-11-1919

4-1-1948
1948 - 1950

...
...

1958 - 1959

...

2-3-1962

...

3-1-1974

...

1974 - 1988

...

18-9-1988

...

27-5-1990
9-1-1993
30-5-1996

...
...
...

15

ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;acgif;aqmif 22 OD; vufrw


S f
a&;xd;k onf/
jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdonf/
ygvDref'Drdkua&pDpepfusifhoHk;NyD; EdkifiHu d k
tkyfcsKyfonf/
wyfrawmfu tdraf pmift
h pd;k &tjzpf EdkifiHudk
xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufonf/
awmfveS af &;aumifpu
D Edik if aH wmf tmPmudk
&,lonf/
zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'ukd qErJay;ykdifcGifh&Sdol
rsm;\ 90'or19&mckdifEIef;jzifh twnfjyK
jy|mef;onf/
jrefrmhq&kd ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD\ OD;aqmifrjI zifh
acwfajymif;awmfveS af &; qifETJonf/ jynfolY
vTwfawmfESifh jynfolYaumifpD tqifq
h ifu
h kd
zG J U pnf ; um jynf o l Y u d k , f p m;vS , f r sm;u
EdkifiHawmf\ Oya'jyKa&;? tkyfcsKyfa&;? w&m;
pD&ifa&;wm0efrsm;udk aqmif&Gufonf/
taxGaxGrauseyfrrI sm;aMumifh qEjyrIrsm;
jzpfyGm;onf/ jynfwGif;jynfy tzsuftarSmifh
ya,m*rsm; pGuzf ufraI Mumifh rif;rJph du
k rf sm;
vTrf;rdk;um wdik ;f qljynfzsuv
f yk &f yfrsm; Bu;D pd;k
vmonf/ w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k rIEiS hf &yf&mG at;csr;f
om,mrIysuo
f Ok ;f um jynforl sm; us;D vefpY mpm;
tajctaeodYk qdu
k af &mufco
hJ jzifh wyfrawmf
u EdkifiHhwm0efu&kd ,lNy;D Edik if aH wmfuu
kd muG,f
apmifha&SmufcJh&onf/
ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDa&G;aumufyGJ usif;yonf/
trsKd ;om;nDvmcH pwifusi;f yonf/
trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd ,m,Dtm;jzifh qdik ;f iHo
h nf/

16
15-11-1997

30-8-2003
17-5-2004
3-9-2007
10-5-2008
29-5-2008

11-3-2010

7-11-2010

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


... EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpDudk zGJUpnf; EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;?
vlrIa&; OD;wnfcsuf (12)&yf csrSwfum
at;csr;f om,mNy;D acwfrzD UHG NzKd ;wd;k wufaom
Edik if aH wmfukd qufvufwnfaqmufonf/
... Edik if aH wmfa&SUqufomG ;rnfh rl0g'vrf;pOf(7)&yf
udk aMunmonf/
... 1996 ckEpS f ,m,Dtm;jzifq
h ikd ;f iHx
h m;cJah om
trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd jyefvnf usif;yonf/
... trsK;d om;nDvmcH atmifjrifpmG usi;f yNy;D pD;cJh
onf/
... zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'rlMurf;ukd jynfvHk;uRwf
qEcH,lyGJ usif;yonf/
... Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESih f zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD
u aMunmcsut
f rSwf (7^28) jzifh zGUJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'udk twnfjyKjy|mef;vdu
k af Mumif;
aMunmonf/
... EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpu
D aMunmcsut
f rSwf (1^2010)jzifh
jynfaxmifpk a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifudk zGJUpnf;
cJhonf/
... jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfrq
J Ee,f 330 &So
d nft
h euf
325 e,fwiG v
f nf;aumif;? trsK;d om;vTwaf wmf
rJqEe,f 330 &Sdonfhteuf 168 e,fwGif
vnf;aumif;? wkid ;f a'oBu;D vTwaf wmf okrYd [kwf
jynfe,fvTwfawmfrJqEe,f (wkdif;&if;om;
vlrsKd;rJqEe,f 29 cktygt0if) 673 e,f
&So
d nft
h euf 661 e,fwiG v
f nf;aumif;? ygwDpHk
'Dru
dk a&pD a&G;aumufyrJG sm;ukd usi;f ycJo
h nf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


7-12-2010

31-1-2011

30-3-2011

30-3-2011

17

... qErJay;ykdifcGihf&Sdol OD;a& 29 oef;ausmf


(29021608)OD;&SNd y;D jynfov
Yl w
T af wmftwGuf
qEraJ y;olO;D a&rSm 22 oef;ausmf (22421123)
OD;&Sdum qErJay;rI&mckdifEIef;rSm 77'or26
&mckid Ef eI ;f ? trsK;d om;vTwaf wmftwGuf qErJ
ay;olOD;a&rSm 22oef;ausmf(22283465)OD;
&Sdum qErJay;rI&mckdifEIef;rSm 76'or78
&mckid Ef eI ;f ? wkid ;f a'oBu;D vTwaf wmf okrYd [kwf
jynfe,fvw
T af wmf (wkid ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d tygt0if)
twGuf qErJay;ykdifcGihf&Sdol OD;a& 28oef;
ausmf (28534216)OD;&SdNyD; qErJay;olOD;a&
rSm 21oef;ausmf(21863123)OD;&Sdum qErJ
ay;rI&mckdifEIef;rSm 76'or62 &mckdifEIef;&Sd
aMumif; jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siu
f
xkwfjyefaMunmcJhonf/
... EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;
aumifpo
D nf yxrtBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf
tpnf;ta0;? yxrtBudrf trsKd;om;vTwf
awmftpnf;ta0;? yxrtBurd f wkid ;f a'oBu;D
okdYr[kwf jynfe,fvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;ukd
aejynfawmf usif;ycJhonf/
... yxrtBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf tpnf;ta0;?
yxrtBurd f trsK;d om;vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;?
yxrtBurd f wkid ;f a'oBu;D okrYd [kwf jynfe,f
vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;ukd aejynfawmf
atmifjrifpGm usif;yNyD;pD;cJhonf/
... Ekid if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifpD
u aMunmcsut
f rSwf (5^2011)jzifh Ekid if aH wmf
at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpDukd
zsufodrf;cJhonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

18

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

yxrjrefrmEkdifiHawmf
1/ tcsdefumv
2/ wnfaxmifol

at'D 1044 rS 1077 txd


taemf&xmrif;

'kwd,jrefrmEkdifiHawmf
1/ tcsdefumv
2/ wnfaxmifol

1/ tcsdefumv
2/ wnfaxmifol

t*Fvdyf - jrefrm 'kwd,ppfyGJ


1/ yk*Hrif;vufxuf
2/ 5-4-1852 &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;onf/
3/ atmufjrefrmEkdifiHwpfckvkH; tygt0if txufjrefrmEkdifiH ajrxJNrdKU
txdq;Hk I;H

at'D 1551 rS 1581 txd


bk&ifhaemifrif;

wwd,jrefrmEkdifiHawmf
at'D 1752 rS 1760 txd
tavmif;rif;w&m;

t*Fvdyf - jrefrm yxrppfyGJ


1/ bBu;D awmfrif;w&m;vufxuf
2/ 5-3-1824 &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;onf/
3/ &ckdifESifhweoFm&De,fajrrsm;qkH;IH;

19

t*Fvdyf - jrefrm wwd,ppfyGJ


1/ oDaygrif;vufxuf
2/ 11-11-1885 &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;onf/
3/ jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvkH; t*Fvdyfvufatmufa&muf&Sd

a&S;cwf NrdKY jyEkdifiHrsm;


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

waumif;NrdKUjyEkdifiH
AdEkd;NrdKUjyEkdifiH
[efvif;NrdKUjyEkdifiH
oa&acw&mNrdKUjyEkdifiH
a0omvDNrdKUjyEkdifiH
ok0PbkrdNrdKUjyEkdifiH

a&S;acwfjrefrmrif;qufrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

yxrwaumif;rif;quf =
'kw,
d waumif;rif;quf =
oa&acw&mrif;quf =
yk*Hrif;quf
=
yif;,rif;quf
=
ppfukdif;rif;quf
=
tif;0rif;quf
=
awmifirl if;quf
=

33
17
27
58
6
7
17
4

quf
quf
quf
quf
quf
quf
quf
quf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

20
9/ [Hom0wDrif;quf
10/ anmif&rf;rif;quf
11/ uke;f abmifrif;quf

=
=
=

11 quf
11 quf
11 quf

tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
ocifjr
'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd
OD;&mZwf
OD;b0if;

6/
7/
8/
9/

ref;bckdif
rkdif;yGefapmfbGm;BuD; p0fpHxGef;
OD;tke;f armif(twGi;f 0ef)
&Jabmfuadk xG; (oufawmfapmih)f

jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;umvwpfavQmuf csKyfqkdcJUaom pmcsKyfrsm;


uEDpmcsKyf
1945ckESpf pufwifbmv 7 &ufwGif oD&dvuFmEkdifiH uEDNrdKU AkdvfcsKyf
atmifqef;ESifh avmh0l0DarmifhbufwefwkdY csKyfqkdcJhMuonfh pmcsKyfjzpfonf/
atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyf
1947ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 27 &ufwGif t*FvefEkdifiH vef'efNrdKU trSwf
(10) a'gif;eif;vrf;&Sd NAw
d o
d Q0efBu;D csKyf tdraf wmf NAw
d o
d Q0efBu;D csKyf rpwm
tufwvDEiS hf Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;wkYd vufrw
S af &;xk;d csKyq
f cdk ahJ om pmcsKyjf zpf
onf/
yifvkHpmcsKyf
1947ckEpS f azazmf0g&Dv 12 &ufwiG f &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyidk ;f yifvNHk rKd U
wkdif;&if;om;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wkdY wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;
rsm;tm;vkH; aoG;pnf;nDGwfjcif; txdrf;trSwftjzpf csKyfqkdcJhaom pmcsKyf
jzpfonf/
vusfm-z&D;rif;pmcsKyf
1947ckESpf Mo*kwfv 27 &ufwGif wyfrawmf tem*wfa&;twGuf
Armhwyfrawmf umuG,fa&;0efBuD; AkdvfvusfmESifh NAdwdoQwkdYbufrS rpwm
z&D;rif;wkdY csKyfqkdcJhaom pmcsKyfjzpfonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

21

Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf
1947 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv 17 &ufwGif t*FvefEkdifiH vef'efNrdKU
NAdwdoQ0efBuD;csKyf rpwmtufwvDESifh 0efBuD;csKyf OD;EkwkdY vufrSwfa&;xkd;
csKyfqkdcJhaom pmcsKyfjzpfonf/

yifvkHpmcsKyf csKyfqkd&mwGif yg0ifMuolrsm;


1/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
2/ p0fcGefyef;pdef
3/ p0fa&Tokduf
4/ p0f[kHz
5/ p0fEGH
6/ p0fpHxGef;
7/ p0fxeG ;f at;
8/ OD;cGefzkef;
9/ OD;wifat;
10/ OD;Mumyk
11/ p0f,dyfz
12/ OD;cGefxD;
13/ OD;xGef;jrifh
14/ OD;cGefapm
15/ OD;jzL
16/ qrm; 'l0gqif0g;aemif
17/ 'l0gaZmf&pf
18/ OD;'def&wef
19/ 'l0gaZmfxGef;
20/ OD;vbef*a&mif
21/ OD;vTmrIef;
22/ OD;aomifZmckwf
23/ OD;uD,rdk ef;

jrefrmtpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,f
awmifyidk ;f apmfbmG ;
anmifa&TapmfbmG ;
ajrmufyidk ;f odEaD pmfbmG ;
vJcsm;apmfbmG ;
rkid ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;
omrkid ;f crf;apmfbmG ;
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (ajrmufykdif;)
vlxu
k ,
dk pf m;vS,f (awmifBu;D )
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (oDayg)
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (oDayg)
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (yifvkH)
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (armufr,f)
vlxkukd,fpm;vS,f (yif;w,)
qDqidk af pmfbmG ;uk,
d pf m;vS,f
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (jrpfBuD;em;)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (jrpfBuD;em;)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (jrpfBuD;em;)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (Aef;armf)
ucsifukd,fpm;vS,f (Aef;armf)
csif;ukd,fpm;vS,f (zvrf;)
csif;ukd,fpm;vS,f (wD;wdef)
csi;f uk,
d pf m;vS,f ([m;cg;)

umv

1910-2002
1918-1996

arG;-qkH;

5/ OD;ae0if;
6/ OD;pef;,k

19-8-1988rS
18-9-1988 xd
18-9-1988 rS
23-4-1992 xd

23-4-1992 rS wyfrawmf
15-11-1997 xd (EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
15-11-1997 rS wyfrawmf
19-3-2011
(Ekid if aH wmat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD)

1925-1994

9/ a'gufwmarmifarmif

10/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;apmarmif 1928-1997


11/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T 193312/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T 1933-

wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

12-8-1988 rS
19-8-1988 xd

8/ OD;at;uk(d ,m,Dorw) 1921-2006

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

wyfrawmf

25-7-1988 rS
12-8-1988 xd

2-3-1962 rS
9-11-1981 xd

2-3-1962 rS
2-3-1974 xd

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

1924-2004

7/ OD;pdefvGif

trnf

1910-2002

4/ OD;ae0if;

13-3-1957 rS
2-3-1962 xd

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pOf

9-11-1981 rS
25-7-1988 xd

1916-1989

3/ ref;0if;armif

16-3-1952 rS
13-3-1957 xd

1887-1963

4-1-1948 rS
16-3-1952 xd

umv

2/ a'gufwmbOD;

arG;-qkH;
1896-1962

trnf

1/ pyfa&Tokduf

pOf

jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmf orwtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfU yk*dKvfrsm;

22
odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
23

1915-1987
1907-1995

2/ OD;baqG
3/ OD;Ek('kwd,tBudrf)

1907-1995

1930-

9/ OD;xGe;f wif

19391949-2007
1945-

12/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD;cifGefY
13/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD;pkd;0if;
14/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; odef;pdef

11/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;oef;a&T 1933-

10/ AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;apmarmif 1928-1997

1920-1995

arG;-qkH;

8/ OD;armifarmifc

trnf

1919-1993

29-3-1977 rS
26-7-1988 xd
26-7-1988 rS
18-9-1988 xd
21-9-1988rS
23-4-1992 xd
23-4-1992 rS
25-8-2003 xd
25-8-2003 rS
18-10-2004 xd
19-10-2004 rS
12-10-2007 xd
12-10-2007
29-3-2011

umv

umv
4-1-1948 rS
12-6-1956 xd
12-6-1956 rS
1-3-1957 xd
1-3-1957 rS
29-10-1958 xd
29-10-1958 rS
4-4-1960 xd
4-4-1960 rS
2-3-1962 xd
2-3-1962 rS
4-3-1974 xd
4-3-1974 rS
29-3-1977 xd

wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
wyfrawmf
(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
wyfrawmf
(Ekid if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifp)D
wyfrawmf
(Ekid if aH wmfat;sr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifp)D

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrff;pOfygwD

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

wyfrawmf

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

ukd,fpm;jyKEkdifiHa&;ygwD
zufqpfqefYusifa&;jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pOf

7/ OD;pdef0if;

6/ OD;ae0if;('kw,
d tBurd )f 1910-2002

5/ OD;Ek(wwd,tBudrf)

4/ OD;ae0if;(yxrtBudrf) 1910-2002

arG;-qkH;
1907-1995

trnf
pOf
1/ OD;Ek(yxrtBudrf)

jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmf 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonfU yk*dKvfrsm;

24
odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
25

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

26

jrefrmEkdifiH\yx0Dqkdif&m tcsuftvufrsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


urf;dk;wef;
urf;dk;wef;t&Snf = 1385 rdkif

jrefrmEkdifiH\wnfae&m
tm&Swdkufta&SUawmifydkif;wGif wnf&SdNyD; ajrmufvwDwG'f 9 'D*&D 32
rdepfrS 28 'D*&D 31 rdepftxd ta&SUavmif*sDwG'f 92 'D*&D 10 rdepfrS
101 'D*&D 11 rdepftwGif; wnf&Sdonf/

jrefrmha&ykdifeuf
(u) ykdifeufe,fajr
( c ) qufpyfZkef
( * ) oD;oefpY ;D yGm;a&;Zkef

tus,ft0ef;
pwk&ef;rdkifaygif; 261228 rdkif us,f0ef;onf/

xif&Sm;aomjrpfBuD;rsm;
(u) {&m0wDjrpf (1250 rdkif)?
( c ) csif;wGif;jrpf (717 rdkif)?
( * ) ppfawmif;jrpf (262 rdkif)
(C) oHvGifjrpf (795 rdkif)

NrdKUawmf
aejynfawmf
tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHrsm;
wkwf? vmtkd? xdkif;? b*Fvm;a'h&SfESifh tdEd,EdkifiHwdkYtMum;wGif wnf&Sd
onf/
tjrifhqHk;awmifxGwf
cgumbkd&mZD? ayaygif; 19296 jrifhNyD; ucsifjynfe,f? aemifrGef;NrdKU
ajrmufbufwGif wnf&Sdonf/
awmifwef;rsm;
(u) &cdkifdk;r
( c ) weoFm&Ddk;r
( * ) yJc;l d;k r
awmifukef;a'orsm;
(u) ta&SUbufukef;jrifha'o
( c ) taemufbufawmifwef;Bu;D rsm;a'o
( * ) tv,fydkif;ajredrfhjrpf0Srf;vGifjyifa'o
(C) &cdkifurf;dk;wef;ajredrfhvGifjyifa'o

27

=
=
=

12 rkdif (a&rkdif)
24 rkdif (a&rkdif)
200 rkdif (a&rkdif)

{&m0wDjrpf\ jrpfcGJrsm;(tqkdygjrpfcGJrsm;ESihf yifv,ftwGif;odkYpD;0if)


(u) i0efjrpf(ac:)ykodrfjrpf
( c ) a&G;jrpf
( *) zsmyHkjrpf
(C) oufu,faomifjrpf
( i ) jyefravmhjrpf
( p ) bkduav;jrpf
( q) wdk;jrpf
( Z ) oH'djrpf
(ps) jyifpvljrpf
csif;wGif;jrpf\ jrpfvufwufrsm;
(u) jrpfomjrpf
( c ) ,l;jrpf
( * ) Okjrpf
ppfawmif;jrpf\ jrpfvufwufrsm;
(u) caygif;acsmif;
( c ) a&Tusifjrpf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

28
(*)
(C)
(i)
(p)
(q)
(Z)
( ps)
(n)
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(P)

&JEG,facsmif;
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k af csmif;
qifaoacsmif;
a&qif;acsmif;
aygif;avmif;jrpf
qGmacsmif;
jzL;acsmif;
uGeaf csmif;
uedacsmif;
yodacsmif;
NyHK;acsmif;
ausmufBu;D acsmif;
uRef;yckacsmif;

oHvGifjrpf\ jrpfvufwufrsm;
(u) aomif&if;jrpf
( c ) a[mifoa&mjrpf
( * ) tw&Hjrpf
awmifbufrSajrmufbufodkYpD;qif;aomjrpfrsm;
(u) aomif&if;jrpf
( c ) *sKdif;jrpf
( * ) tw&Hjrpf
(C) jrpfomjrpf
( i ) aZmf*sDjrpf
( p ) weoFm&Djrpfav;
ta&SU? taemuf? awmif? ajrmufwGif&Sdaom jrpfrsm;
(u) ta&SUbuftusqkH;jrpf
= rJacgifjrpf
( c ) taemufbuftusqkH;jrpf
= ewfjrpf
( * ) awmifbuftusqkH;jrpf
= ygcsefjrpf
(C) ajrmufbuftusqkH;jrpf
= arcESifhrvdcjrpf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

29

xif&Sm;aomtdkifBuD;rsm;
(u) tif;awmfBuD;tdkif(ucsifjynfe,f) =
( c ) tif;av;tdik (f &Sr;f jynfe,f)
=

tBuD;qHk;tdkif
'kw,
d tBu;D qH;k tdik f

wl;ajrmif;rsm;
(u) yJcl;-ppfawmif;wl;ajrmif; (38rdkif)
( c ) wGHaw;wl;ajrmif; (22rdkif)
tpGefqHk;NrdKUrsm;
(u) ajrmufbuftusqkH;NrdKU
( c ) awmifbuftusqkH;NrdKU
( * ) ta&SUbuftusqkH;NrdKU
(C) taemufbuftusqkH;NrdKU
tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;ESifh
(u) wkwfEdkifiH
( c ) vmtdkEdkifiH
( * ) xdkif;EdkifiH
(C) b*Fvm;a'h&fS
( i ) tdEd,EdkifiH

=
=
=
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yefeef;'if
aumhaomif;
rdkif;a,mif;
armifawm

e,fedrdwfxdpyfrItuGmta0;
2226.85 uDvdkrDwm (1384)
234.91 uDvdkrDwm (139)
2098.14 uDvdkrDwm (1304)
271.92 uDvdkrDwm (169)
1452.93 uDvdkrDwm (903)

tus,f0ef;qHk;wdkif;a'oBuD;? jynfe,f
(u) tus,0f ef;qH;k wdik ;f a'oBu;D = ppfuikd ;f wdik ;f
( c ) tus,f0ef;qHk;jynfe,f
= &Srf;jynfe,f
tusOf;qHk;wdkif;a'oBuD;? jynfe,f
(u) tusO;f qH;k wdik ;f a'oBu;D
= &efukefwdkif;
( c ) tusOf;qHk;jynfe,f
= u,m;jynfe,f
vlOD;a&trsm;qHk;wdkif;a'oBuD;? jynfe,f
(u) vlO;D a&trsm;qH;k wdik ;f a'oBuD; = {&m0wDwdkif;
( c ) vlOD;a&trsm;qHk;jynfe,f
= &Srf;jynfe,f
vlOD;a&tenf;qHk;wdkif;a'oBuD;? jynfe,f
(u) vlO;D a&tenf;qH;k wdik ;f a'oBu;D =weoFm&Dwdkif;
( c ) vlOD;a&tenf;qHk;jynfe,f = u,m;jynfe,f

rdkif
rdkif
rdkif
rdkif
rdkif

30

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

{&m0wDjrpfqkHpDrHudef;qkdif&mtcsuftvufrsm;
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tar&duefa':vm oef;20 bDv,
D H ok;H pG&J rnf/
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and Research Co.,Ltd (CDC) onf {&m0wDjrpfq?Hk arc? rvdcjrpfnm jrpf0r
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

31

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

32
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

33

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

35

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

39

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f mG ;rSmjzpfyf gw,f/

uRefawmfwkdY[m pD;yGm;a&;zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrIeJY obm0ywf0ef;usifxdef;


odr;f a&; vkt
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uGJjym;jcm;em;rI&SdcJhayr,fh EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'rSmawmh bufrvkdufwJh?
vGwv
f yfNy;D wuf<uwJh EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'ukdusihfokH;jcif;? Nidrf;csrf;pGm
twl,SOfwGJaexkdifa&;rlBuD; (5)csufeJYtnD EkdifiHwumqufqHa&;ukd
usio
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rjyKcJhwmwkdY[m tpOftquf jrefrmhEkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'&JU *kPf,lp&m
tcsurf sm;yJ jzpfygw,f/
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tpOftvmrsm;ukdyJ r,drf;r,dkif qufcHusifhokH;oGm;rSmjzpfNyD; EkdifiH
tm;vk;H eJY rdw0f wfrysuf qufqo
H mG ;rSmjzpfyf gw,f/
'Drkdua&pDpepfukdajymif;vJ&mrSm rdrdwkdY vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;
twGi;f rSm 'Dru
dk a&pDusiphf Ofrsm; xGe;f um;atmif aqmif&u
G zf v
Ydk o
dk vkd
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aqmif&u
G zf v
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dk yk af qmifwt
hJ cg uReaf wmfwYdk

40

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tpk;d &tzGUJ [m vTwaf wmftwGi;f &Sd Ekid if aH &;ygwDrsm;? vTwaf wmfjyify&Sd


pdwf&if;apwem rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;? t&yfbufvlrI
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tm;vk H ; eJ Y yl ; aygif ; aqmif & G u f o G m ;rS m jzpf a Mumif ;
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d m;olwidk ;f [m
tajccHOya'abmifxJuom EkdifiHeJY vlrsKd;tusKd; aqmif&GufMuzkdYeJY
tajccHOya'jyify enf;vrf;rsm;usio
hf ;Hk Ny;D vuf&'dS rD u
dk a&pDazmfaqmifrI
ukd ysujf ym;atmif? w&m;Oya' pk;d rk;d rIeYJ wnfNird af t;csr;f rI ysujf ym;
atmif vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm; rjyKMuzkYd wku
d w
f eG ;f ajymMum;vkyd gw,f/
txl;ojzifh jrefrmhEidk if aH &;rSm tpOftvmvkjd zpfaewJh tpk;d &eJY twku
d f
tcHqw
dk hJ y#dyutoGiaf qmifwhJ tjrifoabmxm;rsm;ukd ukid pf jJG cif;
rjyKbJ trsK;d om;tusK;d pD;yGm;tay: tajccHNy;D vkyaf zmfuidk zf ufrsm;tjzpf
oabmxm;vufwJG aqmif&u
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ygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

41

EkdifiHawmforw OD;odef;pdef (31-3-2011) &ufaehwGif


jynfaxmifpktqifU tzGJYtpnf;rsm;rS tBuD;tuJrsm;?
jynfaxmifpktpkd;&tzGJY0ifrsm;tm; ajymMum;onfU rdefhcGef;aumufEkwfcsuf
tpkd;&tzGJUopf&JU ta&;BuD;qkH;vkyfief;pOfuawmh aumif;rGefaom

tkyfcsKyfrIpepf (Good Governance) eJY oefY&Sif;aomtpkd;& (Clean


Government) ay:aygufvmatmif 0ki
d ;f 0ef;BuKd ;yrf;vkyaf qmifzyYdk J jzpfyg
w,f/ tJ'DvkdjzpfzkdYtwGufqkd&if jynfaxmifpk tpkd;&eJY wkdif;a'oBuD;?
jynfe,ftpk;d &tzGUJ toD;oD;&JU vkyif ef;pOfrsm;[m yGiv
hf if;rI &S&d ygr,f?
wm0efcrH &I &dS ygr,f? zGUJ pnf;ykH tajccHOya'? wnfqOJ ya'rsm;eJu
Y u
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yg0ifEkdifrI &Sd&ygr,f? tpkd;&tzGJU&JU vkyfief;rsm;[m oGufvufNyD;
xda&mufrI&SdzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&mtzGJUtpnf;rsm;bufuvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m
vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&mrSmjzpfap? Oya'rsm; vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;rsm;ukd
taumiftxnfazmf&mrSmjzpfap Edik if o
H m;rsm;&JU rlvtcGit
hf a&;rsm;ukd
[efw
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D cGit
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f rf;
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rxdckdufapbJ usifhokH;Ekdifatmif ulnDxdef;ausmif;ay;zkdYtwGufom
&nf&G,fvkyfaqmifzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
tvm;wlyJ rdrdwkdYvkyfief;wm0efrsm;ukd taumiftxnfazmfaqmif
&Guf&mrSm jynfolrsm;&JU oabmxm;awG? wkHYjyefrIawGukdvnf; tav;
xm;zkdYvkdtyfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd jynfolrsm;ua&m tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;taeeJYyg vGwfvyfrIeJY wm0efodrI? vGwfvyfrIeJY
pnf;urf;&SdrIrsm;ukd rSefrSefuefuef usifhokH;Mur,fqkd&if jrefrmhvlYtzGJU
tpnf;[m 'Dru
dk a&pDusiphf Ofrsm; xGe;f um;wJh vlt
Y zGUJ tpnf;jzpfvmrSm
aocsmygw,f/
EkdifiHawmfukd acwfrDzGHUNzdK;wkd;wufwJh 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHawmftjzpf wnf
aqmufEidk zf t
Ydk wGuf w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;[m rjzpfrae vkt
d yfygw,f/

42

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;twGuf vkyaf qmif&mrSm w&m;pD&ifa&; tzGUJ tpnf;
rsm;rSm wm0ef&Sdovkd Oya'pkd;rkd;a&;qkdif&m tzGJUtpnf;rsm;rSmvnf;
wm0ef&Sdygw,f/
w&m;pD&ifa&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;taeeJY w&m;Oya'pkd;rkd;a&;twGuf
vkyfaqmif&mrSm zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'rSm jy|mef;xm;wJh Oya'eJYtnD
vGwfvyfpGm w&m;pD&ifa&;? Oya't& uefYowfcsufrsm;rSty jynfolY
a&SUarSmufwGif w&m;pD&ifa&;? trIrsm;wGif Oya't& ckcH acsycGifhESifh
t,lcyH idk cf iG &hf &Sad &;qkw
d hJ w&m;pD&ifa&;rlrsm;twkid ;f &yfwnfvyk af qmif
oGm;zkdYvkdygw,f/
Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;qkid &f m tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;taeeJu
Y vnf; Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;ukd
taumiftxnfazmf&mrSm ausmom;&ifom;rcGJjcm;bJ vkyfaqmifzkdY?
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tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;uvnf; Oya'eJt
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vkyfief;rsm; vsifjrefoGufvufa&;eJY xda&mufrI &Sda&;yJjzpfygw,f/
tpk;d &tzGUJ taeeJY vuf&dS (5)ESpf pDru
H ed ;f yg &nfreS ;f csurf sm; atmifjrif
atmif taumiftxnfazmfEkdifzkdYtwGuf t&Sdeft[kefeJY qufvuf
aqmif&GufoGm;zkdYvkdygw,f/
okdYaomf tJ'Dvkdvkyfaqmif&mrSm &nfrSef;csufatmifjrifa&;twGuf
vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;rsm;? pnf;urf;rsm;ukd vspfvsLIjcif;? ukefusp&dwfESifh
tavtvGirhf sm;ukd tav;rxm;jcif; pwJh tpGe;f w&m;rsm;ukd a&Smif&mS ;zkYd
vkdygw,f/ aemufNyD; rdrdwkdYtpkd;&tzGJU[m jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfrS
wpfqifh jynforl sm;ukd wm0efc&H wJh tzGUJ tpnf;jzpfwmaMumifh jynfoYl
qEoabmxm;eJY vkt
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G f

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

43

rIeJY aygif;pyfndEIdif;rI aumif;rGefa&;yJjzpfygw,f/ tckqkd&if zGJUpnf;ykH


tajccHOya't& jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d &omru wkid ;f a'oBu;D eJY jynfe,f
tpkd;&rsm;yg &SdvmNyDjzpfwJhtwGuf tpkd;&tzJGUrsm;twGif; yl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrIeJY aygif;pyfndEIdif;rIaumif;rGefa&;[m ykdNyD;ta&;BuD;vmNyD
jzpfygw,f/
'ghaMumifh tpkd;&tzGJUtwGif;rSm txufatmufeJY ab;wdkufyl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G af &;? aygif;pyfnEd idI ;f a&;[m tkycf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm; vsijf ref
oGufvufxufjrufa&;twGuf tvGefta&;BuD;ygw,f/
jrefrmEkdifiH&JU 'Drkdua&pDpepf[m tckrS arG;zGm;cgpyJ &Sdygao;w,f/
&ifhusufzGHUNzdK;vmatmif wnfaqmufMu&OD;rSmjzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd
wnfaqmufwJhae&mrSm EkdifiHawmf&JU tkyfcsKyfrIa&;&mrsm;ukd wm0ef,l
aqmif&Guf&wJh tpkd;&tzGJUtpnf; tqifhqifh&JUu@[m tifrwefrS
ta&;BuD;ygw,f/ tkyfcsKyfrIa&;&mrsm;[m jynfolawG&JU aeYpOfvlaerI
b0tay: t"duvTr;f rk;d aewJh udpr sm;vnf;jzpfygw,f/ jynfoal wGu
pepfwpfck aumif; raumif;qkH;jzwf&mrSm olwkdY&JU aeYpOf vlaerIb0
tay:rSm b,fvkdtusKd;oufa&mufw,fqkdwmeJYyJ wkdif;wmrSmjzpf
ygw,f/
tkyfcsKyfrI,E&m;u jynfolawG&JU vlaerIb0? vlrIpD;yGm;b0ukd
tqifajyacsmarGUatmif aqmif&Gufay;Ekdifr,fqkd&if? jynfolY0efxrf;
rsm;u jynfolawGukd rQrQww qufqHr,fqkd&if? jynfolawG[m
w&m;Oya'&JU umuG,fapmifha&SmufrI atmufrSm at;csrf;pGm aexkdif
vkyu
f idk pf m;aomufEikd rf ,fq&dk if 'Dtyk cf sKyaf &;r@dKiu
f dk azmfaqmifay;
xm;wJh tajccHOya'ukd ,kHMunftm;ukd;rSmyJjzpfygw,f/ Oya'jyKa&;
vkyfief;awGukd aqmif&Gufay;aewJh Oya'jyKtzGJUtpnf;awG? Oya'jyK
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;rSm wm0ef,laewJh yk*dKvfawGukd ,kHMunftm;ukd;rSmyJ
jzpfygw,f/
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tckyxrqk;H ig;ESp[
f m ta&;Bu;D qk;H jzpfygw,f/ 'Dig;ESprf mS uReaf wmfwYdk
taeeJY ckdifrmrSefuefwJh ajcvSrf;awGukd vSrf;Ekdifr,fqkd&if tem*wf

44

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


Ekid if aH wmf&UJ a&SUc&D;[m ajzmifjh zL;aeNyv
D Ydk qkEd idk yf gw,f/ 'Dvadk qmif&u
G f
EkdifzkdYtwGuf rdrdwkdYtpkd;&[m tkyfcsKyfrIpepfaumif;rGefwJh (Good
Governance) tpkd;&aumif;wpf&yfjzpf&ygr,f/ oefY&Sif;wJh (Clean
Government) tpkd;&jzpfzkdY vkdygw,f/
tpkd;&aumif;wpf&yfjzpfzkdYtwGuf pDrHcefYcGJrIaumif;zkdY vkdygw,f/
tkycf sKyrf aI umif;zkYd vkyd gw,f/ jynfoal wGtay: apwemxm;&ygr,f/
jynfol&JUtusKd;pD;yGm;ukd tumtuG,fay;&ygr,f/ jynfolukd tvkyf
tauR;jyKMu&rSm jzpfygw,f/
oefY&Sif;wJh (Clean Government) jzpfzkdYtwGufuawmh t*wdw&m;
uif;&Si;f zkYd vdt
k yfygw,f/ vmbfay;vmbf,jl cif;[m wkid ;f jynfev
YJ rl sK;d &JU
*kPfodumukd xdckdufapjcif;aMumifh rdrdukd,fwkdifaomfvnf;aumif;?
rdrw
d m0ef,&l wJh tzGUJ tpnf;tm;vnf;aumif; uif;uif;&Si;f &Si;f &Sad tmif
xdef;ausmif;MuyfrwfoGm;MuzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
jynfaxmifpt
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yk*Kd vrf sm; uk,
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d f y k d i ftyk cf sKycf iG &hf a'o
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dS ajctae?
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a&S;Iaomtm;jzifh rdrdwkdYcHpm;cGifhjyKxm;aom vpOfcsD;jrifhaiGrsm;ukd
tjynfht0cHpm;jcif;rjyKbJ EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;
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0efxrf;rsm;&JU vpmESiyhf ifpifvpmwku
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tae? aiGaMu;azmif;yGrEI eI ;f ESihf ukeaf ps;EIe;f tajctae? wpfrsK;d om;vk;H \
tom;wifxkwfvkyfrIESifh 0efaqmifrIwefzkd;wkdYukd xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;NyD;
oifah vsmaf omtcsed u
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G af y;oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

45

EkdifiHawmforw OD;odef;pdef (6-4-2011)&ufaehwGif


jynfaxmifpktqifU tzGJYtpnf;0ifyk*dKvfrsm;? wkdif;a'oBuD;ESifU
jynfe,f0efBuD;csKyfrsm;ESifU jynfaxmifpk 'kwd,0efBuD;rsm;tm; ajymMum;onfh
rdefhcGef;aumufEkwfcsuf
aps;uGupf ;D yGm;a&;pepfwiG f vlwidk ;f tvkyv
f yk Ef idk af tmif zefw;D ay;&ef

vkyd gaMumif;? vlwidk ;f tvkyv


f yk rf S vlwidk ;f 0ifaiGw;dk Ny;D wkid ;f jynf\ G.D.P
onfvnf; wk;d vmrSmjzpfygaMumif;? Oya'ESit
fh nD vGwv
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vGwv
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hf dk cGijhf yKay;&rSmjzpfonft
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tqD; tydwftqkdY t[efYtwm;rsm;ukd z,f&Sm;ay;&rnfjzpfaMumif;?
vljzifrh xde;f bJ rljzifx
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hf ed ;f ausmif;oGm;&
rnfjzpfaMumif;? okrYd o
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k dk ajymif;vJcNhJ yjD zpfygaMumif;? ajymif;vJonfah cwf

pepfEiS t
hf nD tawG;tac:rsm;? vkyef nf;vky[
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jzpfygaMumif;? xkdYaMumifh rdrdwkdY\ vkyfief;rsm;ukd wm0ef,lMu&rnf
jzpfygaMumif;? wm0ef,l o
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pepfajymif;oGm;NyjD zpfouJo
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d af jymif;&rnfjzpfygaMumif;?

tajymif;tvJudk vkcd siaf eonfh jynforl sm;\qEudk em;vnfoabm


aygufMu&rSmjzpfygaMumif;? A[ku
d csKyu
f idk o
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f if;ckid rf m&ef?
tm;aumif;&efvydk gaMumif;/

46

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jynforl sm;udv
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

47

aus;vufa'opD;yGm;a&; zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufro


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k &f mtcsut
f vufrsm;ESihf

48

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

49

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&rSmjzpfygw,f/

50

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

EkdifiHawmforw OD;odef;pdef (20-6-2011) &ufaeh


aus;vufa'ozGHY NzdK;a&;ESifh qif;&JrIavQmhcsa&; A[kdaumfrwD\ (1^2011)
tpnf;ta0;wGif ajymMum;onfU rdefhcGef;aumufEkwfcsuf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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51

2015 ckEpS t
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wpfOD;csif;taejzifh enf;ynmESifh t&if;tESD;rwwfEdkifonfhtwGuf

52

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

qif;&JrIESifh ta<u;wifrIrS rvGwfajrmufEdkifonfh tajctaerS


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

53

Edik if aH wmforw OD;ode;f pdef (17-8-2011)&ufaehwiG f


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pyg;ay:csed rf mS awmifov
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qefukefonfBuD;rsm; zufpyfaiGaMu;pdkufxkwfum tajccHaps;EIef;

54

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wpfckjzifh owfrSwf0,f,lNyD; EdkifiHawmf&JU t&efqeftjzpf xm;&Sd&ef


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

55

todik ;f t0dik ;f udk cifw,


G Mf uygw,f/ Nird ;f csr;f om,m0ajymwJh vlabmif
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tcGifhtvrf;aumif;awGudk t&trd qkyfukdifxm;zdkYvdkygw,f/

56

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Edik if aH wmforw OD;ode;f pdef (19-8-2011)&ufaeY


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

57

aps;uGut
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58

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Edik if aH wmforw OD;ode;f pdef (22-8-2011)&ufaeY


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G Mf u&mrSm vkyef nf;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

59

vkyf[efawG? BudK;eDpepfawG? qufvufpGJukdifxm;olawG? wm0efodrI?


