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At a Glance
A Companion Study Guide for Preachers, Teachers and Students

text by Narayani Devi Dasi IllustratIons by Satadhama Devi Dasi

Copyright 2007 by Narayani Dasi All rights reserved No part of this work may be reprinted in any form or by any means reproduced without permission in writing from the publisher. All quotes from the Bhagavad-gita are from The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International.

To rla Prabhupda, who desired that the message of Bhagavad-gt be spread to all people of the world. As Lord Caitanya Mahprabhu desired, yre dekha, tre kaha ka-upadea mra jya guru ha tra ei dea Instruct everyone to follow the orders of Lord r Ka as they are given in Bhagavad-gt and rmad-Bhgavatam. In this way become a spiritual master and try to liberate everyone in this land. (Cc. Madhya 7.128)


The main inspirations for this book were my eternal spiritual master, His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupda, and the holy names that he kindly gave me: Hare Ka, Hare Ka, Ka Ka, Hare Hare/ Hare Rma, Hare Rma, Rma Rma, Hare Hare. Srila Prabhupda desired to have a picture for each verse of the Bhagavad-gt, and we hope this book will help fulfill his cherished desire. I am eternally grateful to Bhurijana prabhu for inspiring me to study Bhagavad-gt and to teach it to others through his VIHE. I am very grateful to atadhma Ds, the artist who painstakingly drew the pictures, despite hot summer Vndvana weather, ill health, and ever changing residences with austere conditions. May Lord Ka bless her in her advancement in spiritual life. Krma Rpa Dsa did the design and layout. Yaodmayi Dev helped design the book, giving many long hours of her time. Anurdh ds painted the pictures of rla

Prabhupda. My son, Govinda Dsa helped with layout of the pictures and my stepdaughter Vrinda helped with computer art. During my writing retreats in Mypur, Pacaratna, Sakalpa, and Dayarma prabhus helped with accommodation and prasdam. ea prabhu helped with residence in Vndavana and Mypur. Special thanks goes to the those who donated for the printing of the book: Rdh Jvan Dsa always supports these projects and I especially appreciate his help. Sarvaja Ka dsa gives ongoing support for this and future projects. Thanks go to rkar dev ds, Rjendranandana, Pavamna das, Pranta dev ds, Mdhavendra Pur and Ll Mdhur, Tyga Caitanya Dsa. Vrajesvar and Bhgavata dss made a beautiful musical rendition of selected verses. Govinda d s also spent many long hours making an interactive CD. Bhaktin Elena helped with graphics.

Chapter One Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter twO Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary Part Four Part Four Summary Chapter three Part One Part One, Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary Chapter FOur Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 Chapter Five Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter six Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary Chapter seven Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter eight Part One, Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter nine Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Four Part Four Summary 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125

Chapter ten Part One Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary Chapter eleven Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary Part Four Summary Chapter twelve Part One Part One Summary Part Two Chapter thirteen Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter FOurteen Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter FiFteen Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary

127 129 133 135 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 157 159 161 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 183 185 187 189 191 193 195

Chapter sixteen Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter seventeen Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Chapter eighteen Part One Part One Summary Part Two Part Two Summary Part Three Part Three Summary Part Four Part Four Summary Part Five Part Five Summary Part Six Part Six Summary

197 199 201 203 205 207 209 211 213 215 217 219 221 223 225 227 229 231 233 235 237 239 241

