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HOW TO PRODUCE BODY CREAM( petroleum jelly) Ingredients: Petroleum jelly B.P,fragrance,lanolin,paraffin oil.

In every industrial product ingredients are divided into two, namely active and inactive ingredients, Active ingredients are the major ingredient without these ingredients products cant be complete or used for its purpose. Example, you cant use a body cream that doesn't have a cream. You cant call it a detergent if it cant remove stains.These are the ingredients that makes a product what the are. Inactive ingredients are the minor ingredients,without it a product can still be used to achieve its purpose but these ingredient are used to either to beautify or make a product better, example is in body cream the fragrance in the body cream is an inactive ingredient meaning without improving the smell it can still be used to achieve its purpose. The fragrance is for improvement purpose,another example is in House paint without the colour it can still be used because colour is added for beauty purpose. Going back to petroleum jelly. Active ingredient is Petroleum B.P, Inactive ingredient are paraffin oil ,lanolin fragrance. *Note, These chemicals can be purchased easily. Go to any industrial chemical shop near you and ask for these.The are readily available. HOW IT IS PRODUCED Petrolum jelly- 95% Fragrance- as required Laolin-2% paraffin oil-2% *Depending on the quantity you want to produce thats why i wrote it in percentage form. Add 95% of petroleum jelly in a metal container followed by 2% lanolin and 2% paraffin oil. Heat the mixture using dry heat,until it melts completely then add your preffered fragrance to a desired quantity. Once you are done with that pour the product into a container allow to cool. now you have your petroleum jelly ready to use. WASN'T THAT EASY. Producing the best toothpaste that you cant see or buy in the market I am about to give the biggest secrect i have kept from friends for over 3 years.. i have always used my own combinated toothpaste for over 3years and it gives exellent result. if you are a nigerian this will be easier. For Nigerians

Toothpaste needed 1. Dabur herbal toothpaste (not gel) 2.Close up toothpaste (red) 3.Holdent *Darbur Herbal toothpaste,its aloe Vera containt makes it my best herbal toothpaste.It gives strong health teeth. *Close up red toothpaste: Why i went for this is because of its mint is so strong that i will grade it B+. *Holdent: It also have a strong mint, i used it because it also have a whiteing property. FORMULATION Dabur Herbal:- 40-45% Close up:- 30% Holdent:- 30-25% Mix the three together in an empty toothpaste tube or any prefered container. make sure it gives a perfect mix, then is ready to use.

Surface active agents are also known as surfactants lowers the surface tension of the medium in which it is dissolved, they act by weaken interfacial tension and changes the properties of an interface. With my formulation (SLS) Sodium Laureth Sulfate is the Surfactant in use. At this junction the question is how do I go about it. Apart from Sodium Laureth Sulfate you will definitely need some other ingredients. These include Sodium Hydroxides (Caustic Soda) pallet or powder is used as a base during detergent production, Sulphonic Acid/Sulfonic acid. Sulfonic acid is an organic acid which is very important in liquid detergent production. It neutralizes the basic effect of sodium hydroxide. STPP (Sodium Tripoly Phosphate) in liquid detergent it help to softens water, suspends soil, and serves as an anti-spotting agent. It is a good builder and also ensures stability of liquid detergents when used. Other components of a liquid detergent are citric acid also a builder and a preservative, formalin basically a preservative which prevent proliferation of micro-organism in the liquid detergent and fragrance to give good and pleasant odour. Producing liquid detergent requires the use of a homogenizing mixer which will ensure the mixing is thorough during production. Mixing should be thorough and consistency is a very vital part of the production process. Mixer Process Pour water in the homogenizing machine and add sodium hydroxide (Caustic Soda) pallet or powder, ensure to mix thoroughly before neutralizing with Sulphonic Acid. Care must be taken not to allow the homogenized solution to get acidic thus there is a need for pH paper to test the

pH of the solution as the Sulphonic Acid is being poured into the Sodium hydroxide solution. One a pH of seven is attained; all other components will then be poured in this order, STPP, Formalin, Citric acid and finally the fragrance. In some liquid detergent optical brighteners such as blank camphor are use to enhance the quality of the liquid detergent, how ever this varies with the manufacturer. Finally it must be noted that if the liquid detergent is not well mixed by the homogenizer there is a strong probability of sedimentation of the various component because it is a mixture and not a compound. Therefore mixing is a very important part of liquid detergent production.

