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# Integral Vector

Theorems

29.3
Introduction
Various theorems exist equating integrals involving vectors. Often, use of these theorems can
make certain vector integrals easier. This section introduces the theorems known as Gauss
Theorem, Stokes Theorem and Greens Theorem.
5
4
2
3
Prerequisites
Before starting this Section you should . . .
be able to nd the gradient of a scalar eld
and the divergence and curl of a vector eld
be familiar with the integration of vector
functions
Learning Outcomes
After completing this Section you should be
able to . . .
be able to use vector integral theorems to
facilitate vector integration.
1. Stokes Theorem
This is a theorem that equates a line integral to a surface integral. For any vector eld F and
a contour C which bounds an area S,
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
C
F dr
Notes
1. dS is a vector perpendicular to the surface and dr is the line element along the contour C.
2. Both sides of the equation are scalars
3. The theorem is often a useful way of calculating a line integral along a contour composed
of several distinct parts (e.g. a square or other gure).
4. F is a vector eld representing the curl of the vector eld F and may, alternatively,
be written as curl F.
Justication
Imagine that the surface is divided into a set of innitesmally small rectangles ABCD where
the axes are adjusted so that AB and CD lie parallel to the new xaxis i.e. AB = x and BC
and AD lie parallel to the new yaxis i.e. BC = y.
Now,
_
C
F dr is calculated. The contributions along AB, BC, CD and DA are F(x, y, 0) x =
F
x
(x, y, z)x, F(x+x, y, 0) y = F
y
(x+x, y, z)y, F(x, y+y, 0) (x) = F
x
(x, y+y, z)x
and F(x, y, 0) (x) = F
y
(x, y, z)y. Thus,
_
C
F dr (F
x
(x, y, z) F
x
(x, y + y, z))x + (F
y
(x + x, y, z) F
y
(x, y, z))y

F
y
x
xy +
F
x
y
xy
(F)
z
S (F) dS
as S is perpendicular to the x and y axes.
Thus, for each small rectangle,
_
C
F dr (F) dS
When the contributions over all the rectangles are summed, the line integrals for the inner parts
of the rectangles cancel and all that remains is the line integral around the outside of the shape.
The surface integrals sum. Hence, the theorem applies for the area S bounded by the contour
C.
While the above does not comprise a formal proof of Stokes Theorem, it gives an appreciation
of where the theorem comes from.
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
2
Key Point
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
C
F dr
The closed contour integral of the scalar product of a vector function with the vector along the
contour is equal to the integral of the scalar product of the curl of that vector function and the
unit normal, over the corresponding surface.
Example Verify Stokes Theorem for the vector function F = y
2
i (x + z)j + yzk and
the unit square 0 x 1, 0 y 1 for z = 0.
Solution
If F = y
2
i (x + z)j + yzk then F = (z + 1)i + (1 2y)k = i + (1 2y)k (as z = 0).
Note that dS = dx dyk so that (F) dS = (1 2y) dy dx
Thus,
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
1
x=0
_
1
y=0
(1 2y) dy dx
=
_
1
x=0
_
(y y
2
)

1
y=0
dx =
_
1
x=0
(2) dx
= [2x]
1
0
= 2 + 0 = 2
To evaluate
_
C
F dr, consider it separately on the four sides.
When y = 0, F = xj and dr = dxi so F dr = 0 so the contribution to the integral is zero.
When x = 1, F = y
2
i j and dr = dyj so F dr = dy so the contribution to the integral is
_
1
y=0
(dy) = [y]
1
0
= 1.
When y = 1, F = i xj and dr = dxi so F dr = dx so the contribution to the integral is
_
1
x=0
(dx) = [x]
1
0
= 1.
When x = 0, F = y
2
i and dr = dyj so F dr = 0 so the contribution to the integral is zero.
The integral
_
C
F dr is the sum of the contributions i.e. 0 1 1 + 0 = 2.
Thus
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
C
F dr = 2
Example Using cylindrical polar coordinates (eectively plane-polar coordinates as this
example just considers the plane z = 0), verify Stokes theorem for the function
F =
2