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d yfrmS jzpfygw,f/

60

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Edik if aH wmforw OD;ode;f pdef (30-9-2011)&ufaeY


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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= 0efBu;D ? odyEH iS ehf nf;ynm0efBu;D Xme
= 0efBuD;? vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifh
jynfot
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= 0efBu;D ? orwk;H 0efBu;D Xme
= jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyf
jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyfkH;
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

89

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(c)armiftek ;f
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jynfolYvTwfawmfOu|
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jynfaxmifpkw&m;olBuD;csKyf
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trsKd;om;vTwfawmf'kwd,Ou| jynfaxmifpkpm&if;ppfcsKyf
jynfaxmifpka&SUaecsKyf
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aejynfawmfaumifpD Ou|
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

90
8/
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ppfuikd ;f wdik ;f a'oBu;D


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wkdif;a'oBuD;vTwfawmfESifU jynfe,fvTwfawmftoD;oD; cefYtyfxm;aom


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

91

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'kw,
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'kw,
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'kwd,0efBu;D ? jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xme
'kw,
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'kw,
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'kw,
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'kw,
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k yf sKd ;a&;ESihf
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'kw,
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k yf sKd ;a&;ESihf
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'kwd,0efBuD;?
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

92
19/ OD;0if;&Sdef
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a'gufwm0if;jrifh
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a':pEmcif
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a'gufwmuku
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

93

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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95

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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2/ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDGwfrI rNydKuGJa&;?
3/ tcsKyftjcmtmPmwnfwHhcdkifNrJa&;?
4/ ppfrSefaom ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfxGef;um;a&;?
5/ EdkifiHawmf w&m;rQwjcif;? vGwfvyfjcif;ESifh nDrQjcif;wnf;[laom
avmuygv w&m;rsm; ykdrkdxGef;um;a&;?
6/ Edik if aH wmf\ trsKd ;om;Edik if aH &;OD;aqmifrt
I cef;u@wGif wyfrawmfu
yg0ifxrf;aqmifEikd af &;?
trsdK;om;nDvmcH usif;ya&;aumfr&Sif
1/ 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;odef;pdef
Ou|
twGi;f a&;rSL;(1)
Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;aumifpD
2/ OD;atmifw;kd
'kwd,Ou|
w&m;olBuD;csKyf
3/ AdkvfcsKyfwifxG#f
'kwd,Ou|
0efBuD;? or0g,r0efBuD;Xme
4/ AdkvfrSL;csKyfausmfqef;
twGi;f a&;rSL;
0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme
5/ AdkvfcsKyfcifatmifjrifh
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (1)
0efBuD;? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme
6/ OD;jrifhodef;
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (2)
TefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf? jynfolYvTwfawmfHk;
(tzGJU0iftm;vHk; 18 OD;yg0ifygonf/)

100

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

trsdK;om;nDvmcH usif;ya&;vkyfief;aumfrwD
1/ OD;atmifw;kd
Ou|
w&m;olBuD;csKyf
2/ OD;at;armif
'kwd,Ou|
a&SUaecsKyf
3/ OD;aomif;GeYf
twGi;f a&;rSL;
Oya'tBuaH y;
4/ OD;cifarmifjrifh
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (1)
TeMf um;a&;rSL;csKy?f 0efxrf;a&;&mOD;pD;Xme
5/ a'gufwmaomif;jrifh
wGzJ uftwGi;f a&;rSL; (2)
tBuHay;t&m&Sd? usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme
(tzGJU0iftm;vHk; 35 OD; yg0ifygonf/)
trsKd;om;nDvmcHqkdif&m ta&;BuD;tcsufrsm;
1/ trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd &efuek Nf rKd U? usKd uq
u
H iG ;f trsKd ;om; nDvmcHcef;rwGif
1993 ckEpS rf S 1996 ckEpS t
f xdusi;f ycJo
h nf/ xdpk Ofu trsKd ;om; 'Dru
kd a&pD
tzGJUcsKyfrS trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm; nDvmcHukd,fpm;vS,f
tjzpf wufa&mufcJhonf/
2/ 1996 ckESpf? atmufwdkbmvrSp &yfqdkif;cJhonf/
3/ 2004 ckEpS ?f arv (17)&ufaeYrpS trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D udk &efuek w
f ikd ;f ?
arSmfbDNrdKUe,f? anmifESpfyifpcef;wGif usif;ycJhonf/ ,if;trsdK;om;
nDvmcHoYkd trsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzGUJ csKyrf S trsKd ;om;nDvmcH ud,
k pf m;vS,f
rsm; rwufa&mufcyhJ g/ 2004 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd f (9)&ufaeYwiG f rd;k &moD acw
&yfem;cJhonf/
4/ 2005 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv (17)&ufaeYwiG f &efuek w
f ikd ;f ? arSmb
f ND rdKUe,f?
anmifESpfyifpcef;yif trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,f (1071)OD;
wufa&mufcJhonf/
5/ ,if;trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D odYk atmufygEdik if aH &;ygwDrsm;rS ud,
k pf m;vS,f
rsm;vnf; wufa&mufcJhonf(u) udk;uefY'Drdkua&pDESifh nDGwfa&;ygwD

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

101

( c ) wdik ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nDw


G af &;ygwD
( * ) jynfaxmifpku&iftrsdK;om;tzGJUcsKyf
(C) jynfaxmifpkytdk0fhtrsdK;om;tzGJUcsKyf
( i ) NrdK (ac:) crDtrsdK;om;nDGwfa&;ygwD
( p ) vm;[ltrsKd ;om;zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;ygwD
(q) ]]0}} trsdK;om;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&;ygwDwdkYjzpfonf/
6/ 2005 ckESpf? rwfv(31) &ufaeYwGif acw&yfem;cJhonf/
7/ 2005 ckEpS f 'DZifbm (5)&ufrS 31-1-2006 xd trsKd ;om;nDvmcHBu;D udk
jyefvnf wpfBudrfusif;ycJhNyD; 2006 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (10)&uf
aeYrpS pwkwt
Burd jf yefvnf usi;f ycJo
h nf/ 3-9-2007wGif trsK;d om;
nDvmcH atmifjrifpmG usi;f yNy;D pD;onf/ Edik if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccH Oya'
opfwiG f tcef;(1) EdkifiHawmftajccHrrl sm;? tcef;(2) Edik if aH wmfzUJG pnf;
wnfaqmufy?kH tcef;(3) EdkifiHawmftBuD;tuJ? tcef;(4) Oya'jyKa&;?
tcef;(5) tkyfcsKyaf &;? tcef;(6) w&m;pD&ifa&;? tcef;(7) wyfrawmf?
tcef; (8) EkdifiHom;? Edik if o
H m;rsm;\ rlvtcGit
hf a&;ESihf wm0efrsm;?
tcef;(9) a&G;aumufwifajrmufjcif;? tcef;(10) EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;?
tcef;(11) ta&;ay:umvqdik &f m jy|mef;csurf sm;? tcef; (12) zGUJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'jyifqifjcif;? tcef;(13) Edik if aH wmftvH? txdr;f trSww
f q
H yd ?f
oDcsif;ESifh NrdKUawmf? tcef;(14) ul;ajymif;a&;umv jy|mef;csufrsm;ESifh
tcef;(15) taxGaxG jy|mef;csufrsm;[l tcef;aygif; (15)ck
yg0ifonf/

102

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

EdkifiHawmf zGJYpnf;yHktajccHOya'rlMurf; a&;qGJa&;aumfr&Sif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


10/ OD;ode;f pd;k

103
tzGJU0if

[B.Sc(D.S.A), RL]

1/ OD;atmifw;kd (B.A, B.L)


w&m;olBuD;csKyf? w&m;Hk;csKyf? aejynfawmf
2/ OD;at;armif (B.A, B.L)
a&SUaecsKyf? a&SUaecsKyfHk;? aejynfawmf
3/ OD;aomif;GeYf (B.Sc, B.L)
Oya'tBuHay;yk*dKvf? &efukefNrdKU
4/ AdkvfrSL;csKyfausmfqef;

Ou|

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

tzGJU0if

12/ a'gufwmwifatmifat;

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

'kwd,w&m;olBuD;csKyf? w&m;Hk;csKyf? aejynfawmf


tzGJU0if

[B.Sc, B.L, LLM(Germany), LLD(Germany)]

w&m;Hk;csKyfw&m;olBuD;? w&m;Hk;csKyf? &efukefNrdKU


13/ OD;wifat;

tzGJU0if

w&m;Hk;csKyfw&m;olBuD;? w&m;Hk;csKyf? &efukefNrdKU


14/ a'gufwmcifarmifGefY

tzGJU0if

[B.A, M.A(Modern Hist), Ph.D(London)]

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if? jrefrmhordkif;tzGJU? &efukefNrdKU


15/ OD;xGef;atmifcsdef

[B.Sc (D.S.A), H.G.P, M.A (Defence Studies)]

ppfOya'csKyf? umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf


7/ a'gufwmoef;GeYf
tzGJU0if
[B.A(Hons), M.Sc(Econ) (London), Ph.D (Cambridge)]

Ou|? 0efxrf;a&G;cs,favhusifha&;tzGJU? aejynfawmf


8/ a'gufwmxGe;f &Sif
tzGJU0if
[B.A, LL.B(Ygn:), M.A(Business Law)(London),
LL.D, Intl Law(Ghent, Belgium), F.R.G.S(London),
A.M.R.Ae.s(London), Dip. Intl Law(London)]

'kwd,a&SUaecsKyf? a&SUaecsKyfHk;? aejynfawmf


9/ OD;xGe;f xGe;f OD;

tzGJU0if

(B.A, H.G.P, RL)

[B.A, Diploma in Defence and Security]

0efBuD;? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf


6/ AdkvfcsKyfpdk;armif

11/ OD;xGe;f xGe;f OD;

'kwd,Ou|

[B.Sc (D.S.A), Diploma in Defence and Security]

0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf


5 / AdkvfcsKyfcifatmifjrifh

'kwd,w&m;olBuD;csKyf? w&m;Hk;csKyf? &efukefNrdKU

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

[B.A, M.A(Hist) (USA)]

twGif;a&;rSL;? jrefrmhordkif;tzGJU? &efukefNrdKU


16/ a'gufwmarmifarmif0ifh

tzGJU0if

[M.B.B.S, MRCP (UK), FRCP (Edin),


Dr.Med.Sc. (Int. Med)]

ygarmucsKyf(Nidrf;)? aq;odyHynmOD;pD;Xme
pmayTeMf um;a&;rSL;? wyfrawmfaq;wuov
kd f
umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? &efukefNrdKU
17/ OD;ausmfjrifhOD;

tzGJU0if

[B.Sc, M.Sc, UNDP, Certificate in Environmental Toxicology

[B.A(Law), LL.B, M.A(Defence Studies)]

and Pollution Control Management]

'kwd,a&SUaecsKyf? a&SUaecsKyfHk;? aejynfawmf

ygarmucsKyf(Nidrf;)? '*Hkwuodkvf? &efukefNrdKU

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

104
18/ OD;jrwfol(wuodkvfjrwfol)

tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


25/ OD;wDcGefjrwf

[B.A(Law), LL.B, HGP]

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

pma&;q&m? w&m;Hk;csKyfa&SUae
t,f'DwmcsKyf(Nidrf;)? &efukefNrdKU

Oya't&m&Sd? uGwfcdkifNrdKU

19/ a'gufwmpd;k &if

26/ a'gufwmcifaZmf
tzGJU0if

ygarmucsKyf(Nidrf;)? &efukefwuodkvf
tzGUJ 0if? 0dZm ESio
hf yd yH nm&Sit
f rIaqmiftzGUJ ? &efuek Nf rKd U
tzGJU0if

TefMum;a&;rSL;(Nidrf;)? a&SUaecsKyfHk;? &efukefNrdKU


28/ a'gufwma':wifarxGe;f

tzGJU0if

ygarmu(XmerSL;)? Oya'ynmXme
&efukefta0;oifwuodkvf? &efukefNrdKU
29/ a'gufwmcifrm&D

Ph.D (Loughborough, England)]

tzGUJ 0if? 0dZm ESio


hf yd yH nm&Sit
f rIaqmiftzGUJ ? &efuek Nf rKd U
tzGJU0if

ygarmu(XmerSL;)? Oya'ynmXme?
&efukefwuodkvf? &efukefNrdKU
30/ OD;pHvGif

Ph.D(USA)]

Ou|? jrefrmEdkifiHpdkufysdK;a&;? opfawm?


arG;jrLa&;ESifha&vkyfief;ynm&SiftzGJU? &efukefNrdKU
tzGJU0if

TefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf(Nidrf;)? jrefrmpmtzGJUOD;pD;Xme?
&efukefNrdKU
31/ a'gufwma':cifzkef;jrifhMuL

M.S. Ed(USA), Dr.Med.Sc]

[Ph.D (Myanmar), (Civil Law, Family Law)]

ygarmucsKyf(Nidrf;)? aq;wuodkvf(2)
Ou|? jrefrmEdkifiHMuufajceDtoif;? &efukefNrdKU

ygarmu (XmerSL;)? Oya'ynmXme


rEav;ta0;oifwuodkvf? rEav;NrdKU

ygarmucsKyf? uGefysLwmwuodkvf? &efukefNrdKU

tzGJU0if

B.A(D.S.A)

[M.B.B.S, DPTM, DCMT(UK),

[B.Sc.(Chem:)(Hons;), M.Sc(CS), Ph.D(Singapore)]

tzGJU0if

[Ph.D (Myanmar), (Intellectual Property Law)]

[B.Sc, B.Sc(Hons), M.Sc, B.L, M.A(USA),

24/ a'gufwmeDvmode;f

tzGJU0if

[Ph.D (Myanmar), (International Law)]

[B.E(Chemical), M.Sc (Chem, Eng),

23/ a'gufwmomvSa&T

tzGJU0if

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

w&m;Hk;csKyfa&SUaeESifhOya'tBuHay;? &efukefNrdKU

22/ a'gufwmjrifhodef;

tzGJU0if

[B.A(Ed), B.Ed, Ph.D(Moscow)]

27/ OD;oef;ausmf

[M.A(Philo), H.G.P, RL, D.B.L, D.I.L]

21/ a'gufwmrsdK;oefYwif

tzGJU0if

ygarmucsKy(f Nird ;f )? &efuek yf nma&;wuov


kd ?f &efuek Nf rKd U

[B.Sc (Hons), M.Sc (UK), Ph.D (Italy)]

20/ OD;av;jrifh

105

tzJGJU0if

32/ OD;xGe;f atmif


[B.A(Law), LL.B]

cdkifOya't&m&Sd? zsmyHkNrdKU

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

106
33/ a':ar&DrDeef

tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


42/ OD;omvS

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

Oya't&m&Sdtqifh(1)? jrpfBuD;em;NrdKU

'kwd,jynfe,fOya't&m&Sd(Nidrf;)? ppfawGNrdKU

34/ OD;pdik ;f armif&D

tzGJU0if

43/ OD;pdkif;crf;rSwf

[B.Com, H.G.P]

[B.A, H.G.P]

txufwef;a&SUae? Aef;armfNrdKU

txufwef;a&SUae? vm;dI;NrdKU

35/ OD;tifaZmfaemf

tzGJU0if

44/ OD;GeaYf rmif

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

[B.A(Zoo)]

cdkifOya't&m&Sd(Nidrf;)? jrpfBuD;em;NrdKU

ukefonf? erfhpefNrdKU

36/ OD;'Dqif&rf

tzGJU0if

45/ OD;qdkifaygif;eyf

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

[B.A, H.G.P]

cdkifOya't&m&Sd? rdk;nif;NrdKU

txufwef;a&SUae? vm;dI;NrdKU

37/ OD;wd;k &,f

tzGJU0if

46/ OD;yDwmaomif;pdef

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

(LL.B., D.C.Sc)

w&m;Hk;csKyfa&SUae? vdGKifaumfNrdKU

w&m;Hk;csKyfa&SUae? usdKif;wHkNrdKU

38/ OD;apmatmifausmrf if;

tzGJU0if

47/ OD;pwDAif

( LL.B)

[B.A(Geog), H.G.P]

txufwef;a&SUae? bm;tHNrdKU

txufwef;a&SUae? usdKif;wHkNrdKU

39/ OD;a[mufcefYref

tzGJU0if

48/ OD;pdik ;f ausmZf H

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

[B.A(Law), LL.B, D.C.Sc]

OD;pD;t&m&Sd(Nidrf;)? wGef;ZHNrdKU

cdkifOya't&m&Sd? wmcsDvdwfNrdKU

40/ OD;&So
D ;D

tzGJU0if

49/ OD;nDeyf

(B.Sc, B.Ed)

[B.Sc(Phy:)]

NrdKUe,fynma&;rSL;? av&SD;NrdKU

ukefonf? wmcsDvdwfNrdKU

41/ OD;GefYwif

tzGJU0if

50/ OD;pdkif;wifhqdkif

[B.A(Geog), H.G.P]

[B.A(Law), LL.B]

jynfe,fw&m;olBuD;(Nidrf;)? armfvNrdKifNrdKU

A[dkw&m;Hk;a&SUae? awmifBuD;NrdKU

107
tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

108
51/ OD;cGeq
f ef;a&T

tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

109

jynfvHk;uRwfqEcH,lyGJ usif;ya&;aumfr&Sif

(LL.B)

ukefonf? awmifBuD;NrdKU
52/ OD;aiGp;kd

tzGJU0if

(LL.B)

ukefonf? yif;w,NrdKU
53/ a'gufwmaomif;jrifh

twGi;f a&;rSL;

[M.B.B.S, M.Sc(Forensic Medicine), GDR]

ygarmu(XmerSL;)(Nird ;f )? Oya'a&;&maq;ynmXme
aq;wuov
kd (f rEav;)? tBuaH y;yk*Kd vf
usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme? aejynfawmf
54/ OD;0if;udk

wGzJ uftwGi;f a&;rSL;

(LL.B, LL.M)

TefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf
ygwDp'kH rD u
kd a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyu
JG si;f ya&;aumfr&Sif ;kH
&efukefNrdKU

EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpDonf EdkifiHawmf


at;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;aumifpD Oya'trSwf 1^2008 jzifh jy|mef;
xm;aom 2008ckEpS f jynfaxmifpo
k rwjrefrmEdik if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'rlMurf; twnfjyKa&; jynfvHk;uRwfqEcH,lyGJ Oya'\ tcef;-3? yk'fr
5(u) t& atmufygyk*Kd vrf sm;yg0ifaom jynfv;kH uRwf qEc,
H yl JG usi;f ya&;
aumfr&Sifudk zGJUpnf;vdkufonf1/ OD;atmifw;kd
Ou|
2/ OD;tifaZmfaemf
tzGJU0if
3/ OD;pdik ;f ,Duse;f
tzGJU0if
4/ OD;rsdK;wifh
tzGJU0if
5/ OD;apm0if;atmif
tzGJU0if
6/ OD;cufxdefeef;
tzGJU0if
7/ OD;vef;Zke;f
tzGJU0if
8/ OD;xrdkif,Hk
tzGJU0if
9/ OD;ausm'f if(c)OD;ax;&,f
tzGJU0if
10/ OD;ausmx
f eG ;f
tzGJU0if
11/ OD;apmvdiI f
tzGJU0if
12/ a'gufwmrlxef
tzGJU0if
13/ OD;&So
D ;D
tzGJU0if
14/ a'gufwmarmifx;l
tzGJU0if
15/ OD;armifv(S c)OD;vSjrifh
tzGJU0if
16/ OD;cspfarmif
tzGJU0if
17/ OD;cspfvS
tzGJU0if
18/ a'gufwmatmifqef;0if;
tzGJU0if
19/ OD;at;armif
tzGJU0if
20/ a'gufwmxGe;f &Sif
tzGJU0if
21/ OD;xGe;f xGe;f OD;
tzGJU0if

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

110
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

111

jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif
EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;aumifpDonf 2010 jynfhESpf
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112

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif
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7/ OD;GefYwif
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

113

b@ma&;aumfr&Sif (30-3-2011)
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'kwd,orw

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114

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13/ OD;omat;
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19/ OD;ode;f atmif


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A[kdaumfrwD (20-4-2011)
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115

10/
11/
12/
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116

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vkyfief;aumfrwD (20-4-2011)
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

117

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

118

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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1/ EdkifiHawmforw

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aus;vufa'ozGHY NzdK;a&;ESifU qif;&JEGrf;yg;rIavQmhcsa&;


vkyfief;aumfrwD (10-6-2011)
1/
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

120
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

121

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qif;&JEGrf;yg;rIavQmhcsa&; vkyfief;aumfrwD (10-6-2011)
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4/

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122

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

123

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3/

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ajyma&;qkdcGifUESifU owif;xkwfjyefa&;tzGJY (10-8-2011)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

124
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

125

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126

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

127

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ajrvGwf? ajrvyfESifU ajrkdif;rsm; pDrHcefhcGJa&;A[kdaumfrwD (16-11-2011)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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12/
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6/ ausmif;om;tiftm;
- 473128

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

195

usef;rma&;u@ (31-12-2010)
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

aq;Hkrsm;wkd;csJUjrihfwifrI
wdik ;f &if;aq;Hk
usef;rma&;vkyfief;Xmersm;
wuodkvfrsm;
oifwef;ausmif;rsm;

898
14
2022
15
43

jyefMum;a&;ESifUjynfolYqufqHa&;u@ (31-12-2010)
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/

kyfoHxyfqifhvTifhpufHkrsm;
jyef^quf pmMunfhwdkufrsm;
Xmeqdkif&mpmMunfhwkduf
aus;&Gmuk,
d t
hf m;uk,
d u
f ;dk pmMunfw
h u
kd rf sm;
e-Library rsm;
owif;pmwdu
k rf sm;
ud,
k yf mG ;owif;pmwku
d rf sm;

219
400
870
55755
125
4
9

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

196

zGHY NzdK;a&;a'oBuD; (24)ck


ucsifjynfe,f
(u) jrpfBuD;em;a'o
( c ) Aef;armfa'o

7/

2/

u,m;jynfe,f
vGKd iaf umfa'o

8/

3/

u&ifjynfe,f
bm;tHa'o

1/

4/

&ckdifjynfe,f
ppfawGa'o

5/

&Srf;jynfe,f
(u) vm;I;d a'o
( c ) usKdif;wkHa'o
( * ) awmifBuD;a'o
(C) yifvkHa'o

6/

ppfudkif;wkdif;a'oBuD;
(u) rkH&Gma'o
( c ) ppfukdif;a'o
( * ) uav;a'o

9/

weoFm&Dwkdif;a'oBuD;
(u) Nrdwfa'o
( c ) xm;0,fa'o
yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;
(u) yJcl;a'o
( c ) jynfa'o
rauG;wkdif;a'oBuD;
(u) rauG;a'o
( c ) yckuLa'o

10/ rEav;wkdif;a'oBuD;
(u) rEav;a'o
( c ) rdwDvma'o
( * ) jrif;NcHa'o
11/ {&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;
(u) ykodrfa'o
( c ) [oFmwa'o
( * ) rtlyifa'o

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

197

jynfe,f^wkdif;a'oBuD;tvkduf wnfaqmufNyD;pD;cJUaom
wHwm;BuD;rsm;? a&tm;vQyfppfpufkHrsm;
ucsifjynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txufwHwm;BuD; (2)pif;
1/ Avrif;xifwHwm; ({&m0wDjrpful;)
2/ wEdik ;f wHwm; (wEdik ;f acsmif;)
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHkrsm;
1/ ylwmtdk
0.160
2/ *vdkifacsmif;
1.260
3/ usdefc&rfc
2.520
4/ erfhcrf;c
5.000
5/ wmydef(1)? rkd;armufNrdKU
240

r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ csDazGi,f
99
2/ ,Deef
1200
3/ acgifvzH ;l
2700
4/ zDaZm
2000
5/ 0laqmuf
1800
6/ csDazG
2800
7/ vkdufZm
1900
8/ wmyde(f 2)
168
9/ aemfcsrf;c
1055
10/ xmc
6
11/ {&m0wDjrpfqHk
6000

r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tvwfpm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;) (&yfqidk ;f )

wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ tlrGefc
10 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

198
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

rvdacsmif;
wbuf&ef
w&Gefc
wEkdif;c
w0rfc
erfhrvdc
Aef;armf

10.5
24
150
15
50
123
300

r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

u,m;jynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; ay (180)txufwHwm;
xl;acsmif;wHwm; (zm;aqmif;)
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHkrsm;
1/ bDv;l acsmif;(2)
168 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
3/ bDv;l acsmif;(1)
28 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
1/ bDv;l acsmif;(3)
52 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
2/ &Gmopf
600 r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
3/ erfhwbuf
110 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
4/ erfhyGef
130 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
u&ifjynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;(3)pif;
1/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (bm;tH)
- t&Snaf y 2252
2/ *sdKif;wHwm;(Zmojyif)
- t&Snfay 2900
3/ *sKd i;f wHwm;(aumhu&dw)f
- t&Snfay 1200

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

199

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHk
1/ zmyGef
0.062 r*g0yf
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
[wfBu;D
1360 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ aomufa&cyf(1)
150
2/ txufov
H iG (f e,fjcm;)
4000
3/ atmufov
H iG (f e,fjcm;)
500
4/ ',kid ;f
25
5/ ,Ge;f pvif;
400
6/ aomif&if;(1)
110
7/ aomif&if;(2)
231
8/ aomif&if;(3)
288

r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

csif;jynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; ay(180)txuf wHwm;rsm;
1/ ewfZw
H w
H m;(wGe;f ZH) t&Snaf y 270
2/ vnfrsKdwHwm;(rwlzD) t&Snfay 240
3/ Am;&fww
H m;
t&Snaf y 340
4/ uyfwv
J w
f w
H m;
t&Snaf y 480
5/ rHaqmif;wHwm;
t&Snfay 460
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHkrsm;
1/ ZmvG;D
0.400
2/ a'gif;Am;
0.4000
3/ ippfAm;
1.100
4/ yvuf0
0.050
5/ erfah vmifacsmif;
0.200
6/ vkid Af m;
0.600

r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

200
7/
8/
9/
10/

xD;G aqmif;
csDacsmif;
oif;oJacsmif;
vkdifbGefacsmif;

0.200
0.200
0.050
0.050

r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf
r*g0yf

rGefjynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD; (3)pif;
1/ tw&HwHwm; (armfvNrdKif)
2/ oHvGifwHwm; (armfvNrdKif)
3/ ppfawmif;wHwm; (rkyvif)
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ bD;vif;
280 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ rsuaf wmacsmif;
10 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
&ckdifjynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;rsm;
1/ 'vufacsmif;wHwm;
2/ ajrmif;abGww
H m;
3/ upye'DwHwm;
4/ wef;vTaJ csmif;wHwm;
5/ vrl;acsmif;wHwm;
6/ rtDacsmif;wHwm;
7/ peJaygufww
H m;
8/ vH;k awmfaygufww
H m;
9/ 'D;'kwaf ygufww
H m;
10/ udik ;f &Snw
f w
H m;
11/ yDaumufww
H m;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/

201

rif;acsmif;wHwm;
&marmifww
H m;
a,macsmif;wHwm;
qyfomG ;wHwm;
oHorBu;D wHwm;
0efzkdufwHwm;
rif;aMumif;acsmif;wHwm;
oZifwefaygufwHwm;
oHoracsww
H m;
o,kww
H m;(yJy'k)H

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ ola|;
111.0
2/ trf;acsmif;
10.0
3/ pkdif;'if
76.5
4/ av;NrdKU
500.0

r*g0yf (tBu;D pm;)


r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ oHwJG
39 r*g0yf
2/ usdEvD
28 r*g0yf
&Srf;jynfe,f
wnfaqmufNyD; pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;BuD; (8)pif;
1/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (wmaumftuf)
2/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (wmqef;)
3/ erfhwdefwHwm; (uGrf;vHk)
4/ rwfvef;wHwm; (vJcsm;)
5/ vif;ac;wHwm; (vif;ac;)
6/ oHviG w
f w
H m; (wmyg;)

202

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

7/ 'k|0wDwHwm; (aemifcsdK)
8/ a&Tvw
D w
H m;(erfch rf;)
9/ vde;f vDww
H m;(yifavmif;)
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHkrsm;
1/ aZmf*s(D 1)
18
2/ aZmf*s(D 2)
12
3/ a&Tv(D 1)
600
4/ usKid ;f awmif;
54
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ txufov
H iG (f rkid ;f wk)H
7110
2/ txufusKd i;f awmif;
52.5
3/ a&Tv(D 2)
640
4/ a&TvD(3)
800
5/ txufov
H iG (f rkid ;f wk)H
1400
6/ erfhavG^erfhc
652
7/ txufbv
D ;l acsmif;
16
8/ aemifz^refawmif;
1200
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ erwl-erfhvef
177
2/ erfhukwf
55
3/ erfhr,fqkdif
12.8
4/ refbif;
800

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

203

ppfudkif;wdkif;a'oBuD;

r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)

wnfaqmufNyD;ausmufrD;aoG;okH; a&aEG;aiGu"mwftm;ay;pufkH
1/ wDuspf
120 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;rsm;


1/ rJZmwHwm; (tif;awmf)
2/ a&Tvw
D w
H m; (uom)
3/ csif;wGif;wHwm; (rHk&Gm)
4/ jrpfomwHwm; (uav;0)
5/ OkwHwm; ([krvif;)
wnfaqmufqJ wHwm; (2)pif;
1/ &wemodCw
F w
H m;(txl;pDru
H ed ;f 0ifww
H m;)
2/ aZmfacsmif;wHwm;
wnfaqmufrnfh wHwm;(1)pif;
,ufzacsmif;wHwm;
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHk
1/ ozef;qdyf
30.00 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ xrHoD
1200
2/ rPdy&l
380
3/ a&Tpma&;
660
4/ armfvu
dk f
520

r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ ausmufrD;aoG;okH;"mwftm;ay;pufkHpDrHudef;
1/ uav;0
600 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
1/ jyifom
40 r*g0yf(f tBu;D pm;)

204

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

weoFm&Dwdkif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txuf wHwm;BuD;(7)pif;
1/ 0if;0wHwm; (o&ufacsmif;)
2/ ykavmufww
H m; (ykavm)
3/ ykavmwHwm; (ykavm)
4/ uRJul;-ausmufzsmwHwm; (Nrdwf)
5/ weoFm&Djrpful;wHwm; (weoFm&D)
6/ avnm-r@dKiw
f w
H m; (bkwjf yif;)
7/ yaomif;wHwm;
wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ weoFm&D
601 r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
2/ ousuf
20 r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
3/ tnmzsm;
9 r*g0yf(tvwfpm;)
wnfaqmufqJ ausmufrD;aoG;okH;"mwftm;ay;pufkHpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ aumhaomif;
6 r*g0yf(tvwfpm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ qm&m0
11
2/ erfhEGdKif
15
3/ odef;cGef
25
4/ uvkHu&m
40

r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)

yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txufwHwm;BuD;(8)pif;
1/ e0a';wHwm; (jynf) ({&m0wDjrpful;)
2/ caygif;wHwm; (awmifi)l
3/ ppfawmif;wHwm; (a&Tusif-ra'guf)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

205

qGmacsmif;wHwm;(a&wm&Sn)f
yJc;l wHwm;
e*g;aygufacsmif;wHwm;
yJc;l -ppfawmif;wl;ajrmif;wHwm;
NrdKUacsmif;wHwm; (txl;pDrHudef;0if)

wnfaqmufqJ ay180txufwHwm;BuD;
1/ ppfawmif;wHwm;(ewfou
H iG ;f ) (txl;pDru
H ed ;f 0if)
wnfaqmufrnfh wHwm;(3)pif;
1/ ppfawmif;jrpful;wHwm; (1) (txl;pDrHudef;0if)
2/ ppfawmif;jrpful;wHwm; (2) (txl;pDrHudef;0if)
3/ ppfawmif;jrpful;wHwm; (3) (txl;pDrHudef;0if)
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHkrsm;
1/ aZmif;wl
20 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
2/ &JEG,f
25 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
3/ caygif;
30 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufqJa&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ jzL;acsmif;
40
2/ uGeaf csmif;
60
3/ a&Tusif
75
4/ aomufa&cyf(2)
140
5/ abm*w
168

r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

rauG;wkdif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD;txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txufwHwm;BuD; (10)pif;
1/ taemf&xmwHwm; (acsmuf) ({&m0wDjrpful;)
2/ avmif*wfwHwm; (*efYa*g)
3/ {&m0wDww
H m; (rauG;)
4/ a&Tacsmif;wHwm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

206
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

207

6/ uR&J iS ;f wHwm;
7/ jynfanmifww
H m;

bGuBf u;D wHwm;


trSw(f 1)aygufww
H m;(tke;f awm)
a'gif;aeacsmif;wHwm;
{&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;(yckuL)
,if;acsmif;wHwm;
usm;xl;wHwm;

wnfaqmufqJ txl;pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;
1/ {&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;(rvGef)
ajy;vrf; ay(1000)ESifh ay(5000)txufav,mOfuGif;opfrsm;
1/ rauG;
2/ ausmufxk
3/ yckuL
wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfHk
rke;f acsmif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

75 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ txufA;l &Gm
150 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
wnfaqmufrnfh a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;
rif;wke;f
18 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
rEav;wkdif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0ifay(180)txufwHwm;BuD;(7)pif;
1/ 'k|0wDww
H m; (wHwm;OD;)
2/ wHigwHwm; (rw&m)
3/ jrpfi,fwHwm; (pOfhudkif)
4/ {&m0wDwHwm; (&wemyHk) (tr&yl&)
5/ em;a#mif;uswHwm; (a&Tpm&H) (ay 150om)

wnfaqmufNyD; a&tm;vQyfppfpufHkrsm;
1/ uif;wm;
56
2/ qnfawmfBu;D
25
3/ aygif;avmif;
280
4/ &J&Gm
790

r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;

wnfaqmufqJ a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm;
1/ txuf&J&Gm
140
2/ txufaygif;avmif;
140
3/ eefcsdK
40
4/ txufqnfawmfBu;D
60

r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)

&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;
txl;pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;BuD;(10)pif;
1/ atmifaZ,swHwm; (tif;pdef)
2/ r[mAEKvwHwm; (ykZGefawmif)
3/ irkd;&dyfwHwm; (urmMunf)
4/ vdIifjrpful;wHwm; (a&Tjynfom)
5/ vIdifjrpfwHwm; (NrdKUacsmif;)
6/ abmv,fjrpfww
H m; (a&ay:aomif)
7/ '*HkwHwm; (qdyfurf;NrdKUe,f)
8/ yef;vIid w
f w
H m;
9/ wGaH w;wHwm;
10/ irk;d &dyw
f w
H m;(oCFe;f uRe;f )

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

208
wnfaqmufqJ wHwm;
abmfacsmif;wHwm; (oefvsi)f

wnfaqmufNyD; pGefYypftyloHk;"mwftm;ay;pufHkrsm;
1/ omauw
35 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
2/ tvHk
54.3 r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
3/ avSmu
f m;
54.3 r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
4/ &Gmr
94.3 r*g0yf(tBuD;pm;)
wnfaqmufqJ ausmufrD;aoG;"mwftm;ay;pufHkpDrHudef;
1/ &efukef
270 r*g0yf(tBu;D pm;)
{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;
wnfaqmufNyD; txl;pDrHudef;0if ay(180)txufwHwm;BuD;(22)pif;
1/ cw,
d wHwm;
2/ a';'vlww
H m;
3/ qdyrf acsmif;wHwm;
4/ ewfacsmif;wHwm;
5/ ajrmif;jrwHwm;
6/ rtlyifwHwm;
7/ AdkvfjrwfxGef;wHwm;
8/ vyGwm wHwm;(yifv,fav;)
9/ yef;waemfww
H m;
10/ *kn
H if;wef;wHwm;
11/ a&Tavmif;wHwm;
12/ 0g;c,frwHwm;
13/ a';'&Jww
H m;
14/ 'g;uwHwm;
15/ ykord w
f w
H m;\
16/ yr0wDwHwm;(jrif;uqdyf)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/

zsmykHwHwm;
i0efwHwm;(NrdKUuGif;)
uRe;f uke;f wHwm;
&mZl'idk w
f w
H m;(1)
&mZl'idk w
f w
H m;(2)
{&m0wDww
H m;(anmifwek ;f )

wnfaqmufqJ txl;pDrHudef;0ifwHwm;rsm;
1/ bku
d av;jrpfu;l wHwm;
2/ ayyifjrpfwHwm;
3/ ou,af csmif;jrpfww
H m;
a&eHESifhobm0"mwfaiGUajrrsm;(ukef;wGif;)
1/ jrefatmifa&eHESifh obm0"mwfaiGUajr
2/ a&Tjynfoma&eHESifh obm0"mwfaiGUajr
3/ anmifwek ;f obm0"mwfaiGUajr
4/ rtlyifobm0"mwfaiGUajr
obm0"mwfaiGUajr(urf;vGef)
1/ &wemobm0"mwfaiGYajr
2/ pdefobm0"mwfaiGYajr

209

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

210

wnfaqmufNyD;pD;oGm;aom (wef-60)cH0eftm;&Sd wHwm;BuD;rsm;


ucsifjynfe,f

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

Avrif;xifww
H m;
jrpfBu;D em;-Aef;armf
{&m0wDjrpf
2988 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

u&ifjynfe,f

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

oHviG w
f w
H m; (bm;tH)
oxk-H bm;tH
oHvGifjrpf
2252 ay
38 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

rGefjynfe,f

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

tw&w
H w
H m;(armfvNrKd i)f
armfvNrdKif-pmojyif-bm;tH
tw&Hjrpf
1420 ay
24.6 ay
oHrPdBuKd ;qkid ;f

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

211

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

oHviG w
f w
H m;(armfvNrKd i)f
&efukef-armfvNrdKif
oHvGifjrpf
11575 ay
63.8 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+ oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

ppfawmif;wHwm;(rkyv
if)
&efukef-armfvNrdKif
ppfawmif;jrpf
1365 ay
28 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+ oHuluGefu&pf