Making laundry bar soap can be a good business idea. You can also make laundry soap for house hold use so you will not have to buy it in the market. Below is the procedure on making the laundry soap made from coconut oil which is the main ingredient. Other materials needed can be bought from chemical stores or from ultima entrepinoy. Materials/Ingredients (for 28 bars)

Coco oil 8 kg Caustic soda solution, 36oBe [30% solution] 5 kg Soda ash 90 g Salt 48 g Sodium silicate 400 g CDEA [coco diethanolamide] 40 mL Citronella oil 20 mL Water 6 L


Plastic pail 16 L cap. [2]; 20 L cap. [1] Hydrometer, 0-70oBe Weighing scale 10 kg Wooden stirrer/manual or electric mixer Moulder Cutter Spatula, stainless Basin (large) Graduated cylinder

Preparation of Materials

Caustic soda solution, 36oBe (30% solution) Dissolve 2 kg caustic soda in 4.6 liters water. Cool to room temperature, check the concentration with the hydrometer, adjust (if necessary) and filter if needed before using.

Additives Dissolve salt, soda ash and sodium silicate in 1.4 L of water. Procedure on making the Laundry Bar Soap 1. Measure or weigh carefully the required quantity of coco oil. 2. Weigh the lye or caustic soda solution required (5 kg) and add slowly to the oil, stirring continuously for about 30-45 minutes until it attains the condensed milk-like consistency. 3. Add the measured amounts of dissolved additives and CDEA (foam booster) with continuous stirring from 5-10 minutes more. Then add the essential oil with stirring. Stop stirring when the mixture attains a viscosity similar to condensed milk. 4. Pour the homogenous viscous soap mixture into the moulder, allow to set at room temperature for 12 hours or until soap solidifies. 5. Cut the soap into bars of suitable sizes with a string or wire attached to the wooden/metal cutter. Twenty-eight (28) bars will be produced. The soap is white or creamy white. Cut bar into 4 pieces and pack in a plastic bag. 6. Allow to age from 7 to 10 days to complete the saponification reaction.

Liquid detergents are used to clean our kitchen utensils and our dinning utensils like fork,dishes, spoon, knives, pots and pans. Pinoy entrepreneurs who wish to make their own liquid detergents can use the instructions below. The materials and chemicals needed to start making your own liquid detergents can be bought to chemical stores. For the main ingredients you need to buy the following chemicals listed on the first column. The measurement used is for one kilo liquid detergent on the second column but you can use the percentage calculation if you wish to make more than one kilo on the third column. Utensils: teaspoon beaker graduated cylinder stainless steel container and electric mixer stirrer mixing bowl or small pail flask weighing scale Ingredients: Qty (grams) SLES (Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate) 80-130 ( % )Percent To Total Weight 8-13

CDEA ( COCO DIETHANOL) Sodium Triphosphate(STPP) Table Salt or Sodium Chloride Lemon Fragrance Water Total

50 30 5-10 5-8 772-830 1000 grams

5 3 0.5-1 0.5-0.8 77.2-83 100%

How to Make Liquid Detergent: 1. Using a graduated cylinder on a weighing scale, measure 80-130g SLES. Measure also 772830g water. 2. Transfer the SLES to a beaker and add a little water. Stir the SLES very well. 3. Add 50g CDEA to the SLES. Mix well with a stirrer. 4. Continue stirring the mixture until it becomes creamy. Add water once in a while to prevent the mixture from foaming while stirring. 5. Meanwhile, dissolve 30g of STPP in a little amount of water. Mix well and set aside. 6. If the CDEA-SLES mixture is already creamy, transfer it to a small pail or a stainless steel container. Add a little amount of water while stirring continuously. 7. Transfer the mixture to the mixer then switch on. When the mixture is already foamy, add the dissolved STPP slowly while mixing continuously. 8. Dissolve the salt in a little amount of water. Add this ti the mixture, which is being mixed continuously. 9. Next, add 5-8ml lemon drops as fragrance. 10. Continue mixing until the mixture thickens. Set aside. 11. Once thickened, pour the mixture into a clean container and set aside for about 2 hours. 12. When there are no more suds, pour the liquid detergent into clean bottles. 13. The liquid detergent can be used after 24 hours.

How to Make Yogurt

originated by:Mari bun, Krystle C., Travis Derouin, Anonymous (see all) Featured Article Article Edit Discuss View History

Sure, it's easy to stroll down the supermarket aisle and throw a cup of yogurt into your cart, but have you ever been tempted to make yogurt yourself? Here's how to craft your own brand of yogurt in the comfort of your kitchen.