## and the circle = a.

3 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
Solution
Firstly, nd
_
C
F dr. This can be done by integrating along the contour = a from = 0
to = 2. Here F = a
2

(as = a) and dr = a d

(remembering the scale factor) so
F dr = a
3
d and hence
_
C
F dr =
_
2
0
a
3
d = 2a
3
As F =
2

, F = 3 z and (F) dS = 3 as dS = z.
Thus
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
2
=0
_
1
=0
3 d d =
_
2
=0
_
a
=0
3
2
d d
=
_
2
=0
_

a
=0
d =
_
2
0
a
3
d = 2a
3
Hence
_
C
F dr =
_ _
S
(F) dS = 2a
3
Example Find the closed line integral
_
C
F dr for the vector eld F = y
2
i +(x
2
z)j +
2xyk and for the contour ABCDEFGHA in Figure 6.
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
4
Solution
To nd the line integral directly would require eight line integrals i.e. along AB, BC, CD,
DE, EF, FG, GH and HA. It is easier to carry out a surface integral to nd
_ _
S
(F) dS
which is equal to the required line integral
_
C
F dr by Stokes theorem.
As F = y
2
i + (x
2
z)j + 2xyk, F =

i j k

z
y
2
x
2
z 2xy

## = (2x + 1)i 2yj + (2x 2y)k

As the contour lies in the x y plane, the unit normal is k and dS = dx dy k
Hence (F) dS = (2x 2y) dx dy.
To work out
_ _
S
( F) dS, it is necessary to divide the area inside the contour into two
smaller areas i.e. the rectangle ABCDGH and the trapezium DEFG. On the ABCDGH, the
integral is
_
4
y=0
_
6
x=0
(2x 2y) dx dy =
_
4
y=0
_
x
2
2xy

6
x=0
dy =
_
4
y=0
(36 12y) dy
=
_
36y 6y
2

4
0
= 36 4 6 16 0 = 48
On DEFG, the integral is
_
7
y=4
_
y2
x=1
(2x 2y) dx dy =
_
7
y=4
_
x
2
2xy

y2
x=1
dy =
_
7
y=4
(y
2
+ 2y + 3) dy
=
_

1
3
y
3
+ y
2
+ 3y
_
7
4
=
343
3
+ 49 + 21 +
64
3
16 12 = 51
So the full integral,
_ _
S
(F) dS = 48 51 = 3. By Stokes Theorem,
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
C
F dr = 3
From Stokes theorem, it can be seen that surface integrals of the form
_ _
S
(F) dS depend
only on the contour bounding the surface and not on the internal part of the surface.
5 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
1. Verify Stokes Theorem for the vector eld F = x
2
i +2xyj +zk and the
triangle with vertices at (0, 0, 0), (3, 0, 0) and (3, 1, 0).
(a) Find the normal vector dS
(b) Find the vector F
(c) Evaluate the double integral
_
3
x=0
_
x/3
y=0
(F dS
(d) Find the integral
_
F dr along the 3 sides of the triangle
(e) Verify that the two sides of the equation in the theorem are equal.
2. Using plane-polar coordinates (or cylindrical polar coordinates with z =
0), verify Stokes Theorem for the vector eld F = + cos