Bhagavad-gt is the song of God, sung by Lord Ka to His friend and disciple Arjuna. We may sometimes wonder that if there is a God, what would He look like? To answer all such speculations, Lord Ka came to this world 5000 years ago and showed everyone His beautiful form and amazing pastimes. We may question, why would God want to come to this mortal world? About 500 years ago one king named Akbar asked the same question of his minister Birbal who was a greatly learned scholar. Birbal did not answer at once but waited for some time. One day the kings small grandson fell into a pond and was drowning. The king quickly took off all his fine ornaments and clothes and jumped into the water to save his small grandson. In the same way, Lord Ka comes here to speak words of wisdom that will save us from our anxieties and sufferings in this world and to attract us to join with Him in His eternal pastimes in the world of transcendence. In Bhagavad-gt, Ka speaks not only to Arjuna, but to all people in all countries, of all religions and for all times. Ka claims all of us, even the animals, as His own. In Bhagavad-gt, Ka shows His concern for us by giving us advice how to live happily in this world and beyond. Sincere seekers will find in Bhagavad-gt eternal principles of truth that illuminate lifes journey. Those who face great challenges in life will find solutions to problems and great meaning and purpose to life. Kas words in Bhagavad-gt give nourishment for the mind, solace to the heart and help us to face life with renewed enthusiasm and hope. Within our present ISKCON society many of our artists who were present at the time when our beloved spiritual master rla Prabhupda was on this earth are aware of a cherished desire which he expressed to them. rla Prabhupda wanted that his artists paint a picture to illustrate each verse of the Bhagavad-gt. In this book we have endeavored to fulfill this desire of rla Prabhupda. In some cases, we have also included the purport of the verse within the picture. We hope that the readers will enjoy reading each verse in poetic form along with its illustration.

tata vetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau mdhava pava caiva divyau akhau pradadhmatu On the other side, both Lord Ka and Arjuna, stationed on a great chariot drawn by white horses, sounded their transcendental conchshells. Bg. 1.14

HOW TO READ THE PICTURES In this book all the illustrations contain several lotus flowers. Generally, there is a lotus flower at the top or center of each illustration, and it has individually named petals that indicate the main philosophical themes of the chapter. The other lotus flowers in the illustration, with numbered petals, illustrate the chapters individual verses. A poetic rendition of each verse appears on the page(s) following the picture.


Chapter One

Part One

p r e pa r at i O n s F O r w a r signs OF viCtOry

Part Two

B h a k ta v at s a l a arjunas dOuBts destruCtiOn OF dynasty

dhtarra uvca dharma-ketre kuru-ketre samavet yuyutsava mmak pav caiva kim akurvata sajaya Dhtarra said: O Sajaya, after my sons and the sons of Pu assembled in the place of pilgrimage at Kuruketra, desiring to fight, what did they do? Bg. 1.1



Chapter One, Part One 1 Dharmaketra Kuruketra a holy field indeed. Dhtarra asked, What will befall my sons of evil deed? With Ka on Arjunas side No harm will ever come. My heart is full of anxiety my sons will be overcome. 2 Sajaya spoke: Your eldest son has gone to see his teacher encouraging, No compromise! his face of serious feature. Duryodhona questions Drona: 3 Why have you taught Drupadas son since it had been foretold that he would kill you soon in battle with knowledge you have told? 4 Just see Pavas army full of heroic men like Bhma and Arjuna, Vir, Drupad, Yuyudhn. Dhaketu is but one I list whos powerful in the fight. Warriors will avowed assist to put the foes to flight! Fighting men, great charioteers will now support His cause. In weapon-arts have trained for years, so fierce and without flaws. Just see wholl lead my men: Now listen well for I will tell about the chief captains. Bhma, Kara, Avatthm Who never will retreat, Yourself and Kpcarya, Who never have been beat.


So many heroes are prepared to fight unto the death. Their weapons now will not be spared for battle till last breath.


Both Ka and Arjuna On chariot with horses white, with transcendental conchshells proclaimed: We will win the fight! Pcajanya in Lord Kas hand, Arjunas Devadatta, And Bhma with his great Pauram Made Duryodhans heart shatter.

10-11 With Bhma our protector, our strength is beyond all measure. To see Bhma whose strength is less gives my heart greatest pleasure. Support Grandfather Bhma who leads our grand display. Stand firm in your positions! Let not your focus stray! 12 Bhma blew his conchshell, a loud and lionlike call, great joy entered Duryodhanas heart, but Bhma knew hed fall. Tumultuous sounds then followed with powerful impact, as horns and bugles, trumpets, drums became at once compact.


16-18 Yudhihira blew Anantavijaya, Nakula and Sahadev, Inspired the rest to blow theirs too, all were warriors brave. 19 The blowing of those conchshells vibrating all around did shatter the hearts of the Kauravas with their uproarious sound. With Hanumn on his flag Arjuna took up his bow, And spoke to Krsna with these words, Observing the military show.