1 quart milk (any kind) 1/4 to 1/2 cup non-fat dry milk (optional) 2 tablespoons existing yogurt with live cultures (or you can use freeze-dried bacteria instead)

1. 1 Heat milk to 185F (85C). Using two pots that fit inside one another, create a double boiler or water jacket effect. This will prevent your milk from burning, and you should only have to stir it occasionally. If you cannot do this, and must heat the milk directly, be sure to monitor it constantly, stirring all the while. If you do not have a thermometer, 185F (85C) is the temperature at which milk starts to froth. Ads by Google Machinery World International supplier of new and used dairy and ice cream equipment www.machineryworld.co.uk

2. 2 Cool the milk to 110F(43C). The best way to achieve this is with a cold water bath. This will quickly and evenly lower the temperature, and requires only occasional stirring. If cooling at room temperature or in the refrigerator, you must stir more frequently. Don't proceed until the milk is below 120F(49C), and don't allow it to go below 90F (32C). 110F (43C) is optimal. 3. 3 Warm the starter. Let the starter yogurt sit at room temperature while you are waiting for the milk to cool. This will prevent it from being too cold when you add it in. 4. 4 Add nonfat dry milk, if desired. Adding about 1/4 cup to 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk at this time will increase the nutritional content of the yogurt. The yogurt will also thicken more easily. This is especially helpful if you are using nonfat milk. 5. 5 Add the starter. Add 2 tablespoons of the existing yogurt, or add the freeze-dried bacteria. 6. 6 Put the mixture in containers. Pour your milk into a clean container or containers. Cover each one tightly with a lid or plastic wrap. 7. 7 Allow the yogurt bacteria to incubate. Keep the yogurt warm and still to encourage bacteria growth, while keeping the temperature as close to 100F (38C) as possible. An oven with a pilot light is one option; see Tips for others. After seven hours you will have a custard-like texture, a cheesy odor, and possible some greenish liquid on top. This is exactly what you want. The longer you let it sit beyond seven hours, the thicker and more tangy it will become. 8. 8 Refrigerate the yogurt. Place the yogurt in your fridge for several hours before serving. It will keep for 1-2 weeks. If you are going to use some of it as starter, use it within 5-7 days, so that the bacteria still have growing power. Whey, a thin yellow liquid, will form on the top. You can pour it off or stir it in before eating your yogurt. 9. 9

Add optional flavorings. Experiment until you develop a flavor that your taste buds fancy. 10. 10 Use yogurt from this batch as starter for the next batch.

39. Candle making With the scarcity of kerosene, demand for candles is in the rise Been a non-perishable item, the market is not restricted It is never outdated Raw Materials a. Paraffin Wax b. Stearic acid c. Liquid paraffin d. Colourant (if necessary) Procedure a. Put 1 stab of wax into a pot b. Add 1 litre of stearic acid c. Add 1 litree of liquid paraffin d. Add 1 table spoonful of colourant e. Place the pot on the stove f. Heat until the mixture melts g. Poor the melted stuff into the moulds (withthread) h. Allow to solidify i. Remove the candle from the mould j. Package for sale

65. Hair Cream Production & Sales Easy to package Easy to produce No much monitoring, since its not to be taken Money spinning Raw Materials a. Petroleum Jelly b. Liquid Paraffin

c. Parrafin Wax d. Lanoline e. Colourant f. Perfume Procedure (Rf Household items production manual)

How to make soap

Any substance that is made from a mixture of natural oils and fats with an alkali is considered as soap. Soap is a surface-active agent generally used for washing. Washing, because soap is basically ineffective without water. The use of soap (or any natural soap-cleaning agents) has always been associated with mans inherent instinct to keep his body, his clothes, and various other washable belongings clean. Soap making started in the 18th century by boiling a crude mixture of animal fat, lye from wood ash, and salt until it became sticky and hard. Later, manufacturers added certain chemicals and permissible additives to improve the quality of soap; some as builders, other as whitening agents. Color (water soluble dyes) and fragrance are also added to make the product, especially toilet soap, more appealing to consumers Today, soap products are prepared in various types, shapes and sizes. Even the ordinary laundry soap is produced now in the form of bars, cakes, flakes, liquids, gels or pastes. If you are interested in manufacturing soap products from detergent laundry soap to herbal soap, you should study the technology appropriate to each type. It is also essential that you acquaint yourself with the basic requirements to be met in soap making. For example, an ordinary soap should be made from alkali and fats and oils (fatty acids), a moderate amount of matter insoluble in alcohol, and permissible additives. The finished product should neither bear any objectionable odor nor leave objectionable odor on fabrics and dishes after washing them and rinsing thoroughly with hot water. The soap should form suds or lather in a clean moderate hard water (less than 180m ppm CaCO3) when tested. There are also a prescribed standard size for bar soaps, i.e., basic size of 120 grams, with multiples in a single bar or four units in a single bar of 480 grams. In addition to the requirements prescribed in existing laws and regulations, the packing material of soap should be marked with the following information:

brand name of the product quantity of individual bars contained net mass (marked net mass is the average net mass of individual bars at time of packing) name and address of the manufacturer country of origin, e.g., Made in the Philippines.