2

and
the semi-circle 1,

2

2
.
3. Verify Stokes theorem for the vector eld F = 2xi +(y
2
z)j +xzk and
the contour around the rectangle with vertices at (0, 2, 0),(2, 2, 0),
(2, 0, 1) and (0, 0, 1).
4. Verify Stokes Theorem for the vector eld F = yi+xj +zk and for the
contour starting from the origin and going to (1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 0), (1, 1, 0)
and (1, 1, 1) before returning to the origin.
(a) Find the surface integral over the triangle (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0)
(b) Find the surface integral over the triangle (1,0,0), (1,1,0), (1,1,1)
(c) Find the line integrals along the four parts of the contour
(d) Show that the two sides of the equation of the theorem are equal
5. Use Stokes theorem to evaluate the integral
_
C
F dr where F =
_
sin(
1
x
+ 1) + 5y
_
i + (2x e
y
2
)j and C is the contour starting at (0, 0)
and going to (5, 0), (5, 2), (6, 2), (6, 5), (3, 5), (3, 2), (0, 2) and returning
to (0, 0).
1.)
( a ) d x d y k , ( b ) 2 y k , ( c ) 1 , ( d ) 9 , 3 , 1 1 , ( e ) B o t h s i d e s a r e 1 .
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
6
2.)
B o t h s i d e s a r e 0 .
3.)
B o t h s i d e s a r e 2 .
4.)
( a ) 1 ( b ) 0 ( a s F i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o d S ) , ( c ) 0 , 1 , 1 , - 1 ( d ) B o t h s i d e s a r e 1 .
5.)
5 7 .
7 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
6.)
B o t h s i d e s a r e i + 2 j .
2. Gauss Theorem
This is sometimes also known as the divergence theorem and is similar to Stokes theorem but
equates a surface integral to a volume integral. Gauss Theorem states that for a volume V ,
bounded by a closed surface S, any vector eld F satises
_ _
S
F dS =
_ _ _
V
F dV
Notes
1. dS is a unit normal pointing outwards.
2. Both sides of the equation are scalars
3. The theorem is often a useful way of calculating a surface integral over a surface composed
of several distinct parts (e.g. a cube).
4. F is a scalar eld representing the divergence of the vector eld F and may, alternatively,
be written as div F.
5. Gauss theorem can be justied in a manner similar to that used for Stokes theorem.
Key Point
_ _
S
F dS =
_ _ _
V
F dV
The closed surface integral of the scalar product of a vector function with the unit normal is
equal to the integral of the divergence of that vector function over the corresponding volume.
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
8
Example Verify Gauss Theorem for the unit cube 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1 and
the function F = xi + zj
Solution
To nd
_ _
S
F dS, the integral must be evaluated for all six faces of the cube and the results
summed.
On the left face, x = 0, F = zj and dS = idydz so FdS = 0 and
_ _
S
FdS =
_
1
0
_
1
0
0dydz = 0
On the right face, x = 1, F = i + zj and dS = idydz so F dS = 1dydz and
_ _
S
F dS =
_
1
0
_
1
0
1dydz = 1
On the front face, y = 0, F = xi + zj and dS = jdxdz so F dS = zdxdz and
_ _
S
F dS =
_
1
0
_
1
0
zdxdz =
1
2
On the back face, y = 1, F = xi + zj and dS = jdxdz so F dS = zdxdz and
_ _
S
F dS =
_
1
0
_
1
0
zdxdz =
1
2
On the bottom face, z = 0, F = xi and dS = kdydz so F dS = 0dxdy and
_ _
S
F dS =
_
1
0
_
1
0
0dxdy = 0
On the top face, z = 1, F = xi + j and dS = kdydz so F dS = 0dxdy and
_ _
S
F dS =
_
1
0
_
1
0
0dxdy = 0
Thus, summing over all six faces,
_ _
S
F dS = 0 + 1
1
2
+
1
2
+ 0 + 0 = 1
To nd
_ _ _
V
F dV note that F =

x
x +

y
z = 1 + 0 = 1.
So
_ _ _
V
F dV =
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
0
1 dx dy dz = 1.
So
_ _
S
F dS =
_ _ _
V
F dV = 1
Note that in the above example, the volume integral was accomplished by one triple integral
while the surface integral required six double integrals. This is often the motivation for using
Gauss Theorem i.e. to carry out one integral rather than several.
Example Use Gauss theorem to evaluate the surface integral
_ _
S
F dS where F is the
vector eld x
2
yi +2xyj +z
3
k and S is the surface of the unit cube 0 x 1,
0 y 1, 0 z 1.
9 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
Solution
Note that to carry out the surface integral directly will involve the evaluation of six double
integrals (one for each face of the cube). However, by Gauss theorem, the same result comes
from the surface integral
_ _ _
V
F dV . As F = 2xy + 2x + 3z
2
, the surface integral
becomes the triple integral
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
1
0
(2xy + 2x + 3z
2
) dx dy dz
=
_
1
0
_
1
0
_
x
2
y + x
2
+ 3xz
2