&ckdifjynfe,f

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

&marmifww
H m;(rif;jym;)
&efukef-ppfawG
&marmifjrpf
ay 1300
24.6 ay
abvDBuKd ;wHwm;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

upye'Dww
H m;(ausmufawmf)
&efukef-ppfawG
ukvm;wefjrpf
2513 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

212

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

rif;acsmif;wHwm;
&efukef-ppfawG
rif;acsmif;
2003 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

rtDacsmif;wHwm;(awmifuw
k )f
&efukef-ausmufjzL
rtDacsmif;
940 ay
ay 30
BudKwiftm;jznfh uGefu&pf+
oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

rif;aMumif;acsmif;wHwm;(ausmufjzL)
&efukef-ausmufjzL
rif;Bu;D acsmif;
1744.24 ay
31 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

vk;H awmfaygufww
H m;(ausmufjzL)
&efukef-ausmufjzL
vk;H awmfaygufacsmif;
1259.2 ay
29 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

213

ppfukdif;wkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

qifjzL&Siw
f w
H m;(acsmif;OD;)
yckuL -acsmif;OD;
csif;wGif;jrpf
4957 ay
66.26 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

csi;f wGi;f wHwm;(rk&H mG )


rk&H mG -uav;
csif;wGif;jrpf
4730.2 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

weoFm&Dwkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

uRu
J ;l -ausmufzsmwHwm;(Nrw
d )f
xm;0,f-Nrw
d -f aumhaomif;
ausmufzsmjrpf
3612 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+ BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf+oHaygif,ufr

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=

avnm-r@dKiw
f w
H m;(Nrw
d )f
xm;0,f-Nrw
d -f aumhaomif;
avnmjrpf
860 ay

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

214
wHwm;tus,f
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;

= ay 30
= BuKd wiftm;jznfh uGeu
f &pf
yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

e0a';wHwm;(jynf)
jynf-qifwJ
{&m0wDjrpf
4183 ay
38 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

ppfawmif;wHwm;(a&Tusi)f
a&Tusif-ra'guf
ppfawmif;jrpf
ay 1500
36 ay
oHrPduGefu&pf+ BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf

rauG;wkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

taemf&xmwHwm;(acsmuf)
acsmuf-qdyfjzL
{&m0wDjrpf
5192 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+ BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

215
{&m0wDww
H m;(rauG;)
rauG;-rif;bl;
{&m0wDjrpf
8989 ay
48 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

rEav;wkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

&wemykw
H w
H m;
rEav;
{&m0wDjrpf
5614 ay
ay 60
oHrPdoaH ygif

&efukefwkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

oefvsiw
f w
H m;
&efukef-oHvsif
yJcl;jrpf
5977 ay
67.24 ay
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

'*kw
H w
H m;
&efukef-oHvsif
yJcl;jrpf
4540 ay
84 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

216

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

217

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

r[mAEKvwHwm;
&efukef-a'gykH
ykZGefawmifacsmif;
3643 ay
84 ay
oHrPdBuKd ;qkid ;f

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

vIdifjrpfwHwm;(NrdKUacsmif;)
BudKUukef;-NrdKUacsmif;
vIdifjrpf
1940 ay
34 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

bk&ifah emifww
H m;
r&rf;uke;f -vIid o
f m,m
vIdifjrpf
1640 ay
42 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

abmv,fjrpfww
H m;(arSmb
f )D
rif;vSa0-a&ay:aomif
abmv,fjrpf
1940 ay
34 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

atmifaZ,sww
H m;
tif;pdef-vIdifom,m
vIdifjrpf
3786 ay
52.6 ay
oHrPdBuKd ;qkid ;f

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

vIid jf rpfww
H m;(a&Tjynfom)
a&Tjynfom-vIid o
f m,m
vIdifjrpf
3415 ay
64.6 ay
oHrPdoaH ygif

{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

{&m0wDww
H m;(a';'&J)
uGrf;NcHukef;-a';'&J-zsmykH
{&m0wDjrpf
4088.3 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

i0efjrpfu;l wHwm;(a&Munf)
ykodrf-rkH&Gm
i0efjrpf
1164 ay
38 ay
BuKd wiftm;jznfah owmykH

218

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

219

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

ajrmif;jrwHwm;(ajrmif;jr)
ajrmif;jr-tdrfrJ
ajrmif;jrjrpf
1270 ay
34.7 ay
abvDBuKd ;wHwm;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

Akv
d jf rwfxeG ;f wHwm;(anmifwek ;f )
&efukef-ykodrf
{&m0wDjrpf
8544 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoaH ygif

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

vyGwm wHwm;
ajrmif;jr-vyGwm
yifv,fav;jrpf
ay 1300
19.8 ay
abvDBuKd ;wHwm;

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

'g;uwHwm;(ausmif;uke;f )
&efukef-ykodrf
'g;ujrpf
ay 1400
38 ay
BudKwiftm;jznfhuGefu&pf+
oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
=

rtlyifww
H m;
qm;ravmuf-rtlyif-armfuRe;f
wkd;jrpf
2362 ay
ay 40
oHrPdoHaygif+BudKwiftm;jznfh
uGefu&pf+oHuluGefu&pf

wHwm;trnf
=
vrf;trnf
=
ausmfjzwfonfhjrpfacsmif;trnf =
wHwm;tvsm;
=
wHwm;tus,f
=
wHwm;trsK;d tpm;
=

*kn
H if;wef;wHwm;(usKu
d v
f wf)
usKdufvwf-zsmykH
*kHnif;wef;jrpf
1940 ay
34.6 ay
oHuluGefu&pf

220

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

221

xm;0,ftxl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkefOya'

jrefrmtxl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkefOya'

EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH hNzdK;a&;aumifpDu Oya'trSwf


17^2011 jzifh xm;0,ftxl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkefOya'udk 2011 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv
27 &ufaeYwGif xkwfjyefaMunmcJhonf/

EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH hNzdK;a&;aumifpDu Oya'trSwf


8^2011 jzifh jrefrmtxl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkeOf ya'udk 2011 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 27
&ufaeYwiG f xkwfjyefaMujimcJhonf/

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(u) jrefrmtxl;pD;yGm;a&;Zkef Oya'yk'fr 3 yg &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifhtnD
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ap&ef?
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f jcmtmPmudk xde;f odr;f umuG,af pmifah &Smufonfh rlabmiftay:
tajccH&ef?
(c) txl;pD;yGm;a&;Zkerf sm; wnfaxmifvyk u
f ikd jf cif;jzifh Edik if aH wmf\pD;yGm;a&;udk
t&Sdeft[kefjzifh zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufvmap&ef?
(*) Ekid if aH wmfwiG f pufrEI iS hf tqifjh rifeh nf;ynmrsm; zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufvmap&ef?
(C) ukeyf pn;f xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;? ukeo
f ,
G rf v
I yk if ef;ESihf 0efaqmifrv
I yk if ef;rsm;
wdk;jrifhvmap&ef?
(i) tqifjh rifeh nf;ynmrsm;udk Edik if o
H m;rsm;u avhusio
hf if,v
l aJT jymif;&,l
Ekdifap&ef?

(q) EdkifiHawmf\ tajccHtaqmufttHkrsm; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufvmap&ef/


txl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkefwGif &if;ESD;jrKyfESHrI jyKvkyfEkdifonfh vkyfief;rsm;ESifh
ae&mXmersm;
(u) ukeyf pn;f xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;? tqifjh rifeh nf;ynmjzifh xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;?
pufrv
I yk if ef;rsm;? pdu
k yf sK;d a&;? arG;jrLa&;ESihf a&vkyif ef;? owKypn;f vkyif ef;ESihf
opfawmxGuyf pn;f xkwv
f yk rf v
I yk if ef;rsm; ponfx
h w
k v
f yk rf u
I kd tajccH
aomvkyif ef;rsm;?

222

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

(c) ukefoG,fa&;? axmufyHha&;ESifh o,f,lydkYaqmifa&;? ukefodkavSmifa&;?


[dkw,fESifhc&D;oGm;vma&;? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? vlae&yfuGufrsm;?
tajccHtaqmufttHk jznfq
h nf;axmufyahH &;Xmersm;? obm0ywf0ef;usif
xde;f odr;f umuG,o
f nfh pdr;f vef;e,fajrrsm;? tem;,ltyef;ajzpcef;rsm;
ponfh 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;?
(*) vrf;? wHwm;? avqdyf? blwmHk? qdyfurf;? vQyfppf? qufoG,fa&;?
a&&&Sda&;? ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;a&;ESifh pGefYypfypnf;rsm; xdef;odrf;a&;
ponfh tajccHtaqmufttHkvkyfief;rsm;?
(C) A[dktzGJUu tpdk;&tzGJU\ oabmwlnDcsufjzifh owfrSwfonfh tjcm;
vkyfief;rsm;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

223

1-1-2011 rS 30-1-2012 xd EdkifiHwpf0ef; zGHY NzdK;wdk;wufrIrsm;


zGifhvSpfcJhNyD; vrf;ydkif;rsm;
1/ wdu
k Bf u;D -azmifBu;D -yJc;l
dk;rjzwfausmf uw&mvrf;
2/ ykodrf-rHk&Gm uw&mvrf;
3/ aejynfawmf-awmifnKd acsmif;euf (awmifwiG ;f Bu;D )vrf;
4/ aejynfawmf-awmifndKNrdKUopf-uefjym; (rauG;)vrf;

42 rdik f 7 zmvHk
450 rdkif 5 zmvHk
5 rdik f 4 zmvHk
106 rdkif 2 zmvHk

zGifhvSpfcJhNyD;&xm;vrf;ydkif;rsm;
1/ rif;bl;-yGifhjzL &xm;vrf;ydkif;
20 rdkif
2/ uRe;f acsmif;-a'gif;om
19.59 rdik f
&xm;vrf;ydik ;f
3/ xm;0,f-Nrdwf &xm;vrf;ydkif; 132.5 rdkif
4/ ,k;d wkw-f ausmufawmf&xm;vrf;ykid ;f 19.82 rkdif
zGifhvSpfNyD; pufHkrsm;
1/ trSwf (5) "mwfajrMoZmpufHk? ykodrfNrdKU
2/ tvHkobm0"mwfaiGUoHk; "mwftm;ay;pufHk? tvkHNrdKUe,f
3/ wmydef (1) a&tm;vQyfppfpufHk? rkd;armufNrdKUe,f? ucsifjynfe,f
4/ a&Tusifa&avSmifwrHESifh a&tm;vQyfppf"mwftm;ay;pufHk?
a&TusifNrdKUe,f

4/ ykAoD&dNrdKUe,f? ckwif (50) trSwf (2) NrdKUe,faq;Hk?

5/ ckwif (550) uav;aq;Hk ? &efuif;NrdKUe,f

zGifhvSpfNyD; avqdyf
1/ aejynfawmf tjynfjynfqdkif&mavqdyf

1/ uRJ&Sif;wHwm; aejynfawmf- awmifnKd acsmif;euf- awmifwiG ;f Bu;D


vrf;
2/ armfacsmif; a&Tbdk-jrpfBuD;em;vrf;
wHwm;
3/ a'gif;aeacsmif; &efukef-jynf-rauG;wHwm;
rEav;vrf;
4/ ol;acsmif; ykord -f rH&k mG vrf;
wHwm;
5/ jynfanmif rdwDvm-awmifBuD;wHwm;
usKdif;wHk-wmcsDvdwfvrf;
6/ ausmufacsmif; ykodrf-acsmif;omvrf;
BuD;wHwm;
7/ oDaygwHwm; rEav;-vm;d;I -rlq,f

3/ v,fa0;NrdKUe,f? ckwif (100) jynfolYaq;HkBuD;


10 ay
24 ay

ay 260
ay 200
ay 360
wef 60
wef 60

ykord Nf rKd Ue,f


oDaygNrdKUe,f

28 ay

24 ay

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf
oHrPdoHaygif

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

abvDoHaygif

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

569 ay

24 ay

1785 ay

a'gif;aeacsmif;? wef 60
rauG;NrKd Ue,f
ol;acsmif;?
18 wef
pvif;NrKd Ue,f
ompnfNrdKUe,f wef 60

24 ay

ay 180

uefYbvlNrdKUe,f wef 60

48 ay

ay 180

ysO;f rem;NrKd Ue,f wef 60

jzwf a usmf o nf h
cHEdkif0ef wHwm;tvsm; wHwm;tus,f wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
jrpf^acsmif;? NrdKUe,f

2/ bdkuav;NrdKUe,f? ckwif (100) jynfolYaq;HkBuD;

vrf;trnf

zGifhvSpfNyD; aq;Hkrsm;
1/ armfvNrdKifuRef;NrdKUe,f? ckwif (100) jynfolYaq;HkBuD;

pOf wHwm;trnf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

2011 ckESpftwGif; EdkifiHwpf0ef; wnfaqmufNyD;pD;cJhaomwHwm;BuD;rsm;

224
225

17/ ppfawmif;
'du
k Of ;D -ppfawmif;
wl;ajrmif;
wHwm;
18/ usm;xl;acsmif; rauG;-ewfarmufaysmfbG,f
wHwm;
19/ {&m0wDww
H m;
(anmifwek ;f )
20/ {&m0wDww
H m;
(yckuL)
21/ {&m0wDww
H m; (pif;cef;)

vrf;trnf

24 ay
24 ay

ay 360
ay 300
ay 190
ay 350
466 ay
ay 270
ay 240

rdik ;f udik Nf rKd Ue,f wef 60


awmifomNrdKUe,f wef 60
t*FyNl rKd Ue,f
wef 60
wef 60

bdkuav;NrdKUe,f wef 60
wef 60
wef 60

[dyk ifNrKd Ue,f

ausmufwHcg;
NrdKUe,f
a0gNrdKUe,f

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf
oHuu
l eG u
f &pf
oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

24 ay

ay 480
10814 ay
20597 ay
4630 ay

ewfarmufNrdKUe,f wef 60
anmifwek ;f NrKd Ue,f wef 60
wef 60

yckuLNrdKUe,f

ppfuid k ;f wkid ;f a'oBu;D wef 60


uomckid Ef iS h f ucsif
jynfe,f Aef;armf
ckid f

28 ay

28 ay

24 ay

ay 240
wef 60

a0gNrdKUe,f

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

oHuu
l eG u
f &pf

jzwf a usmf o nf h
cHEdkif0ef wHwm;tvsm; wHwm;tus,f wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
jrpf^acsmif;? NrdKUe,f

13.5 ay

24 ay

24 ay
24 ay
24 ay

24 ay

ay 250

wef 60

NrdKUopfNrdKUe,f

24 ay

228 ay

zm;aqmif;NrdKUe,f wef 60

jzwf a usmf o nf h
cHEdkif0ef wHwm;tvsm; wHwm;tus,f wHwm;trsKd;tpm;
jrpf^acsmif;? NrdKUe,f

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pOf wHwm;trnf

awmifil-armfcsD;vdGKifaumfvrf;
aejynfawmf-awmifndKNrdKUopf-uefjym; (rauG;)
yefauwk-oDayg
&efuek -f jynf-rEav;
[oFmw-qHkukef;jrefatmif
a&Tbdk-jrpfBuD;em;

8/ xl;acsmif;
wHwm;
9/ ,if;acsmif;
wHwm;
10/ Am;wHwm;
11/ 0Javmifww
H m;
12/ rjracsmif;
wHwm;
13/ eefcY iG af csmif;
wHwm;
14/ atmufeuf
acsmif;wHwm;
15/ NrdKUacsmif;
wHwm;
16/ e*g;ayguf
wHwm;
bdkuav;-pufqef;axmfydkif-trm
rif;vS-pdeu
f efv
Y ef-Y
NrdKUacsmif;-uRef;ukef;
'du
k Of ;D -ppfawmif;

vrf;trnf

pOf wHwm;trnf

226
odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)
227

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

228

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif xkdif;EkdifiHu ESpftvkdufjrKyfESHxm;rI(tar&duefa':vm? oef;)


pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

ckESpf
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009(Zlvkdifvxd)
2010(Ekd0ifbmvxd)
2011(Zefe0g&Dv)

yrmP
1312'or203
1341'or223
7375'or623
7375'or623
7391'or843
7406'or843
9568'or093
9568'or093

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

229

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif wkwfEkdifiHu ESpftvkdufjrKyfESHxm;rI(tar&duefa':vm? oef;)


pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

ckESpf
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009(Zlvkdifvxd)
2010(Ekd0ifbmvxd)
2011(Zefe0g&Dv)

yrmP
66'or971
193'or521
194'or221
475'or443
475'or443
1331'or439
6415'or058
9603'or168

urmhqefwifykdhrI trsm;qkH; (15)EkdifiH


jrefrmEkdifiH\ e,fpyfukefoG,frI(2010) yrmP-tar&duefa':vm? oef;
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

vtrnf
Zefe0g&D
azazmf0g&D
rwf
{NyD
ar
ZGef
Zlvkdif
Mo*kwf
pufwifbm
atmufwb
dk m
Ekd0ifbm
'DZifbm

ykdYukef
68'or807
55'or096
87'or319
67'or908
96'or890
51'or326
73'or764
87'or328
112'or133
102'or884
93'or485
104'or451

oGif;ukef
68'or748
54'or733
78'or837
57'or668
68'or405
61'or058
66'or689
68'or381
87'or082
74'or790
94'or212
89'or738

pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/

ckESpf
xkdif;
tdEd,
AD,uferf
tar&duef
ygupwef
wkwf(xkdif0rftygt0if)
tD*spf
tDwvD
Oka*G;
pydef
tm*siw
f ;D em;
a*G,m;em;
tm&yfapmfbGm;rsm;EkdifiH
b,fvf*sD,rf-vlZifbwf
jrefrm

wefcsdef
oef; 10 wef
oef; 4.8 wef
oef; 4.1 wef
oef; 3.1 wef
oef; 1.8 wef
901550 wef
836940 wef
668940 wef
609170 wef
346030 wef
257750 wef
256330 wef
164350 wef
157190 wef
150030 wef

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

9/

1/ &ckdifurf;vGef&Sd at0rf;ESifh ato&D; a'0l;ukrP


D
vkyfuGuf
2/ rkwryifv,fauGU&Sd &wemobm0 wkw
d ,f? jrefrmha&eHEiS o
hf bm0
"mwfaiGUpDrHudef;
"mwfaiGUvkyfief;? csmA&Gef?
yDwDwDtD;yD
3/ rkwryifv,fauGU&Sd trfEkdif;vkyfuGuf yDwDwDtD;yD
4/ rkwryifv,fauGU&Sd &JwHcGefobm0 yufxkdeyfa&eHukrPD? jrefrmh
"mwfaiGUpDru
H ed ;f
a&eHEiS hf obm0"mwfaiGUvkyif ef;
(MOGE)? edyeG af &eH&mS azGa&;
(jrefrm)? yDwDwDtD;yD

8/

tpk&S,f&mykdifukrPD

7/

vkyfuGuftrnf

6/

pOf

5/

jrefrmEkdifiHESifhtusKd;wlyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdaom obm0"mwfaiGYpDrHudef;rsm;

4/

ukeo
f ,
G rf yI rmP
4597'or00
4901'or00
5542'or00
8259'or00
9752'or00
11322'or30
11790'or79
10891'or97

3/

oGif;ukef
2240'or00
1973'or00
1984'or00
2937'or00
3351'or00
4543'or45
4181'or41
4121'or33

2/

ykdYukef
2357'or00
2928'or00
3558'or00
5322'or00
6401'or00
6778'or85
7609'or38
6770'or64

231

wnf&Sd&mae&m
pwifawGU&So
d nfch ek pf ckdatmif;onfhyrmP xkwf,lNyD;yrmP
{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;
1964
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
jrefatmifNrdKUe,f
76'or46oef;
23'or033oef;
urf;eD
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ? rif;bl;1985
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
pukNrdKUe,f
55'or571oef; 13'or495oef;
vufyw
H dk
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
1997
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
aygufNrdKUe,f
76'or668oef; 2'or268oef;
axmuf&Smyifa&eHajr rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ? rif;bl;1978
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
pukNrdKUe,f
157'or283oef; 21'or780oef;
wefMY unfawmif-pHr,f rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
2000
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
aygufNrdKUe,f
134'or8oef;
1'or586oef;
ref;a&eHajr
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
1970
pnfaygif;
rif;bl;NrdKUe,f
433'or032oef;
acsmufvrf;&Gm
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
2001
pnfaygif;
pnfaygif;
acsmufNrdKUe,f
400'or416oef; 149'or309oef;
a&eHacsmif;
rauG;wkid ;f ? a&eHacsmif;
1887
pnfaygif; 540oef; pnfaygif;
226'or366oef;
jynfawmifwef;
yJc;l wkid ;f a'oBu;D ?
pnfaygif;
a&TawmifNrdKUe,f
49'or64oef;

pOf b@ma&;ESpf
1/ 2003-2004
2/ 2004-2005
3/ 2005-2006
4/ 2006-2007
5/ 2007-2008
6/ 2008-2009
7/ 2009-2010
8/ 2010-2011

jrefrmEkdifiH\ txifu& a&eHajrrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfhodrSwfzG,f&mrsm;

2003 ckESpfrS 2011 ckESpftwGif; jrefrmEkdifiH\


ESpftvkdufukefoG,frIyrmP(tar&duefa':vm? oef;)

pOf
a&eHajrtrnf
1/ jrefatmif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

230

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

232

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wpfurmvkH;qkdif&m a&t&if;tjrpfykdifqkdifrItajctae(xkxnfyrmP)
jyefvnf
jyefvnfjznfh
ajratmuf ajrjyifay:&Sd
jznfw
h if;Ekid f
wif;Ekid af om
pOf EkdifiHtrnf
a&t&if; a&yrmP
aoma&
a&t&if;
tjrpf a&t&if;tjrpf
t&if;tjrpf
tjrpf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/

b&mZD;vf
k&mS ;
tar&du
uae'g
wkwf
tif'edk ;D &Sm;
ukv
d b
H ,
D m
tar&duef
yDl;
tdEd,
uGef*kd
AifeDZGJvm;
b*Fvm;a'h&fS
jrefrm

5418
4312.7
2818.4
2850
2879.4
2838
2112
2000
1616
1260.54
900
722.45
105
880.6

1874
788
370
832.8
455
510
1300
303
418.54
421
227
21.09
156

5418
4036.7
2840
2774.5
2793
2112
1862
1616
1222
899
700.14
83.91
874.6

8233
4507.25
3069.4
2902
2896.57
2838
2132
2071
1913
1907.76
1283
1233.17
1210.64
1045.6

2010-2011 ckESpftxd jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; jynfy&if;ESD;jrKyfESHrI tajctae


wkwfa[mifaumif
15.5
bDvD,H

xkid ;f
9.56
bDvD,H

awmifu&dk ;D ,m;

NAdwdef

puFmyl

2.915
bDvD,H

2.659
bDvD,H

1.818
bDvD,H

233

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif trsm;qkH;&if;ESD;jrKyfESHxm;onfU ekdifiHrsm;


(2011 ckESpf? tar&duefa':vm? oef;)
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

EkdifiHtrnf
wkwf
xkdif;
a[mifaumif
uk&d ;D ,m;
NAdwdef
pifumyl
rav;&Sm;
jyifopf
tar&duef
tif'kdeD;&Sm;
e,fomvef
*syef

9603
568
6308
2935
2659
1818
975
469
243
241
238
211

yrmP
'or 168
'or 093
'or 495
'or 017
'or 954
'or 613
'or 097
'or 000
'or 565
'or 497
'or 835
'or 902

2011-2012 ckESpf b@ma&;ESpftwGif; u@toD;oD;


&if;ESD;jrKyfESHxm;rI tajctae
vQyfppfpGrf;tif a&eHEiS o
hf bm0
u@
"mwfaiGU
14.5
bDvD,H

13.8
bDvD,H

xkwfvkyfrI [kdw,fESifh
owK
u@ c&D;oGm;vma&;
wl;azmfa&;
2.8
bDvD,H

1.7
bDvD,H

1
bDvD,H

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

234

em*pfrkefwkdif;aMumifU aoaMu'Pf&m&&SdrIESifUysufpD;qkH;IH;rI
1/ vlaoqkH;? aysmufqkH;'Pf&m&SdrI
(u) aoqk;H rI
= 77738 OD;
( c ) aysmufq;Hk rI
= 55917 OD;
( * ) 'Pf&m&&SdrI
= 19359 OD;
pkpkaygif;

= 153014 OD;

2/ ysufpD;qkH;IH;rIwefzkd;aygif;
(u) EkdifiHykdif(usyf) = 3.3577 x&DvD,H?
(tar&duefa':vm 3.05 bDv,
D )H
( c ) yk*v
u
d ykid (f usy)f = 8.3800 x&DvD,H?
(tar&duefa':vm 7.62bDv,
D )H
pkpkaygif;(usyf)

= 11.7377 x&Dv,
D ?H
(tar&duefa':vm10.67bDvD,H)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

235

22-10-2010 &ufaeYwGif wkdufcwfonfU qkdifuvkef;rkefwkdif;


*D&dab;'PfaMumifh ysufpD;qkH;IH;rI
pOf ysufpD;qkH;IH;rI

rauG;wdkif; rEav;wkdif; &ckdifjynfe,f pkpkaygif;

1/ vlaoqk;H rI

35

45

2/ vlaysmufq;Hk

10

13

158

20232 20393

4/ ab;oift
h rd af xmifpk 158

48272 48433

5/ v,fysufpD;rI({u)

70919 70919

6/ ysupf ;D pmoifausmif;

365

365

8/ ysupf ;D aq;cef;

27

27

9/ ysupf ;D aq;kH

10/ ysupf ;D wHwm;

11/ ysupf ;D qnf? wmwrH

11

11

3/ ysufpD;tdrfajc

(xuf? v,f? rl)


7/ ysufpD;wuokdvf?
aumvdyf

3/ EkdifiHykdiftaqmuftOD
(u) NydKus^ysufpD;
( c ) trkd;vef
( * ) tjcm;ysufpD;rI
pkpkaygif;

ysufpD;qkH;IH;rItajctae
= 13099
=
9794
=
2594
=

25487

4/ yk*vduykdif vlaetaqmuftODrsm; ysufpD;rI


(u) NydKus^ysufpD; = 407093
( c ) trkd;vef
= 343111
pkpkaygif;

= 750204

ysufpD;wefzkd;pkpkaygif; usyf odef; 240233


usyf 24 bDvD,sH

8/
9/

7/

5/
6/

rSwfcsuf/ aoqkH;olpm&if;wGif txufygZ,m;rS (64) OD; wyfe,fwyf&if;rsm;rSm (11)OD; pkpkaygif; (75)OD; jzpfygonf/

92
64
836
4515

836

335
171
428
167
1101
353
527
880
602
2583
569
670
5
6
4
2
17
4
14
18
2
37
55
1
12
1
14
1
28
29
43
21
56
33
90
35
214
88
104
192
150
556
146
134
56
33
90
35
214
88
104
192
150
556
146
134
172
65
233
92
562
455
612
1067
1224
2853
146
1516

trSwf(1)&yfuGuf
trSwf(2)&yfuGuf
trSwf(3)&yfuGuf
trSwf(4)&yfuGuf
NrdKUay:aygif;
rkdif;vif;ta&SUtkyfpk
rkdif;vif;taemuftkyfpk
rkdif;vif;aygif;
em;a,mif;tkypf k
wmavcsKyf
usuleDjynfolYppf
rkid ;f uk;d tkypf ak emufw;dk
(17)&Gm
pkpkaygif;csKyf
1/
2/
3/
4/

'kuonf
aygif;
pOf &yfuGuf^aus;&Gm(tkyfpk) tdrfajcrlv ysufpD;rItdrfajc tdrfaxmifpk aoqkH;olOD;a& 'Pf&m&ol
aygif;
'kuo
nfaygif;
aygif;
aygif;

wmavNrdKYe,fcGJ ivsifab; ysufqD;^qkH;IH;rIpm&if;

3822

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

236

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

237

avab;oifha'orsm; jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifU obm0ab;tE&m,f


a&&SnfumuG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifUywfouf AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; oef;a&T\
vrf;TefrSmMum;csuf
1/ yxrOD;qk;H taejzifh avab;oifjh ynforl sm;\ vwfwavmvkt
d yfcsuf
rsm;jzpfonfh pm;0wfaea&;? aq;0g;ukoa&;ponfh csucf si;f aqmif&u
G f
ay;&rnfh vkyfief;rsm;ukd pwifaqmif&Guf ay;cJhaMumif;/
2/ u,fq,fa&;vkyif ef;rsm; tawmftoifh jznfq
h nf;ay;Ekid o
f nfh tajc
taewGif 'kw,
d tqift
h aejzifh ysupf ;D oGm;aom aus;&Gmrsm; jyefvnf
wnfaqmufay;a&;? ,m,DvlaetaqmufttkHrsm;wGif a'ocHrsm;
jyefvnfaexkdifa&;? vrf;? wHwm;? qufoG,fa&;vrf;aMumif;rsm;
jyefvnfaumif;rGefa&;? aus;&Gmtkyfpkrsm;tvkduf ,m,Dusef;rma&;
pcef;rsm; zGiv
hf pS af y;a&;? pmoifausmif;rsm;? jyefvnfziG v
hf pS af &;ponfh
jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; vkyfief;rsm;ukd aqmif&Gufay;cJhaMumif;/
3/ wpfqufwnf;rSmyif a'ocHrsm;\ toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyif ef;rsm;
jzpfonfh pkdufysKd;a&;? a&vkyfief;ESifh qm;csufvkyfief;rsm; jyefvnf
xlaxmifEkdifatmif v,f,majrjyKjyifrI? uRJ? EGm;ESifh v,fxGefpuf
i,frsm; yHhykd;ay;rI? yJhaxmifavSrsm;? ig;zrf; ykdufrsm; jznfhqnf;ay;rI
vkyfief;rsm;ukd pwifpDrHaqmif&Gufay;vsuf&SdaMumif;/
4/ wwd,tqift
h aejzifh aemifumvrsm;wGif obm0ab;tE&m,fukd
umuG,fEkdifrnfh a&vGwfukef;jrifhrsm;? a&wm;avwm; opfyifrsm;
wnfaqmufpu
dk yf sK;d a&;wkt
Yd jyif aus;&Gmcsi;f quf vrf;rsm;ukd a&vGwf
atmif vrf;tjrifrh sm; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf ay;a&;wku
Yd dk pDraH qmif&u
G f
ay;&efvadk Mumif;/
5/ EkdifiHawmf wnfaqmufa&; EkdifiHawmftpkd;&csnf;oufouf aqmif
&Gufr&EkdifaMumif;? EkdifiHawmf wnfaqmuf&m EkdifiHawmftpkd;&?
wyf r awmf E S i f h jynf o l t if t m;pk (3)&yf nD G w f p G m yl ; aygif ;
wnfaqmufrS atmifjrifEkdifrnfqkdonfh cH,lcsufonf EkdifiHawmf\
rl0g'yifjzpfaMumif;? rl0g' cH,cl suEf iS t
hf nD wyfrawmfu Ekid if aH wmf\
wm0efukd pwif&,lcJhcsdefrS pwif EkdifiHawmftpkd;&? wyfrawmfESifh
jynfow
l \
Ydk aygif;pnf;nDw
G o
f nfph rG ;f tm;jzifh Ekid if aH wmfukd wnfaqmuf
vmcJhjcif;jzpfaMumif;/

238

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

6/ pGrf;tm;pk(3)&yf\ nDGwfonfh tm;rmefpGrf;tm;jzifh rnfonfh


tusyftwnf; tcuftcJudkrqkd &ifqkdifausmfvTm;EkdifcJhonfrSm
,aeYwidk yf ifjzpfaMumif;/ rkew
f idk ;f 'Pf usa&mufc&hJ mvnf; aygif;
pnf;nDGwfonfh pGrf;tm;jzifhyif EkdifiHawmfukd jyefvnf xlaxmifae
jcif;jzpfaMumif;? a&SUtzkdYrSmvnf; rl0g'cH,lcsufESifhyif rdrdEkdifiH rdrd
qufvufwnfaqmufomG ;rnfjzpf&m a&&Snw
f iG v
f nf; atmifjrifrrI sm;
&&SdrSm trSefyifjzpfaMumif;/
7/ ,ck avab;oifha'orsm;ESifh jynfolrsm;twGuf u,fq,fa&;
vkyfief;rsm;tjyif jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifh obm0ab; tE&m,f
a&&SnfumuG,fEkdifa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd qufvufaqmif&GufoGm;rSm
jzpfaMumif;? a&&Snf obm0ab;tE&m,f umuG,fEkdifa&;twGuf
yifv,fykdif;a'orsm;wGif urf;tajctxda&mufatmif vrf;rsm;
azmufvyk &f if; a&ab;vGwaf tmif wdr;f a&SmifEidk af &;twGuf vrf;rsm;
ukd jrifhrm;pGm wnfaqmufay;&efvkdaMumif;? yifv,fykdif;aus;&Gm
rsm;wGif a&ab;vGwfuif;Ekid o
f nfh uke;f tjrifrh sm;vnf; wnfaqmuf
ay;&efjzpfaMumif;/
8/ jynfolYusef;rma&; apmifha&Smufa&;ESifhywfouf a'owpfckvkH;
twGuf rdrdpGrf;tm;jzifh rdrdaqmif&GufEkdifatmif Self-Contanied
jzpfatmif aq;kHrsm;? aq;ay;cef;rsm;ukd tuGufcsvsuf qufpyf
rdatmif tqifjh ri w
hf ifay;&efjzpfaMumif;? NrKd UBu;D rsm;wGif ckwif (200)
qH?h ckwif(100)qHh aq;krH sm; tqifjh ri ahf y;Ny;D use;f rma&; apmifah &Smuf
rI uGif;qufrdatmif tcsuftcsmusonfh aus;vufa'orsm;
aus;vufaq;ay;cef;rsm; zGifhvSpfay;&efjzpfaMumif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

239

wyfrawmfqkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
wyfrawmftp bDtikd af tuqdak ompum;twdik ;f wyfrawmftaMumif;
avhvmrnfqv
kd Qif bDtikd af trSp avhvm&ygrnf/ bDtikd af t pwifzGJUpnf;
pOfu &JabmfoHk;usdyfjzifh zGJUpnf;cJhonf/

&JabmfoHk;usdyf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/

ocifatmifqef;
ocifIarmif
ukdvSarmif
ukad tmifoed ;f
udak &T
udkxGef;&Sdef
ocifvSNrdKif
ocifA*srf;
ocifvSaz
ocifatmifoef;
ukdoef;GefY
ukx
d eG ;f a&T
ukw
d ifat;
ocifapmvGif
ukpd ;kd

AdkvfawZ
Adkvfae0if;
AdkvfaZ,s
Adkvf&JxG#f
Adv
k af usmaf Zm
Adkvf&efEdkif
Adkvf&efatmif
Adkvfva&mif
Adkvfvusfm
AdkvfpMum
AdkvfZifa,mf
Adv
k v
f if;,kef
Adkvfbkef;jrifh
Adkvfrif;acgif
Adkvfjrifhatmif

240

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/
23/
24/
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/

ocifpHjr
Adv
k af wmufxed f
ocifcifarmifOD;
Adkvfwm&m
ocifpHvdIif
Adkvfatmif
ukad rmifarmif
Adv
k
f P
ukdvS
Adkvfrif;a&mif
ocifxGef;cif
AdkvfjrifhaqG
ocifausmfpdef
Adkvfrdk;ndK
ocifaiG
Adv
k af pmatmif
ocifopf
Adv
k af pmaemif
ocifxGef;vGif
AdkvfAv
ocifoef;wif
Adkvfjr'if
ocifat;armif
Adv
k rf ;kd
ocifoef;wif(armfvNrdKif)
Adkvfoef;wif
ocifxGef;tkyf
ocifxGef;tkyf
udak qmif;
Adkvfxdef0if;
&Jabmfo;kH usyd f ppfynmoif,o
l nfah e&mrSm [dik ef efuRe;f ESihf xdik 0f rfuRe;f
jzpfNyD; &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if ocifxeG ;f tkyrf mS tkycf sKyaf &;ynmudkom oif,lcJh
ygonf/

wyfrawmftqifUqifUajymif;vJzGJYpnf;yHk
1/ bDtkdifat (BIA) = ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (Burma Independence Army) 26-12-41 &ufaeYwi
G f xdik ;f Edik if ?H
AefaumufNrKd U OD;vGe;f az\aetdrw
f iG f zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/
2/ bD'Dat (BDA) = ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf (Burma Defence
Army) 27-7-42&ufaeYwi
G f bDtikd af tac: Armh
vGwv
f yfa&; wyfrawmfudkzsufodrf; ysOf;rem;
NrdKUwGif tiftm; (3000)cefjY zifh BDA ac: Armh
umuG,af &; wyfrawmfukd jyifqifzGJUpnf;cJhonf/
3/ bDtefat (BNA)= ArmhtrsKd ;om;wyfrawmf (Burma National Army)
15-9-43 &ufaeYwiG f *syefwdkYay;onfh a&T&nfpdrf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

241

vGwv
f yfa&;ESit
hf wl ArmhtrsKd ;om;wyfrawmf[k
jyifqif zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
4/ yDbDtuf (PBF) = rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf (Patriotic Burmese Forces)
23-7-1945 &ufaeYwiG f rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf[k
jyifqif zGJUpnf;cJhonf/

bDtkdifat ppfaMumif;BuD; (4)aMumif;


bDtikd af twyfrawmfonf *syefjynfwiG f ppfynmoifMum; *syefEiS t
hf wl
ppfaMumif;av;aMumif;cGJ jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufvmcJhonf/
xkdppfaMumif; trnfrsm;rSm1/ jr0wDppfaMumif;?
2/ zmyGepf pfaMumif;?
3/ xm;0,fppfaMumif; ?
4/ NrdwfppfaMumif;/

wyfrawmf\ wkdif;usKd;jynfjyK aqmif&GufcsuftusOf;csKyf


(u) 1941 ckESpf
( c ) 1943 ckEpS f
( * ) 1945 ckESpf
(C) 1946^48
( i ) 1948^50
( p ) 1950^58
(q) 1958^60
( Z ) 1960^62
(ps) 1962^74
(n) 1974^78

bDtdkifatb0jzifh e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;/
bD'aD tb0jzifh zufqpfawmfveS af &;jyifqifjcif;/
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv/
wyfrawmf&yfwnfcGifhESifh vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI/
jynfwGif;aomif;usef;rI tqdk;Gm;qHk;umv/
jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rI ESrd ef if;jcif;ESihf jynfyusL;ausmrf &I ef
umuG,fjcif;/
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &wm0efjzifh jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rI jynfy
usL;ausmfrIwdkYudk ESdrfeif;jcif;/
jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rIEiS hf jynfyusL;ausmrf u
I kd ESrd ef if;jcif;/
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDvufxuf jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&;
trsKd ;om;jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;/
yJc;l d;k r? jrpf0uRe;f ay:a'orsm;rS aomif;use;f rI tjrpfjywf
acsrIef;jcif;ESifh jynfajy;rsm;tm; tjrpfjywfacsrIef;jcif;/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