This guide will introduce you to the basic procedures in making various kinds of soap. Qualities of a Good Soap A good soap s biodegradable when it does not contain chemicals that cannot be reverted to their natural elements. Neither does it contain chemicals that are harmful to the environment or cause undue destruction to the environment. 1. A good soap dissolves easily and remove stains from clothes, human skin or any material being cleaned. 2. It dissolves in water and produces enough suds. 3. It gives a clear and sparkling kind of cleanliness. 4. It gives a pleasant smell. 5. A good soap does not leave sticky traces on the clothes or on the skin. 6. It has a color that is even and does not streak. 7. It disinfects or kills germs. 8. It does not damage the fibers of textiles. Basic Ingredient of Soap Fat or oil and alkali taken from lye are the basic ingredients of soap. Fat serves as the foundation of the soap and alkali produces the chemical reaction that makes the mixture hard and gives it cleansing ability. Fat taken from plants like coconut, palm and cottonseed are called soft oils. Animal fat from pigs and cows are called hard fats. Hard fats do not produce many suds, but this type of fat solidifies and hardens easily. The soft and hard oils can be mixed to make the soap produce more suds and solidify with the right hardness. Additives can also be mixed with the soap ingredients. Some of these additives are coco diethanol amide (CDEA), sodium carbonate, naptha, kerosene and rosin. Fragrances or essential oils fro lemon, patchouli, lemon grass, citronella and rose are also usually added. Some Important Chemical Ingredients (Additives) and their Uses It is important to familiarized ourselves with the common chemical ingredients used and their uses. These ingredients give the desired quality and feature of the soap. Also, the quantity of these ingredients in making soap, dictates the cost of soap produced. 1. Coco Diethanol Amide (CDEA) foam or sud booster 2. Sodium silicate hardening and leavening agent; prevents separation or deterioration of ingredients in liquid products 3. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) cleansing agent; for thickening effect and a cheaper but effective foamer 4. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) a chemical that gives cleansing power 5. Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) sequestering agent that makes the ingredients float; used as foaming stabilizer; also used to reduce hardness in water

6. Caustic potash (also known as potassium hydroxide) allows bar soap to harden 7. Tergitol binder used for powdered detergent 8. Sodium phosphate provides the abrasive strength; removes hard water minerals and this increase the effectiveness of detergents; prevents dirt from settling back into clothes during washing 9. Sodium chloride or table salt thickening agent; provides viscosity to the soap 10. Methyl and propyl paraben anti-microbial preservatives 11. Triethanol amine (TEA) emulsifier uesd in facial cleanser 12. Caustic soda (also called sodium hydroxide) neutralizes or adjust the acidity of other ingredients 13. Benzalkonium chloride disinfectant against bacteria, fungi and yeasts 14. Carboxyl methy cellulose (CMC) antiredeposition agent that prevents dirt from settling back into clothes during washing 15. Sodium sulfate provides proper flow or solubility to soap; cleans without leaving residue 16. Glycerine serves as moisturizer in facial cleaner CAUTION Commercial lye, potash lye and soda lye even dampened wood ashes are EXTREMELY caustic and can cause burns if splashed on the skin. They could cause blindness if spattered in the eye. Use caution when adding lye to cold water, when stirring lye water and when pouring the liquid soap into moulds. If it is spilled on the skin, wash off immediately with cold water. Wash off any lye or green (uncured) soap spilled on furniture or counter tops. Though some of the old recipes didnt say so, always add lye to COLD water, never to hot water, because the chemical action heats the cold water to the boiling point. It also produces harsh fumes which are harmful if breathed deeply. Stand back and avert the head while the lye is dissolving. The use of a draft vent is recommended. Because of these dangers, it is best to keep small children from the room while soap is being made. Basic Equipments Needed A container A large iron soap kettle or a common wash boiler is great for making soap in large quantities over an open fire. For indoor soap-making in smaller quantities, pots that are granite or porcelain- covered are the best to use because of the corrosive character of some of the recipes ingredients. Dispose of soap-making wastes carefully outdoors, not in the drain. Never put lye or fresh soap in aluminum pans. A Ladle If an iron kettle is used a long-handled wooden ladle is needed to stir the soap. For indoor soap-making a wooden spoon will do. Once again dont use aluminum.