1
x=0
dy dz =
_
1
0
_
1
0
(y + 1 + 3z
2
) dy dz
=
_
1
0
_
1
2
y
2
+ y + 3yz
2
_
1
y=0
dz =
_
1
0
(
1
2
+ 1 + 3z
2
) dz =
_
1
0
(
3
2
+ 3z
2
) dz
=
_
3
2
z + z
3
_
1
0
=
11
6
The six double integrals also sum to
11
6
but this approach requires a greater amount of work.
Example Verify Gauss Theorem for the vector eld F = y
2
j xzk and the triangular
prism with vertices at (0, 0, 0), (2, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (0, 4, 0), (2, 4, 0) and (0, 4, 1)
(see gure 7 ).
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
10
Solution
As F = y
2
j xzk, F = 0 + 2y x = 2y x.
Thus
_ _ _
V
F dV =
_
2
x=0
_
4
y=0
_
1x/2
z=0
(2y x) dz dy dx
=
_
2
x=0
_
4
y=0
[2yz xz]
1x/2
z=0
dy dx =
_
2
x=0
_
4
y=0
(2y xy x +
1
2
x
2
) dy dx
=
_
2
x=0
_
y
2

1
2
xy
2
xy +
1
2
x
2
y
_
4
y=0
dx =
_
2
x=0
(16 12x + 2x
2
) dx
=
_
16x 6x
2
+
2
3
x
3
_
2
0
=
40
3
To work out
_ _
S
F dS, it is necessary to consider the contributions from the ve faces
separately.
On the front face, y = 0, F = xzk and dS = j thus F dS = 0 and the contribution to the
integral is zero.
On the back face, y = 4, F = 16j xzk and dS = j thus F dS = 16 and the contribution to
the integral is
_
2
x=0
_
1x/2
z=0
16 dz dx =
_
2
x=0
[16z]
1x/2
z=0
dx =
_
2
x=0
16(1x/2) dx = [16x 4x
2
]
2
0
=
32 16 = 16
On the left face, x = 0, F = y
2
j and dS = i thus F dS = 0 and the contribution to the
integral is zero.
On the bottom face, z = 0, F = y
2
j and dS = k thus F dS = 0 and the contribution to the
integral is zero.
On the top right face, z = 1 x/2, F = y
2
j + (
1
2
x
2
x)k and the unit normal n =
1

5
i +
2

5
k
Thus dS =
_
1

5
i +
2

5
k
_
dy dw where dw measures the distance along the slope for a constant
y. As dw =