242

( # ) 1978^80 {&m0wDjrpftaemufjcrf;ESifh &ckdifa'o Auyrsm;tm;


xd;k ppfqifjcif; 2^80 trdeaYf Munmcsut
f & Nird ;f csr;f a&;
wnfaqmufjcif;/
( X ) 1980^88 jynfwGif;aomif;usef;rIqufvufacsrIef;jcif;? EdkifiHa&;
wm0ef xrf;aqmifjcif;/
( ! ) 1988 ckESpf jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rIx;kd ppfukd [efw
Y m;jcif;? rif;rJph du
k f
ESrd ef if;jcif;? Edik if aH wmf\wm0eft&yf&yfukd wm0ef,jl cif;/
( ) 1988^90 EdkifiHawmf\Nidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJUtjzpf
EdkifiHwm0eft&yf&yfudk wm0ef,ljcif; wpfygwDpepfudk
csKyNf ird ;f apNy;D ? ygwDp'kH rD u
kd a&pDpepfukd azmfaqmifay;jcif;?
w&m;rQwaom a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yay;jcif;? wdik ;f &if;om;
vufeufuikd t
f zGUJ (17)ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;&,lum e,fpyfa'o
zGUH NzKd ;a&;aqmif &Gufay;jcif;/
(P) 1995^96 trfwaD ttzGUJ rsm; vufeufcsjcif;? wdik ;f usKd ;jynfjyK vlxk
axmufcHyGJrsm; usif;yjcif;ESifh HIUcsyGJrsm; jyKvkyfjcif;/
(w) 1997^
Edik if aH wmfzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;ESihf EkdifiHawmfzGJUpnf;ykH tajccH
2011
Oya'opfwpf&yf ay:aygufvma&;twGuaf qmif&u
G jf cif;/

zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv ppfwdkif;BuD; (7)wkdif;


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/

wdkif; (1) rif;vSpnfol


wdkif; (2) ausmfacgifAv
wdkif; (3) &Jausmfol&
wdik ;f (4) vusmf ausmx
f if
wdik ;f (5) aZ,sausmo
f l
wdkif; (6) b,sausmfxif
wdkif; (7) oD&dausmfxif

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

jynf? om,m0wD? tif;pdef


[Hom0wD? rtlyif? zsmyHk
ykodrf? [oFmw? ajrmif;jr
yJcl;? a&Tusif? oxHk
armfvNrdKif? xm;0,f
awmifil? rdwDvm
o&uf? atmifvH? rif;bl;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

243

wyfrawmf(a&)
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf

24-12-1947

wyfrawmf(a&)aqmifyk'f
avScGufcsnf;usef tvHrvJ? jrefrmhyifv,fwdkYumuG,f

wyfrawmf (av)
pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf

15-12-1947

wyfrawmf(av)aqmifyk'f
pMum0VmodkY wufEdkifzsm;a&muf (Our mission is to fly and fight)

wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/

ajrmufydkif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf (jrpfBuD;em;)
ta&SUajrmufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (vm;dI;)
Bwd*Ha'owdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (usdKif;wHk)
ta&SUydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (awmifBuD;)
ta&SUawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (armfvNrdKif)
urf;dk;wef;a'owdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (Nrdwf)
&efukefwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (&efukef)
taemufawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (ykodrf)
taemufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (trf;)
taemufajrmufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (rHk&Gm)
tv,fydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (rEav;)
aejynfawmfwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (aejynfawmf)
awmifydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf (awmifil)

244

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyfrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

trSwf(11) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (tif;wdkif)


trSwf(22) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (bm;tH)
trSwf(33) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (ppfudkif;)
trSwf(44) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (usdKufxdk)
trSwf(55) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (uavm)
trSwf(66) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf(tif;r)
trSwf(77) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (yJcl;)
trSwf(88) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (rauG;)
trSwf(99) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (rdwDvm)
trSwf(101) ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyf (yckuL)

wyfrawmfppfausmif;BuD;rsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

Edik if aH wmfumuG,af &;wuov


kd f (aejynfawmf)
ppfOD;pD;wuodkvf (uavm)
wyfrawmf(Munf;)wdu
k cf u
kd af &;ausmif;(Axl;)
wyfrawmf(Munf;)wdu
k cf u
kd af &;ausmif; (bk&ifah emif)
ppfwuodkvf (jyifOD;vGif)
wyfrawmfaq;wuodkvf (&efukef? r*Fvm'kH)
wyfrawmfenf;ynmwuodkvf (jyifOD;vGif)
wyfrawmf(Munf;)Adv
k o
f ifwef;ausmif; (Axl;)
wyfrawmftkyfcsKyfrI tuloifwef;ausmif; (jyifOD;vGif)
wyfrawmfolemjyKESifh aq;bufynmwuodkvf (&efukef? r*Fvm'kH)

245

ppfwuodkvftaMumif; odaumif;p&m
1/ pwifzGifhvSpfonfhae&m
2/ pwifzGifhvSpfonfh&ufpGJ
3/ ay;tyfaombGUJ rsm;

=
=
=

(*syefacwf) r*Fvm'Hk
(jyifOD;vGif) 1-6-57
B.Sc (D.S.A), B.A (D.S.A),
M.Sc (D.S.A), M.A (D.S.A),
B.CSc. (D.S.A)

4/ wufa&muf&onfu
h mv
5/ arG;aeY
6/ ppfwuov
kd af qmify'k f

7/ ppfwuodkvft"d|mef

=
=
=

,cif av;ESp?f 1999 ckEpS rf pS ok;H ESpf


Mo*kwf (1)&uf
(u) aemifwpfacwf\atmifppfonf
( c ) ol&? opm? odyH
( * ) ppfwuov
kd o
f nf b,fawmhrS
vufeufrcs
= Munf ; ^a&^avxk t m;rmef j yK
jynfol tdk;tdrfjynfhpnf;pdrftwGuf
wkdYvufNrJNrJ cdkifckdifwGJpdkY

ppfwuodkvfwGifay;aomqkrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

atmifppfonfqk aiG"m;
avhusiahf &;xl;cReq
f k(,cif)ajcmufv;kH jyL;
pmayxl;cRefqk (0dZm)a&T
pmayxl;cRefqk (odyH)a&T
pmayxl;cReq
f k (uGeyf sLwm)a&T

wyfrawmfenf;ynmwuokdvf
pwifwnfaxmifonfh&uf = 1993ckESpf
a<u;aMumfoHaqmifyk'f
tif*sifeD,mpGrf;yum; wyfrawmftm;
Technology for military might.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

246

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wyfrawmfaq;wuodkvf
pwifwnfaxmifonfh&uf/

1992ckESpf? Edk0ifbm (19)&uf

ESpftvkdufoifMum;&aom bmom&yfrsm;
yxrESpf
- jref r mpm? t*F v d y f p m? ocsF m ? l y aA'?
owaA'? kuaA'? uGefysLwm
'kwd,ESpf
- cEmaA'? ZD0"mwkaA'? ZD0uraA'
wwd,ESpf
- a&m*gaA'? ydk;rTm;aA'? aq;0g;aA'
aemufqHk;ESpf tydkif;(u) - a&m*gaA'? rIcif;qdkif&maq;ynm? uav;
usef;rma&;ynm? om;zGm; rD;,yfynm
tvkyfoifq&m0ef
- wyfrawmfppfaq;HBk u;D rsm;wGif wpfEpS w
f w
d d
tvkyfoifq&m0eftjzpf oifMum;vkyfudkif
&onf/
ay;tyfaombGUJ
- M.B.B.S
ay;tyfaomqkrsm;
- atmifppfonfqk? avhusifha&;xl;cRefqk?
pmayxl;cRefqk

wyfrawmfaq;wyfzGJY\aqmifyk'f
'kdYwm0ef (Our Mission)
usef;rmBuHhcdkif wdkufEdkif&ef (Make Fit to fight)
'dv
Yk rf;pOf (Our motto)
apwem (Sincerity) ? tMuifem (Sympathy) ? ab;uif;pGm (Safety)

wyfrawmf(Munf;)Adkvfoifwef;ausmif;
wyfrawmf(Munf;) Adkvfoifwef;ausmif;udk jyifOD;vGif(arNrdKU)wGif pwif
wnfaxmifco
hJ nf/ 1963ckESpfwGif arSmfbDNrdKU zGifhvSpfcJhonf/ xkdYaemuf
1991ckESpf Mo*kwfvwGif arSmfbDrS Axl;wyfNrdKUodkY ajymif;a&TUzGifhvSpfcJhonf/

247

ppfom; SOLDIER t"dyg,f


S = Smart
O = Obedience
L = Loyality
D = Dutiful
I = Intelligence
E = Efficiency
R = Right

aooyfrI
trdefYemcHwwfrI
opm&SdrI
wm0efausyGefrI ^ Discipline ppfpnf;urf;&SdrI
todPfxufjrufrI
ppfynmt&nftaoG;jynfh0rI
rSefuef&mudkomvkyfaqmifwwfrI ^ Readyness
tNrJtoifh&SdrI

wyfrawmf\ t"duwm0ef
1/ Edik if aH wmfumuG,af &;wm0ef
2/ avhusiahf &;wm0ef
3/ jynfolYtusdK;jyKvkyfief;wm0ef

wyfrawmf\ pGrf;&nf (3)&yf


1/ ppfa&;pGrf;&nf
2/ tkyfcsKyfa&;pGrf;&nf
3/ pnf;H;k a&;pGr;f &nf

wyfrawmf\ tm;(10)yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

opmapmifhodrI
trdefYemcHwwfrI
pdwf"mwfcdkifrmrIESifh ZGJowdjynfh0rI
ppfpnf;urf;aumif;rGefrI
avhusifhom;jynfh0rI
wdkuf&nfcdkuf&nfjynfh0rI
usef;rmMuHhckdifrI
tcsif;csif;&Jabmfpdwfxm;&SdrI
pGefYvTwfpGefYpm;rI
oEd|mefpdwfjzifh &nfrSef;csufNyD;ajrmufatmif aqmif&GufrI

248

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

wyfrawmf\tpOftvmaumif; (12)&yf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/

rsdK;cspfwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pnf;urf;aumif;aomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
opm&Sdaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pnf;vHk;nDGwfaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pGrf;&nf&Sdaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pGefYvTwfpGefYpm;aomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
wpfOD;csif;udk,fusdK;udk y"merxm;aomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
pdwf"mwfjrifhjrwfaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
tcuftcJukd &ifqikd af usmv
f mT ;Edik o
f nfh &JprG ;f ow&d adS omwyfrawmf
jzpfonf/
10/ tyifyef;tqif;&JcHEdkifonfhwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
11/ ZGJ? vHkYv? 0D&d,&Sdonfhwyfrawmfjzpfonf/
12/ 'dw
Yk m0efta&;oH;k yg;udk tNrOJ ;D xdyyf efqifaomwyfrawmfjzpfonf/

jynfolYwyfrawmfom;wdkh\ opmt"d|mef
igwdkYonf EdkifiHawmfESifh EdkifiHom;wdkY\opmudk apmifhod dkaoygrnf/
igwdo
Yk nf usq;kH avNy;D aom wyfrawmfom;wd\
Yk opmudk apmifo
h d dak oygrnf/
ightm; txufraS y;tyfaomtrdeEYf iS hf wm0efukd ausyeG pf mG xrf;aqmifygrnf/
ighEdkifiHawmf? ighEdkifiHom;? ighwyfrawmftwGuf ig\toufudk pGefYvTwf&ef
t"d|mefjyKyg\/

wyfrawmfESifUywfouf rSwfom;zG,f&m tqdktrdefh qdkdk;pum;rsm;


1/ ]]ighom;rsm;ppfxJ0if&ifav olYudkajymvkdufprf;yguGm? ppfwyfqdkwm
trSefomvdkufemEdkif&if wu,fha,musfm;jrwfjzpfapEdkifwJhw&m;awGudk
oifMum;ay;wJh ausmif;BuD;aygh}}
ppfonfa[mif;wpfOD;\ trSmpum;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

249

2/ bk&ifhaemifausmfxifaemf&xm\ aemifdk;wdkufyGJtqdktrdefY
]]ppfwdkY\oabmw&m;onf tiftm;enf;onf? rsm;onf[l rqdkom
vkyf&nfudkif&nf &JpGrf;owdom t&if;cHjzpfonf}}
3/ 'dkYwm0efta&;oHk;yg;onf &Jabmfwdkif;\ trsdK;om;a&;wm0ef
(u) jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;
( c) wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDGwfrI rNydKuGJa&;
( * ) tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwHhcdkifNrJa&;
4/ wyfwkdif;? &Jabmfwkdif; &Sd&rnfh tajccHt&nftcsif; (5)rsdK;
(u) pdwf"mwf
( c ) pnf;urf;
( * ) opm
(C) pnf;vH;k rI
( i ) pGrf;&nfoHk;&yfjynfhpHkrI
5/ wyfrawmfonf trsdK;om;a&;udk b,fawmhrSopmrazmuf
6/ wyfrawmftiftm;&SdrS wkdif;jynftiftm;&Sdrnf/
7/ ]]&Jabmfpdwf[lonf &Jabmftcsif;csif;tay:xm;&Sdaom arwm
w&m;? oHa,mZOfw&m;? opmapmifhodrIw&m;yifjzpfonf}}
8/ xm;&Sdoifhaom wkdufyGJ0ifpdwf"mwf
(u) BuHhcdkifonfhpdwf"mwf
( c ) pGefYvTwfpGefYpm;onfhpdwf"mwf
( * ) usnw
f pfawmifh vlwpfa,mufuseo
f nftxd wdu
k &f o
J nfph w
d "f mwf
(C) wyfrawmf\ *kPu
f kd toufpeG NYf y;D jri w
hf ifvo
kd nfph w
d "f mwf
( i ) tcsif;csif;dkif;yif;ulnDvdkonfhpdwf"mwf
( p ) &Jabmf&Jbufpdwf"mwf
9/ b,folcGJcGJ 'dkYruGJ? tNrJpnf;vHk;rnf/
10/ wyfrawmf\pdwf"mwf
(u) avScGufcsnf;usef tvHrvJonfhpdwf"mwf
( c ) wHk;wdkufwkduf? usm;udkufudkuf pdwf"mwf
( * ) wyfrawmf\ tpOftvmudk toufay;apmifx
h ed ;f vdo
k nfph w
d "f mwf

250

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

11/ wyfrawmf\ cHEdkif&nfpHEIef;


(u) ig;rdkifrem;wrf; tajy;wufEdkif&rnf/
( c ) q,frdkifrem;wrf; vrf;avQmufEdkif&rnf/
( * ) wpfaeYrdkifoHk;q,f c&D;ayguf&rnf/
12/ wyfwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;BuD; (4)&yf
(u) avhusifha&;ESifh wnfaqmuf
( c ) tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh wnfaqmuf
( * ) oufomacsmifcsda&;ESifh wnfaqmuf
(C) pdwf"mwfESifh wnfaqmuf
13/ acgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf tjrif (4)jrif
(u) ppfa&;tjrif
( c ) EdkifiHa&;tjrif
( * ) pD;yGm;a&;tjrif
(C) tkyfcsKyfa&;tjrif
14/ ppfatmifapaomtaMumif;BuD;rsm;
(u) &nf&G,fcsuf wdusckdifNrJjcif;
( c) pdwf"mwfBuHhckdifaumif;rGefjcif;
( * ) tiftm;udk vdktyfoavmuf pkpnf;toHk;jyKjcif;
(C) wdkufppfqifEdkifpGrf;&Sdjcif;
( i ) vG,fulpGmvIyf&Sm;Edkifjcif;
( p ) vHkNcHKrI&Sdjcif;
(q) tidkufzrf;Edkifjcif;
( Z ) owif;pHkpGm&,ljcif;
(ps) ajymif;vG,fjyifvG,f&Sdjcif;
(n) nEd idI ;f yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G jf cif;
( # ) tkyfcsKyfaxmufyHhrIaumif;jcif;
( X ) jynfolwpf&yfvHk;\ axmufcHtm;ay;ulnDrI&&Sdjcif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

251

15/ &JoHk;&J
&J&Jwuf? &J&Jwdkuf? &J&JacsrIef;
16/ NrJoHk;NrJ
(u) tNrJwrf; avhusifh&rnf/
( c ) tNrJwrf; ppfa&;owd&Sd&rnf/
( * ) tNrJwrf; wdkufyGJ0iftoifh&Sd&rnf/

wyfrawmfrS pGrf;&nfowdESifUywfouf csD;jrifUaombGJY? wHqdyfrsm;


bGJUrsm;
1/ atmifqef;ol&d,bGJU
2/ oD[ol&bGJU
3/ ol&bGJU
wHqdyfrsm;
1/ atmifqef;wHqyd f
2/ oD[AvwHqdyf
3/ ol&Jaumif;rSwfwrf;0ifwHqdyf

atmifqef;ol&d,bGJY &&Sdxm;olrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

AdkvfrSL;at;csdK
AdkvfwdkufcRef;
wyfom; vSaomif;
wyfom; apmjrifh
wyfom; apmb&D
wyfom; pGyfA[m'l;dkif;

wyfrawmfqkdif&m &mxl;tqifUrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/

wyfom;
'kwd,wyfMuyf
wyfMuyf
wyfMuyfBuD;

Private, Infantry man, Rifle man


Lance Corporal
Corporal
Sergeant

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

252
5/ wyfcw
JG yfMuyfBu;D
6/ 'kw,
d t&mcHAv
kd f

Company Sergeant Major (C S M)


Regimental Sergeant Major
Warrant Officer I

8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/

'kwd,Adkvf
Adkvf
AdkvfBuD;
AdkvfrSL;
'kwd,AdkvfrSL;BuD;
Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D
AdkvfrSL;csKyf
AdkvfcsKyf
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;
AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;

253

wyfrawmf(Munf;? a&? av)&mxl;tqifU tac:ta0:rsm;

Company Quarter Master Segeant


Warrant Officer II (WO II)

7/ t&mcHAdkvf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Second Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Captain
Major
Lieutenant Colonel
Colonel
Brigadier General
Major General
Lieutenant General
General
Vice Senior General
Senior General, Field Marshal,
Five Star General

pOf

&mxl;tqifh

1/ AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;

a&

Munf;

av

Senior
General

2/ 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;

Vice Senior
General

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
AdkvfcsKyf
AdkvfrSL;csKyf
Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D
'kwd,AdkvfrSL;BuD;
AdkvfrSL;
AdkvfBuD;
Adkvf
'kwd,Adkvf

General

Admiral

General

Lt-General

Vice Admiral Lt- General

Maj-General Rear Admiral Maj- General


Brig- General Commondore Brig- General
Colonel

Captain

Colonel

Lt -Colonel

Commander

Lt -Colonel

Major

Lt -Commander Major

Captain

Lieutenant

Captain

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Second-

Sub-

Second-

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

254

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

pGrf;&nfowdbGJY &&SdcJUonfU jynfolY&JwyfzGJY0ifta&twGuf

jrefrmEkdifiH &JwyfzGJYqkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;


pwifzUJG pnf;onfah eY&uf =
jyifqifzGJUpnf;onfhaeY&uf =

1887ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 28&uf
1995ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 1&uf

Police [laom

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

Politeness

Obedience

Loyalty

Intelligence

Courage

Efficiency

pum;\t"dyg,f

,Ofaus;odrfarGUjcif;
trdefYemcHwwfjcif;
opm&Sdjcif;
xkd;xGif;odjrifwwfjcif;
ol&owdESifhjynfhpkHjcif;
t&nftaoG;awmufajymifjcif;

jrefrmEdkdifiH&JwyfzGJY &nfrSef;csufwm0ef av;&yf


1/
2/
3/
4/

&yf&mG at;csr;f om,ma&;


w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&;
rl;,pfaq;0g;tE&m,fwm;qD;umuG,af &;
jynfolYtusKd;jyKvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufa&;

jrefrmEdkdifiH&JwyfzGJY vkyfief;wm0efBuD; ajcmuf&yf


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

jypfrIBudKwifumuG,fa&;
jzpfyGm;aomjypfrIrsm;ukd pkHprf;ppfaq;azmfxkwfw&m;pGJqkda&;
pnf;urf;ao0yfwnfNird af &;
jynfolvlxkvkHNcHKa&;
rl;,pfaq;0g;ESrd ef if;a&;
jynfolYtusKd;jyKvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufa&;

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/

atmifqef;ol&d,bGJU
oD[ol&bGJU
ol&bGJU
&JoD[bGJU
&Jol&bGJU
&JAvbGJU
&Jol&defbGJU
&JausmfpGmbGJU
&JausmfolbGJU

= 1 OD;
= 1 OD;
= 5 OD;
= 32 OD;
= 47 OD;
= 108 OD;
= 23 OD;
= 35 OD;
= 80 OD;

jrefrmEkdifiH&JwyfzGJYtBuD;tuJrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/

&JcsKyf
'kwd,&JcsKyf
&JOD;pD;t&m&SdcsKyf
&Ja&;csKyf
&JaxmufcsKyf
&Jwyf&if;rsm; uGyfuJa&;rSL;
wyfzGJUrSL;? rIcif;wyfzGJU
wyfzGJUrSL;? owif;wyfzGJU
wyfzGJUrSL;? &xm;wyfzGJU
wyfzGJUrSL;? pnfyifwyfzGJU
ausmif;tkyfBuD;? &JA[kdavhusifha&;ausmif;
rIcif;wyfzGJUrSL;(txufjrefrmjynf)
rIcif;wyfzGJUrSL;(atmufjrefrmjynf)
jynfe,f^wkdif;a'oBuD; &JrSL;BuD;rsm;

255

256

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

257

jrefrmEkdifiH&JwyfzGJYokdh 0ifa&muf&ef t&nftcsif;owfrSwfcsufrsm;


omref&Jwyfom;tqifh
1/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHom;(trsKd;om;)/
2/ touf 18ESpfjynfhNyD; 25 ESpfxufrBuD;&/
3/ t&yf 5ay 3vufr? &iftkyf 32vufrESifh ukd,ftav;csdef aygif 100
&Sd&rnf/
4/ ynmt&nftcsif; (tajccHrlvwef;)
5/ jrefrmEkid if &H w
J yfzUJG \ Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;ESit
hf nD trIxrf;aqmif&rnf/
'kwd,&Jtkyftqifh
1/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHom;(trsKd;om;)
2/ touf 18ESpfjynfhNyD; 27 ESpfxufrBuD;&/
3/ t&yf 5ay 3vufr? &iftkyf 32vufrESifh ukd,ftav;csdef aygif 100
&Sd&rnf/
4/ wuokdvfwpfckckrS tenf;qkH; bGJUwpfck&&SdNyD;oljzpf&rnf/
(uGefysLwmESifh t*FvdyfpmuRrf;usifol OD;pm;ay;rnf/)
5/ jrefrmEkid if &H w
J yfzUJG \ Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;ESit
hf nD trIxrf;aqmif&rnf/

EkdifiHwuma&;&modrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
urmhukvor*
1/ pwifxlaxmifonfhaeY
2/ vuf&SdtzGJU0ifEkdifiHta&twGuf
3/ XmecsKyfkH;wnf&Sdonfhae&m

= 24-10-1945
= 192EkdifiH
= e,l;a&mufNrdKU? tar&duef
jynfaxmifpk

ukvor*\ &nf&G,fcsuf
1/ wpfurmvkH;wGif Nidrf;csrf;a&; xdef;odrf;&ef/
2/ EkdifiHtcsif;csif; &if;ESD;cspfMunfpGm aygif;oif;qufqHrIrsm; wkd;wuf
jzpfyGm;ap&ef/
3/ vlrsm;tm; aexkdifrI tqifhtwef; ykdrkdaumif;rGefap qif;&Jjcif;?
a&m*gjzpfyGm;jcif;? pmrwwfjcif;wkdYukd urmay:rS yaysmufap&ef?
vlyY wf0ef;usif ysupf ;D rIudk &yfwefaY p&efEiS hf vltcsi;f csi;f \ &ykid cf iG Ehf iS hf
vGwv
f yfciG rhf sm;ukd tjyeftvSef ta&;xm; av;pm;a&;twGuf twl
wuG yl;aygif;aqmif&GufMuap&ef/
4/ EkdifiHrsm;tm; xkd&nfrSef;csufrsm; aygufa&mufapzkdY ulnDyHhykd;aom
A[kdXmejzpfap&ef/

258

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ukvor*\ t"duOD;wnfcsuf av;&yf


1/ tjynfjynfqkdif&m Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vkHNcHKa&;ukd xdef;odrf;xm;&Sd&ef
2/ Ekid if rH sm;tMum; cspMf unf&if;ES;D aom qufqaH &;rsm;ukd vlom;rsm;\
nDrQaomtcGifhta&; &&Sdapa&;ESifh rdrdMurmrdrd zefwD;EkdifcGifh&Sda&;
tajccHrlrsm;tay: wnfrDS zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufap&ef
3/ tjynfjynfqidk &f m pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;? ,Ofaus;rIEiS hf vlom;rsm;qkid &f m
tcuftcJ jyemrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f &mvnf;aumif;? vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;ESihf
tajccH vGwv
f yfciG rhf sm;ukd av;pm;vku
d ef ma&;tm; zGUH NzKd ;wk;d wufap&m
wGifvnf;aumif; twlwuG wGJzufvkyfukdifMu&ef
4/ EkdifiHrsm;taejzifh yef;wkdifrsm;ukd &&Sda&;twGuf aqmif&Guf&mwGif
ndEIdif;&m tcsuftcsmXme jzpfap&ef
ukvor*\tajccHrl ig;csuf
1/ tzGUJ 0ifEidk if t
H m;vk;H onf tcsKyt
f jcmtmPmykid f wef;wl&nfwEl ikd if rH sm;
jzpfMuonf/
2/ tzGJU0ifEkdifiHtm;vkH;onf y#dnmOfpmwrf;ukd vkdufemMu&rnf/
3/ EkdifiHrsm;onf rdrdwkdY\ uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;ukd Nidrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh
ajz&Sif;&ef BudK;pm;Mu&rnf/
4/ ukvor*onf rnfonhEf idk if \
H jynfwiG ;f a&;ukrd Q 0ifa&mufpu
G zf ufjcif;
rjyKEkdif/
5/ EkdifiHrsm;onf ukvor*ukd ulnDaxmufyHh&ef BudK;pm;tm;xkwfoifh
Muonf/
ukvor*t"dutzGJUtpnf;rsm;
1/ taxGaxGnv
D mcH
2/ vkHNcHKa&;aumifpD
3/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlraI &;aumifpD
4/ e,fajrxde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&;aumifpD
5/ tjynfjynfqkdif&mw&m;kH;
6/ twGif;a&;rSL;csKyfkH;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

259

ukvor* taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJUolrsm;


pOf

trnf

EkdifiHom;

1/ x&DAvD

aemfa0

2/ 'uf[rm;d;I

qGD'if

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

wm0ef,o
l nfh
umv

rSwfcsuf

1946-1953 oufwrf;(2)Burd f

1953-1961 av,mOfysufus
aoqH;k
OD;oefY
jrefrm
1961-1972 oufwrf;(2)Burd f
uGw0f g;vf[ikd ;f
MopBw;D ,m; 1972-1982
/
yJ&ufpaf 'auG;vsm; yD;l
1982-1992
/
blxdkU-blxdkU*gvD tD*spf
1992-1999 oufwrf;(1)Burd f
udkzDtmeef
*gem
1999-2006 oufwrf;(2)Burd f
befuDrGef;
awmifu&kd ;D ,m; 1-1-2007
rS ,aeYtxd

ukvor*kH;okH; bmompum; ajcmufrsKd;


ukvor*tzGJUBuD;\ twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJUESifh tjcm;qufpyfaeaom
tzGUJ tpnf;aygif; (30)wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaeolaygif; (52200)cef&Y o
dS nf/
ukvor*Hk;oHk;bmompum; (6)rsdK;&Sdonf(1) t*Fvdyf
(2) k&Sm;
(3) wkwf
(4) pydef
(5) jyifopf
(6) tm&AD

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

260

ukvor*\ txl;at*sifpDrsm;ESifU if;ESifhqufpyfaeaom at*sifpDrsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

261

(2) EdkifiHwum b@ma&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrItzGJU (tdkiftufzfpD)


The International Finance Corporation (IFC)

(Specialized Agencies and other Agencies Related to the UN)

ukvor*\ txl;at*sifpDrsm;onf (XmecsKy)f ESihf vkyif ef;oabmt&


qufpyfaeaomfvnf; ud,
k yf ikd t
f zGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;? ud,
k yf ikd f ;kH tzGUJ rsm;jzifh ud,
k yf ikd f
tkyfcsKyf&aom tzGUJ rsm;jzpfonf/
pm;eyf&dumESifh pdkufysdK;a&;tzGJU (tufzfattdk)
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)

v,f,m? opfawmESihf ig;zrf;vkyif ef;wdrYk x


S w
k u
f ek rf sm;wd;k wufap&efEiS hf
aus;vufjynfow
l \
Ykd tajctae wd;k wufaumif;rGeaf p&ef &nfp;l Ny;D zGUJ pnf;
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/
Hk;wnfae&m- a&mrNrdKU? tDwvDEdkifiH/
EdkifiHwum tPkjrLpGrf;tifat*sifpD
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

tPkjrLpGr;f tifukd Nird ;f csr;f pGmtoH;k jyKa&;ESihf vHNk cKH a&;wdt


Yk wGuf zGUJ pnf;
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- AD,ifemNrdKU? MopBwD;,m;EdkifiH/
Edik if w
H um jyefvnfxal xmifa&;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;bPf(tdik b
f t
D m&f')D (urmb
h Pf)
International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) (World
Bank)

zGUH NzKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;&Sd pD;yGm;a&;zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrpI rD u


H ed ;f rsm;udk aiGacs;iSm;&efEiS hf
enf;ynmtultnDay;&efjzpfonf/ tjcm;trsm;ydik Ef iS hf yk*v
u
d ydik f pDru
H ed ;f rsm;udk
vnf; aiGaMu;axmufyHh&efjzpfonf/ tdkifbDtm&f'DatmufwGif wGJzuf
tzGJUtpnf;av;ck&Sdonf(1) EdkifiHwumzGHUNzdK;a&;tzGJU (tdkif'Dat)
The International Development Association (IDA)

tzGJUonf urmhbPf\ wGJzuftzGJUwpfckjzpfNyD; ydkrdkqif;&J


aom zGUH NzKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;odYk zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufaompDru
H ed ;f rsm;vkyaf qmif&ef
txl; tcGifhta&;rsm;jzifh &efyHkaiGwnfaxmifay;onf/

tzGUJ onf zGUH NzKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;&Sd yk*v


u
d vkyif ef;ydik ;f wd;k wufa&;udk
ulnDaqmif&Gufay;onf/ EdkifiHwumrS yk*vdu&if;ESD;jrKyfESHrIrsm;
pD;0ifvmap&ef tm;ay;onf/
(3) EdkifiHpkH &if;ESSD;jrKyfESHrI tmrcHat*sifpD(trftkdif*sDat)
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

tzGJUonf zGHUNzdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;wGif yk*vdu&if;ESD;jrKyfESHrIrsm;udk


wdk;wufap&ef jrifhwifay;onf/ &if;ESD;jrKyfESHrIrsm;udk EdkifiHydkif
rjyKvkyfa&; tmrcHay;onf/ tpdk;&rsm;udk yk*vdu &if;ESD;jrKyfESHrI
qGJaqmifenf;rsm; tBuHay;onf/
(4) Edik if w
H um&if;ES;D jrK yEf rHS I tjiif;yGm;rIrsm; ajz&Si;f a&;tzGUJ (tdik pf t
D ufpt
f ikd 'f )D
The International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes
(ICSID)

&if;ES;D jrK yEf rHS EI iS hf ywfoufNy;D tdr&f iS t


f pd;k &ESihf Edik if jH cm;rS &if;ES;D
jrK yEf SHolrsm; tMum;jzpfay:aom tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk aphpyfzsefajz
jcif;ESifh cHktjzpf qHk;jzwfjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfay;onf/ tzGJUig;zGJUHk;
wnf&mrSm 0g&Siw
f ef'DpD? tar&duef jynfaxmifpkjzpfonf/
EdkifiHwum NrdKUjyavaMumif;tzGJU (tdkifpDattdk)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Edik if w
H um NrKd UjyavaMumif; yso
H ef;rItqift
h wef;ESihf pnf;rsO;f Oya'rsm;
jrifhwif&efjzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- rGefx&D,,fNrdKU? uae'gEdkifiH/
EdkifiHwum pdkufysdK;a&;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI&efyHkaiGtzGJU (tdkiftufzfat'D)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

zGHUNzdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;&Sd pdkufysdK;a&;ESifh aus;vufpDrHudef;rsm;twGuf &efyHkaiG


pkaqmif;&efjzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- a&mrNrdKU? tDwvDEdkifiH/

262

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

263

EdkifiHwum tvkyform;tzGJUcsKyf (tdkift,fvftdk)

urmhusef;rma&;tzGJU ('AvsLtdyfcsftdk)

International Labour Organization (ILO)

World Health Organization (WHO)

tvkyt
f udik w
f ;kd wufa&;ESihf tvkyo
f rm;\tajctaeESihf vlaerItqifh
twef; aumif;rGefa&;wdkYtwGuf zGJUpnf;onf/
Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH/

urmjh ynforl sm;\ use;f rma&;tajctaeudk tjrifq


h ;kH txd jri w
hf if&ef
jzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH
urmhPypnf;qkdif&mtzGJUtpnf;

ukvor*ynma&;? odyHESifh ,Ofaus;rItzGJU (,leufpudk)


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)

ynma&;? odyHESifh ,Ofaus;rIvkyfief;jzifh EdkifiHtcsif;csif; yl;aygif;


aqmif&u
G af &;udk jri w
hf if&efjzpfonf/ ,leufpudo
k nf taemufEikd if rH sm; tay:
tmCmwxm;&Sdonfqdkum 1985ckESpfwGif tar&duef jynfaxmifpkonf
tzGJUrS EkwfxGufcJhonf/
Hk;wnf&m- yg&DNrdKU? jyifopfEdkifiH/
ukvor* EdkifiHwumuav;rsm; ta&;ay: &efyHkaiGtzGJU (,leDquf)
United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

zGHUNzdK;qJ EdkifiHrsm;rS rdcifESifhuav;rsm; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIudk yHhydk;&efESifh


tultnDrsm;ay;&efjzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- e,l;a,mufNrdKU? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/
ekdifiHwumaiGaMu;&efykHaiGtzGJU (tkdiftrftufzf)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)

ekdifiHwum aiGaMu;udprsm; yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef? aiGaMu;wnfNidrfrI


&Sd&efESifh EkdifiHwum ukefoG,frI wkd;csJU&ef jzpfonf/
kH;wnf&m- 0g&Sifwef'DpD? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
EkdifiHwum aMu;eef;qufoG,fa&;or* (tkdifwD,l)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

a&'D,kd? aMu;eef;? w,fvDzkef;ESifh tmumoa&'D,kd qufoG,fa&;wkdY


twGuf Ekifd if w
H umpnf;rsO;f Oya'rsm; owfrw
S &f ef? a&'D,Bkd urd Ef eI ;f owfrw
S &f ef
jzpfonf/
kH;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEkdifiH/

World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO)

pmay? pufro
I yd EH iS hf tEkynmvuf&mrsm; rlyikd cf iG u
hf kd Edik if w
H um yl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrIjzifh umuG,f&efjzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH/
urmhrdk;av0otzGJU ('AvsLtrftdk)
World Meterological Organization (WMO)

urmrh ;kd av0ovkyif ef;rsm; wk;d wuf&ef ylaygif;aqmif&u


G rf jI zifh umuG,f
&efjzpfonf/
Hk;wnf&m- *sDeDAmNrdKU? qGpfZmvefEdkifiH/
urmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJU ('AvsLwDtdk)
World Trade Organization (WTO)

taumufcGefESifh ukefoG,frIqdkif&m taxGaxGoabmwlpmcsKyf (*wf)


Genaral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)udk tpm;xdk;aomtzGUJ
jzpfonf/ Edik if w
H umukeo
f ,
G af &;udk Bu;D MuyfaomtzGUJ tpnf; Bu;D jzpfonf/
ukeo
f ,
G af &;oabmwlncD suEf iS hf pmcsKyrf sm;udk aqmif&u
G af y;onf/ tzGJU0if
Edik if rH sm;\ ukeo
f ,
G af &;pepfukd ppfaq;onf/ ukeo
f ,
G af &;qdik &f m vkyaf qmif
rIrsm;ESifh pm&if;Z,m;udk apmifhMunfhonf/ ukefoG,fa&; tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk
ajz&Sif;ay;onf/ kH;wnf&m- *sDeDAm? qGpfZmvefEkdifiH

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

264

ukvor*tzGJY0if urmhEkdifiHrsm;
pOf

tzGJU0if

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

(tmz*efepwef)
Albania (t,fab;eD;,m;)
Algeria (t,f*s;D &D;,m;)
Andorra (tif'dk&m)
Angola (tif*dkvm)

7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/

tzGJU0iftjzpfvufcHonfhaeYpGJ

Afghanistan

Antigua and Barbuda

(tifwD*GmESifhbmbl'g)
Argentina (tm*sifwD;em;)
Armenia (tmar;eD;,m;)
Australia (MopaBw;vs)
Austria (MopBwD;,m;)
Azerbaijan (tZmbdi
k *f se)f
Bahamas (b[m;rm;)
Bahrain (bm&de;f )
Bangladesh (b*Fvm;a'h&Sf)
Barbados (bmbm;'dk;)
Belarus (bDvmkpf)
Belgium (b,fv*
f s,
D )H
Belize (bDvZ
D )D
Benin (bDeif)
Bhutan (blwef)
Bolivia (bdv
k ;D AD;,m;)
Bosnia & Herzegovina

(abmhpeD;,m;ESihf [mZD*;kd AD;em;)


23/ Botswana (abmhqmG em)

1946? Ekd0ifbm 19
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1962? atmufwkdbm 8
1993? Zlvkdif 28
1976? 'DZifbm 1
1981? Ekd0ifbm 11
1945? Ekd0ifbm 24
1992? rwfv 2
1945? Ekd0ifbm 1
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1992? rwfv 2
1973? pufwifbm 18
1971? pufwifbm 21
1974? pufwifbm 17
1966? 'DZifbm 9
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945? 'DZifbm 27
1981? pufwifbm 25
1960? pufwifbm 20
1971? pufwifbm 21
1945? Ekd0ifbm 14
1992? arv 22
1966? atmufwkdbm 17

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


24/
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/
31/
32/
33/
34/
35/
36/
37/
38/
39/

Brazil (b&mZD;vf)