Chapter One, Part One Summary 1. Preparations for War (Verses 1-13): Concerned about the outcome of the battle, Dtarra asks his secretary Sjaya what his sons and the sons of Pu did after arriving at the battlefield. Sjaya describes the scene, envisioned within his heart. Duryodhana has approached his commander Drona with encouraging words, reporting their advantage of many experienced generals and vast numbers of soldiers. Suddenly Bhma and all their fighters blow their conchshells, making a tumultuous sound. 2. Signs of Victory (Verses 14-20): Hanumn perched on Arjunas flag, Lord Ka sitting next to Arjuna, and the heart-shattering sound of their transcendental conchshells all combine to announce the imminent victory of the Pavas in battle.



Chapter One, Part Two 21-22 O Acyuta please drive my chariot between the armies here. I want to see with whom Ill fight for they are near and dear. 23 Let me now see those whove come Duryodhana to please rejecting peace theyve come to fight our kingdom now to seize. Sjaya said: Lord Ka drew the chariot inbetween the armies of both parties so everyone could be seen. Amidst the armies of the world Lord Ka said, Behold the Kurus all assembled here like Drona and Bhma bold. Within the armies on both sides Arjuna could clearly see all kinds of friends and relatives as many as could be. 27 On seeing all his relatives compassion filled his heart. Then speaking to Lord Ka, how he did not want to start. Arjuna said: To see my friends before me now to fight, my limbs aquiver, my mouth so dry, as if its out of fright.



29-30 My bodys trembling, hairs on end. Gvas slipping from my hand; From future evil, my mind is reeling; I can no longer stand. 31 If I kill all my relatives Ill cause so much distress. Nor do I want a kingdom now, victory, or happiness.



32-35 O Govinda of what avail are kingdoms without a friend. I shall not fight for all the worlds, for pleasure will not send.


36 If we kill such aggressors such sin will give us pain. O Ka, O Mdhava, no pleasure will we gain. 37-38 Although these men can kill their friends, their hearts so filled with greed, why should we fight, since we can see the crime in evil deed? 39 In such great war well surely see destruction of dynasty, encouraging irreligion for the entire family. When irreligion enters therell be pollution of our women, and then well find a great increase of unwanted children. Unwanted population causes hellish life for all. In such corrupt families the ancestors will fall.


For those destroying tradition there will be no salvation. such evil deeds will surely be the cause of devastation. O Janrdana You know as well that disciplic successions always tell destroyers of tradition surely dwell forever in a miserable hell. How strange it is that we sinfully act by killing our men, To enjoy we react. It is better for me with no weapon in hand, to be killed by them, unresisting I stand. Sjaya said:







Arjuna spoke and sitting down, his bow and arrows threw, his mind upset with dismal thoughts and only grief he knew.


Chapter One, Part Two Summary 3. Bhakta Vatsala (Verses 21-27): Arjuna, the beloved friend of Lord Ka, now orders Acyuta, the infallible Supreme Lord Ka, who has become Arjunas charioteer, to place his chariot between the two armies. Seeing all his friends and relatives ready to fight against him, Arjuna spoke in a voice overwhelmed with compassion, 4. Arjunas Doubts (Verses 28-38): Hesitating to fight, Arjuna expresses his inability to kill his relatives for several reasons: his compassion for them, his fear of sinful reactions for his deeds, and his realization of the futility of gaining pleasures of heavenly or earthly kingdoms in exchange for their lives. 5. Destruction of Dynasty (Verses 39-46): Arjuna foresees the results of the end of a great dynasty: unprotected women, unwanted children and loss of family tradition. Throwing aside his bow and arrows, he sits down, overwhelmed with grief.