A Grater or Grinder A kitchen grater or a meat grinder is need to make soap flakes for laundry use or to grind soap for some of the later recipes. Molds Flat wooden boxes or wooden tubs to mold the soap while it cooled and hardened. Laid pieces of cloth Over the wood to keep the soap from sticking. You can buy fancy molds in hobby shops, but for home use, discarded plastic bottles work just as well and are much cheaper. A Plate Some recipes call for a plate on which to cool a few drops of the liquid from time to lime to test for doneness. A glass plate is preferred because it cooled the liquid faster. Basic Steps in Soap Making 1. Sufficient mixing is important in soap making. Although mixing can be done by hand, the use of an electric stainless steel mixing tank makes work faster and gives better results. 2. The basic soap ingredients (fat or oil and alkali) undergo the process of saponification. Here, the elements of the fat or oil called esters, separate and become fatty acids. Fatty acids, in turn, get mixed with the sodium elements of the alkali and this solidifies the soap. 3. The soap now undergoes the cold process (the simplest technology applied in soap making). During the cold process, fat and water are mixed thoroughly to prevent the formation of sediments. 4. The soap is left to cool and harden. This is called the cooling and solidifying stage. 5. The bar soap is sliced and dried to remove moisture. 6. The sliced soap is left to age, a process which removes the effects of caustic soda. 7. Finally, the soap is packed for marketing and sales
HOW TO MAKE TOOTHPASTE The Raw Materials: 1. Sodium Laurylsulphate...detergent 2. Glycerin ...humectant 3. Saccharin ...sweetening agent 4. Sodium mono-florophosphate...flouride 5. Calcium carbonate 6. Flavour 7. Water Procedure 1. Put 4L of water in a bowl 2. Add 0.5L of Glycerin 3. Mix thoroughly 4. Add 2spoonfuls of Sodium Laurylsulphate 5. Add 1L of Calcium carbonate 6. Add 1/6 teaspoonful of Saccharin 7. Add 1 teaspoonful of flavour 8. Mix thoroughly 9. Your tootpaste is ready,fill your container and seal 10. Package for sale and smile to the bank!

HOW TO MAKE SHOE POLISH Raw Materials 1. Paraffin Wax 2.Dye Stuff...the oil soluble type 3.Paraffin Oil 4. A Pot 5. A stove The Procedure 1. Place your pot on the stove 2. Put 1Slab of Parraffin Wax 3. Add 1L of Paraffin Oil 4. Allow the mixture to melt together 5.Add 5 spoonfuls of the required Dye...depending on the colour 6.Mix 7. Pour into prepared container 8.Allow to cool and solidify 9. Package for sale

SCHOOL CHALK PRODUCTION Chalk and black boards are still used from nursery school to the university level, particularly in this side of the world, where modern teaching aids are not easy to come by. As long as people still send their children to school, production of chalk will continue to be a good business. PRODUCTION REQUIREMENT The complete set of machine for the production of chalk which could be electric or manual consists of a mixer, an oven or dryer, chalk mould and gauge. Other items needed are the container for packaging the chalk. Granted that it requires some skill, you can master this skill within a week depending on your ability to learn. However, if you do not want to go through the problems of production yourself, you can employ people who know about chalk production and you will then create marketing channels in targeted areas far and near. Chalks come in different colours, though white is mostly in demand. REQUIREMENT Water Gypsum Calcium carbonate PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES ? Measure 10 litres of water into a bowl

? Add gypsum ? Mix ? Add calcium carbonate ? Mix vigorously ? Quickly pour into the mould ? Allow to settle for 10 minutes ? Remove chalk and allow to dry ? Package for sale COST INVESTMENT ? Machinery N25,000 ? Raw materials 15,000 ? Packaging 15,000 ? Others 5,000 MARKET/INCOME At present, a pack of about 50 pieces of chalk sells for N200 and if you produce on large scale, the cost of producing 50 packs could be as low as N100 per pack. The implication is that you can make between N80 N100 on every pack and you can sell as many as 50 100 packs to a single school. For a start, it is advisable that you personally supervise the distribution to schools around you and let them know that you are always ready to bring it to their door steps. So there is no need for them to go looking for the good.