265

Central African Rep

1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1984? pufwifbm 21
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1960? pufwifbm 20
1962? pufwifbm 18
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1960? pufwifbm 20
1945? Ekd0ifbm 9
1975? pufwifbm 16
1960? pufwifbm 20

(A[dktmz&duorwEdkfifiH)
Chad (cs'f)
Chile (csv
D )D
China (wkw)f
Colombia (udv
k b
H ,
D m)
Comoros (udkrdkkdUpf)

1960? pufwifbm 20
1945? atmufwdkbm 24
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945? Ekd0ifbm 5
1975? Ekd0ifbm 12

Brunei (blEi
kd ;f )
Bulgaria (bla*;&D;,m;)
Burkina Faso (bmuDemzmqd)k
Burundi (bl&Gef'D)
Cambodia (uarm'D;,m;)
Cameroon (uifr&Ge;f )
Canada (uae'g)
Cape Verde (udwfAm'D)

Congo, Democratic Rep of (Zaire)

(uGef*dk'Drdku&ufwpforwEdkifiH)
40/

Congo, Republic of

41/
42/
43/
44/
45/
46/
47/
48/
49/

Costa Rica (udkpwm&Dum)

1960? pufwifbm 20
1960? pufwifbm 20

(uGef*dkorwEdkifiH)
Croatia (cda
k t;&Sm;)
Cuba (usL;bm;)
Cyprus (qdkufy&yf)
Czech Republic (csuforwEdkifiH)
Denmark ('de;f rwf)
Djbouti (*sDblwD)
Dominica ('dr
k ekd u
D m)
Dominican Republic

('dkrDeDueforwEdkfifiH)

1945? Ekd0ifbm 2
1992? ar 22
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1960? pufwifbm 20
1993? Zefe0g&D 19
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1977? pufwifbm 20
1978? 'DZifvm 18
1945? atmufwkdbm 24

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

266
50/
51/
52/
53/
54/
55/
56/
57/
58/
59/
60/
61/
62/
63/
64/
65/
66/
67/
68/
69/
70/
71/
72/
73/
74/
75/
76/
77/
78/
79/

Ecuador (tDuGm'dk)

1945? 'DZifbm 21
Egypt (tD*spf)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
El Salvador (t,fqmaA;'d;k )
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Equatorial Guinea (tDauGw;kd &D;,J*e
D )D 1968? Ekd0ifbm 12
Eritrea (tD&pfx&D;,m;)
1993? ar 28
Estonia (tufpw
f ;kd eD;,m;)
1991? pufwifbm 17
Ethiopia (tDo,
D ;kd yD;,m;)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 13
Fiji (zD*s)D
1970? atmufwkdbm 13
Finland (zifvef)
1955? 'DZifbm 14
France (jyifopf)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Gabon (*gbGef)
1960? pufwifbm 20
Gambia (*rfb,
D m)
1965? pufwifbm 21
Georgia (a*sm*
f s,
D m)
1992? Zlvkdif 31
Germany (*smreD)
1973? pufwifbm 18
Ghana (*gem)
1957? rwf 8
Greece (*&d)
1945? atmufwkdbm 25
Grenada (*&Dem'g)
1974? pufwifbm 17
Guatemala (*GgwDrmvm)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 21
Guinea (*De)D
1958? 'DZifbm 12
Guinea-Bissau (*Deb
D pfaqm)
1974? pufwifbm 17
Guyana (*l,mem)
1966? pufwifbm20
Haiti (a[wD)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Honduras ([Gef'l;&yf)
1945? 'DZifbm 17
Hungary ([efa*&D)
1955? 'DZifbm 14
Iceland (tkdufpvef)
1946? Ekd0ifbm 19
India (tdEd,)
1945? atmufwkdbm 30
Indonesia (tif'kdeD;&Sm;)
1950? pufwifbm 28
Iran (tD&ef)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Iraq (tD&wf)
1945? 'DZifvm 21
Ireland (tkdif,mvef)
1955? 'DZifbm 14

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


80/
81/
82/
83/
84/
85/
86/
87/
88/
89/
90/
91/
92/
93/
94/
95/
96/
97/
98/
99/
100/
101/
102/
103/
104/
105/
106/
107/
108/
109/

Israel (tpa&;vf)
Italy (tDwvD)
Ivary Coast (tkdifA&DukdYpf)
Jamaica (*sarum)
Japan (*syef)
Jordan (a*smf'ef)
Kazakhstan (umZufpwef)
Kenya (uifnm)
Kiribati (uD&b
D mwD)
Korea, North (ajrmufu&
dk ;D ,m;)
Korea, South(awmifu&
dk ;D ,m;)
Kuwait (ul0w
d )f
Kyrgyzstan (um*spfpwef)
Laos (vmtkd)
Latvia (vwfA;D ,m;)
Lebanon (vufbEGef)
Lesotho (vDqkdokd)
Liberia (vku
d af b;&D;,m;)
Libya (vpfAsm;)
Liechtenstein (vDcsifpwdef;)
L ithuania (vpfoa
l &;eD;,m;)
Luxembourg (vlZif;bwf)
Macedonia (rufqD'kd;eD;,m;)
Madagascar (r'*gpum;)
Malawi (rmvm0D)

(rav;&Sm;)
Maldives (armfvf'kduf)
Mali (rmvD)
Malta (armfvw
f m)
Marshall Islands (rm&S,fuRef;pk)
Malaysia

267
1949? ar 11
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1960? 'DZifbm 20
1962? pufwifbm 18
1956? 'DZifbm 18
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1992? rwfv 2
1963? 'DZifbm 16
1999? pufwifbm 14
1991? pufwifbm 17
1991? pufwifvm 17
1963? ar 14
1992? rwf 2
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1991? pufwifbm 17
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1966? atmufwkdbm 17
1945? Ekd0ifbm 2
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1990? pufwifbm 18
1991? pufwifbm 17
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1993? {NyD 8
1960? pufwifbm 20
1964? 'DZifbm 1
1957? pufwifbm 17
1965? pufwifbm 21
1960? pufwifbm 28
1964? 'DZifbm 1
1991? pufwifbm 17

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

268
110/
111/
112/
113/
114/
115/
116/
117/
118/
119/
120/
121/
122/
123/
124/
125/
126/
127/
128/
129/
130/
131/
132/
133/
134/
135/
136/
137/
138/
139/

Mauritania (armf&a
D w;eD;,m;)

1961? atmufwkdbm 27
Mauritius (arm&pfoQ)
1968? {NyD24
Mexico (rufqu
D )dk
1945? Ekd0ifbm 7
Micronesia (rkdifckdeD;&Sm;)
1991? pufwifbm 17
Moldova (armf'kdAm)
1992? rwf 2
Monaco (rkdemukd)
1993? ar 28
Mongolia (rGef*kdvD;,m;)
1961? atmufwkdbm 27
Montenegro (rGefwDeD*kd;)
2006? ZGef 28
Morocco (armfkdukd)
1956? Ekd0ifbm 12
Mozambique (rkZ
d rf;bpf)
1975? pufwifbm 16
Myanmar (jrefrm)
1948? {NyD 19
Namibia (erD;bD;,m;)
1990? {NyD 23
Nauru (aemf;l )
1999? pufwifbm 14
Nepal (eDayg)
1955? 'DZifbm 14
Netherlands (e,fomvef)
1945? 'DZifbm 10
New Zealand (e,l;ZDvef)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Nicaragua (eDum&m*Gm)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Niger (Eki
d *f sm)
1960? pufwifbm 20
Nigeria (Eki
d *f s;D &D;,m;)
1960? atmufwkdbm 7
Norway (aemfa0)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 27
Oman (tkr
d ef)
1971? atmufwkdbm 7
Pakistan (ygupwef)
1947? pufwifbm 30
Palau (yavm)
1994? 'DZifbm 15
Panama (yem;rm;)
1945? Ekd0ifbm 13
Papua New Guinea (ygyl0g;e,l;*DeD) 1975? atmufwkdbm 10
Paraguay (yg&ma*G;)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Peru (yD;l )
1945? atmufwkdbm 31
Philippines (zdvpfykdif)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Poland (ykdvef)
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
Portugal (ay:wl*D)
1955? 'DZifbm 14

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


140/
141/
142/
143/
144/

Qatar (umwm)
Romania (ka
d r;eD;,m;)
Russia (k&Sm;)
Rwanda (&0rf'g)
Saint Kitts and Nevis

(pdefYupfESifheDApf)
145/ Saint Lucia (pdev
Yf pl ,
D m)
146/ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(pdeAYf if;qifEh iS hf *&Dem'if;)
147/ Samoa (qrk;d 0g;)
148/ San Marino (qefrm&DEkd)
149/ Sao Tome and Principe
(aqmfwkdrDESifh y&ifpDyD)
150/ Saudi Arabia (aqmf't
D ma&;bD;,m;)
151/ Senegal (qDeD*Jvf)
152/ Serbia (qm;bD;,m;)
153/ Seychelles (aq;&Sv
f )f
154/ Sierra Leone (qD,m&mvD,Gef)
155/ Singapore (pifumyl)
156/ Slovakia (qvkAd ufu;D ,m;)
157/ Slovenia (qvkad A;eD;,m;)
158/ Solomon Islands (aqmfvrGefuRef;pk)
159/ Somalia (qkrd m;vD;,m;)
160/ South Africa (awmiftmz&du)
161/ Spain (pydef)
162/ Sri Lanka (oD&v
d uFm)
163/ Sudan (ql'ef)
164/ Suriname (ql&eD rf)
165/ Swaziland (qGmZDvef)
166/ Sweden (qGD'if)

269
1971? pufwifbm 21
1955? 'DZifvm 14
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1962? pufwifbm 18
1983? pufwifbm 23
1979? pufwifbm 18
1980? pufwifbm 16
1976? 'DZifbm 15
1992? rwf 2
1975? pufwifbm 16
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1960? pufwifbm 28
2000? Ekd0ifbm 1
1976? pufwifbm 21
1961? pufwifbm 27
1965? pufwifbm 21
1993? Zefe0g&D 19
1992? ar 22
1978? pufwifbm 19
1960? pufwifbm 20
1945? Ekd0ifbm 7
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1955? 'DZifbm 14
1956? Ekd0ifbm 12
1975? 'DZifbm 4
1968? pufwifbm 24
1946? Ekd0ifbm 19

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

270
167/
168/
169/
170/
171/
172/
173/
174/
175/
176/
177/
178/
179/
180/
181/
182/

Switzerland (qGpZ
f mvef)

(qD;&D;,m;)
Tajikistan (wm*spfupwef)
Tanzania (wefZef;eD;,m;)
Thailand (xki
d ;f )
Timor-Leste (wDarmvdp)f
Togo (wkd*kd)
Tonga (wGef*g)
Syria

Trinidad and Tobago

(x&De'D ufEiS w
hf b
dk m;*k;d )
Tunisia (wle;D &Sm;)
Turkey (wl&uD)
Turkmenistan (wyfrifepwef)
Tuvalu (wlAJvl;)
Uganda (,l*ef'g)
Ukraine (,lu&de;f )
United Arab Emirates

(tm&yfapmfbmG ;rsm;jynfaxmifp)k
183/ United Kingdom (NAdwdef)
184/ United States
(tar&duefjynfaxmifpk)
185/ Uruguay (Oka*G;)
186/ Uzbekistan (OZbufupwef)
187/ Vanuatu (Amaemwl)
188/ Venezuela (AifeZD v
JG m;)
189/ Vietnam (AD,uferf)
190/ Yemen (,Drif)
191/ Zambia (Zrfb,
D m)
192/ Zimbabwe (ZifbmabG)

2002? pufwifbm 10
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1992? rwf 2
1961? 'DZifbm 14
1946? 'DZifbm 16
2002? pufwifbm 27
1960? pufwifbm 20
1999? pufwifbm 14
1962? pufwifbm 18
1956? Ekd0ifbm 12
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1992? rwf 2
2000? pufwifbm 5
1962? atmufwkdbm 25
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1971? 'DZifbm 9
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945? atmufwkdbm 24
1945?
1992?
1981?
1945?
1977?
1947?
1964?
1980?

'DZifbm 18
rwf 2
pufwifbm 15
Ekd0ifbm 15
pufwifbm 20
pufwifbm 30
'DZifbm 1
Mo*kwf 25

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

271

urmhEkdifiHrsm;taMumif; odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
tmz*efepwefEkdifiH
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

ubl;vf
32358000
orw [mrpfumZkdif;
orw [mrpfumZkdif;

t,fvfab;eD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
t,fvf*sD;&D;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

wD&meD
3194972
orw bmrmwkdyD
0efBuD;csKyf qmvDbm&pf&Sf

=
=
=
=

t,fv*f s;D ,m;pf


36300000
orw tA'JvfvmZpf blwDzDum
0efBuD;csKyf tmrufatmf&m[D,m

tif*kdvm
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

vltef'g
19618000
orw *sKdaq;tuf'l&m'kda'ghpf qefwkdYpf
orw *sKdaq;tuf'l&m'kda'ghpf qefwkdYpf

tm*sifwD;em;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

AsLEkdat&Dpf
40117096
orw c&pwD;em; zmeef'uf 'Dum;em;
orw c&pwD;em; zmeef'uf 'Dum;em;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

272

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

MopaMw;vs
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

uifbm&m
22778025
'kwd,ajrmuf tJvDZbufbk&ifrBuD;
0efBuD;csKyf *sLvD,m*Dvmh'f

MopBwD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

AD,ifem
8419776
orw [def;Zfzpf&Sm
0efBuD;csKyf 0gemaz;ref

b,fvf*sD,rf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
blwef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

273

=
=
=
=

b&yfqJvf
10839905
'kwd,ajrmuf tJvb
f wfb&k if
0efBuD;csKyf &AfpfvufwmrD

=
=
=
=

oifzsL;
708265
bk&iff*sD*rD cgqmepf*sdKif;0rfcRwf
0efBuD;csKyf *sifrDwifav;

=
=
=
=

vmyufZf
10426154
orw tDbdkrdka&;
orw tDbdkrdka&;

bm&def;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

remrm
1234571
bk&if[mrufbiftpfqm tJvfcgvDzm
0efBuD;csKyfcgvDbif qlreftJvfcgvDzm

bdkvDAD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

b*Fvm;a'h&Sf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

'gum
142319000
orw ZDvm&mref
0efBuD;csKyf &Sdwf[mqDem

b&mZD;vf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

b&mZD;vD;,m;
190755799
orw',frma&mhqyfzf
orw',frma&mhqyfzf

bDvmkpf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

rihfpf
9468000
orwtvufZEmvlum&Seu
f kd
0efBuD;csKyf rDac;vf&mpDudkApfcsf

blEdkif;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

bef'gqD&D bD*g0ef
422700
qlvfwef[mhqe,f abmhuD;&m;
qlvfwef[mhqe,f abmhuD;&m;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

274
uarm'D;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
uae'g
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
csDvD
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
wkwf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ
udkvHbD,m
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

275

zEGrf;yif
14805000
bk&if Edkdk'GrfqD[mrdkeD
0efBuD;csKyf qrf'uf[Gefqif

usL;bm;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

[mAm;em;
11241161
orw a&mvfuufpxdk
orw a&mvfuufpxdk

atmhwm0g
34482779
'kwd,ajrmuf tJvDZbufbk&ifrBuD;
0efBuD;csKyf pwDzif[myg

'def;rwf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

udak ya[*if
5579204
'kwd,ajrmuf rm*&uf bk&ifrBuD;
0efBuD;csKyf vmhpfavmfuD&yfpfrlqrf

qefwD,m*dk
17248450
orw qDbwfpwdef;ykdifeD&m
orw qDbwfpwdef;ykdifeD&m

tD*spf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

udkifdk
81729000

ayusi;f
1339724852
orw [lusiaf wmif;
0efBuD;csKyf 0rfMum;aygif

tDoD,dk;yD;,m;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

t'pftbmbm
82101998
orw *grm0l'D*sDatm*spf
0efBuD;csKyf rDvufZDem0D

bdk*dkwm
46272000
orw *sLtefrefnL&,fqefwdkYpf
orw *sLtefrefnL&,fqefwdkYpf

zifvef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

[,fqifu;D
5396292
orw wm*sm[mvdek if
0efBuD;csKyf *smuDuwfwmeif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

276
jyifopf
1/ NrdKUawmf
=
2/ vlO;D a&
=
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
=
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ =

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

277

yg&D
65027000
orw eDudkvyfqmudkZD
0efBuD;csKyf z&efYppfzDvGef

tD&ef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

wD[D&ef
75875000
w&m;olBuD;csKyf tvDcgrDeD;
orw rmrGwftmruf'DeD*suf

=
=
=
=

b*'uf
32105000
orw *smvm wmvmbmeD
0efBuD;csKyf EsL&DtJvf rmvDuD;

*smreD
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

bmvif
81729000
orw c&pfq,mef0kzf
0efBuD;csKyf tef*sDvmrmuJvf

tD&wf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

*&d
1/
2/
3/
4/

NrdKUawmf
vlO;D a&
Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

atoif
10839905
orw umdkavmhpf ygyl;vD,mhpf
0efBuD;csKyf vl;uufpfygywf'Darmhpf

tpa&;vf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

a*sq
k vif
7798600
orw&SDrGefyD;&ufpf
0efBuD;csKyf bif*srifaewef,m[k

tdEd,
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

e,l;a'vD
1210193422
orw y&mwDbmyaw;vf
0efBuD;csKyf refrdk[rfqif;

tDwvD
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

a&mr
60705991
orw *sDatmf*sD,dkemydkvDwmEdk
0efBuD;csKyf rm&D,dkrGefwD

tif'dkeD;&Sm;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ Ekid if t
H Bu;D tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

*smumwm
237641326
orw qlpDvkdbefbef;,l'dk,dkEdk
orw qlpDvkdbefbef;,l'dk,dkEdk

*syef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

wdkusdK
127720000
bk&iftmuD[Dwdk
0efBuD;csKyf ,dk&SD[DudkEdk'g

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

278
a*smf'ef
1/ NrdKUawmf
=
2/ vlO;D a&
=
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
=
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ =

trfref
6237600
'kwd,ajrmufbk&if tA'lvm
0efBuD;csKyf tefa&Smuwft,fcqm0pfcsf

uifnm
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

EdkifdkbD
39802000
orw trf0dkifuDbmuD
0efBuD;csKyf u&rfrwfpDarmhAf

uD&DbmwD
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

awmifwm&m0g
101000
orwtefwdkwDawmif
orwtefwdkwDawmif

udk&D;,m;orwEkdifiH
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

qd;k vf
49773145
orw vDajrmifbwf
0efBuD;csKyf uif0rfqpf

udk&D;,m;'Drkdu&ufwpfjynfolYorwEkdifiH
1/ NrdKUawmf
= NyHK,rf;
2/ vlO;D a&
= 24052231
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
= uiftDqGef;
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ = csKd,Grf&if;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


ul0dwf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=

4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ =

279

ul0w
d pf ;D wD;
2818000
tDrmqmbuf&Sft,fvftmruf
t,f*smbmtufpfqmbuf&f
0efBuD;csKyf eufqmrkd[mruf
tJvt
f mruftv
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f bm;

vmtdk
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

AD,ifusef;
6348800
orw csLrvDqm,mqGef
0efBuD;csKyf oGefqif;ormaAmif

vufbEGef
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

ab&Gwf
4259000
orw rkdufu,faqvfref
0efBuD;csKyf em*spfrDuwD

vpfAsm;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

x&DydkvD
6423000

vlZif;bwf
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ
4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=
=

vlZif;bwf
511840
NrdKUpm;BuD; [ife&D
0efBuD;csKyf *sif;uavmuf*sefum

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

280
rav;&Sm;
1/ NrdKUawmf
2/ vlO;D a&
3/ EkdifiHtBuD;tuJ

=
=
=

4/ tpkd;&tzGJUtBuD;tuJ =
rufqDudk
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28334135
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112336538
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35881
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50020000
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29331000
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

281

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16605375
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

282
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Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

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1976
1977
1984
1987
1992
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2010
2011
2012
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290

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Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

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Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

291

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European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

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arvwGif zGUJ pnf;onf/ 1960jynfEh pS ?f ar 3 wGif tzGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;tMum;
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f yfpmG ukeo
f ,
G rf I oabmwlncD suf &&Sd
onf/ 1992ckEpS w
f iG f tufzw
f mESihf tD;,lwo
Ykd nf tzGUJ tpnf;ESpcf t
k wGi;f &Sd
Edik if t
H csi;f csi;f wpfcw
k nf;aomaps;uGuf xlaxmif&ef oabmwlnMD uonf/
(ukeyf pn;f rsm;? 0efaqmifrrI sm;? t&if;tES;D rsm;ESihf tvkyo
f rm;rsm; vGwv
f yfpmG
pD;qif;Edik o
f nf/) 2001ckEpS t
f xd tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm tdu
k pf vef? vufcsipf wde;f ?
aemfa0ESifh qGpfZmvefwkdYjzpfMuonf/ ,cif tufzfwmtzGJU0if tawmf
rsm;rsm;onf ,cktcg ukvor*tzGJU0ifrsm; jzpfukefMuonf/
XmecsKyf- qGpfZmvefEkdifiH? *sDeDAmNrdKU/
Oa&myor* (tD;,l) bHkaps; European Union (EU)
1994txd Oa&mytzGUJ [European Community (EC)][k od&cdS MhJ uaom
tzGUJ onf bHt
k zGUJ 0ifrsm;yg&Sad om tzGUJ tpnf;oH;k ckukd pkaygif; ac:a0:aom
trnfjzpfonf/ ,if;tzGUJ tpnf; oH;k ckrmS Oa&mypD;yGm;a&; tzGJU(bHkaps;tzGJU)
[European Community (Common Market)]? Oa&my ausmufr;D aoG;ESio
hf rH Pd

292

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tzGJU [European Coal and Steel Community]Oa&mytPkjrL pGrf;tiftzGJU


(,la&wGe)f [European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)]wdYk jzpfonf/
2001ckEpS t
f xd wif;jynft
h zGUJ 0if(15)Edik if rH mS MopBw;D ,m;? b,fv*f s,
D ?H
'de;f rwf? zifvef? jyifopf? *smreD? *&d? tdik ,
f mvef? tDwvD? vlZifbwf?
e,fomvef? ay:wl*D? pydef? qGD'if? ,lEdkufwufuif;'rf;wkdYjzpfMuonf/
2004ckESpf? arv 1&ufaeYwGif qkdufy&yfpf? csuforwEkdifiH? tufpwkd;
eD;,m;? [efa*&D? vwfAD;,m;? vpfola&;eD;,m;? armfvfwm? ykdvef?
qvkdAufuD;,m;ESifh qvkdaA;eD;,m;wkdY tzGJU0ifEkdifiH jzpfvmMuonf/
tzGJU0ifrsm;onf 4if;wdkY\pD;yGm;a&;udk pkHk;aygif;pnf;&ef? vlrIa&;
zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrIrsm;udk aygif;pnf;vkyfaqmif&ef? tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;udk EdkifiHa&;
or*BuD;tjzpf xlaxmif&ef &nfrSef;Muonf/ 1992'DZifbm 31rS tpjyK
ukefypnf;rsm;? 0efaqmifrIrsm;? tvkyform;rsm;ESifh urmvSnfhc&D;onfrsm;
Oa&myor*twGif; pD;qif;oGm;vmjcif;udk uefYowfrIrsm; vHk;0rjyKvkyf&ef
oabmwlcJhMuonf/ v,f,mpdkufysdK;a&;? ig;zrf;vkyfief;ESifh EsLuvD;,m;
okawoevkyfief;wkdYwGifvnf; wlnDaomrl0g'rsm; xm;&SdMuonf/
tzGUJ 0ifEikd if aH cgif;aqmifrsm;onf 1991 'DZifbmvwGif e,fomvefEikd if H
rufpfx&pfNrdKUawGUqHkum EdkifiHpD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIrsm;twGuf
oabmwlpmcsKyu
f kd vufrw
S af &;xdk;Muonf/
rufpfx&pfoabmwlnDcsufrsm;rSmOa&mytzGJUtwGif;&Sd tcsdKUaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif 1993ckESpfrSp bHkaiG
aMu;pepf(,ldkaiG)xm;&Sd&efyg0ifa&; ryg0ifa&;twGuf NAdwdefESifh 'def;rwf
EdkifiHwdkYudk a&G;cs,fcGifhay;&ef/
- bHkEdkifiHjcm;a&;0g'xm;&Sd&ef/
- bHkumuG,fa&;rl0g'twGuf tajccHtcsufrsm; csrSwf&ef/
- vlrIa&;rl0g'rsm;wGif t"duEdI;aqmfay;oGm;&ef/
(pDrHudef;wGif NAdwdefEdkifiHryg)
- tzGUJ twGi;f &Sd qif;&JaomEdik if rH sm;udk tultnDrsm;wd;k ay;oGm;&ef/
- trwf(567)OD; yg0ifaom Oa&myygvDrefudk vkyyf ikd cf iG rhf sm; tenf;i,f
wdk;jrifhay;oGm;&ef/
xkdpOfu tzGJU0if (12)EdkifiHpvHk;u twnfjyKNyD;aemuf rufpfx&pf

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293

pmcsKyfonf 1993ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv 1&ufaeYrSp touf0ifonf/


1998 ZGefvwGif Oa&myA[dkbPfudk xlaxmifonf/ 1999 ZGef 1wGif
Oa&myor* (15)EdkifiHteuf (11)EdkifiHonf ,ldkaiGaMu;udk tcsdKUudp
rsm;twGuf pwiftoH;k jyKMuonf/ ,if;(11)Edik if rH mS MopBw;D ,m;? b,fv*f s,
D ?H
zifvef? jyifopf? *smreD? tku
d pf vef? tDwvD? vlZif;bwf? e,fomvef? ay:wl*D
ESifh pydefjzpfonf/
1999 atmufwkdbm(15-16)wGif zifvefEdkifiH urfyD,mNrdKU Oa&my
or* txl;tpnf;ta0;udk usif;ycJhonf/ xdktpnf;ta0;rS tcsuf
(10)csuyf gaom vkyif ef;pOfukd csrw
S cf o
hJ nf/ xdt
k csurf sm;wGif or*tzGUJ 0if
Edik if w
H pfc\
k w&m;pD&ifx;kH rsm;udk tjcm;or*Eikd if H rsm;u todtrSwjf yKa&;?
jypfrIusL;vGefol[k oHo,&Sdolrsm;udk w&m;Hk;vkyfxHk; vkyfenf;rsm;jzifh
rMuefYMumapbJ oufqkdif&mEdkifiHodkY vTJajymif;ay;a&;? cdv
k cIH iG ahf wmif;cHol
'kuo
nf[al oma0g[m&tay: t"dyg ,fziG q
hf ckd suf wlnDa&;wdYkyg0ifonf/
xdktpnf;ta0;rSyif Oa&myor*odkY 0ifcGifhawmif;cHaomEdkifiHrsm;\
ta&twGufudkESpfqwdk; vufcH&efoabmwlnDMuonf/
XmecsKyf - bJvf*sD,HEkdifiH? b&yfqJvfNrdKU/
&SpfEdkifiHtkyfpk (*sDtdwf)
Group of Eight (G-8)

1985ckESpf? pufwifbm 22wGif wnfaxmifonf/ pufrIxGef;um;NyD;


'Drdkua&pDxdyfoD;ckESpfEdkifiH (uae'g? jyifopf? *smreD? tDwvD? *syef? NAdwdef?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk)ESifh (aemufydkif;wGif) k&Sm;EdkifiHwdkYonf urmhpD;yGm;
a&;ESifh tjcm;udprsm;udk umvtydkif;tjcm;tavsmuf awGUqHkaqG;aEG;
Muonf/ 1998ckEpS f arvwGiu
f si;f yaomtpnf;ta0;u *st
D w
d f (G-8)odYk
trnfajymif;onf/ tcsdKUudp&yfrsm;wGif txl;ojzifh urmhpD;yGm;a&;ESifh
ywfoufonfrsm;wGif rlvckESpfEikd if o
H nf k&mS ;ryg0ifbJ pnf;a0;Edkifonf/
EdkifiHwum&mZ0wfrIESdrfeif;a&;&JtzGJU (tifwmydk)
International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

EdkifiHtoD;oD;&Sd rwljcm;em;Muaom Oya'abmifrsm;twGif;rSae


&Jbufqdkif&mvkyfief;rsm;udk tcsif;csif; twwfEdkifqHk; tjyeftvSef ulnD

294

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;Mu&ef tifwmydt
k zGUJ udk 1956ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 13wGif wnfaxmif
cJhonf/ 2006ckESpfwGif tzGJU0ifEkdifiHaygif; (186)EdkifiH&SdvmcJhonf/
tm&yftzGJUcsKyf
League of Arab States (Arab League)

tzGUJ csKyo
f nf pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;? Edik if aH &;ESihf ppfa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf
rIrsm;udk wk;d jri &hf ef 1945ckEpS ?f rwfv 22&ufaeYwiG f pwifxal xmifco
hJ nf/
tm&yfEikd if rH sm;twGi;f jzpfymG ;aom tjiif;yGm;rI rsm;udk aphpyfajz&Si;f ay;onf/
EdkifiHwumaphpyfndEIdif;rIrsm;wGif tm&yf Edik if rH sm;ud,
k pf m;aqmif&u
G o
f nf/
2005ckEpS f tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm t,fv*f s;D &D;,m;? bm&de;f ? aumfrkd ?kd *sb
D w
l ?D tD*sp?f
a*smf'ef? ul0dwf? vufbEGef? vpfAsm;? armf&Daw;eD;,m;? armfdkudk? tdkref?
ygvufpwdkif;? (tzGJUcsKyfu ygvufpwkdif;ukd vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHtjzpf
owfrw
S o
f nf/) umwm? aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;? qdrk mvD,m? ql'ef? qD;&D;,m;?
wle;D &Sm;? tm&yfapmfbmG ;rsm; EdkifiHESifh ,DrifwkdYjzpfMuonf/
XmecsKyf- tD*spfEkdifiH? udkifdkNrdKU/
ajrmuftwvEdwfpmcsKyftzGJU (aewdk;)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

aewd;k tzGUJ csKyu


f kd 1949ckEpS f {NyD 4wGif vufrw
S af &;xd;k Ny;D 1949 Mo*kwf
24wGif pwiftouf0ifonf/ tzGJU0ifEkdifiHrsm;rSm bJvf*sD,rf? uae'g?
bla*;&D;,m;? csuforwEkdifiH? 'def;rwf? tufpwkd;eD;,m;? jyifopf? *smreD?
*&d? [efa*&D? tku
d pf vef? tDwvD? vwfA;D ,m;? vpfoal &;eD;,m;? vlZpfbwf?
e,fomvef? aemfa0? ykdvef? ay:wl*D? kdar;eD;,m;? qvkdbufuD;,m;?
qvkdaA;eD;,m;? pydef? wl&uD? NAdwdefESifh tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwkdY
jzpfMuonf/
tzGUJ 0ifrsm;onf tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk Nird ;f csr;f aomenf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Si;f &ef?
vufeufjzifhwkdufcdkufvmonfudk ckcHwGef;vSef&ef? wpfEikd if cH si;f ESihf tzGUJ 0if
tm;vH;k \ pkaygif;pGr;f aqmifru
I kd wd;k jri &hf ef? tzGUJ 0if Edik if w
H pfEidk if Htm; wku
d cf u
kd f
vmonfukd tzGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;tm;vH;k tm; wku
d cf u
kd o
f nf[k rSw,
f &l ef? wpfzufrS
wkdufcdkufvmonfudk ckcHwGef;vSef&eftwGuf ukvor* y#dnmOf pmwrf;?
pmydk'f (51)t& vdktyfovdk ta&;,laqmif&Guf&efwkdYudk oabmwlonf/

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aewd;k zGUJ pnf;yHw


k iG f aumifpw
D pfc?k umuG,af &;pDru
H ed ;f aumfrwD? ppfa&;
aumfrwD? (XmecsKyf? Oa&myXmecsKyf? twvEdwfXmecsKyf)? EsLuvD;,m;
pDrHudef;tzGJU? uae'g? tar&duefa'o pDrHudef;tzGJUwdkY yg0ifonf/ jyifopf
EdkifiHonf ppfa&; XmecsKyfzGJUpnf;rIrS 1996wGif EIwfxGufoGm;onf/
1990jynfv
h eG f apmapmydik ;f ESprf sm;wGif qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpNk yKd uo
JG mG ;Ny;D
ppfat;wdkufyGJ NyD;qHk;oGm;aomtcg aewdk;tzGJUonf jyKjyifajymif;vJrIrsm;
aqmif&u
G o
f nft
h aejzifh Edik if aH &;vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;ay:wGif ydrk t
kd mHpk u
kd Nf y;D a'o
qdik &f m jyemrsm;wGif aqmif&u
G Ef ikd &f eftwGuf vsijf refpmG wyfjzefEY ikd af om
vQyfwpfjyufwyfzGJUrsm; zGJUpnf;onf/
1990 jynfhESpfrsm;tv,fydkif;wGif k&Sm;ESifh ,cifqdkAD,ufEdkifiHa[mif;
rsm;yg0ifaom (27)Edik if o
H nf aewd;k ESihf yl;aygif;Ny;D Nird ;f csr;f a&; yl;aygif;tzGUJ
qdo
k nfukd zGUJ pnf;onf/ (1993ckEpS f 'DZifbmwGif pmcsKyf rlMurf;a&;qGo
J nf)
,if;tzGUJ onf ppfa&;yl;aygif;avhusijhf cif;? Nird ;f csr;f a&;xde;f odr;f rIvyk if ef;ESihf
owif;tcsuftvufrsm; vJvS,frI jyKvkyfMuonf/
aewdk;tzGJUudk wdk;csJUonfhtaejzifh ,cifta&SUtkyfpk0ifEdkifiHrsm;udk
wif;jynfhtzGJU0ifrsm;tjzpf vufcHonf/ 1993ckESpf? rwfv 12wGif ,cif
0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJU0ifoHk;EdkifiHjzpfaom [efa*&D? ydkvefESifh csuforwEdkifiH
wdo
Yk nf tzGUJ 0ifrsm;jzpfvmMuonf/ XmecsKy-f bJv*f s,
D EH idk if ?H b&yfqv
J Nf rKd U/
tmz&duor*
African Union (AU)

tmz&du nDw
G af &;tzGUJ (Organization of African Unity)ac: tdak t,l
udk 1963ckEpS ?f ar 25wGif tmz&du (32)Edik if jH zifh pwif zGUJ pnf; 2002ckEpS ?f
ZlvkdifvwGif zsufodrf;um tmz&duor* (at,l) trnfjzifh jyefvnf
zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
tar&duefEdkifiHrsm;tzGJU (tdkattufpf)
Organization of American States (OAS)

tdak ttufpu
f kd 1948ckEpS ?f {Nyv
D 30wGif udv
k b
H ,
D mEdik if H bd*k w
kd mNrKd UwGif
zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifonf/ tzGJUwGif tNrJwrf;aumifpDwpfck? tar&duef
EdkifiHrsm;qdkif&m pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIa&;aumifpD? ynma&;? ,Ofaus;rIESifh

296

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odyaH &;&maumifp?D w&m;a&;aumfrwDwpfcEk iS hf vlt


Y cGit
hf a&;qdik &f maumfr&Sif
wpfckwdkYyg&Sdonf/ tNrJwrf;aumifpDonf ta&;ay:vHkNcHKa&;udprsm;udk
aqmif&GufEdkif&ef EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk ac:,lEdkifonf/
taxGaxGnDvmcHudk ESpfpOfusif;yonf/
2005ckEpS t
f xd tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm tifw*D mG ESihf bmbl'g? tm*siw
f ;D em;?
b[m;rm;? bmab'dk? bvdZf? bdkvD;AD;,m;? b&mZD;? 'dkrDeDum? 'dkrDeDuef
orwEdik if ?H tDauGa'g? t,fvq
f maAa'g? *&ifae'g? *GmwDrmvm? *dik ,
f mem?
a[wD? [Gef'l&yf? *sarum? rufqDudk? eDum&m*Gm? yem;rm;? yg&ma*G;? yDl;?
pdefYupfESifh eDApf? pdefYvl&Sm? pdefYAif;qifhESifh *&if;em'if;? ql&Derf? x&DeD'ufESifh
wkdbm;*kd? uae'g? csDvD? ukdvHbD,m? ukdpwm&Dum? usL;bm;? tar&duef
jynfaxmifp?k Oka*G;ESihf AifeZD v
JG m;Ekid if w
H jYdk zpfMuonf/ 1962wGif usL;bm;udk
tzGJUvIyf&Sm;rIrS z,f&Sm;onf/
XmecsKyf- tar&duefjynfaxmifpk? 0g&Sifwef'DpD/
pD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;tzGJU (tdktD;pD'D)
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

tzGUJ 0ifEikd if rH sm;\ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlraI &;wd;k wufzUHG NzKd ;rIrsm;udk aqmif&u
G f
&efEiS hf zGUH NzKd ;Ny;D Edik if rH sm;\ud,
k pf m; vufwn
JG
D w
G rf EI iS hf vHaYI qmf tm;ay;rI
rsm;jyKvkyf&ef 1961ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifonf/ tzGJUonf pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
ywf0ef;usiaf &;&mtcsut
f vufrsm;udk pkaqmif; jzefYcsday;onf/
2005ckEpS x
f d tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm MopaMw;vs? MopBw;D ,m;? bJv*f s,
D ?H uae'g?
csuo
f rwEdkifiH? 'def;rwf? zifvef? jyifopf? *smreD? *&d? [efa*&D? tdkifpvef?
tdik ,
f mvef? tDwvD? *syef? vlZif;bwf? rufqu
D ?kd e,fomvef? e,l;ZDvef?
aemfa0? ydkvef? ay:wl*D? qvkdAufuD;,m;? awmifudk&D;,m;? pydef? qGD'if?
qGZfZmvef? wl&uD? NAdwdefESifh tar&duefjynfaxmifpk wkdYjzpfMuonf/
XmecsKyf- jyifopfEkdifiH? yg&DNrdKU/
a&eHa&mif; EdkifiHrsm;tzGJU (tdkyuf)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

1960jynfhESpf? pufwifbm 14wGif zGJUpnf;onf/ a&eHxkwfvkyfrIudk


uefYowfNyD; a&eHaps;EIef;udkowfrSwfonf/ tzGJUonf tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;ESifh

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297

a&eHo;kH pGaJ om pufrEI ikd if rH sm; qufqaH &;wGif tzGUJ 0ifrsm;\ ukeo
f ,
G af &;ESihf
zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrI tusKd ;udk a&SUIonf/ 2005ckEpS x
f d tzGUJ 0ifrsm;rSm t,fv*f s;D
&D;,m;? *gbGef? tif'dkeD;&Sm;? tD&ef? tD&wf? ul0dwf? vpfAsm;? Edik *f s;D &D;,m;?
umwm? aqmf't
D ma&AD;,m;? tm&yfapmfbmG ;rsm;EdkifiHESifh AifeDZGJvm;EkdifiH
wkdYjzpfMuonf/ XmecsKyf- MopBwD;,m;EkdifiH? AD,ifemNrdKU/
Oa&myvHkNcHKa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJU (tdktufpfpDtD;)
Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