Chapter twO


Part One

arjunas dOuBts and surrender sOul is eternal

Part Two

Q ua l i t i e s O F s O u l k at r i ya s d h a r m a
Part Three

B u d d h i -y O g a d e v O t i O n a l s e r v i C e l i B e r at e s
Part Four

higher taste samdhi

mtr-spars tu kaunteya toa-sukha-dukha-d gampyino nitys ts titikasva bhrata O son of Kunt, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed. Bg. 2.14


Chapter Two, Part One 1-2 Lord Ka said: Why do I see you full of anxiety? An ryan who knows the value of life is not tinged with impurity. 3 O Arjuna, such impotence does not befit the wise. Give up such petty weakness. Have courage and arise! 4 O Madhusdana, how can I counterattack, my gurus, Bhma, Drona, even if they should attack? 5 Better if I go begging and sit with stick and bowl, than to live at the cost of lives of such great souls. 6 Nor do we know which option is best to win or lose this mighty conquest. 7 Now Im confused about my duty, tell whats best for me, Your surrendered disciple; to You I bend my knee. 8 Im overcome with grief which I cannot drive away, even if I win a kingdom with unrivalled sway. Sjaya said: 9 Arjuna being overwhelmed while thinking of his plight, then spoke his final words: Govinda, I shall not fight! 10 Seeing Arjuna sad as if bound for destruction, Lord Ka smiled at him and began His instruction. Lord Ka said:


11 While speaking learned words, why do you feel such dread? A wise man laments not For the living or the dead. 12 Never were these kings not living nor even you, nor Me. And in the future none of us will ever cease to be. The sober person knows: 13 As the soul constantly passes through youthful body til old age, the soul at death will change his body bewildered not at any stage. 14 Happiness and distress are a temporary state like winter and summer seasons. Just learn to tolerate! 15 One who can tolerate for spiritual realization,

undisturbed whether sad or glad, achieves liberation. 16 The material body wont endure, so seers of truth do say, while the soul will never change and eternally will stay. 17 Now you should know that which pervades the body whole is indestructible no one can kill the soul. 18 The eternal souls material body will someday surely end. Therefore, fight O Arjuna, My disciple and My friend. 19 If one thinks the self the slayer or one thinks the self is slain, he does not knowfor the self slays not nor is he ever slain.


Chapter Two, Part One Summary 1. Arjunas Doubts and Surrender: (Verses 1-10): Seeing Arjunas lamentation, Ka encourages him not to yield to degrading impotence, but to act with courage. After giving some last arguments, full of confusion and indecision, Arjuna accepts Lord Ka as his spiritual master and requests instruction. 2. Soul is Eternal (Verses 11-19): Kas first instructions explain how the body is temporary and the soul eternal. Therefore Arjuna should tolerate the happiness and distress which naturally arise, since they are temporary and relate to the body only. The soul lives on and cannot be killed, therefore he should go on with his duty and fight.



Chapter Two, Part Two 20 For the soul there is no death, nor does he ever come to be. Unborn, eternal, primeval, not slainforever free. 21 How can a person knowing that the soul is unborn, still kill anyone with such knowledge or cause anyone to kill? 22 As someone puts on new clothing when they become old, the soul puts on new bodies, when death makes old ones cold. 23 The soul cannot be burned by fire nor cut by any weapon, nor wet by water or withered by wind, because its a spiritual atom. 24 The soul is unbreakable, insoluble, not dried nor burned by flame, all-pervading, unchangeable, eternally the same. 25 Inconceivable to scientists, the soul remains invisible. So for the body do not grieve, for the soul is unchangeable. 26 Even if you think the soul is born and always dies, still dont lament, O mighty-armed for the soul, no one cries. 27 For one whos born is sure to die and after death will come. Therefore fight and do your duty! Lamentation overcome! 28 All beings were first unmanifest, then manifest again, and then become unmanifest, so why this lamentation? 29 Some see the soul as amazing; others describe him as such; some hear of him as amazing, but cannot understand him much. 27

30 The soul within the body can never be killed. So not for anyone should you with grief be filled. 31 As a katriya true you have to fight for principled religion. No better engagement there is for you! No need for hesitation! 32 When fighting comes true katriyas will ask for nothing more. For fighting for religious codes will open heavens door. 33 If youll not fight religiously, reaping sin and devastation, neglecting duties as a fighter, youll lose your reputation. 34 The fighters will call you, Coward! and constantly defame. Dishonor now is worse than death, to tarnish your good name!