5
2
dx, dS =
_
1
2
i + k

## dy dx thus F dS = 16 and the contribution to the integral

is
_
2
x=0
_
4
y=0
(
1
2
x
2
x) dy dx =
_
2
x=0
(2x
2
4x) dx =
_
2
3
x
3
2x
2

2
0
=
8
3
.
_ _
S
F dS = 0 + 16 + 0 + 0
8
3
=
40
3
Thus
_ _
S
F dS =
_ _ _
V
F dV =
40
3
Gauss Theorem also applies using orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.
11 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
1. Verify Gauss Theorem for the vector eld F = xi yj +zk and the unit
cube 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1.
(a) Find the vector F
(b) Evaluate the triple integral
_
1
z=0
_
1
y=0
_
1
x=0
F dxdydz
(c) For each side, evaluate the normal vector dS and the surface integral
_ _
S
F dS
(d) Show that the two sides of the equation of the theorem are equal
2. Verify Gauss Theorem for the vector eld F = 4xzi y
2
j +yzk and the
cuboid 0 x 2, 0 y 3, 0 z 4.
3. Verify Gauss Theorem, using cylindrical polar coordinates, for the vector
eld F =
2
over the cylinder 0 r
0
, 1 z 1 for
(a) r
0
= 1
(b) r
0
= 2
4. For S being the surface of the tetrahedron with vertices at
(0, 0, 0),(1, 0, 0),(0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1), nd the surface integral
_ _
S
(xi + yzj) dS
(a) directly
(b) by using Gauss Theorem
Hint :- When evaluating directly, show that the unit normal on the slop-
ing face is
1

3
(x + y + z) but that dS = x + y + z
1.)
( a ) 1 ( b ) 1 ( c ) - d x d y k , 0 ; d x d y k , 1 ; - d x d y j , 0 ; d x d z j , - 1 ; - d y d z i , 0 ; d y d z i , 1
( d ) B o t h s i d e s a r e 1 .
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
12
2.)
B o t h s i d e s a r e 1 5 6 .
3.)
B o t h s i d e s e q u a l 4 , 2 .
13 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
4.)
B o t h s i d e s e q u a l
5
2 4
.
3. Greens Theorem
Like Gauss Theorem, Greens Theorem equates a surface integral to a volume integral. However,
Greens Theorem is concerned with two scalar elds u(x, y, z) and w(x, y, z). Two statements
of Greens Theorem are as follows
_ _
S
(u w) ds =
_ _ _
V
_
u w + u
2
w

dV
and
_ _
S
[u w v u] ds =
_ _ _
V
_
u
2
w w
2
u

dV
Proof of Greens Theorem
Greens Theorem can be derived from Gauss Theorem and a vector derivative identity.
Vector identity (1) from subsection 6 of 37.2 states that (A) = () A + ( A)
Letting = u and A = w,
(uw) = (u) (w) + u( (w))
= (u) (w) + u
2
w
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
14
Gauss Theorem states
_ _
S
F dS =
_ _ _
V
F dV
Now, letting F = uw,
_ _
S
(uw) dS =
_ _ _
V
(uw) dV
=
_ _ _
V
_
(u) (w) + u
2
w

dV
This is the rst statement of Greens Theorem. Reversing the roles of u and w,
_ _
S
(wu) dS =
_ _ _
V
_
(w) (u) + w
2
u

dV
Subtracting the last two equations yields the second statement of Greens Theorem.
Key Point
1.
_ _
S
(u w) ds =
_ _ _
V
_
u w + u
2
w

dV
2.
_ _
S
[u w v u] ds =
_ _ _
V
_
u
2
w w
2
u

dV
Example Verify Greens Theorem (rst statement) for u = (x x
2
)y, w = xy + z
2
and
the unit cube, 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1.
15 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
Solution
As w = xy +z
2
, w = yi +xj + 2zk. Thus uw = (xy x
2
y)(yi +xj + 2zk) and the surface
integral is of this quantity (scalar product with dS integrated over the surface of the unit cube.
On the three faces x = 0, x = 1, y = 0, the vector uw = 0 and so the contribution to the
surface integral is zero.
On the face y = 1, uw = (x x
2
)(i +xj +2zk) and dS = j so (uw) dS = x
2
x
3
and the
contribution to the integral is
_
1
x=0
_
1
z=0
(x
2
x
3
) dz dx =
_
1
0
(x
2
x
3
) dx =
_
x
3
3

x
4
4
_
1
0
=
1
12
.
On the face z = 0, uw = (x x
2
)y(yi + xj) and dS = k so (uw) dS = 0 and the
contribution to the integral is zero.
On the face z = 1, uw = (x x
2
)y(yi + xj + 2k) and dS = k so (uw) dS = 2y(x
x
2
) and the contribution to the integral is
_
1
x=0
_
1
y=0
2y(x x
2
) dy dx =
_
1
0
(x
2
x
3
) dx =
_
1
x=0
[y
2
(x x
2
)]
1
y=0
dx =
_
1
0
(x x
2
) dx =
_
x
2
2