1972ckESpf Oa&myvHkNcHKa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrI nDvmcH


wGifzGJUpnf;onf/ vuf&Sdtrnfudk 1995 Zefe0g&D 1wGif twnfjyKonf/
aewdk;pmcsKyfESifh 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;jzifh zGJUpnf;xm;onf/ tzGJU\
&nf&,
G cf surf mS ta&SUtaemuf qufqaH &; wd;k jri &hf eftwGuf rusL;ausmaf &;?
vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;? pD;yGm;a&;? odyEH iS ehf nf;ynm? ,Ofaus;rIzvS,af &;ESihf ywf0ef;usif
xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;wdkYwGif yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifoGm;Mu&efjzpfonf/
2005ckESpftxd tzGJU0ifEkdifiHaygif; (55)EkdifiH&Sdonf/
XmecsKyf- MopBwD;,m;EkdifiH? AD,ifemNrdKU/
bif;pwuftzGUJ (BIMSTEC)
b*Fvm;a'h&Sf? tdEd,? jrefrm? oD&dvuFmESifh xdkif;EdkifiHpD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G rf t
I zGUJ ukd 1997ckEpS f ZGev
f (6)&ufaeYwiG f pwifzUJ G pnf;onf/ 1997ckEpS ?f
Bo*kwv
f 25&ufrpS jrefrmEdik if o
H nf tzGUJ 0iftjzpf yg0ifco
hJ nf/ tmqD,H
uJhodkY ta&;ygaomtzGJUtpnf; wpfckjzpfonf/ ,cktcg b*Fvm;a'h&Sf?
blwef? tdE,
d ? jrefrm? eDayg? oD&v
d uFmESihf xdik ;f wdyYk g0ifonf/ 31.7.2004
&ufaeYwiG f xdik ;f Edik if H befaumufNrKd U usif;yonfh xdyfoD;tpnf;ta0;rS
tzGJU\ tac:ta0: bif;pwufukd u@pHek nf;ynmESihf pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrIqdkif&m b*Fvm;yifv,fatmf OD;aqmifOD;&GufjyKrItpDtpOf
BIMSTEC= Bay of Bengal initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical and
Economic Cooporation [k ajymif;vJac:a0:&ef oabmwlnc
D MhJ uonf/

298

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmEkdifiHESifU oHwrefqufoG,fxm;aom EkdifiHrsm;


(1947 ckESpfrS 2010 jynfUESpftxd)
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
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26/
27/
28/
29/

EkdifiH
oHwrefqufoG,fonfhaeY&uf
NAdwdefEkdifiH
7-7-1947
ygupwef
1-8-1947
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
19-9-1947
tdEd,
4-1-1948
k&Sm;jynfaxmifpk
18-2-1948
jyifopf
28-2-1948
xkid ;f
24-8-1948
e,fomvef
1948
oD&dvuFm
7-6-1949
tif'edk ;D &Sm;
27-12-1949
wkwfjynfolYorwEkdifiH
9-6-1950
,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;
29-12-1950
tDwvDD
1950
MopBw;D ,m;
9-7-1953
tpa&;
13-7-1953
MopaMw;vs
1-8-1953
tD*spf
8-8-1953
b,fvf*sD,H
1953
*smrPD
9-4-1954
zifvef
22-7-1954
*syef
1-12-1954
ykdvef
11-11-1955
'dfef;rwf
1955
uarm'D;,m;
1955
csufjynfolYorwEkdifiH
3-1-1956
pvkdbufuD;,m;jynfolYorwEkdifiH 3-1-1956
[efa*&D
5-3-1956
kad r;eD;,m;
15-3-1956
bla*;&D;,m;
16-5-1956

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


30/
31/
32/
33/
34/
35/
36/
37/
38/
39/
40/
41/
42/
43/
44/
45/
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48/
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51/
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57/
58/
59/
60/
62/
62/

tD&wf
zdvpfykdif
rGe*f ;dk vD,m;
tmz*efepwef
qGD'if
aemfa0
vmtkd'Drkdu&ufwpforwEkdifiH
qGpfZmvef
rav;&Sm;
*&d
uae'g
wl&uD
e,l;ZDvef
eDayg
pifumyl
pydef
tD&ef
t,fv
f *f s;D &D;,m;
armfv'f u
dk f
Ekid *f s;D &D;,m;
b*Fvm;a'h&fS
qD;&D;,m;
tm*siw
f ;D em;
awmifu&dk ;D ,m;
AD,uferf
ruqDukd
armf&pfaw;eD;,m;
usL;bm;
ay:wl*D
t,fvaf b;eD;,m;
aumhpwm&Dum
armfu
dk dk
arm&pfaw;eD;,yfpf

299
23-7-1956
30-7-1956
28-9-1956
8-11-1956
1956
1956
1956
1957
1-3-1958
20-3-1958
9-8-1958
2-9-1958
15-11-1958
3-3-1960
12-8-1966
11-3-1967
8-8-1968
15-11-1968
15-1-1970
24-1-1970
21-3-1972
15-6-1972
28-2-1975
19-5-1975
28-5-1975
1-1-1976
5-10-1976
12-10-1976
14-11-1976
15-12-1976
8-3-1977
31-7-1978
30-12-1978

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

300
63/
64/
65/
66/
67/
68/
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csDvD
yem;rm;
b&mZD;vf
qkdufy&yfpf
Aifemwl
ukv
d b
H ,
D m
yDl;
AifeDZGJvm;
ygyl0ge,l;*DeD
blEkdif;
*gem
awmiftmz&du
uifnm
ul0dwf
,lu&def;
tZmbkdifusef
a*smf*sD,m
wmuDrifepwef
ckad t;&Sm;
bDvmkpf
umZufpwef
wm*sDupwef
*sarum
um*spfpwef
OZbufupwef
Oka*G;
rufq'D ;dk eD;,m;
tkdif,mvef
ql'ef
aqmf't
D ma&AD;,m;
umwm
ta&SUwDarm
qm;AD;,m;rGew
f eD *D d;k

22-4-1982
15-7-1982
1-9-1982
15-7-1982
28-1-1987
28-11-1988
28-8-1989
20-11-1990
24-7-1991
21-9-1993
13-1-1995
20-4-1995
26-9-1997
16-12-1998
19-1-1999
3-8-1999
16-8-1999
26-8-1999
3-9-1999
22-9-1999
23-9-1999
29-9-1999
6-12-1999
9-11-2000
8-2-2001
22-2-2001
9-7-2003
10-2-2004
20-5-2004
25-8-2004
26-9-2005
22-9-2006
27-11-2006

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


96/
97/
98/
99/
100/
101/
102/
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104/
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106/

qvkad b;eD;,m;
'Dyt
D m&fau(ajrmufu&dk ;D ,m;)
tef'kd&mEkdifiH
ZifbmabG
bm&de;f
zD*sD
tkdref
*rfbD,m
abmhpfeD;,m;ESifh [mZD*dkAD;em;
rmvm0D
blwef

301
18-12-2006
11-2-2009
11-2-2009
27-8-2009
10-11-2009
10-5-2010
14-12-2010
13-1-2011
25-8-2011
30-1-2012
1-2-2012

ukvor*\ axmifpkESpf&nfrSef;csuf
Millennium Development Goals

1/ tvGeftrif;qif;&JrIESifh iwfrGwfrIwkdYukd z,f&Sm;&ef


End Poverty and Hunger

2/ urmt
h ajccHynma&;tqifo
h aYdk &muf&adS pa&;
Universal Education

3/ usm;^rtcGit
fh a&;wef;wlnrD QrEI iS hf trsK;d orD;rsm;vkyyf idk cf iG w
hf ;dk jrifah pa&;
Gender Equality

4/ uav;oli,faoqk;H EIe;f avsmch sa&;


Child Health

5/ uk,
d 0f efaqmifrcd ifrsm;\use;f rma&;wk;d wufapa&;
Maternal Health
6/ HIV / AIDS a&m*g? iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh tjcm;a&m*grsm;wkdufzsuf&ef
Combat HIV / AIDS

7/ obm0ywf0ef;usifwnfwHhrI&&Sdapa&;
Environmental sustainability

8/ zGUH NzKd ;rItwGuf wpfurmvk;H qkid &f m yl;aygif;aqmif&u


G rf I wnfaqmuf&ef
Global Partnership

302

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmoHkH;? tzGJY kH;? aumifppf0efcsKyfkH; zGifUvSpfxm;&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm;


tm&S? tmz&du
1/ wkwfjynfolYorwEkdifiH? ayusif;NrdKU (rGef*kd;vD,m;EkdifiH yl;wGJ
wm0ef,lonf/
2/ *syefEkdifiH? wkdusKdNrdKU
3/ awmifukd&D;,m;EkdifiH? qkd;vfNrdKU
4/ tdEd,EkdifiH? e,l;a'vDNrdKU(tD&efEkdifiH yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
5/ ygupwefEkdifiH? tpvrfrmbwfNrdKU
6/ oD&v
d uFmEkid if ?H ukv
d b
H Ndk rKd U(armfv'f u
dk Ef idk if H yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
7/ eDaygEkdifiH? cwrELNrdKU
8/ b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiH? 'gumNrdKU
9/ AD,uferfEkdifiH? [EGdKif;NrdKU
10/ uarm'D;,m;EdkifiH? zEGrf;yifNrdKU
11/ vmtkdEkdifiH? AD,ifusef;NrdKU
12/ xkdif;EkdifiH? befaumufNrdKU
13/ rav;&Sm;EkdifiH? uGmvmvrfylNrdKU
14/ pifumylEkdifiH? pifumylNrdKU
15/ tif'kdeD;&Sm;EkdifiH? *smumwmNrdKU
16/ blEkdif;EkdifiH? bef'gq&DbD*g0efNrdKU
17/ zdvpfykdifEkdifiH? reDvmNrdKU
18/ MopaMw;vsEkdifiH? uifbm&mNrdKU(e,l;ZDvefEkdifiH yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
19/ tpa&;EkdifiH? wJvftAD;NrdKU
20/ tD*spEf idk if ?H ukid f Ndk rKd U(wl&uD? tD&wf? t,fv*f s;D &D;,m;? armfu
dk dk Ekid if rH sm;
yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
21/ awmiftmz&duEkid if ?H y&Dw;dk &D;,m;NrKd U(Ekid *f s;D &D;,m;? armf&pf&yS f Ekid if rH sm;
yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

303

Oa&my
1/ jyif o pf E k d i f i H ? yg&D N rd K U(qG p f Z mvef ? pyd e f ? tD ; ,l ? e,f o mvef ?
b,fvf*sD,efEkdifiHrsm; yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
2/ *smreDEkdifiH? bmvifNrdKU(MopBwD;,m;EkdifiH yl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
3/ k&mS ;Ekid if ?H armfpukNd rKd U(bDvmkp?f ,lu&de;f Ekid if rH sm; yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
4/ NAdwdefEkdifiH? vef'efNrdKU(qGD'if? aemfa0? 'def;rwf? tkdif,mvef EkdifiHrsm;
yl;wGw
J m0ef,o
l nf)
5/ tDwvDEkdifiH a&mrNrdKU(*&d? ay:wl*DEkdifiHrsm;ukdyl;wGJwm0ef,lonf)
6/ qm;AD;,m;ESifh rGefwDeD*dk;? bJvf*&dwfNrdKU(dkar;eD;,m;EkdifiH yl;wGJ
wm0ef,o
l nf)
tar&du
1/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpk 0g&SifwefNrdKU
2/ uae'gEkdifiH? atmfwm0gNrdKU
3/ b&mZD;EdkifiH? b&mZD;vD;,m;NrdKU(csDvD? tm*sifwD;em;EkdifiHrsm; yl;wGJ
wm0ef,o
l nf)

304

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmEkdifiH? EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'
EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHtaejzifh &nfrSef;csufrsm; atmifjrifaygufajrmufap&ef
twGuf jynfwiG ;f ? jynfyqdik &f m rl0g'rsm; csrw
S t
f aumiftxnfazmf aqmif
&Gu&f ygonf/ odaYk omf jynfyrl0g'rsm; csrw
S t
f aumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u
G f
&mwGif tjcm;Edik if rH sm;ESihf qufpyfr&I adS ejcif;aMumifh rl0g'rsm; csrw
S &f mwGif
txl;yifta&;BuD;ygonf/ xdkodkY jynfyqdkif&mrl0g'rsm; csrSwftaumif
txnfazmfjcif;udk Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'[k ac:qdak vh&MdS uygonf/
EdkifiHwpfEdkfifiH\ EdkifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'udk avhvmvdkygu tqdkygEdkifiH\
EdkifiHjcm;a&;qdkif&m tajccHOD;wnfcsuf(odkYr[kwf) tajccHr[mAsL[mudk
OD;pGmavhvmoifhonf/ EdkifiHrsm;taejzifh 4if;wdkY\ EdkfifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'udk
csrw
S &f mwGif atmufyg OD;wnfcsuw
f pf&yf&yftay:wGif tajccH csrw
S af vh
&Sad Mumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf(u) oD;oefY wpfO;D wnf; &yfwnfa&;
( c ) bufrvdu
k af &;
( * ) Edik if t
H csi;f csi;f bufvu
dk yf ;l aygif;a&;
wdkY jzpfonf/
jrefrmEdik if t
H aejzifh vGwv
f yfa&; &&Scd sed rf pS vGwv
f yf bufrvdu
k f
aom Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'udk csrw
S u
f sio
hf ;Hk cJyh gonf/ xdu
k o
hJ Ykd usio
hf ;Hk cJjh cif;rSm(u) ppfat;umv ta&SUtkypf Ek iS hf taemuftyk pf [
k
l uGjJ ym;aecsed w
f iG f
udv
k ekd v
D ufatmufcEH ikd if rH sm; vGwv
f yfa&;&&SNd y;D vGwv
f yfp jrefrm
Edik if t
H aejzifh vGwv
f yfaom Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'udk usio
hf ;Hk vdjk cif;
aMumifv
h nf;aumif;?
( c ) vGwv
f yfa&;&&S&d ef BuKd ;yrf;&jcif;\ wefz;kd ESihf vGwv
f yfaom Edik if jH cm;
a&;rl0g'udk wpfxyfwnf;xm;vdak omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;?
( * ) jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f rI'Pfukd cHpm;od&NdS y;D ta&SUtkypf Ek iS hf taemuf
tkypf k tm;NyKd irf MI um; ppfajrjyifjzpfvmEdik jf cif;udk a&Smif&mS ;vdak om
aMumifv
h nf;aumif;?

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

305

(C) jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; jyefvnfOD;armhvmapa&;


aqmif&u
G &f mwGif tkypf Ek pS pf \
k aESmifBuKd ;rJh tultnDrsm;udo
k m
vufcv
H akd omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;?
( i ) vlO;D a&rsm; 0g'jcif; rwlno
D nfh wkwEf iS hf tdE,
d Edik if MH um;wGif
&Sad e bufrvdu
k v
f ak d omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;? vGwv
f yf bufrvdu
k f
aom Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'udk csrw
S u
f sio
hf ;Hk cJjh cif; jzpfygonf/
jrefrmEdik if o
H nf 1971 ckEpS rf pS vGwv
f yf bufrvdu
k af om Edik if jH cm;
a&;rl0g'rS vGwv
f yf wufMuaG om Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'odYk ajymif;vJusio
hf ;Hk cJh
ygonf/ urmhNidrf;csrf;a&;? urmhppfqefYusifa&;? e,fcsJUpepfESifh udkvdkeDpepf
qefYusifa&;? EdkifiHwumESifh cspfMunf&if;ESD;pGm qufqHa&;wdkYwGif Edk;Mum;
wufMupG mG yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/
Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rl(5)csuf
(The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence)

Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJ aexdkifa&; rl(5)csufonf jreffrmEdkifiH\


Edik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'\ tajccHa&aomufjrpfjzpfonf/ tqdyk grl0g'onf 1954
ckESpfwGif jrefrm? wkwfESifh tdEd,EdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;u csrSwfcJhMujcif;
jzpfonf/ 28-6-1954 &ufaeYwGif e,l;a'vDNrdKU wkwfESifhtdEd,
acgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf;aumif;? 29-6-1954 &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU
jrefrmESihf wkwaf cgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf;aumif; atmufygrlBu;D (5)csuu
f kd
oabmwl vufrw
S af &;xd;k cJMh uonf(u) wpfEikd if \
H e,fajrwnfwrhH EI iS hf tcsKyt
f csmtmPm ydik q
f ikd rf u
I kd
wpfEikd if u
H av;pm;&ef?
Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and
sovereignty

(c) wpfEdkifiHESifh wpfEdkifiH usL;ausmfwdkufcdkufrIrjyK&ef?


To abide by mutual non-aggression

(*) wpfEdkifiHESifhwpfEdkifiH jynfwGif;a&;udprsm;wGif 0ifa&mufpGufzuf


jcif;rjyK&ef?
Non-interference in each others internal affairs

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

306

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

307

(C) wpfEdkifiHESifh wpfEdkifiH wef;wl&nfwl&Sd&efESifh ESpfOD;ESpfzuf tusdK;


jzpfxGef;&ef?
Respect for mutual equality and to work for mutual benefit

(i) Nird ;f csr;f pGm twl,OS w


f JG aexdik &f ef wdjYk zpfygonf/
Peaceful co-existence

jrefrmEdik if o
H nf txufyg Nird ;f csr;f pGm twl,OS w
f JG aexdik af &; tajccH
rlBuD;(5)csufudk udkifpGJvsuf ukvor* tajccHrlrsm;? &nfrSef;csufrsm;ESifh
tnD atmufygtwdik ;f aqmuf&u
G cf yhJ gonf(u) ukvor*\ vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif rdrd\ tajccHrlESifhtnD Edk;Mum;
wuf<upGm yg0ifvyI &f mS ;jcif;?
( c ) vufeufzsuo
f rd ;f a&;udk tpOftm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
( * ) vufeuftNyKd it
f qdik f xkwv
f yk af &mif;csru
I kd qefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G jf cif;?
(C) trsKd ;om;vGwaf jrmufa&; wdu
k yf rJG sm;udk tm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
( i ) e,fcsUJ 0g'Drsm;\ usL;ausmpf u
G zf ufrrI sm;udk qefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G jf cif;?
( p ) udv
k ekd pD epf zsuo
f rd ;f a&;udk tm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
(q) udv
k ekd 0D g' tom;ta&mifcjJG cm;rIEiS hf vlrsKd ;cGjJ cm;rIpepfrsm;udk qefu
Y sif
uefYuGufjcif;?
( Z ) urmNh ird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf aqmif&u
G cf surf sm;udk tm;ay;axmufcjH cif;?
(ps) e,fcsUJ usL;ausmaf &; ppfyrJG sm;udk qefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G jf cif;
wdYk aqmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/

bmoma&;qkdif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
b'urmwGif yGifhawmfrlaom bk&m;ig;ql
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

uukoefjrwfpGmbk&m;
aumPm*kjH rwfpmG bk&m;
uyjrwfpGmbk&m;
a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;
aemifyGifhawmfrlrnfh t&daraw,sjrwfpGmbk&m;

omoemawmfoHk;&yf
1/ y&d,wd omoem
2/ y#dywd omoem
3/ y#da0' omoem

= yd#uwfpmayoifMum;jcif;
= w&m;awmfESifhtnDusifhjcif;
= xkd;xGif;odjcif;

&wemoHk;yg;
1/ bk&m;

2/ w&m;

3/ oHCm

a*gwrAk'jrwfpGmbk&m;ESifU ywfouf odoifUaomtcsufrsm;


jrwfpGmbk&m;\ zcrnf;awmftrnf
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ r,fawmftrnf
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ arG;zGm;&mZmwd
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ i,femrnf
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ Muif,mawmf

=
=
=
=
=

oka'g"e
r,fawmfrm,m
uydv0wf
od'wrif;om;
,aomf"&m

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

308
jrwfpmG bk&m;\ om;awmf
=
jrwfpGmbk&m;\ zGm;zufawmfckepfa,muf =

&m[kvm
armifp?H cEdu
jrif;? umVK'g&D
trwf? a&Ttkd;BuD; av;vkH;?
nDawmftmeEm? ,aomf"&m?
aAm"danmifyif

oHa0Zed, av;Xme
1/
2/
3/
4/

jrwfpGmbk&m;zGm;jrifonfht&yf
bk&m;tjzpfa&mufawmfral omae&m
"rpMumw&m;OD;a[mawmfral omae&m
y&dedAmefjyKaomae&m

=
=
=
=

vkreDO,smOf
Ak'*g,m
rd*'g0kefawm
ukodemHk

owXme ckepfyg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/

atmifjrifawmfral omaAm"dyif\ ta&SUajrmufwpfvu


H mG a&Tyvi|f me
aAm"dyif\ ajrmufbuf 10 vHuGm|me tedrdot&yf
aAm"dyifESifh tedrdotMum; ESpfvHuGm|me &wempBu
aAm"dyif\ taemufajrmuf 15 vHuGm&wemC&a&Ttdrf
aAm"dyif\ ta&SU 32 vHuGm tZygvqdwfausmif;anmifyif
aAm"dyif\ ta&SUawmif 15 vHumG rkpvdEm tdik 0f ,f e*g;yg;jyif;atmuf|me
aAm"dyif\ awmifbuf 11 vHuGm vif;vGef;yift&yf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

7/ owma'0rEkmeH = ewfvlwkdY\q&mjzpfaom*kPf/
8/ Aka'g
= opmav;yg;udo
k ad wmfral om*kP/f
9/ b*0g
= bke;f awmfajcmufyg;ESijhf ynfph akH wmfral om*kP/f

w&m;*kPfawmf ajcmufyg;
1/ oGmumawm
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

= w&m;awmf\ tptv,ftqH;k aumif;aom


*kP/f
oE|d ad um
= csD;rGrf;tyfaom r*fynmjzifh udavomudk
atmifwwfaom*kP/f
tumvdaum
= tcgrvifh aumif;usKd ;csr;f omay;wwfaom
*kP/f
{[dydaum
= vmvSnfhIvSnfh[l tpD&ifudkcHxdkufaom
*kP/f
Moyae,sad um
= pdwfESifhrcGmbJaqmifjcif;iSmxdkufaom*kPf/
ypwaH 0'dwaAm0d[
l d = ynm&Sw
d pYkd w
d f odtyfcpH m;tyfaom*kP/f

oHCmh*kPfawmf ukd;yg;
1/ oky# yd aEm
2/ OZky#dyaEm

bk&m;*kPfawmf ukd;yg;
1/ t&[H
2/ ormorKa'g
3/ 0dZmp&PoraEm
4/ ok*awm
5/ avmu0d'l
6/ tEkwa &m yk&o
d
"rom&xd

= ylaZmftxl;cH,lawmf rlxdkufaom*kPf/
= tvHk;pHkaomw&m;taygif;udkodjrifawmfrl
aom *kPf/
= 0dZmoHk;yg;? 0dZm&Spfyg;? p&Pw&m; 15yg;
wdkYESifh jynfhpHkawmfrlaom*kPf/
= aumif;aompum;udo
k mqdak wmfral om*kP/f
= avmuoH;k yg;udk odawmfrt
l yfaom*kP/f
= r,Ofaus;aom vlewfjA[mow0gwdkYudk
,Ofaus;atmifq;kH raom*kP/f

309

3/ ,y#yd aEm
4/ omrdpyd # yd aEm
5/ tm[kaea,sm
6/ yg[kaea,sm
7/ 'uad ea,sm

= odum usi0hf wfwu


Ykd kd aumif;pGmusiahf wmfral om
*kP/f
= odumusifh0wfwdkYudk ajzmifhrwfpGmusifhaom
*kP/f
= edAmef\tusdK;iSm usifhawmfrlaom*kPf/
= tdktaojyKxdkufatmif odumwdkYudkdkao
xdu
k af om*kP/f
= ta0;rSaqmif oDv0Ewt
Ykd m; vSLtyfaom
ypn;f udk cH,lawmfrlxdkufaom*kPf/
= cspcf ifEpS v
f t
kd yfaom{nfo
h nfwt
Ykd zdYk pD&ifxm;
aomjrwfaomtvSLudck aH wmfrx
l u
kd af om*kP/f
= wrvGefavmuudk,HkMunfay;tyfaom
jrwfaomtvSLudk cHawmfrlxdkufaom*kPf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

310
8/ tOvDu&PDa,sm
9/ tEkw&HyknacwH

= aumif;rIut
kd vd&k o
dS w
l Ykd vuftyk cf s
D &Scd ;kd jcif;iSm
xdu
k af wmfral om*kP/f
= aumif;rIwnf;[laom rsKd ;aphw\
Ykd pdu
k yf sKd ;&m
v,fajraumif;ozG,jf zpfaom*kP/f

tESpo
f ;kH yg;
1/ 'ge

2/ oDv

3/ bm0em

ypnf;av;yg;
1/ qGrf;

2/ aq;

3/ ouFef;

qDrD;uyfvSLjcif;tusdK;ESpfyg;
1/ yuwdrsufpdMunfvifjcif;
2/ Pf(rsufpd)Munfvifjcif;

qGrf;tusdK; ig;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

tm,k
0P
okc
Av
y&dbme

=
=
=
=
=

touf&Snfjcif;
tqif;vSjcif;
csrf;omBuD;jcif;
cGeftm;BuD;jcif;
PfynmBu;D jcif;

yef;vSL&onfh tusdK;oHk;yg;
1/ kyf&nfvSyonf/
2/ cEmudk,foefY&Sif;pifMu,fonf/
3/ cHwGif;teHY arT;Munfaponf/

ig;yg;oDv
1/ ygPmwdygwm a0&rPd? odumy'H orm'd,mrd
olYtoufowfjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
2/ t'dEm'gem a0&rPd? odumy'H orm'd,mrd
olrsm;ypnf;cdk;,ljcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/

4/ ausmif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

311

3/ umarokrdpmpm&m a0&rPd odumy'H orm'd,mrd


umr*kPfvdkufpm;jcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
4/ rkom0g'g a0&rPd odumy'H orm'd,mrd
rkom;pum;ajymqdkjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
5/ ok&mar&, rZyrm'|mem a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
ao&nf? ao&ufaomufpm;jcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/

&Spfyg;oDv
1/ ygPmwdygwm a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
olYtoufowfjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
2/ t'dEm'gem a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
olrsm;ypnf;cdk;,ljcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
3/ tjA[p&d,m a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
tdrfoludkjyKaomtrIrS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
4/ rkom0g'g a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
rkom;pum;ajymqdkjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
5/ ok&mar&, rZyrm'|mem a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
ao&nf ao&ufaomufjcif;rS a&SmifMunfyg\/
6/ 0dumvabmZem a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
aeYvGJnpmpm;jcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/
7/ ep *Dw 0g'dw 0doku 'e rmvm*E 0davye "m&P r@e
0dbloeXmem a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
ujcif;? ckefjcif;? oDcsif;qdkjcif;? yef;yefjcif;? eHYomvdrf;jcif;wdkYrS
a&SmifMuOfyg\/
8/ Opmo,e r[mo,em a0&rPdodumy'H orm'd,mrd
jrifhaomae&m jrwfaomae&mwdkY aexdkifjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfyg\/

312

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

oDv&Sdol &EdkifaomtusdK; ig;yg;


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

pnf;pdrfOpm&&SdEkdifonf/
*kPo
f wif;ausmMf um;Edik o
f nf/
wifhwifhw,fw,faeEdkifonf/
rawGra0bJao&rnf/
aoNy;D aemuf aumif;aomb0a&mufEidk o
f nf/

w&m;emjcif;\tusdK; ig;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

rMum;zl;aom xHk;enf;yHkpH w&m;aumif;wdkYudk Mum;&jcif;/


Mum;zl;aom w&m;aumif;udk tzefwvJvJ rSwfrdatmif em&jcif;/
,HkrSm;oHo,udk azsmufEdkifjcif;/
t,l0g'udk ajzmifhrwfpGm ,lEdkifjcif;/
o'g,HkMunfaompdwf wdk;yGm;apjcif;/

arwmtusdK; 11 yg;
1/ csrf;ompGmtdyf&onf/
2/ csrf;ompGmEdk;&onf/
3/ raumif;aomtdyfrufrjrif/
4/ vlewfcspfoem;onf/
5/ ab;vGwaf tmifewfwaYkd pmifronf/
6/ rD;ravmifEdkif/
7/ "m;vufeufrxdEdkif/
8/ tqdyfESifhraoEdkif/
9/ raumif;aompdwaf ysmufonf/
10/ rsufESmtqif;vSonf/
11/ rawGa0bJao jA[mjynfodkYa&mufonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


4/ rawGra0ao&jcif;/
5/ ok*wdb0odkYvm;&jcif;/

tyg,af v;yg;
1/ i&J
3/ Nydwm

2/ wd&pmef
4/ tol&um,f

uyfoHk;yg;
1/ 'kAduE&uyf
2/ owE&uyf
3/ a&m*E&uyf

=
=
=

iwfrGwfab;aMumifh ysufpD;aomuyf
vufeufab;aMumifh ysufpD;aomuyf
a&m*gab;aMumifh ysufpD;aomuyf

&yfjypf &Spfyg;
1/ i&J
2/ wd& pmef

=
=

3/ Nyw
d m
4/ tonaZm

5/ ypEa&m

6/ rdpm'dXd
7/ 0duvd`Ed,

=
=

8/ Ak'okanm wda[wkaum =

csrf;omrItvsOf;r&Sdaomt&yf/
edAmefESifhzDvm rkd;ukdausmay;aom
ow0g/
ukd,fvuft*Fg rrQwaomow0g?
cEmukd,fwpfyg;om&Sd toufemrf
r&Sdaom jA[mbkH/
&wemokH;yg; rod? r&Sdaom awmcsKH
tkHjcm;t&yf/
rSm;aomt,l&Sdaom vlrsKd;pk/
opmav;yg;w&m;ukd emMum;&aomf
vnf; qGHUt em;yif; w&m;rodol/
todtvdrm ESijhf ynfph aHk omfvnf; bk&m;
yGifhaomumvESifhvGJ vljzpf&jcif;/

&efolrsKd; ig;yg;

onf;cHjcif;tusdK; ig;rsKd;
1/ vltrsm;cspfjcif;/
2/ &efNidrf;jcif;/
3/ tjypfenf;jcif;/

313

1/ a&
3/ rif;qk;d
5/ rcspfrESpfoufaomol

2/ rD;
4/ olc;dk

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

314

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

0dywdw&m; av;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/

oDv0dywd
'd|d0dywd
tmpm&0dywd
tmZD00dywd

=
=
=
=

o&P*Hkysuf&aomtaMumif; ESpfyg;

oDvysufjcif;
t,lysufjcif;
tusifhysufjcif;
toufarG;rIysufjcif;

1/ rdpm'd|dt,ludkajymif;,ljcif;
2/ aoqH;k jcif;

uHokH;yg;

Asoew&m; ig;yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

wdAsoe
abm*Asoe
a&m*Asoe
oDvAsoe
'd|dAsoe

=
=
=
=
=

aqGrsKd;wdwkdY aoausysufpD;jcif;
&mxl;*kPo
f rd f pnf;pdrOf pmavsmusysupf ;D jcif;
tema&m*g ESdyfpufysufpD;jcif;
tusifhoDvysufpD;jcif;
t,l0g' vGJrSm;ysufpD;jcif;

udavom oHk;yg;
1/ avmb

2/ a'go

3/ arm[

1/ um,uH
2/ 0pDuH
3/ raemuH

=
=
=

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/

lygkH
o'gHk
*EmHk
&omHk
azm|AmHk
"rmHk

=
=
=
=
=
=

1/ okwef
2/ 0denf;
3/ tbd"rm

t*wdw&m; av;yg;
3/ b,m

apwemoHk;wef
4/ arm[

rsufarSmufpnf;pdrfysufpD;aMumif;w&m; okH;yg;
1/ wd"kw
2/ ok&m"kw
3/ tu"kw

=
=
=

rdef;rvdkufpm;jcif;
aoaomufMuL;jcif;
avmif;upm;jcif;

tqif;tmkH
toHtmkH
teHYtmkH
t&omtmkH
tawGUtmkH
w&m;oabmtmkH

yd#uwfoHk;yHk

1/ twdwf = vGefcJhaomumv
2/ ypKyef = vuf&Sdumv
3/ tem*wf = aemifumv

2/ a'go

udk,fjzifhjyKjcif;
EIwfjzifhjyKjcif;
pdwfjzifhjyKjcif;

tmHk ajcmufyg; umr*kPfw&m;rsm;

umv okH;yg;

1/ qE

315

1/ ykA
2/ rkO
3/ y&

=
=
=

BudKwifapwem
jyKqJapwem
jyKNyD;apwem

avmuygvw&m;okH;yg;
1/ vGwv
f yfjcif;

2/ nDrQjcif;/

3/ w&m;rQwjcif;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

316

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

avmuoHk;yg;
1/ owavmu
2/ ocFg&avmu
3/ Moumoavmu

cEm ig;yg;

= vlow0grsm;\avmu
= jzpfysufjyKjyifavmu
= &S&d o
dS rQvo
l w0gtm;vH;k &Sad omavmu

1/ lyuEm
3/ ocFg&uEm
5/ 0dnmPuEm

jA[pdk&fw&m;av;yg;
1/ arwm
3/ rk'dwm

2/
4/

ukPm
Oayum

1/ umvorwd
2/ *wdorwd

= acwftcgaumif;ESifh BuHKawGU&jcif;/
= vlb
Y 0ewfb0uJo
h Ykd aumif;aom*wdEiS hf BuKH awGU
&jcif;/
3/ Oy"dorwd
= ajcvuft*FgnDnmjynhfpHkjcif;? kyf&nf
lyumwifhw,fjcif;/
4/ ya,m*orwd
= um,uH? 0pDuH? raemuH oHk;yg;jzLpif
aumif;rGefjcif;
txufygtaMumif;w&m; (4)yg;ESijhf ynfph ykH gu aumif;aomtusKd ;w&m;
cHpm;&rnf/

or'gw&m;av;yg; (rsufarSmufBuD;yGm;aMumif;w&m;av;yg;)
OXmeor'g
tm&uor'g
uvsmPrdwor'g
orZD0dwor'g

=
=
=
=

2/ a0'emuEm
4/ onmuEm

opm av;yg;
1/ 'kuopm
3/ eda&m"opm

x<uvHkYv0D&d,ESifh jynfhpHkrI
apmifha&Smufjcif;ESifh jynfhpHkrI
rdwfaqGaumif;&Srd I
rQwpGmtoufarG;rI

2/ ork',opm
4/ r*opm

apwD av;rsKd;

orwdw&m; av;yg;

1/
2/
3/
4/

317

1/ "rapwD
3/ O'
d apwD

2/ "gwkapwD
4/ y&dabm*apwD

Oyg,fwHrsOf av;rsdK;
1/ ab'Oyg,f
2/ 'PKOyg,f
3/ omrOyg,f
4/ 'geOyg,f

= oabmxm;t,ltquGv
J aJG tmif aoG;xd;k oyfvQKd
onfhenf;vrf;/
= axmifcsjcif;? tcsKyfcsjcif;paom 'Pfcwfonfh
enf;vrf;/
= &if;ES;D atmifaygif;oif;qufqjH cif;? ud,
k b
hf ufyg
atmif azsmif;zsajymqdkpnf;Hk;jcif;enf;vrf;/
= ay;urf;jcif;enf;vrf;/

(31)bkH
1/
2/
3/
4/

vlb
Y Hk
i&J? wd&pmef? Nydwm? tol&u,f
ewfbkH
jA[mbkH

=
=
=
=

1 bkH
4 bkH
6 bkH
20 bkH

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

318

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

319

Ak'jrwfpG,fawmf jrefrmEdkifiHodkY <ua&muftylaZmfcHrI


pOf

a&muf&dSrI

&ufpGJ
rS

xd

1/ yxrtBudrf

15-10-1955

8-6-1956

2/ 'kwd,tBudrf

20-4-1994

8-6-1994

3/ wwd,tBudrf

6-12-1996

5-3-1997

4/ pwkwtBudrf

6-11-2011

24-12-2011

taxGaxGodrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
rdbusifh0wf
raumif;jrpfwm? aumif;&mTev
f wf? twwfoifap? ay;a0ES;D &if;? xdrf;jrm;
jcif;vQif? 0wfig;tif? zcifrdwdkYwm/

om;orD;usifh0wf
auR;arG;rysu?f aqmif&u
G pf rD ?H arGcx
H u
kd af p? vSLrQa0 apmifah vrsKd ;EG,?f
0wfig;oG,f? usifhzG,fom;wdkYwm/

q&mhusifh0wf
twwfvnf;oif? yJjh yifq;kH r? odyr cse?f ab;&efq;D um? oif&h mtyfy?Ykd q&mwd?Yk
usifhzdkY0wfig;jzm/

wynfUusifh0wf
nDnmx<u? qH;k rem,l? vmrlBuKd q;D ? xHe;D vkyaf uR;? oifawG;tH&w
G ?f
wynfh0wf? rcRwfig;ckom/

vifUusifh0wf
rxDru
hJ if;? tyfEiS ;f Opm? rdpm rrSm;? 0wfpm;qif,if? jrwfE;kd Muif? ig;tif
vifusifh&m/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

320

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

r,m;usifh0wf
tdrw
f iG ;f rIvyk ?f odr;f xkyaf ocsm? rdpm MuOfa&Smif? avsmaf tmifjzefcY s?d ysi;f &drrl?
0wfig;ql? tdrfolusifhtyfpGm/

BuD;olusifh0wf
x<u Ekd;Mum;? oem; onf;cH? a0zef axmufI? ajcmufck BuD;ol
usifh0wfom/

jrefrmhwl&d,m ig;rsKd;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

aMu;
BudK;
om;a&
av
vufckyf

jrefrmhyef;(10)rsKd;twwfynm

&[ef;0w&m;
raumif;jrpfwm? aumif;&mudkvSpf? topfa[musL;? emzl;xyfrH?
ewfxHwif&m? arwmvnf;jyK? &[ef;rI? ajcmufckvGefaocsm/

'g,um0w&m;
arwmpdwfouf? aqmif&Gufcspfcif? cifrifEIwfcsdK? vdkvQifzdwfxm;?
wwftm;vSLap? ig;ckae? jyKav'g,um/

rdwfaqG0w&m;
ay;urf;csD;jrifh? udk,fESifh,SOfxm;? pD;yGm;aqmif&Guf? EIwf>rufcsdKom?
opmrSefap? 0wfig;axG? usifhavrdwfo[m/

1/ yef;csD
2/ yef;warmh
3/ yef;awmh
4/ yef;wOf;
5/ yef;xdrf
6/ yef;yk
7/ yef;yJ
8/ yef;yGwf
9/ yef;,Ge;f
10/ yef;&ef

rif;usifUw&m; 10 yg;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

'geH
oDvH
y&dpm*
tZ0H
r'0H
wyH
taum"H
t0d[oH
cED
t0da&m"eH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

ay;vSLjcif;
ig;yg;oDvESifhjynfhpHkjcif;
trIxrf;wdt
Yk m;&dum ay;urf;jcif;
d;k om;ajzmifrh wfjcif;
om,mEl;nHhpGmajymqdkusifhBuHjcif;
tusifhoDvwdkYudkNcdK;NcHpGmapmifhxdef;jcif;
trsufrxGufjcif;
rESdyfpufjcif;
onf;cHjcif;
jynfolwdkYoabmESifhrqefYusifjcif;

aMu;wyfw&l ,
d m
BudK;wyfwl&d,m
om;a&wyfw&l ,
d m
avrIww
f &l ,
d m
vufckyfwl&d,m

jreffrmEkdifiHrS ta&SYawmiftm&S pmayqk&&Sdolrsm;


1/
2/
3/
4/

OD;Munfat; (qifjzLuRef;atmifodef;)
OD;ausmaf tmif (ausmaf tmif)
a':&if&if (apmrkHnif;)
OD;xifBuD; (wuokdvfxifBuD;)

321

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

322

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd yifv,furf;ajc tyef;ajzpcef;rsm;


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/

urf;om,murf;ajc(&ckdifjynfe,f)
iyvDurf;ajc(&ckdifjynfe,f)
acsmif;omurf;ajc({&m0wDwidk ;f )
aiGaqmifurf;ajc({&m0wDwidk ;f )
pufpJurf;ajc(rGefjynfe,f)
armif;ruefurf;ajc(weoFm&Dwidk ;f )
vufckyfukef;urf;ajc(&efukefwkdif;? vufckyfukef;aus;&Gm)

a&S;acwfa'oqkdif&m trnfokH;pGJrI tac:ta0:rsm;


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/

uEm&0wD
"n0wD
AdEk;d
arm&0wD? uarmZ
&wemykH
&mrn
oa&acw&m
ok0Pbrk d
ovm0wD
Om

=
=
=
=
=
=
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u,m;jynfe,f
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323

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18/

19/
20/
21/

urmhukvor*aeY
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(atmufwkdbmv 24 &uf)
({Nyv
D 7 &uf)
(arv 8 &uf)
('DZifbmv 1 &uf)
(atmufwdkbmv 9 &uf)
(atmufwdkbmv 16 &uf)
(atmufwdkbmv 5 &uf)
(arv 31 &uf)
(ZGefv 5 &uf)
(Mo*kwfv? yxrywf)
(atmufwkdbmv 11 &uf)
(rwfv 22 &uf)
(atmufwdkbm 1 &uf)
(Zlvdkifv 7 &uf)
(pufwifbmv 16 &uf)
(pufwifbmv 8 &uf)
('DZifbmv 3 &uf)
(ZGefv 26 &ufaeY)

(Zlvikd v
f yxrywf paeaeY)
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

324

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

&wemykH w,fvDykdh

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1/
2/
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23/
24/
25/
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1 ESpfajrmuf
2 ESpfajrmuf
3 ESpfajrmuf
4 ESpfajrmuf
5 ESpfajrmuf
6 ESpfajrmuf
7 ESpfajrmuf
8 ESpfajrmuf
9 ESpfajrmuf
10 ESpfajrmuf
11 ESpfajrmuf
12 ESpfajrmuf
13 ESpfajrmuf
14 ESpfajrmuf
15 ESpfajrmuf
20 ESpfajrmuf
25 ESpfajrmuf
30 ESpfajrmuf
35 ESpfajrmuf
40 ESpfajrmuf
45 ESpfajrmuf
50 ESpfajrmuf
55 ESpfajrmuf
60 ESpfajrmuf
75 ESpfajrmuf
90 ESpfajrmuf

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
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=
=
=
=
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325

1/ wnfae&m
2/
3/
4/
5/

rEav;wkdif;? jyifOD;vGifNrdKUe,f?
rEav;jyifOD;vGif um;vrf; rkdifwkdif trSwf 27
&nf&G,fcsuf
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ypnf;rsm;ESifh qufoG,fa&;qkdif&mypnf;rsm;
xkwfvkyf&ef
pDrHudef;{&d,m - {u 1000
yifr w,fvDykdYtaqmufttkHzGifhvSpf&uf - 30-6-2006
&wemykHw,fvDykdYzGifhvSpf&uf
- 16-12-2007

jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd jynfe,faehrsm;ESifh jynfe,foauFwrsm;


1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/

ucsifjynfe,faeY
u,m;jynfe,faeY
u&ifjynfe,faeY
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&Srf;jynfe,faeY

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Zefe0g&Dv (18) &uf? raemwkdif/


Zefe0g&Dv (15) &uf? udE&D udE&m/
Ekd0ifbmv (7) &uf? zm;pnf/
azazmf0g&Dv (18) &uf? atmufcsi;f iSu/f
rwfv (9) &uf? [oFmiSuf/
'DZifbmv (15) &uf? a0omvD'*Fg;/
azazmf0g&Dv (7) &uf? &Srf;tkd;pnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

326

aepMum0VmtaMumif;
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yvlwkdtm; N*dKvftjzpfrS y,fzsufcJhonf) rdrdwdkY\ ywfvrf;aMumif;rsm;rS
vSnyhf wfaeouJo
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

327

oH;k rsKd ;jzifah &GUvsm;aeonf(1) rdrd0ifdk;ay:wGif vnfywfaejcif;?