35 Your gurus and all generals will think youve left from fear, consider you insignificant and ruin your career. 36 Your enemies will describe you most unkindly with disdain! Theyll scorn your great ability! What could be greater pain!? 37 Either you will win and get the earth or youll die and go to heaven. So get up now and fight with strength and great determination! 38 Now rise and fight for fightings sake, aloof to victory or defeat, loss or gain, happiness or pain, and sin youll never meet.


Chapter Two, Part Two Summary 3. Qualities of Soul (Verses 20-30): The soul is never born, eternal, invisible, inconceivable, and cannot be killed by any weapon. Therefore Arjuna should not grieve, but fight. 4. Katriya Dharma (Verses 31-38): Lord Ka has explained to Arjuna that he should not lament for the eternal soul, Thus, Ka has defeated Arjunas argument of refusing to fight on the grounds of compassion. Now, Ka has argued from the opposite viewpoint. Arjuna was born as a king and his duty was to fight to uphold law and order in the state. By fighting, Arjuna would follow his destined path in life and would also be true to his nature. If he refused to fight, other kings would misunderstand and think that he was a true coward.


Chapter Two, Part Three 39 Now apply this knowledge Ive related to you work without fruitive gain for by working in such knowledge youll be free from karmas chain. 40 In this work therell be no loss; advancement will be clear, and by such progress youll be saved from lifes most dangerous fear. 41 Those on this path are firmly fixed, resolute purpose is displayed; for those who are irresolute intelligence is splayed. 42-43 Less intelligent men do like to hear the Vedic words like flowers, which recommend a sacrifice to attain some heavenly powers. 44 When sense enjoyment fills the mind and opulence does make one blind determination one cant find for devotion to God within ones mind. 45 The Vedas speak of natures modes which always tend to bind. So free yourself, transcend these modes! Leave anxieties behind! 46 As one can serve all small wells needs by going to a lake, so Vedas purpose can be served by acting for Kas sake. The Vedas are like wells and Ka is the ocean. So worship Kas lotus feet with love and devotion. 47 Without the fruit you have the right to do your prescribed duty. Youre not the cause of the results, nor should you leave your duty. 48 With evenness of mind, by success and failure not harassed, equipoised perform your duty, in such yoga be steadfast.


49 In devotion work for Me, leaving fruits and youll be wiser. One who wants to enjoy the fruits Is certainly a miser. 50 By devotion youll be free of good and bad while youre alive. It is the art of all work therefore for this yoga strive! 51 The wise take refuge in the Lord, with devotion they do serve. Renouncing fruits, beyond misery, attain that state they do deserve. 52 When your intelligence is from delusions forest freed, chanting Kas holy names, Vedic rituals theres no need. 53 Undisturbed by Vedic language, always fixed in trance on Me, following My orders, youll remain in samdhi.


Chapter Two, Part Three Summary 5. Buddhi-yoga (Verses 39-46): After urging Arjuna to follow the spirit born of his nature, Lord Ka combines knowledge of the soul with work born of ones nature to make: buddhiyoga or devotional service to the Lord. Leaving aside allurements of elevation for temporary enjoyment described in the Vedas, Arjuna is encouraged to engage in devotion, which is never lost and which is the real purpose of the Vedas. 6. Devotional Service Liberates (Verses 47-53): Lord Ka urges Arjuna to engage in devotional service with detachment from the fruits. By taking refuge in the Lord, great sages have attained liberation.


Chapter Two, Part Four 54 How will I know if one is fixed? In which way will he talk? Somebody now may try to cheat, How will he sit and walk? 55 Pure consciousness will manifest without material desire, when mind is satisfied in self, alive in krtans fire. 56 A sage of steady mind for miseries sheds no tear, nor happiness feels good about, freed of attachment, anger, fear. 57 He who for evil never laments, nor in happiness rejoice. Without attachment, firmly fixed, perfect knowledge is his choice. 58 As a tortoise within his shell withdraws his senses all, a wise man keeps his senses far away from mys call. 59 Yogs artificially stop senses while material taste remains. Devotees get a higher taste automatically refrains. 60 A wise man finds his mind is sometimes snatched by senses strong. Although he tries his best, he cannot stop from doing wrong. 61 One who uses senses for My work and always thinks of Me, intelligence is steady, from his senses he is free. 62 While thinking of sense objects, attachment turns to lust. When lust develops to extreme, then anger is a must. 63 From anger next delusion, then memory confusion, intelligence is lost, then material illusion.