x
3
3
_
1
0
=
1
6
.
Thus,
_ _
S
(u w) ds = 0 + 0 + 0 +
1
12
+ 0 +
1
6
=
1
4
.
Now evaluate
_ _ _
V
[u w + u
2
w] dV .
Note that u = (1 2x)yi + (x x
2
)j and
2
w = 2 so
u w + u
2
w = (1 2x)y
2
+ (x x
2
)x + 2(x x
2
)y
= x
2
x
3
+ 2xy 2x
2
y + y
2
2xy
2
and the integral
_ _ _
V
_
u w + u
2
w

dV =
_
1
z=0
_
1
y=0
_
1
x=0
(x
2
x
3
+ 2xy 2x
2
y + y
2
2xy
2
) dx dy dz
=
_
1
z=0
_
1
y=0
_
x
3
3

x
4
4
+ x
2
y
2
3
x
3
y + xy
2
x
2
y
2
_
1
x=0
dy dz
=
_
1
z=0
_
1
y=0
(
1
12
+
y
3
) dy dz =
_
1
z=0
_
y
12
+
y
2
6
_
1
y=0
dz
=
_
1
z=0
(
1
4
) dz =
_
z
4
_
1
z=0
=
1
4
Hence
_ _
S
(u w) ds =
_ _ _
V
_
u w + u
2
w

dV =
1
4
Greens Theorem in the Plane
This states that
_
C
(P dx + Q dy) =
_ _
S
_
Q
x

P
y
_
dx dy
Justication
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
16
Greens Theorem in the plane can be derived from Stokes Theorem.
_ _
S
(F) dS =
_
C
F dr
Now let F be the vector eld P(x, y)i +Q(x, y)j i.e. there is no dependence on z and there are
no components in the z direction. Now
F =

i j k

z
P(x, y) Q(x, y) 0

=
_
Q
x

P
y
_
k
and dS = dx dy k giving (F) dS =
_
Q
x

P
y
_
dx dy.
Thus Stokes Theorem becomes
_ _
S
_
Q
x

P
y
_
dx dy =
_
C
F dr
and Greens Theorem in the plane Follows
Key Point
_
C
(P dx + Q dy) =
_ _
S
_
Q
x

P
y
_
dx dy
Example Evaluate the line integral
_
C
[(4x
2
+ y 3)dx + (3x
2
+ 4y
2
2)dy] around the
rectangle 0 x 3, 0 y 1.
17 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
Solution
The integral could be accomplished by four line integrals but it is easier to note that
[(4x
2
+ y 3)dx + (3x
2
+ 4y
2
2)dy] is of the form P dx + Q dy with P = 4x
2
+ y 3 and
Q = 3x
2
+ 4y
2
2. It is thus of a suitable form for Greens Theorem in the plane.
Note that
Q
x
= 6x and
P
y
= 1.
Greens Theorem in the plane becomes
_
C
((4x
2
+ y 3) dx + (3x
2
+ 4y
2
2) dy) =
_
1
y=0
_
3
x=0
(6x 1) dx dy
=
_
1
y=0
_
3x
2
x

3
x=0
dy =
_
1
y=0
24 dy = 24
The same result could be gained by evaluating four line integrals.
Example Verify Greens Theorem in the plane for the integral
_
C
[4z dy + (y
2
2)] and
the contour starting at the origin O = (0, 0, 0) and going to A = (0, 2, 0) and
B = (0, 0, 1) before returning to the origin.
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
18
Solution
The whole of the contour is in the plane x = 0 and Greens Theorem in the plane becomes
_
C
(P dy + Q dz) =
_ _
S
_
Q
y