(2) aeudk rdrd\ywfvrf;aMumif;jzifh vnfywfaejcif;?
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ae\oufwrf;
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urm\tylcsdef
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aeESifhurmtuGmta0;
- teD;qHk;tcsdefwGif 147100000 uDvdkrDwma0;onf/
- ta0;qHk;tcsdefwGif 152100000 uDvdkrDwma0;onf/

urm\ rdrd0ifdk;ay:wGifvnfywfrI
- 23 em&D? 56 rdepf? 4.09 puefYvQif wpfywfEIef;/

ae\tylcsdef
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- ae\twGif;bufwGif 15000000 'D*&DpifwD*&dwf
ae\if;0ifdk;ay:wGifvnfywfEIef;
- wpfvvQif wpfywf/
ae\tcsif;
- 1392000 uDvdkrDwm (urm\ 109q eD;yg;cefY)

urmtaMumif;
aeudk vSnyhf wfaeaomN*Kd vrf sm;teuf rmusL&DEiS hf AD;eyfpNf *Kd vrf sm;Ny;D vQif
urmonf aeESifhwwd,teD;qHk;jzpfonf/ aepMu0VmtwGif;&Sd N*dKvfrsm;
teuf yOrtBuD;qHk;vnf;jzpfonf/ urmhrsufESmjyif\ &mckdifEIef;70rSm
a&jyifrsm;jzpfNy;D &mcdik Ef eI ;f 30rSm uke;f ajrjzpfonf/ urmBu;D onf a&GUvsm;rI

urm\tcsif;
- 12713.54 uDvdkrDwm

vtaMumif;
vonf aepMu0VmtwGif; urm\teD;qHk;aom wpfckwnf;jzpfonfh
t&efvjzpfonf/ vonf udk,fydkiftvif;a&mifr&SdbJ urmudk 27 &uf?
7em&D ESifh 43 rdepfwGif wpfywfEIef;jzifh vSnfhywfaeonf/
v\oufwrf;
- 4600000000 (4.6 bDvD,H)ESpfaygif;
v\tcsif;
- 3476 uDvdkrDwm
urmESifh vtuGmta0;
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- ta0;qHk;tcsdefwGif tuGmta0; 406699 uDvdkrDwm

328

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

urmhwdkufBuD;rsm;
tm&Swdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 44009000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 29.9 &mckdifEIef;
&mcdkifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyiftxuf
= {0&ufawmif? eDaygEkdifiH
tjrifq
h ;kH ae&m
(yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
8848rDwm)
4/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyifatmuf = yifv,faourf;ajc?tpa&;vfEidk if H
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
ESiahf *sm'f efEidk if ?H (yifv,fa&rsuEf mS
jyifatmuf 399 rDwm)
tmz&duwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 30251000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 20.6 &mckdifEIef;
&mcdkifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyiftxuf
= uDvrD ef*smdak wmif? wefZefe;D ,m;
tjrifhqkH;ae&m
EkdifiH? (yifv,fa&rsufESmjyif
txuf 5895rDwm)
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = tufq,fa&uef? *sDblwDEkdifiH
tedrfhqkH;ae&m
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf
155 rDwm (515 ay)
ajrmuftar&duwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 24237000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 14.8 &mckdifEIef;
&mckdifEIef;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

329

3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = rufuifavawmif?
tjrihfqHk;ae&m
tvmpumjynfe,f? tar&duef
jynfaxmifpk? yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyif
txuf 6194 rDwm (20320 ay)
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = 'ufoaf wmifMum;?
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
umvDz;kd eD;,m;jynfe,f? tar&duef
jynfaxmifp?k yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyif
atmuf 86 rDwm (282 ay)
awmiftar&duwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 17832000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 12.0 &mckdifEIef;
&mckdifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = tmuGeu
f m*Ggawmif?
tjrifhqHk;ae&m
tm*sifwD;em;EkdifiH
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
6959 rDwm (22834 ay)
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = Am;'ufuRe;f qG,?f
tedrfhqHk;ae&m
tm*sifwD;em;EkdifiH
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf
40 rDwm (131 ay)
tEmwduwdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 14000000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ urmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = 10.5 &mckdifEIef;
&mckdifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = ADqifwqpf?
tjrifhqHk;ae&m
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
514 rDwm
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifESifhtnDjzpf
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
ygonf/

330

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

Oa&mywdkuf
1/ {&d,m
= 10445000 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
2/ urmhukef;ajrpkpkaygif;{&d,m\ = ckepf&mckdifEIef;
&mcdkifEIef;
3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = tJvfbkpfawmifxdyf? t,fvfykdif;
tjrifhqHk;ae&m
awmifwef;? k&Sm;EkdifiH
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
5633 rDwm
4/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = uufpyD,Hyifv,furf;ajc? k&Sm;
tedrq
hf ;kH ae&m
Ekid if ?H yifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyifatmuf
28 rDwm (92 ay)
MopaMw;vswkduf
1/ {&d,m
= 7713000 pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm
2/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf = aumfp,
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tjrifhqHk;ae&m
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyiftxuf
2228 rDwm
3/ yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf = tD;&D;uef
tedrfhqHk;ae&m
yifv,fa&rsufESmjyifatmuf
16 rDwm

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

331

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{&d,m
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149200

386400

31700
26828
23000
22300

82100
69485
59600
57800

13000

33800

12700
12028

32900
31153

11430

29604

11031

28570

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

332

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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1/
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64186300
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12925
11730
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3407

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

334

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8/
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6/
7/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

urmhvlOD;a&\
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1000
1000
900
450
320

16
16
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250
250

4
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200

200
130
125
125

3
2
2
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vlOD;a&trsm;qHk; (10)EdkifiH
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1/
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8/
9/
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

336

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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1/
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3/
4/
5/
6/
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ajr{&d,mtus,fqHk; (10)EdkifiH
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932
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13287
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32543
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1/
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3/
4/
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2669800
2381740

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3537437
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3265077
2941299
1147955
1056642
1030816
919595

vlOD;a&trsm;qHk; urmh NrdKY BuD;rsm;


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34450
18066
17846
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16086
13243
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12441
11847
11814

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0.17
2
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26
61
160
181
261
300
316

{&d,m
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0.44
1
8
10
24
62
70
101
116
122

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

338

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

vlOD;a&txlxyfqHk; (10)EdkifiH
tqifh
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1 pwk&ef;uDvrk d w
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16271.5
6577.1
5482.4
1266.5
1196.7
1100.5
1050.5
714.1
649.4
632.7

42649.3
18476.1
3205.6
2760.0
2746.4
2579.4
1810.2
1675.3
1666.3
1541.1

vlOD;a&tusJqHk; (10)EdkifiH
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1/
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EdkifiH
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11750000000000
$ 7262000000000
$ 3745000000000
$ 3319000000000
$ 2362000000000
$ 1782000000000
$ 1737000000000
$ 1609000000000
$ 1492000000000
$ 1408000000000
$

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

340

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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tar&duefa':vm
tar&duefa':vm
tar&duefa':vm
tar&duefa':vm

341

300
300
500
500
600
600
700
700
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900

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Yahoo.com
google.com
youtube.com
live.com
msn.com
myspace.com
wikipedia.org
facebook.com
blogger.com
yahoo.co.jp

2011 ckESpftwGif; tm&SEkdifiHrsm; Facebook okH;pGJrItrsm;qkH; (10) EkdifiH


urmhtBuD;qkH; uRef;BuD;(10)uRef;
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tus,ft0ef;
2175600 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
785753 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
748168 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
587713 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
503944 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
443065 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
229957 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
225800 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
220548 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm
183964 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
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tdEd,
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17288060
32126780
19227060
6732780
1816300
9464380
3145960
2494040
8571340
3274460

342

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

EsLuvD;,m;vufeufydkifqdkifonfUEkdifiHrsm;
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

343

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2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toHk;p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
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7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
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tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
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6/ a&ikyo
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7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
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tdEd,
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2255000
800000
tar&duefa':vm 35.3bDvsH
7580 pD;
76 pif;
58 pif;
2643 pif;

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=

1506800
973700
tar&duefa':vm 582 bDvsH
7620 pD;
106 pif;? 12 pif;

=
=

68 pif;
2658 pif;

&Sd

=
=
=
=

1316000
1155000
tar&duefa':vm 22.3 bDvsH
3978 pD;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

344
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
ajrmufudk&D;,m;
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
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k&Sm;
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

58 pif;? 1 pif;

=
=

16 pif;
849 pif;

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1106000
4700000
tar&duefa':vm 2.3 bDvsH
3500 pD;
8 pif;
63 pif;
590 pif;

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=

1027000
20000000
tar&duefa':vm 32.1 bDvsH
22831 pD;
71 pif;? 1 pif;

=
=

53 pif;
3252 pif;

&Sd

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


awmifudk&D;,m;
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
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1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
tD&ef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

345

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

687000
4500000
tar&duefa':vm 23.7 bDvsH
2330 pD;
43 pif;
20 pif;
518 pif;

r&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

619000
302000
tar&duefa':vm 4.1 bDvsH
2461 pD;
6 pif;
8 pif;
352 pif;

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

545000
350000
tar&duefa':vm 6.6 bDvsH
1613 pD;
5 pif;
3 pif;
26 pif;

r&Sd

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

346
wl&uD
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
AD,uferf
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
*smreD
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

5149000
3787000
tar&duefa':vm 8.1 bDvsH
4205 pD;
26 pif;
12 pif;
445 pif;

r&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4556000
5000000
tar&duefa':vm 3.4 bDvsH
1315 pD;
11 pif;
2 pif;
221 pif;

r&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2457000
1618000
tar&duefa':vm 38.8 bDvsH
2035 pD;
16 pif;
13 pif;
295 pif;

r&Sd

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


jyifopf
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;
*syef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
NAdwdef
1/ tNrJwrf;wyfzGJU0iftiftm;
2/ t&efwyfzGJU0iftiftm;
3/ ppfa&;toH;k p&dwf
4/ yifrwdkufyGJ0ifwifhum;
5/ ppfoabFmBuD;rsm;ESifh
av,mOfwifoabFmBu;D rsm;
6/ a&ikyo
f abFm
7/ wdkufyGJ0ifav,mOfrsm;
8/ r[mAsL[majrmuf
EsLuvD;,m;vufeufrsm;

347

=
=
=
=
=

2549000
217000
tar&duefa':vm 49.3 bDvsH
926 pD;
35 pif;? 2 pif;

=
=

10 pif;
307 pif;

&Sd

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2404000
418000
tar&duefa':vm 41.1 bDvsH
980 pD;
53 pD;
16 pif;
280 pif;

=
=
=
=
=

191000
199300
tar&duefa':vm 60.5 bDvsH
386 pD;
28 pif;? 3 pif;

=
=

15 pif;
278 pif;

&Sd

348

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

acwfopftkdvHypftm;upm;yGJrsm;
aEG&moDtm;upm;NydKifyGJrsm;
pOf ckESpf
EkdifiH
1/ 1896
*&d
2/ 1900
jyifopf
3/ 1904
tar&duef
4/ 1908
t*Fvef
5/ 1912
qGD'if
6/ 1916
rusif;yjzpfyg/
7/ 1920
bJvf*sD,H
8/ 1924
jyifopf
9/ 1928
e,fomvef
10/ 1932
tar&duef
11/ 1936
*smreD
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13/ 1948
t*Fvef
14/ 1952
zifvef
15/ 1956
MopaMw;vs
16/ 1960
tDwvD
17/ 1964
*syef
18/ 1968
rufqu
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19/ 1972
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20/ 1976
uae'g
21/ 1980
qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk
22/ 1984
tar&duef
23/ 1988
awmifu&kd ;D ,m;
24/ 1992
pydef
25/ 1996
tar&duef

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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349

26/
27/
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2000
2004
2008

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1/
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12/
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14/
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1824
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1928
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1932
tar&duef
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1936
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1940-44 rusif;yjzpfyg/
1948
qGpfZmvef
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1952
aemfa0
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1956
tDwvD
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1960
tar&duef
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1964
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1968
jyifopf
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1972
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1976
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1980
tar&duef
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1984
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1988
tar&duef
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1992
jyifopf
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1996
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2000
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2004
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2008
tDwvD
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2010
uae'g
AifulAm

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

350

urmhtjrifUqHk;taqmufttkH 10 ck
wkdifay 101arQmfpif
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

wkdifayNrdKU? wkwf(wkdifay)
2004 ckESpf
1667 ay
101 xyf

yDxdkeyfarQmfpif-1
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

uGmvmvrfyl? rav;&Sm;EdkifiH
1998 ckESpf
1483 ay (452rDwm)
88 xyf

yDxdkeyfarQmfpif-2
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

uGmvmvrfyl? rav;&Sm;EdkifiH
1996 ckESpf
1483 ay (452 rDwm)
88 xyf

qD;,m;arQmfpif-1
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

csDum*dk? tar&duef
1974 ckESpf
1451 ay (442 rDwm)
110 xyf

usif;armftaqmufttkH
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

&Sef[dkif;? wkwfjynf
1999 ckESpf
1381 ay (421 rDwm)
88 xyf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

351

wl;tifwmae&Sife,fb@ma&;pifwm
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
= a[mifaumif? wkwfjynf
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
= 2003 ckESpf
3/ tjrifh
= 1362 ay (421 rDwm)
4/ txyfaygif;
= 88 xyf
pudkif;pifx&,fyvmZm
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

*GrfZl;? wkwfjynf
1996 ckESpf
1283 ay (391 rDwm)
80 xyf

qGef[if;&ifjyif
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

&Sefusef;? wkwfjynf
1996ckESpf
1260 ay (384 rDwm)
69 xyf

tifyg,mpwdwf
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

e,l;a,muf? tar&duef
1991ckESpf
1250 ay (381 rDwm)
102 xyf

pifx&,fyvmZm
1/ wnf&Sdonfhae&m
2/ NyD;pD;onfhckESpf
3/ tjrifh
4/ txyfaygif;

=
=
=
=

a[mifaumif? wkwfjynf
1992ckESpf
1227 ay (374 rDwm)
78 xyf

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

352

tvsm;? tus,ft0ef;? xkxnfESifU tav;csdef,lepfrsm;


tvsm;twkdif;twm,lepfrsm;
NAdwdoQpepf
12 vufr
3 ay
22 ukduf
10 oHBudK;
8 zmvkH
1760 uku
d f
5280 ay

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1 ay
1 ukduf
1 oHBudK;
1 zmvkH
1 rkdif
1 rkdif
1 rkdif

rufx&pfpepf
10 rDvDrDwm
10 pifwDrDwm
10 'ufpDrDwm
10 rDwm
10 'ufumrDwm
10 [ufwkdrDwm
100 pifwDrDwm
1000 rDwm

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1 pifwDrDwm
1 'ufpDrDwm
1 rDwm
1 'ufumrDwm
1 [ufwkdrDwm
1 uDvkdrDwm
1 rDwm
1 uDvkdrDwm

qufpyfrI
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

vufr
ay
ukduf
zmvkH
rkdif
rDvDrDwm
pifwDrDwm

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2.54 pifwDrDwm
30.48 pifwDrDwm
0.9144 rDwm
201.168 rDwm
1.609 uDvkdrDwm
0.03937 vufr
0.3937 vufr

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


1
1
1
1
1

'ufpDrDwm
rDwm
'ufum
[ufwkdrDwm
uDvkdrDwm

=
=
=
=
=

353

3.937 vufr
39.37 vufr
393.7 vufr
328.0833 ay
0.62137 rkdif

tus,ft0ef;,lepfrsm;
NAdwdoQpepf
144 pwk&ef;vufr
9 pwk&ef;ay
4840 pwk&ef;ukduf
640 {u

=
=
=
=

rufx&pfpepf
100 pwk&ef;rDvDrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;pifwDrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;'ufpDrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;rDwm
=
100 pwk&ef;'ufumrDwm =
100 pwk&ef;[ufwkdrDwm =
qufpyfrI
1
1
1
1
1

pwk&ef;vufr
pwk&ef;ay
pwk&ef;ukduf
{u
pwk&ef;rkdif

=
=
=
=
=
=

1 pwk&ef;ay
1 pwk&ef;ukduf
1 {u
1 pwk&ef;rkdif
1 pwk&ef;pifwDrDwm
1 pwk&ef;'ufpDrDwm
1 pwk&ef;rDwm
1 pwk&ef;'ufumrDwm
1 pwk&ef;[ufwkdrDwm
1 pwk&ef; uDvkdrDwm
6.4516 pwk&ef;pifwDrDwm
0.0929 pwk&ef;rDwm
0.8361 pwk&ef;rDwm
0.4047 [ufwm
258.9988 [ufwm
2.59 pwk&ef;uDvkdrDwm

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

354

xkxnfwkdif;wmrI ,lepfrsm;
=
=

1 ukAay
1 ukAukduf

=
=
=
=
=

1
1
1
1
1

qufpyfrI
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

16.387 ukApifwDrDwm
0.0283 ukArDwm
0.7646 ukArDwm
0.061 ukAvufr
0.0353 ukAay
1.308 ukAukduf
1308 ukAukduf
1308000 ukAukduf

ukApifwDrDwm
ukA'ufpDrDwm
ukArDwm
ukA'ufumrDwm
ukA[ufwkdrDwm

0ifqHhrIyrmP,lepfrsm;
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

rDvDvDwm
pifwDvDwm =
'ufpDvDwm =
vDwm
=
'ufumvDwm =
[ufwkdvDwm =
uDvkdvDwm =

10 rDvDvDwm
10 pifwDvDwm
10 'ufpDvDwm
10 vDwm
10 'ufumvDwm
10 [ufwkdvDwm

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

355

tav;csdefpepf,lepfrsm;

NAdwdoQpepf
1728 ukAvufr
27 ukAay
,lepfpepf
1000 ukArDvDrDwm
1000 ukApifwDrDwm
1000 ukA'ufpDrDwm
1000 ukArDwm
1000 ukA'ufumrDwm
ukAvufr
ukAay
ukAukduf
ukApifwDrDwm
ukA'ufpDrDwm
ukArDwm
ukA'ufumrDwm
ukA[ufwkdrDwm

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

0.061 ukAvufr
0.6103 ukAvufr
6.1025 ukAvufr
61.025 ukAvufr
610.25 ukAvufr
6102.55 ukAvufr
35.316 ukAay
264.158 *gvH

a&S;kd;NAdwdoQaygifcsdefpepf
1 aygif
= 16 atmifp
1 pwkH
= 14 aygif
1 wef
= 2240 aygif
rufx&pfpepf
1 pifwD*&rf = 10 rDvD*&rf
1 'ufpD*&rf = 10 pifwD*&rf
1 *&rf
= 10 'ufpD*&rf
1 'ufum*&rf = 10 *&rf
1 [ufwkd*&rf = 10 'ufum*&rf
1 uDvkd*&rf = 10 [ufwkd*&rf
1 rufx&pfwef = 1000 uDvkd*&rf
(tar&duefo;Hk )
qufpyfrI
1 aygif
= 453.5934 *&rf = 0.4536 uDvkd*&rf
1 wef
= 1.12 rufx&pfwef (tar&duefokH;)
1 uDvkd*&rf = 2.2046 aygif
1 rufx&pfwef = 2204.62 aygif

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

356

rSwfom;zG,f&maqmifyk'frsm;

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

357

12/ jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJ&ef 'kdY&nfoef pDrHtm;xkwf 'kdYtvkyf/


To prevent disintegration of the union is our aim, so shall we strive.

1/ wyfrawmfonf trsKd;om;a&;ukd b,fawmhrS opmrazmuf/


The Tatmadaw shall never betray national interests.

2/ wyfrawmftiftm;&SdrS wkdif;jynftiftm;&Sdrnf/
Only when the tatmadaw is strong will the nation be strong.

3/ jynhftiftm;onf jynfwGif;rSmom&Sdonf/
The strength of the nation lies only within.

4/ e,fcsJUvufyg;aptvkdr&Sd/
Don't with minion of Colonialism.

5/ wkid ;f &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f av;pm;yg/ cspcf ifyg/ wef;wl&nfwl qufqyH g/


Keep up respect, fraternity and equality among nationalities.

6/ oifhaMumifh jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJygapESifh/
Don't let the Union disintegrate because of you.

7/ wnfNidrfrIonf y"me/
Tranquality is primary.

13/ pnf;urf;&SdrS wkd;wufrnf/


Only when there is discipline will there be progress.

14/ b,folcGJcGJ 'kdYruGJ tNrJpnf;vkH;rnf/


No matter who tries to divide us we will always united.

15/ Ekid if aH wmfzGJUpnf;ykt


H ajccHOya'ay:aygufa&;onf jynfaxmifpo
k m;
tm;vkH;\ y"meusaom wm0efjzpfonf/
Emergence of the State Constitution is the duty of all citizens of
Myanmar Naing-Ngan.

16/ pnf;vk;H jcif;onftiftm;/


Unity is strength.

17/ vGwfvyfa&;ukd umuG,fyg/


Safeguard National independence.

18/ wyfrawmfNzdKcGJrnfhtBuH 'kdYvufrcH/


We reject any scheme to break up the Tatmadaw.

19/ rif;rJhpkdufjzifh 'Drkdua&pDr&Ekdif


Anarchy begets anarchy, not democracy.

8/ vGwfvyfrIonf xm0&/
Independence is for perpetuity.

9/ 'Drkdua&pD\qefYusifbufonf rif;rJhpkduf/
The opposite of democracy is anarchy.

10/ ajray:ajratmuf tzsuform;tvkdr&Sd/


Don't with all destructive elements above ground and under
ground.

11/ w&m;Oya'pkd;rkd;rS jynfolYb0 at;csrf;&/


With Law prevailing people's life will be at peace.

20/ wyfrawmfNzdKcGJol 'kdY&efol/


Anyone who tries to break up the Tatmadaw is our enenmy.

21/ jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfonf rSefuefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfjzpfonf/


Only Union Spirit is the true patriotism.

22/ qlylrIjzifh 'Drkdua&pDr&Ekdif/


Riots beget riots, not democracy.

23/ wnfNidrfat;csrf;rS wkdif;jynfzGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrnf/


Only with stability and peace will the nation develop.

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

358

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

bGJY'D*&Drsm;
1. M.B.B.S

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

(q&m0efbGJU)
2. B.D.S

Bachelor of Dental Surgery

(oGm;bufqidk &f mq&m0efbUJG )


3. B.V.S
4. B.Ag
5. B.Sc
6. B. E
7. B.Arch
8. B.Tech
9. B.Eco
10. B.Com
11. B.A
12. L.L.B
13. B. Ed
14. M.A
15. M.Sc
16. Ph.D
17. B.N.Sc
18. B.C.Sc
19. B.Act
20. B.Pharm
21. M.Act
22. M.E
21. M.Com

t*Fvdyf-jrefrm pum;yHkrsm;
1.

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

2.

A little is better than none.

vdktyfonfhtcgwGif ulnDay;olonf rdwfaqGppfjzpfonf/


vHk;0r&Sdonfxuf tenf;i,f&Sdonfu awmfao;onf/
3.

(wd& pmefaq;ukq&m0efbUJG )
Bachelor of Agriculture (pku
d yf sK;d a&;ynmbGUJ )
Bachelor of Science (odyHbGJU)
Bachelor of Engineering (tif*sifeD,mbGJU)
Bachelor of Architecture (AdokumbGJU)
Bachelor of Technology (enf;ynmbGJU)
Bachelor of Economic (pD;yGm;a&;ynmbGUJ )
Bachelor of Commerce (0gPdZb
UJG )
Bachelor of Arts (0dZmbGJU)
Bachelor of Laws (Oya'bGJU)
Bachelor of Education (ynma&;bGJU)
Master of Art (r[m0dZmbGJU)
Master of Science (r[modyHbGJU)
Doctor of Philosophy (a'gufwmbGJU)
Bachelor of Nursing Science (olemjyKodyHbGJU)
Bachelor of Computer Science (uGefysLwmodyHbGJU)
Bachelor of Accounting (pm&if;ukdifynmbGJU)
Bachelor of Pharmacy (aq;0g;uRr;f usiy
f nmbGUJ )
Master of Accounting (pm&if;ukdifynmr[mbGJU)
Master of Engineering (tif*sifeD,mr[mbGJU)
Master of Commerce (r[m0gPdZb
UJG )

All is fair in love and war.

tcspfESifhppfwGif rw&m;rIr&Sd/

Bachelor of Veterinary Science


4.

All is not gold that glitters.

5.

A stitch in time saves nine.

0g0gjrifwkdif; a&TrxifESifh/
ysuftpOf jyifcP/
6.

Care killed the cat.

aomuaMumifh aMumifao/
7.

Don't cry for the moon.

rrDwJhyef; rvSrf;ESifh/
8.

Don't trouble until trouble, troubles you.

'kurjzpfcif 'kucHNyD; 'kutaMumif;rawG;ESifh/


9.

Empty vessels make the most sound.

rjynfhonfhtdk; abmifbifcwfonf/
10. Fortune favours the brave.

aMumufvQif vmbfvGJ? &JvQif rif;jzpf/


11. God helps those who help themselves.

rdrdudk,fom udk;uG,f&m/
12. Good wine needs no brush.

ypnf;aumif;vQif trTef;wifp&mrvdk/
13. Haste makes waste.

tvsifvdk tvGJjzpf/
14. He who sleeps catches no fish.

tdyfaeol ig;r&/
15. History repeats itself.

orkdif;wpfausmh jyefvnfonf/
16. Honesty is the best policy.

dk;om;rIonf taumif;qHk;jzpfonf/

359

360

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

17. Honour to whom honour is due.

xkdufonfholudk *kPfjyKyg/
18. Ideas move the world.

tawG;tac:rsm;onf urmBuD;udkajymif;vJaponf/
19. Idleness is the rust of soul.

roHk;wJh"m; oHacs;wuf/
20. No one is above the law.

w&m;Oya'onf rsufESmrvdkuf/
21. Kill not the goose that lays the golden egg.

a&TO Oay;aomief;udk rowf&/


22. Knowledge is power.

todynmonf pGrf;tm;/
23. Life is full of ups and downs.

b0onf twuftusrsm;ESifhjynfhESufaeonf/
24. Love is blind.

tcspfwGif rsufpdr&Sd/
25. Make hay while the sun shines.

vomwkef; Adkif;iif/
26. Man is the architect of his own destiny.

vlonf rdrdb0\ t&Sifocifjzpfonf/


27. Marry haste, and repent at leisure.

rqifrjcif tdrfaxmifus aESmif;rSaemifw&/


28. Man proposes, God disposes.

vlYtvdk ewfrvdkufEdkif/
29. Necessity is the mother of invention.

vdkvQifBuHq enf;vrf;&/
30. Necessity has no law.

avmbeJYawGU w&m;arh/
31. Never do things by halves.

tvkyfvkyfvQif wpf0ufwpfysuf rvkyfygESifh/


32. Never too late to mend.

ynmvkd tdkonfr&Sd/
33. Never too old to learn.

ynmvdk tdkonfr&Sd/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


34. No man is perfect.

avmuwGifNyD;jynfhpkHol[lr&Sd/
35. No pain, no gain.

temrcH? tomrpH/
36. Nothing venture nothing have.

rpGefYpm;bJ bmrSrjzpf/
37. One good turn deserves another.

olYudkulrS olYtultnD&onf/
38. Patience is virtue.

pdwf&Snfjcif;onf r*Fvmwpfyg;jzpfonf/
39. Pity is align to love.

cspfjcif;tp oem;jcif;u/
40. Poverty is no sin.

qif;&Jjcif;onf tjypfr[kwfyg/
41. Practice makes perfect.

avhusifhay;rS jynfh0onf/
42. Prevention is better than cure.

BudKwifumuG,fjcif;onf ukojcif;xufydkaumif;onf/
43. Rome was not built in a day.

a&mrNrdKUBuD;udk wpf&ufwnf;ESifh wnfaqmufxm;jcif;r[kwf/


44. Slow and steady wins the race.

jznf;jznf;ESifh rSefrSefaqmif&GufvQif yef;wkdifa&mufrnf/


45. The darkest hour is before the dawn.

a&mifeDrvmrDtcsdefonf tarSmifqHk;umvjzpfonf/
46. The ripest fruit first falls.

trSnfhqHk;opfoD; t&ifqHk;a<uonf/
47. Time and tide wait for no man.

tcsdefESifh'Da&onf vludkrapmifh/
48. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

q&mrsm; om;ao/
49. Truth is mighty and shall prevail.

trSefw&m;u aemufqHk;wGiftEdkif&&Sdonf/
50. We eat that we may live.

igwdkYonf touf&Sifoefjcif;twGuf pm;aomufMuonf/

361

362

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

51. Where there is a will, there is a way.

363

tpkd;&r[kwfaom toif;tzGJYrsm;ESifh Ou|rsm;

vkdvQifBuHq enf;vrf;&/
52. Where there is love, there is jealousy.

cspfvQif o0efwdkonf/

pOf

toif;tzGJUtrnf

Ou|trnfESifh pwifwm0ef
xrf;aqmifonfh&ufpGJ

53. Writing is better than speech.

EIwfwpf&m pmwpfvHk;/

1/ jrefrmEkdifiH MuufajceDtoif;

54. Youth is full of pleasure. Age is full of care.

vli,fb0onf aysmf&TifrItjynfh? vlBuD;b0onf aomuESifhtjynfh/


55. Youth is wholly experimental.

vli,fb0onf vHk;0prf;oyfjcif;yifjzpfonf/
56. Ignorance is worse than poverty.

r&Sdwmxuf rodwmcufw,f/
57. There is no success without effort.

rBudK;pm;bJeJYawmh atmifjrifrIr&Ekdifbl;/
58. The moral lessons lie in the books.

tvdrmpmrSm&dS/
59. There is no time like present.

ypKyefESifhwlaom tcsdefonfr&Sd/
60. Nothing is difficult to a willing man.

qEBuD;&if BuHorQNyD;r,f/
61. Learning cannot be stolen.

ynma&Ttkd; vlrckd;/
62. Do as I say, don't as I do.

igajymovkdvkyf? igvkyfovkd rvkyfeJY/


63. Books and freinds should be few but good.

pmtkyef rYJ w
d af qGudk enf;enf;bJ xm;oifw
h ,f/ 'gayr,fh aumif;&r,f/
64. The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.

wpfcw
k nf;aomaumif;rIqw
dk m todynm&Sjd cif;jzpfNy;D ? raumif;rIqw
dk m
trSefukd rodjcif;jzpfw,f/
65. Experience is the best teacher.

tawGUtBuHKqkdwm taumif;qkH;q&m/

2/ jrefrmEkid if H pmayESiphf me,fZif;


tzGJU
3/ jrefrmEkdifiH kyf&Siftpnf;tkH;
4/ jrefrmEkdifiH *Dwtpnf;tk;H

= ygarmu a'gufwmomvSa&T
(29-10-2006 rS ,aeYtxd)
=
=

= OD;armifarmifvwf
(2-11-2005 rS ,aeYtxd)
5/ jrefrmEkdifiH dk;&myef;ynm&Sifrsm; = OD;aomif;[ef
tpnf;tkH;
(18-7-1992 rS ,aeYtxd)
6/ jrefrmEkdifiH obifynm&Sifrsm;
= OD;pdefrm'if
tpnf;tkH;
(2-2-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)
7/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH
= OD;0if;atmif
ukefonfrsm;ESifhpufrIvufrI
(1-5-2011 rS ,aeYtxd)
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;csKyf
8/ jrefrmEkdifiH 0dZmESifhodyHynm&Sif = OD;oef;OD;
tzGJU
(16-8-1999 rS ,aeYtxd)
9/ jrefrmEkdifiH [kdw,fqkdif&m
= OD;&ef0if;
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
(24-3-2012 rS ,aeYtxd)
10/ jrefrmEkdifiH ykpGefvkyfief;&Sifrsm; = OD;pd;k xGe;f
toif;
(11-12-2010 rS ,aeYtxd)
11/ jrefrmEkdifiH yifv,fig;zrf;vkyfief; = OD;armifarmifp;dk
&Sifrsm;toif;
(29-4-2006 rS ,aeYtxd)
12/ jrefrmEkdifiH opfvkyfief;&Sifrsm;
= OD;pdefvGif
toif;
(16-2-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

364
13/ jrefrmEkdifiH ig;vkyfief;tzGUJ csKyf

= 0Pausmx
f ifO;D aX;jrifh
(1-12-1998 rS ,aeYtxd)
= OD;rdk;jrifhausmf
(19-12-2010 rS ,aeYtxd)

14/ jrefrmEkdifiH a&xGufypnf;


xkwfvkyfolrsm;ESifhykdYukef
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
15/ jrefrmEkdifiH aq;ESifhaq;ypnf;
=
ukefonfrsm;ESifhvkyfief;&Sifrsm;
toif;
16/ jrefrmEkdifiH qefpyg;ukefonfrsm; =
toif;
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=
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k af 0ol
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toif;
20/ jrefrmEkdifiH yifv,ful;oabFmom; =
toif;
21/ jrefrmEkdifiH rl;,pfaq;0g;
=
qefYusifa&; toif;A[kd
22/ jrefrmEkdifiHoGm;bufqkdif&m
=
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23/ jrefrmEkdifiH q&m0eftoif;
=
24/ jrefrmEkdifiH wkdif;&if;aq;q&m
toif;
25/ jrefrmEkdifiHig;arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;
toif;
26/ jrefrmEkdifiH a&csKdig;zrf;vkyfief;
vkyfukdifolrsm;toif;

a'gufwm OD;0if;pnfol
(2-12-2007 rS ,aeYtxd)

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

365

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366

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

367

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

368

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h avhtx
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(c) tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

369

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wnfae&m
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h u
dk rf sm;azmifa';&Si;f ukd trSwf (228)? odrjf zLvrf;?
Akv
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370

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pwifzGJUpnf;onfh&uf
1/
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OD;aqmifrjI zifh aqmif&u
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

371

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rsm;udk xrf;aqmif&ef uwdjyKol?
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( i ) wnfqOJ ya'wpf&yf&yft& rw&m;toif;tjzpf aMunmjcif;
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G &f efzek ;f eHygwfrmS 067-30791 jzpfonf/

372

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIa&;&mrsm;udk "mwfyykH nmjzifh
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

373

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

374

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wdkYjzifh zJGUpnf;xm;onf/
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jynfe,f? wdik ;f ? cdik ?f NrKd Ue,f? wuov
kd ?f MuufajceDtoif;rsm;wGif
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xm;&Sdonf/ jynfe,f? wdkif; MuufajceDBuD;MuyfrIaumfrwD? NrdKUe,fMuufajceD
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386

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

387

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388
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389

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390
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


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391

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392
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

393

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k cd u
kd Ef ikd Nf y;D ESv;kH ckejf ref cEmud,
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394

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ay;onf/
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xd;k ay;&rnf/
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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

395

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396

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odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

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f ikd Af AGD ikd ;f &yfpyf ;kd onf vlcY Emud,
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f wGi;f odaYk &muf&NdS y;D cEmud,
k \
f ckct
H m;
pepfuzkd suq
f ;D ojzifh jzpfay:vmaoma&m*gpkukd attdik 'f t
D ufp[
f ak c:onf/
ul;pufjcif;
attdik 'f t
D ufpaf &m*gonf tdycf st
f ikd Af yGD ;kd &So
d El iS hf vdiq
f ufq&H mrS ul;puf
onf/ vdiftaysmftyg;vdkufpm;jcif;onf a&m*gul;pufapaom t"du
taMumif;&if;jzpfonf/ tdycf st
f ikd Af yGD ;kd &So
d rl w
S pfqifh ZeD;? odrYk [kwf cifyGef;odkY
ul;pufjzpfyGm;onf/ jynfhwefqmrsm;? taysmftazmfrsm;onf a&m*gjyefYyGm;
apEdkifolrsm;jzpfonf/
ydk;&SdoloHk;NyD;onfh roefY&Sif;aomaq;xdk;tyf? aq;xdk;>yefwdkYudk rQa0
oHk;pGJ&mrSwpfqifh ul;pufEdkifonf/ aq;rifaMumifxkd;jcif;? em;azmufjcif;?
qHyifnyfjcif;? vufonf;nyfjcif;wdkYjyKvkyfonfhtcg roefY&Sif;aom
ud&d,maMumifh a&m*gul;pufapEdkifaomtE&m,f&Sdonf/ rl;,pfaq;udk
aoG;aMumxJxdk;olwdkYonf roefY&Sif;aomaq;xdk;tyfESifh>yefwdkYudk twl
oHk;jcif;aMumifh a&m*gul;pufysHUESHYonf/
vufqEJG w
I q
f ufjcif;? erf;Iyjf cif;? acsmif;qd;k jcif;? twlpm;aomufjcif;?
a&ul;jcif;? twlaexkid jf cif;? twlupm;jcif;? twlausmif;wufjcif;wdYk aMumifh
attdkif'Dtufpfa&m*grul;pufEkdifacs/
a&m*gvuPmrsm;
- cEmud,
k t
f av;csed f 10 &mckid Ef eI ;f xuf yd
k avsmu
h sjcif;? wpfvxufy
kd
0rf;qufwu
kd o
f mG ;jcif;?
- wpfvxuf ydk tzsm;qufwdkufwufjcif;wdkYjzpfMuonf/
- wpfvxufydk acsmif;qdk;jcif;?
- tusdwfrsm; wpfudk,fvHk;tESHYtjym;xGufjcif;?