64 One will achieve the Lords mercy by spiritual regulation, thus controlling all his senses, no attachment or aversion. 65 For one who is absorbed in Me miseries are no longer. In such a happy state of mind, Intelligence is stronger. 66 Ones whose mind is not on Me cannot have any peace. When intelligence is uncontrolled, happiness will decrease. 67 As a boat on the water is by strong wind swept away, so the mind which thinks of senses can be easily carried away. 68 The senses cannot be stopped by human endeavor, but only by engaging in Kas service forever.

69 What is night for all beings, for the self-controlled is light. What is light for all beings, for thoughtful sages is night. 70 As the ocean remains still although into it rivers flow, the sage is undisturbed despite desires which come and go. 71 A servant of Lord Ka, giving up sense desires, for ownership never aspires, he alone real peace acquires. 72 The unbewildered soul will follow the spiritual way, so even at the time of death, will in Gods kingdom stay.


Chapter Two, Part Four Summary 7. Higher Taste (Verses 54-63): A transcendentalist knows that meditation on sense objects while restricting the senses only leads to lust, anger, delusion and ultimate falldown. Therefore, he engages his senses in devotional service to Ka, thus gaining a higher taste. 8. Samdhi (Verses 64-72): Engaging in Lord Kas service by following the regulative principles of freedom, one achieves the Lords mercy, controls his mind and senses, becomes fixed in samdhi and at the time of death enters the kingdom of God.



Chapter three


Part One

k a r m a -y O g a saCriFiCe FOr viu

Part Two

wOrk as example the ignOrant and wise

Part Three

wOrk FOr kna COnQuering lust

yajrtht karmao nyatra loko ya karma-bandhana tad-artha karma kaunteya mukta-saga samcara Work done as a sacrifice for Viu has to be performed; otherwise work causes bondage in this material world. Therefore, O son of Kunt, perform your prescribed duties for His satisfaction, and in that way you will always remain free from bondage. Bg. 3.9


Chapter Three, Part One Arjuna asked: 1 O Keava, why do you urge me to engage in ghastly war, if You think intelligence is better than fruitive work by far. 5 Being forced to work, all men are by the modes helplessly caught, cannot refrain from work, not for a moments thought. 6 One who stops the senses work pretending meditation, deludes himself by such pretense, and is lost to deviation. 7 But one who can control the senses by the mind, by using them in work with love is of a superior kind.

2 Your words have now bewildered me, so I have one request: Please tell me decisively what is for me the best. Lord Ka said: 3 Some men will realize the self by philosophical speculation; while others know the self by work with adulation. 4 Sins will not go by stopping work and making a big show. Nor by renunciation only, perfection can one know.

8 Perform your prescribed duty which is the best action. You cant maintain your body by taking to inaction. 9 Just make your work a sacrifice for Vius satisfaction. Detachment you will gain And freedom from reaction. 41

10 At creations dawn all men were born with sacrifice required, to give them greatest happiness and all things they desired. 11 Do sacrifice of Hari nma! Being pleased with your austerity, the demigods are nourished and rain down prosperity. 12 In charge of your necessities, the demigods supply. But he who like a thief enjoys, the demigods defy. 13 The devotees from all sins are free giving food to the Lords feet. While those who eat for senses joy, sin alone will eat. 14 All living beings subsist on grain which is produced from rain, and rain is born of sacrifice doing duty free from gain.

15 Mans duties are in Vedas told, which come from God directly. Therefore the Lord is always found in sacrifice perfectly. 16 If one does not do sacrifice such sinning gives no gain, For one who enjoys senses lives totally in vain.