P
z
_
dy dz
Firstly evaluate
_
C
[4z dy + (y
2
2)].
On OA, z = 0 and dz = 0. As the integrand is zero, the integral will also be zero.
On AB, z = (1
y
2
) and dz = 0. The integral is
_
0
y=2
_
(4 2y)dy
1
2
(y
2
2)dy)

=
_
0
2
(5 2y
1
2
y
2
)dy =
_
5y y
2

1
6
y
3

0
2
=
14
3
On BO, y = 0 and dy = 0. The integral is
_
0
1
(2)dz = [2z]
0
1
= 2.
Summing,
_
C
[4z dy + (y
2
2)] =
8
3
In this example, P = 4z and Q = y
2
2. Thus
P
z
= 4 and
Q
y
= 2y. Hence,
_ _
S
_
Q
y

P
z
_
dy dz =
_
2
y=0
_
1y/2
z=0
(2y 4) dy dz
=
_
2
y=0
[2yz 4z]
1y/2
z=0
dz =
_
2
y=0
_
y
2
+ 4y 4
_
dz
=
_

1
3
y
3
+ 2y
2
4y
_
2
0
=
8
3
Hence
_
C
(P dy + Q dz) =
_ _
S
_
Q
y

P
z
_
dy dz =
8
3
One very useful, special case of Greens Theorem in the plane is when Q = x and P = y. The
theorem becomes
_
C
(y dx + x dy) =
_ _
S
(1 (1)) dx dy
The right hand side becomes
_ _
S
2 dx dy i.e. 2A where A is the area inside the contour C.
Hence
A =
1
2
_
C
(x dy y dx)
This result is known as the area theorem.
Example Verify the area theorem A =
1
2
_
C
(x dy y dx) for the segment of the circle
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 lying above the line y = 1.
19 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
Solution
Firstly, the area of the segment ADBC can be found by subtracting the area of the triangle
OADB from the area of the sector OACB. The triangle has area
1
2
2

3 1 =

3. The
sector has area

3
2
2
=
4
3
. Thus segment ADBC has area
4
3

3.
Now, evaluate the integral
_
C
(x dy y dx) around the segment. Along the line, y = 1, dy = 0
so the integral
_
C
(x dy y dx) becomes
_

3
(x 0 1 dx) =
_

3
( dx) = 2

3.
Along the arc of the circle, y =

4 x
2
= (4 x
2
)
1/2
so dy = x(4 x
2
)
1/2
dx. The integral
_
C
(x dy y dx) becomes
_

3
[x
2
(4 x
2
)
1/2
(4 x
2
)
1/2
]dx =
_

3 4

4 x
2
dx
=
_
/3
/3
4
1
2 cos
2 cos d
=
_
/3
/3
4d =
8
3

So,
1
2
_
C
(x dy y dx) =
1
2
_
8
3
2

=
4
3

## 3 Hence both sides of the theorem equal

4
3

3
1. Verify the rst statement of Greens Theorem for the functions u = xyz,
w = y
2
and the unit cube 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1.
2. Use Greens Theorem in the plane to evaluate the integral
_
C
[(5x + 2y 7)dx + (3x 4y + 5)dy] where C represents the perimeter
of the trapezium with vertices at (0, 0), (3, 0), (6, 1) and (1, 1).
(a) Find the function (uw)
(b) Evaluate the integral
_ _
S
(uw) dS for the six faces of the cube
(c) Find the function u w + u
2
w
(d) Evaluate the integral
_ _ _
[u w + u
2
w] dV
(e) Show that the twow sides in the equation of the theorem are equal.
3. Verify the area theorem for
(a) The area above y = 0 but below y = 1 x
2
.
(b) The segment of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1, to the upper left of the line
y = 1 x.
HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1
29.3: Integral Vector Theorems
20
1.)
( a ) 2 x y
2
z j ( b ) 0 , 0 , 0 ,
1
2
, 0 , 0 ( c ) 4 x y z ( d ) B o t h s i d e s a r e
1
2
.