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

398
-

cEmudk,ftESHYtjym; a&,kefrMumcP xGufjcif;?


yg;pyftwGif;wGif rSukrsm;xGufjcif;?
cEmudk,ftESHYtjym; ta&jym;,m;,Ha&mif&rf;jcif;wdkYjzpfonf/

ukojcif;
attdkif'Dtufpfa&m*guko&ef aq;0g;rsm;(Anti-Retrovinal)udk a&m*g
vuPmjyjcif;? odkYr[kwf CD4 ac:aoG;jzLOta&twGuf aoG;xJwGif 200
ESifh 200 atmufavsmhrSom aomuf&onf/ ,cktcg Zidovudine (AZT),
Didanosine(DDL), Zalcitabine(DDC), Ritonavir(RTV) ponfh aq;0g;
rsm;udk toHk;jyKNyD; a&m*gwdk;vmaom t&Sdefudk aES;apaomtmedoifom
&So
d nf/ a&m*goufom&efom pGr;f aqmifEikd Nf y;D vH;k 0aysmufuif;&efrwwfEidk af cs/
aq;\aemufqufwq
JG ;kd usKd ;rsm;vnf;&So
d nf/

wDbDa&m*g
ul;pufjcif;
wDbDonf rsdK;dk;vdkufNyD;rjzpfyGm;acs/ wDbDydk;ygaomavudk SLdIufrd
jcif;rSwpfqifh ul;pufjzpfyGm;onf/ wDbDvlem ESmacsjcif;? acsmif;qdk;jcif;?
wHawG;axG;jcif;? us,af vmifpmG oDcsi;f qdjk cif;wdrYk w
S pfqifh wDbyD ;kd avxJodkY
a&mufNyD; ul;pufonf/
wDbDvlemrS twlaerdom;pkESifh rdwfaqGrsm;odkY a&m*gul;pufEdkifonf/
txl;ojzifh vlpv
k al 0;&Sad omae&mwGif ul;pufjyefyY mG ;vG,o
f nf/ wDbDvlem
wpfO;D onf tjcm;vl 10 OD;rS 15 OD;txd wDbaD &m*gudk ul;pufapEdik o
f nf/
a&m*gvuPmrsm;
- zsm;Ny;D acsmif;qd;k rnf/
- acsmif;qdk;onfh tcg ovdyfxGufNyD; aoG;vnf;ygEdkifonf/
- &ifbwfESifh ausmatmifhwwfonf/
- cHwiG ;f ysujf cif;? armyef;vG,jf cif;? nydik ;f acR;xGujf cif;wdjYk zpfEikd o
f nf/
- wDbaD Mumifzh sm;ygu tzsm;waiGUaiGUwufwwfonf/
- naeydik ;f wGif tzsm;wufEikd o
f nf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)


-

399

acsmif;qd;k jcif;onf &ufowywf 3 ywfxufy


dk Mum&SnfEdkifonf/
udk,ftav;csdefavsmhNyD; wjznf;jznf;ydefcsHK;vmEdkifonf/
&ufowywf 3 ywfxufydk Mum&SnfpGmacsmif;qdk;jcif;? acsmif;qd;k onfh
tcg ovdyx
f u
G jf cif;ESihf wjznf;jznf;ydecf sKH ;vmjcif;wdkY jzpfyGm;ygu wDbD
oHo,vlem[k owfrSwfEdkifonf/

wdkufdkufMunfhI tcsdefwdkuk
,cifu wDbDuko&m 1 ESpfrS 1 ESpfcGJtxd Mum&SnfpGmaq;xdk;
aq;aomufNyD;uko&onf/ ,cktcg wDbDudk wdkufdkufMunfhI tcsdefwdk
ukx;kH (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course)(D.O.T.S) enf;AsL[mjzifh
xda&mufpGmukoay;vsuf&Sdonf/
wDbu
D kd tcsed w
f u
kd x
k ;kH jzifh 6 vrS 8 vtxd pepfwusuo
k ygu a&m*g
aysmufuif;EdkifNyDjzpfonf/
umuG,fjcif;
- wDbaD &m*gumuG,&f ef uav;touf wpfvcGt
J &G,f bDp*D s?D umuG,af q;
xdk;ay;jcif;jzifh umuG,fEdkifonf/
- qur(qHq
k ?Ykd Muufnm ? ar;ckid )f ESihf ydv
k ,
D u
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Yk kd xd;k ESw
H u
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auR;onfhtcg bDpD*sD aq;udkyg wpfygwnf;xdk;Edkifonf/
- wDbv
D el mESihf twlaerdom;pkonf vlemwdt
Yk aejzifh acsmif;qk;d ? ESmacsonfh
tcg ESmacgif;ESifh yg;pyfudk vufudkify0gESifhvHkatmiftkyfNyD; acsmif;qkd;
&rnfjzpfonf/

iSufzsm;a&m*g
iSufzsm;a&m*gydk;
iSufzsm;a&m*gjzpfapaomydk;rSm yvwfpfrdk'D,rf(Plasmodium)ac:
uyfyg;yd;k jzpfonf/ iSuzf sm;a&m*gyd;k 4 rsKd ;&So
d nf/ ,if;wdrYk mS yvwfpf rd'k ,
D rf
z,f v f q D y g&rf ( Plasmodium Falciparum)? yvwf p f r d k ' D , rf td k a AvD
(Plasmodium Ovale)? yvwfprf 'kd ,
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yvwfprf 'kd ,
D rf Adik ;f Aufp(f Plasmodium Vivax) wdjYk zpfMuonf/

400

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

a&m*gvuPmrsm;
- iSuzf sm;yd;k &Sad om taemzvdjciftudu
k cf &H Ny;D 10 &ufrS 15 &ufMumaomtcg
jcifudkufcH&olwGif iSufzsm;a&m*gvuPmrsm;ay:aygufvmonf/
- vlemonf csrf;wkefzsm;onf/ tcsdKUrSm csrf;wkefjcif;r&Sdacs/
- acgif;udu
k jf cif;? tqpfuu
kd jf cif;? ysKd Utefjcif;? cHwiG ;f ysujf cif;wkjYd zpfonf/
ukojcif;
aoG;ppfNyD; ydk;trsdK;tpm;tvdkuf uko&onf/ aoG;rppfEdkifygu
z,fvq
f yD g&rfy;kd [k,q
l Ny;D ukoEdik yf gonf/ z,fvq
f yD g&rfy;kd aMumifjh zpfaom
iSuzf sm;udk uvdk u
kd iG ;f jzifu
h o
k &onf/ uvdk u
kd iG ;f aomufygu acgif;rl;jcif;?
ysKd Utefjcif;? 0rf;avQmjcif;? 0rf;Adu
k rf tDromjzpfjcif;? ,m;,Hjcif;wdjYk zpfEikd o
f nf/
BudKwifumuG,faq;aomufjcif;
iSufzsm;ul;pufjzpfyGm;rI&Sdaoma'oodkYoGm;onfhtcg q&m0efESifh
wdik yf if roGm;rDwpfywftvdw
k iG f pwifaomuf&onf/ ,if;a'owGif &Sad epOf
tywfpOfaomufNyD; jyefvmonfhtcg av;ywfMumonftxd tywfpOf
qufaomuf&rnf/ BuKd wifumuG,af q;tjzpf uvdk u
kd iG ;f udk wpfywfvQif
ESpjf ym;aomuf&onf/ tu,f kww
f &ufc&D;xGuyf gu iSuzf sm;ul;pufaom
a'oodaYk &mufonfah eY pwifaomuf&rnf/ ,if;a'o&Sad epOf tywfpOf
aomufomG ;&rnf/
umuG,fjcif;
jcifudkufcH&rIrS uif;a0;&ef atmufygwdkYudkvkyfaqmifoifhonf- jcifaxmifEiS t
hf yd jf cif;? yd;k owfaq;pdrx
f m;aomjcifaxmifukd toH;k jyK
jcif;?
- jcifvmrem;ap&ef? vdrf;aq;(Repellent)udk t0wfrzHk;tkyfaom
cEmud,
k af e&mvdr;f jcif;?
- tusvuf&Snf? abmif;bD&Snf? ykqdk;wdkYudk vHkNcHKpGm0wfqifjcif;?
- jcifaq;acGxeG ;f jcif;?
- rD;cdk;rdIif;? eEGif;rdIif;wkdufjcif;?
- jcifvHkoHZumwyfjcif;?
- aq;zse;f jcif;?

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

401

jcifaygufyGm;rIr&Sd&ef atmufygwdkYudkvkyfaqmif&rnf- a&uef? a&tdik ?f pdrphf rf;? jrpfacsmif;wdw


Yk iG f a&pyf&dS jrufyif? csKH yifwu
Ykd kd
&Si;f vif;jcif;?
- a&tkdifrsm;udk ajrzdkYjcif;? a&pD;&ef azmufxkwfjcif;?
- jcifcdkatmif;onfhjrufyif? csHKEG,frsm;udk ckwfxGif&Sif;vif;jcif;?
- a&uef? a&tkid Ef iS hf a&wGi;f wkw
Yd iG f yd;k avmufvef;pm;ig;rsm;jzpfaom
ig;ab;pif;? ig;armhawmh? a'gif;ig;? ig;&HUacgif;wd?k wDvm;yD;,m; ponfh
ig;wpfrsdK;rsdK;xnfhjcif;?

aoG;vGefwkyfauG;a&m*g
a&m*gvuPmrsm;
aoG;vGefwkyfauG;onf touf 15 ESpfatmufuav;rsm;wGif jzpfymG ;
onf/ uav;onf tzsm;wufNy;D acgif;udu
k jf cif;? ud,
k v
f ufuu
kd cf jJ cif;? cHwGif;
ysufjcif;? vufESifh &ifbwfwkdYwGif teDpufrsm;xGufjcif;? ysdKUtefjcif;wdkY
jzpfonf/ xdt
Yk jyif aoG;,dx
k u
G jf cif;&SEd ikd &f m ESmacgif;aoG;vQjH cif;? aoG;tefjcif;?
aumfzaD &miftndKpufrsm;tefjcif;? 0rf;oGm;ygu uw&map;ta&mif trnf;
oGm;jcif;wdkYjzpfEdkifygonf/
aoG;vefYjcif;(shock)jzpfwwfonf/ aoG;vefYaomvuPmrsm;rSm
atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf- zsm;&mrS tzsm;usNyD; ajczsm;vufzsm;at;pufjcif;
- rSdef;aejcif;? odkYr[kwf *emrNidrfjzpfjcif;
- rMumcPtefjcif;
- tefonfhtcg tndKa&miftpufrsm;ygjcif;
- 0rf;trnf;oGm;jcif;

402

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

ukojcif;
aoG;vGew
f yk af uG;a&m*gjzpfymG ;vQif aoG;vefjY cif;r&Syd gu q&m0efukd jyoNy;D
uav;tm; tdrfwGifxm;Edkifygonf/ aoG;vefYygurl aq;HkodkY wufa&muf
uko&rnf/ odrYk o
S m toufq;kH H;I jcif;rS uif;a0;rnf/ Adik ;f &yfpyf ;kd tm; aoap
&ef aq;0g;r&So
d jzifh vlemtm; a0'emoufom&ef jyKpu
k o
k rIay;onf/ tzsm;us
ap&ef yg&mpDwarmudk wkdufEdkifygonf/ bwfpfydk? atyDpD? tem*sufqif
ponfh tzsm;usaq;wdu
Yk kd rwdu
k o
f ifah cs/ wku
d yf gu aoG;tefjcif;jzpfEikd o
f nf/
umuG,fjcif;
aoG;vGefwkyfauG;tE&m,frS uif;a0;&ef atmufygenf;vrf;rsm;udk
vkyfaqmifoifhonf- jcifESdrfeif;&mwGif ydk;avmufvef;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;&rnf/a&odk
avSmifxm;aom pnf? td;k wdu
Yk kd vHNk cKH pmG zH;k tkyx
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vef;awGUygu a&udkoGefypfjcif;? a&ppfjzifh cyfppfjcif;? odkavSmif
xm;aoma&udk wpfywfwpfBudrfvJvS,fjcif;wdkY aqmif&Guf&ef
vdktyfonf/
- jcifrsm;rcdak tmif;Edik &f ef tdrw
f iG f av0ifavxGuaf umif;atmif xm;
oifhonf/
- uav;rsm; aeYv,fwiG f tdyo
f nft
h cg jcifaxmifjzift
h yd af p&rnf/
- aMumiftdrfatmufcHcGufrsm;wGif jcifraygufyGm;&ef pufqDwpfckck
odkYr[kwf qm;xnfhxm;&rnf/
- tdrfwGif;&Sd tkef;rIwfcGuf? tdk;cGufyJh? wm,mcGH? bl;cGH ponfwdkYudk
a&rwif&ef &Sif;vif;ypf&rnf/
- usef;rma&;XmerS aq;rIwfjcif;udk vlemtdrfESifh ywf0ef;usif udkuf
100 wGifvkyfaqmif&m aq;rIwftzGJUvma&mufygu tdrftwGif;rS
z,fay;jcif;? rIwNf y;D wpfem&DMumonftxd wHcg;rsm;udk ydwx
f m;jcif;?
tpm;tpmrsm;udk zHk;tkyfxm;jcif;wdkYjzifh ulnD&rnf/
- aoG;vGefwkyfauG;oHo,&Sdygu aq;Hkaq;cef;wGif jyo&rnf/
- aoG;vefaY omvuPm&Syd gu aq;Ho
k Ykd tjrefq;kH ydaYk qmif ukorI
cH,l&rnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

403

MuufiSufwkyfauG;a&m*g
a&m*gvuPmrsm;
Muuf? bJ? ief;? iHk;? cdkESifh awmiSufrsm;wGif MuufiSufwkyfauG;a&m*g
jzpfyGm;avh&Sdonf/ MuufiSufrsm;wGifa&m*gjzpfvQif kwfw&ufaoqHk;rI
rsm;vmonf/ OMuufwdYkwGif OEIef;usqif;vmonf/
Muufrsm;onf uky
f tpmpm;EIe;f usum a&aomufEeI ;f rsm;Ny;D 0rf;oGm;
onf/ toufLS cufjcif;? rsu&f nfEiS hf ESm&nfusjcif;? OD;acgif;ESihf rsufESm
azma&mifjcif;wdkYudkvnf; awGU&onf/
MuuftarmufEiS hf yg;ysO;f a&mif jymESr;f vmEdik o
f nf/ ajcaxmufEiS hf
ajcqpfwdkYwGif aoG;,dkpD;rIjzpfNyD; teDpufrsm;xGufonf/ aoEIef;jrifhrm;
NcHvHk;uRwf Muufrsm;aoqHk;onftxdjzpfEkdifonf/
ul;pufjcif;
a&m*gjzpfonfh Muufiu
S w
f \
Ykd rpif? ESm&nfww
Ykd iG f yd;k rsm;yg&SNd y;D ,if;wdrYk S
wpfqifh ul;pufonf/ udk,fxJodkY ydk;0ifNyD; 3 &ufrS 7 &uftMumwGif a&m*g
vuPmrsm;ay:aygufonf/
vlwGiful;pufjcif;
MuufiSufrsm;ESifhxdawGUrI&Sdaom vlwdkYwGif a&m*gul;pufrIjzpfygu
tjyif;zsm;jcif;? acsmif;qdk;jcif;? toufSLr0jcif;? toufSLusyfjcif;wdkYudk
cHpm;&onf/
MuufiSufrsm;wGif umuG,fjcif;
- aps;rsm;? arG;jrLa&;NcHrsm;&Sd MuufiSufrsm;udk awmdkif;MuufiSufrsm;?
aqmif;cdkiSufrsm;ESifh xdawGUrIr&Sdap&efxm;jcif;/
- tjcm;arG;jrLa&;NcHrS MuufiSufrsm;udk wifoGif;arG;jrLrI rjyKjcif;/
- MuufNcHwGif;odkY {nfhonf? olpdrf;? uav;i,frsm; r0ifapjcif;/
- rnfolrqdk MuufNcHtwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufygu owfrSwfxm;onfh zdeyf?
0wfpHk? acgif;pnf;? ESmacgif;pnf;? vuftdwfwdkY 0wfqifjcif;/

404
-

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

MuufNcHtwGif;odkY jyifyrSydk;rsm; r0ifa&mufap&ef xHk;? ydk;owfaq;


rsm;udkoHk; yHkrSefoefY&Sif;jcif;/
MuufNcHvkyfom;rsm; MuufbJaps;'dkifodkY oGm;a&mufrIrjyKap&efESifh
oGm;yguvnf; t0wf? zdeyfv
J yd;k rTm;oefpY ifNy;D rS Ncw
H iG ;f od0Yk ifa&muf
jcif;/

owdjyK&ef
Muuf? bJ OESit
hf om; pm;oH;k olrsm;onf atmufygtcsurf sm;udk owdjyK
oifhygonf- MuufO? bJOudk tjcm;pm;p&m? [if;csupf &mrsm;ESit
hf wl rxm;oifyh g/
- aps;rS0,fvmonfh Muufom;udk aocsmpGmaq;aMum&efvt
kd yfonf/
- Muufom;ckwo
f nfh pOf;wDw;kH ESihf "m;udak q;aMumoefpY if&efvt
kd yfonf/
- MuufO? bJO? iHk;OwdkY\tcGHay:ESifh txJwGifyg MuufiSufwkyfauG;
a&m*gyd;k &SEd ikd o
f jzifh udik w
f ,
G Nf y;D ygu vufuq
kd yfjymjzifph ifMu,fatmif
aq;yg/
- Muuf? bJ? iSuw
f \
Ykd tom;ESihf Orsm;udk twGi;f ydik ;f txd aocsmatmif
csujf yKwo
f ifo
h nf/ MuufOtESpu
f kd usuaf tmifaMumf&efvt
kd yfonf/
- MuufiSufwkyfauG;a&m*g jzpfyGm;csdefESifh Muuf? bJ tom;ESifh Orsm;
ra&mif;cs&ef wm;jrpfxm;csed w
f iG f 0,f,pl m;aomufjcif;rjyKoifyh g/
a&mif;cs&ef jyefvnfciG jhf yKro
S m Muuf? bJ tom;ESihf Owdu
Yk kd jyefpm;
oifhonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

405

urmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*g
urmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*g
&moDtvku
d w
f yk af uG;? Muufwyk af uG;? 0ufwyk af uG; ponfjzifh wkyaf uG;
a&m*gtrsKd;rsKd; &Sdygonf/ ,ckjzpfay:aeaom urmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*gonf
,cifwkyfauG;a&m*grsm;ESifhrwlbJ a&m*gtopftqef;wpfck jzpfygonf/
ajrmuftar&du 0ufwkyfauG;? ajrmuftar&du MuufiSufwkyfauG;? &moD
vlwkyfauG;ESifh tm&S- Oa&my 0ufwyk af uG;wkYd aygif;pyfxm;aom New Influenza A (H1N1) Adi
k ;f &yfpyf ;dk topfjzpfygonf/ vlrSvlokdY vsifjrefpGm ul;puf
vsuf&Sdygonf/ vltrsm;okdY ul;pufNyD; EkdifiHwumokdY ul;pufysHUESHYrI jzpfyGm;
aeojzifh urmhusef;rma&;tzGJUu urmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*g (Human Influenza Pandemic) tqift
h jzpf 2009 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 11&ufaeYwiG f aMunmcJyh gonf/
ul;pufykH
urmv
h w
l yk af uG;a&m*gonf toufLS vrf;aMumif;rSwpfqifh ul;pufyg
onf/ vlem acsmif;qk;d jcif;? ESmacsjcif;jzifh wku
d f u
dk af omfvnf;aumif;? a&m*g
jzpfol\ cRJ? ovdyf? cEmukd,ft&nf? tokH;taqmifypnf;rsm;ukd ukdifwG,f
xdawGUjcif;rSaomfvnf;aumif; ul;pufEkdifygonf/
a&m*gvuPmrsm;
(u) a,bk,stm;jzifh &moDwyk af uG;a&m*gvuPmrsm;ESihf qifwNl y;D atmufyg
vuPmrsm;&Sw
d wfygonf- tzsm;&Sdjcif;(tylcsdef 38.C)
- ESm&nf,dkjcif;? ESmacsjcif;
- acsmif;qkd;jcif;
- vnfacsmif;emjcif;
- ukd,fvufukdufcJjcif;
- acgif;ukdufjcif;
- tpm;taomufysufjcif;
- wpfcgwpf&w
H iG f ysKUd tefjcif;ESi0hf rf;oGm;jcif; ponfwYdk jzpfwwfygonf/

406

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

( c ) a&m*gjyif;xefvmvQif atmufygvuPmrsm;ukd awGU&SdEkdifygonf- tzsm;BuD;vGef;jcif; (tylcsdef 38.C txuf&Sdjcif;)


- acsmif;tvGefqkd;jcif;? armjcif;
- yifyef;EGrf;e,fjcif;
- toufSLusyfjcif;? toufSLcufcJjcif;
- *emrNidrfjzpfjcif;
- owdvpfjcif;
xko
d jYdk zpfvQif use;f rma&;apmifah &SmufrI tjrefq;Hk cH,o
l ifyh gonf/

trsm;ESifhqkdifaom ae&mrsm;wGif vkdufemoifhonfhtcsufrsm;

umuG,f&ef vlwpfOD;csif; vkdufemoifhonfhtcsufrsm;

wpfukd,fa&oefY&Sif;rIukd *kjyKaqmif&Gufjcif;/
ESmacs? acsmif;qkd;vQif vufukdifyk0gjzifh zkH;tkyfjcif;/
vufukd qyfjymjzifh pifMu,fpGm aq;aMumjcif;/
aumif;pGm tdyfpuftem;,ljcif;/
tm[m&jynfh0onfh tpm;tpmrsm; pm;okH;jcif;/
ukd,fvufvIyf&Sm;rI rSefrSefjyKvkyfjcif;/
avaumif;avoefY &&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufaexkdifjcif;/
vlxx
l yfaomae&mESihf yGv
J rf;obifrsm;okYd oGm;a&mufjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfjcif;/
t&uf vGeu
f pJ mG aomufo;Hk jcif;ESihf rl;,pfaq;0g;ok;H pGjJ cif;rS a&SmifMuOfjcif;/
a&m*gjzpfymG ;olrsm;ESihf oHo,&So
d rl sm;rS ajcmufaytuGmwGif aexkid jf cif;/
a&m*grul;pufap&ef ESmacgif;ESifhyg;pyfukd vkHatmifzkH;tkyfonfh yg;pyf
ESmacgif;pnf; (Surgical Mask)ukd tokH;jyKjcif;/
a&m*g&Sdol\ aetdrfESifh aq;kHrsm;okdY rvkdtyfbJ oGm;a&mufjcif;rS
a&SmifMuOfjcif;/
rdrw
d iG f a&m*gvuPmrsm;&So
d nf[k ,lqygu eD;pyf&m use;f rma&;XmeokYd
tjrefqkH; owif;ay;ykdY tultnDawmif;cHjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf&ygrnf/

407

taqmufttkrH sm; av0if avxGuf aumif;rGeaf &;twGuf aqmif&u


G jf cif;/
ywf0ef;usifoefY&Sif;a&;ukd *kkjyKaqmif&Gufjcif;/
trIdufESifh tnpftaMu;rsm; pepfwuspGefYypfjcif;/
vltok;H taqmifypn;f rsm;? avSum;? "mwfavSum;? eH&rH sm;ESihf k;H wGi;f
y&dabm*rsm;ukd wpfaeYESpfBudrfrS okH;Budrf ykd;oefYpifjcif;/
pmoifausmif;? vkyfief;cGif? [kdw,f? vlrIa&;&dyfomESifh a*[mrsm;wGif
aexkid af qmif&u
G o
f rl sm;tm;vk;H \ use;f rma&;ukd apmifMh uyfMunfh jI cif;/
wpfOD;OD;wGif wkyfauG;a&m*gjzpfyGm;onf[k oHo,&Sdygu usef;rma&;
XmeESifh tjrefqkH; qufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;/

urmhvlwkyfauG;a&m*gjzpfaeol vkdufem&rnfhtcsufrsm;
-

vlemtaejzifh yg;pyfESmacgif;pnf; wyfqifxm;&rnf/


rdrdtdrfwGif aexkdif&rnf/
kH;? ausmif;? vkyfief;cGifrsm;ESifh c&D;oGm;vmjcif;ukd a&SmifMuOf&rnf/
ESmacs? acsmif;qk;d vQif wpfoQL;(okrYd [kw)f vufuidk yf 0k g tok;H jyK&rnf? vufudk
qyfjymjzifh pepfwus aq;&rnf/
tm[m&jzpfaom tpm;tpmrsm; pm;&efEiS hf t&nfrsm;rsm; aomuf&rnf/
avaumif;avoefY &&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufaexkdif&rnf/
usef;rma&;XmeESifh qufoG,faqmif&Guf&rnf/

rdrd rdom;pktwGif; wkyfauG;jzpfyGm;ol&Sdygu tdrfwGifjyKpk&rnfhtcsufrsm;


-

vlemtwGuf oD;oefaY exkid &f ef ae&m&Syd gu av0ifavxGuf aumif;aom


ae&mwGif xm;&rnf/
zsm;emoltm; teD;uyfapmifha&Smufolonf (zsm;emolESifh ajcmufay
twGi;f ) yg;pyfEmS acgif;pnf;ESihf vuftw
d rf sm; 0wfqif&rnf? jzpfEidk yf gu
yvyfpwpf &ifumcg;pnf;(Apron)ukdvnf; tokH;jyKEkdifygonf/
vlemtokH;taqmifypnf;rsm;? tokH;jyKNyD;aom yg;pyfESmacgif;pnf;ESifh
vuftdwfrsm; ponfwkdYukd okn'or5 &mckdifEIef; available chlorine

408

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

&&Sdap&ef Bleaching powder [if;pm;ZGef; ESpfZGef;ukd a&wpfvDwmjzifh


azsmfpyf rdepf 30 pdrfxm;&rnf? r&SdvQif a&aEG;jzifh jyKwfavsmf&rnf/
vlemjyKpkNyD;wkdif; vufukd qyfjymjzifh aocsmpGm aq;aMum&rnf?
jzpfEkdifvQif t&ufjyef(Alcohol rub) tokH;jyKEkdifygonf/
vlemESifh teD;uyfjyKpkolrsm;\ usef;rma&;tajctaeukd usef;rma&;
XmeokdY owif;ykdYjcif;? qufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;wkdYukd vkyfaqmif&rnf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

409

jynfaxmifpk&mxl;0eftzGJY rS ac:,laom jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sd &mxl;twGuf


vlawGYppfaq;jcif;qdkif&m odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;
vlawGUppfaq;jcif;wGif tykid ;f ESpyf idk ;f yg0ifonf(1) pdwftajctaeppfaq;jcif;
(2) vlawGUEIwfajzppfaq;jcif;
ppfaq;rIc,
H &l efvma&mufonfh avQmufvmT &Sirf sm;onf atmufygpm&Guf
pmwrf;rsm;ukd wpfygwnf; ,laqmifvm&rnf(1) avQmufvmT wifpOfu yg&Sad om atmifvufrw
S ?f taxmuftxm;
rl&if;rsm;
(2) tusiphf m&dwa umif;rGeaf Mumif; oufqidk &f mNrKd Ue,fjynfo&Yl w
J yfzUJG
pcef;rS vGefcJhonfh (6)vtwGif;u &,lxm;onfhaxmufcHpm
(3) tusifhpm&dwaumif;rGefaMumif; jyefwrf;0ift&m&SdwpfOD;xHrS
axmufcpH m
(4) usef;rmaMumif; aq;vufrSwf
pdwftajctaeppfaq;jcif;ukd u@ESpf&yfcGJjcm;xm;&m yxrykdif;wGif
toifjh yKpx
k m;onfh ar;cGe;f ykpH u
H dk pmar;yGo
J Pmef jznfph u
G af jzqkMd u&ygonf/
'kw,
d ykid ;f wGif pdwpf pfaq;a&;t&m&Su
d jznfph u
G af jzqkx
d m;onfh tajzvTmykpH H
ukd tajccH wpfOD;csif; vlawGUppfar;ygonf/ wpfOD;csif;ppfar;onfhtcg
pdwftajctaeukd azmfxkwfod&SdEkdifonfh enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ar;jref;ojzifh
rdru
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pdwt
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f mT ;Ekid rf I ponf
rsm;ukd azmfxkwf&&SdEkdifygonf/
vlawGUEIwaf jzppfaq;rIc,
H &l ef vma&mufMuonfh avQmufvmT &Sirf sm;tm;
tzGUJ 0ifvBl u;D rsm;u vlawGUEIwaf jzppfaq;rItNy;D owfjyKvyk rf nfjzpfygonf/
wnfqt
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k ppfaq;jcif;
ESihf vkyif ef;A[kow
k ESihf vlraI &;aqmif&u
G cf suf ppfar;jcif;rsm; yg0ifrnfjzpf
ygonf/

410

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

tuJjzwftrSwfay;csuf
(u) vltuJjzwfjcif;/ pkpkaygif;ay;rSwf 100 jzpfNyD; atmufygtcsufrsm;ukd
tuJjzwftrSwfay;rnfjzpfygonf(1) Oy"dkyf
(2) wnfMunfrI? jzwfvwfrI
(3) tajymtqkd
(4) Pf&nfxufjrufrI
( c ) taxGaxGA[kow
k / pkpak ygif;ay;rSwf 100 jzpfNy;D jynfwiG ;f A[kow
k ESihf
jynfyA[kokwtykdif; ESpfykdif;yg0ifonf/
( * ) vkyfief;A[kokwESifh vlrIa&;aqmif&Gufcsuf/ pkpkaygif;ay;rSwf 100
jzpfNyD; vkyfief;A[kokwESifh vlrIa&;aqmif&Gufcsuf tykdif;ESpfykdif; yg0if
onf/

0wfpm;qif,ifrI
jyefwrf;t&m&Sdtqifhjzifh EkdifiHh0efxrf;b0 cH,lrnfholrsm;onf jrefrm
qefqef 0wfpm;qif,ifoifhygonf/
trsKd;om;rsm;onf- qHyifaooyfpGm nyfxm;oifhonf?
- twGi;f cHtus? &Syv
f uf&n
S af umfvmuwk;H ESihf jrefrmykq;dk ukd aooyf
pGm 0wfqifoifhonf/
- jrefrmajcnyfzdeyf 0wfqifoifhygonf/
trsKd;orD;rsm;onf- qHyifaooyfpmG zD;vdr;f ay;xm;&rnf/ jrefrmqHx;Hk (uspq
f rH ;D uspf
xm;vQifvnf; vufcHEkdifygonf/)
- jrefrmtusx
rDudk aooyfpmG 0wfqifoifyh gonf/
- bavmufpftusrsm; r0wfoifhyg/ ab;uGJ? aemufuGJ? puyf
xbDrsm; r0wfoifhyg/
- jrefrmajcnyfzdeyfukd 0wfqifoifhygonf/

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

411

usr;f ud;k pm&if;


1/ ul;pufa&m*gESifhtjzpfrsm;aoma&m*grsm;
a'gufwmatmifoef;? umvmZkefykHESdyfwkduf? 2007ckESpf? Mo*kwfv/
2/ wyfrawmforkid ;f (yxrwG)J
owif;ESifhpme,fZif;vkyfief;? 1994ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv/
3/ wyfrawmftpkd;&vufxuf EkdifiHawmfzGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrIrSwfwrf;
(1988 rS 31-12-2010 xd)? ykHESdyfa&;ESifhpmtkyfxkwfa0a&;vkyfief;
2011 ckESpf? rwfv/
4/ Ak'bmomaumif;wpfa,muf How To Live As A Good Buddhist
omoemawmfxGef;um;jyefYyGm;a&;OD;pD;Xme? omoema&;OD;pD;Xme
ykHESdyfwkduf? 1992ckESpf? {NyDv/
5/ Ak'bmomqkdif&m taxGaxGA[kokw
pdEmrPd OD;cspfarmif? ok"r0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1976 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv/
6/ odaumif;p&m NGO tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;rSwpf k
jyefMum;a&;ESifhjynfolYqufqHa&;OD;pD;Xme? odef;oef;OD;ykHESdyfwkduf?
2007 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv/
7/ jrefrmh&ufpOforkdif;(tBudKordkif;umvrS 1945 txd) (yxrwGJ)
(,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme? orkdif;okawoeOD;pD;Xme)
8/ jrefrmh&ufpOforkdif;(1945 rS 2008 txd) ('kwd,wGJ)
(,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme? orkdif;okawoeOD;pD;Xme)/
9/ 2001 ckESpf? pmayAdrmefpmrlqk& zdk;atmifav;\ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;
BudK;yrf;rI&ufpOfordkif;/
10/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm(2008 ckESpf? azazmf0g&D? ar)? (2010 jynfhESpf?
rwf? Mo*kwf)? (2011 ckESpf? Zefe0g&D? rwf? ZGef? Zlvdkif)/

412

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

11/ jynfaxmifpo
k rwjrefrmEkid if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'(2008 ckEpS )f /
12/ aqmufvyk af &;0efBu;D XmerS wnfaqmufco
hJ nf(h wef-60)cH0eftm;? ay
180 txuf wHwm;BuD;rsm;(2007)/
13/ u,fq,fa&;ESihfjynfvnfae&mcsxm;a&;OD;pD;XmerS ay;ykdYonfhtcsuf
tvufrsm;/
14/ OD;awmifvHk; + a&Trif;0ef (t*Fvdyf-jrefrmpum;yHkrsm;pmtkyf)/
15/ OD;xGef;jrifha&;om;onhf ygVdoufa0g[m&tbd"mef(2004)
(jrefrmxkwfa0olrsm;tzGJU 0efaqmifrIukrPDvDrdwuf)/
16/ 2010 jynfhESpf ol&d,pmwnf;tzGJU\ urmhEdkifiHrsm;taMumif;
odaumif;p&m /
17/ jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmfjyefwrf;
(11-2-2011 ESihf 16-11-2011 &ufaeY)/

1.

Facts About Myanmar, Published by Printing and Publishing


Corporation, 1983.

2.

The World Almanac and Book of Facts, Published by World


Almanac, Pharos books, A Scripps Howard Company, New York, 1988.

3.

The World Almanac and Book of Facts, Published by World


Almanac, Pharos books, A Scripps Howard Company, New York, 2007.

4.

Time Almanac, Published by Encyclopaedia Britanica Inc, London,


2008.

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Myanmar The Study of Processess and Patterns


(Hla Tun Aung-NHRD)

6.

http://www.aneki.com

7.

The New Light of Myanmar

8.

http://en,wikipedia-org/wiki/United-Nations

odrSwfzG,f&m A[kokwtjzmjzm (2012)

rSwpf ak &;om;&ef