Chapter Three, Part One, Summary 1. Karma-yoga (Verses 1-9): Arjuna expresses his confusion about whether to renounce work or to work in devotion. Ka explains that premature renunciation may lead to artificial meditation while maintaining material desires. Better to work as a sacrifice for Viu, which gives freedom from reaction. 2. Sacrifice for Viu (Verses 10-16): In this age of Kali, the recommended sacrifice is chanting of the holy names in sakrtana. It is given in the Vedas, and by following this cycle of sacrifice, one will receive all necessities of life.


Chapter Three, Part Two 17 For one whos taking pleasure in self-realization, to do his prescribed duty has no obligation. 18 A self-realized soul will nothing gain By doing prescribed deed, Nor will he stop his worknor help From others does he need. 19 One should act without desiring fruits of his activity, for by such work one surely reaches the Supreme Divinity. 20 Great kings like Janaka did work and so attained perfection. So you should work for dutys sake for publics education. 21 Whatever acts a great man does the common men will follow, and standards set by his good work the world will have tomorrow. 22 Within all the worlds three there is no work for Me, nor do I want anything, yet I do work, though free. 23 Although Im God, I show the world the greatest humility, I have to show the righteous way for all men imitate Me. 24 If I shunned work, then all the worlds would end in ruination, destroying peace of everyone, with unwanted population. 25 As ignorant perform their work with greatest of attachment, so learned men may also act, leading others with detachment.


26 Let not the wise disrupt the minds Of those attached to work. Rather than stop, encourage them to do devotional work. 27 Bewildered by material modes, One thinks he does it all. Yet actually he is not free, but works by natures call. 28 In knowledge of the truth, the wise work not under senses spell. Devotion and fruitive work the difference knowing well. 29 Though foolish ones, attached to work are going the wrong track, the wise should not unsettle them, though knowledge they do lack.


Chapter Three, Part Two Summary 3. Work as Example (Verses 17-24): Although self-realized souls have no duty, yet they work to show an example to the world. Even Lord Ka acts to set the standards that the whole world will follow. 4. The Ignorant and Wise (Verses 25-29): Lord Ka describes the ignorant worker who thinks he does everything, unaware that it is simply the modes of nature that force him to act. Yet Ka advises the wise man not to disturb him, but to encourage him in acts of devotion.



Chapter Three, Part Three 30 O Arjuna, just surrender, Keeping Me in your minds sight, Being selfless, without lethargy, please get up now and fight! 31 One who does his duty faithfully by following My instruction, will free himself from karmas chains and see his sins destruction. 32 But envious ones who are to His words disobedient are ignorant, befooled and doomed to karmas punishment. 33 One cannot free oneself by false meditation. For one must to himself be true. What good is repression? 34 One should not follow senses call for sense gratification, since attraction and repulsion block ones self-realization. 35 Destruction while performing work according to ones modes, is better than anothers work, which great danger forebodes. 36 Arjuna asked: why do we act sometimes most sinfully, as if engaged by force, even unwillingly? Lord Ka answered: 37 This worlds all-devouring, sinful enemy is lust, and when lust is unsatisfied, then anger is a must. 38 As fire by smoke is covered, or a mirror by dust, or embryo by the womb, different beings are covered by lust.


39 Thus consciousness is covered by the enemylusts desire, which never can be satisfied and burns us all like fire. 40 The sitting places of this lust are intelligence, senses, mind, which covers knowledge of the soul and makes all people blind. 41 Thus one must always curb this lust by senses regulation, and slay this destroyer of self-realization. 42 The senses are superior to the body as a whole, higher is mind, then intelligence, but highest is the soul. 43 Thus knowing oneself higher than senses, mind, intelligence material just conquer lust of lower self by consciousness spiritual.


Chapter Three, Part Three Summary 5. Work for Ka (Verses 30-35): One should faithfully follow Kas instructions to become free from sinful reactions and advance on the path of self-realization. Otherwise, if one acts according to the senses whims he will be punished by the laws of nature. 6. Conquering lust (Verses 36-43): Our greatest enemy is lust, which is sitting in our senses, mind and intelligence. Therefore, knowing the souls superiority to the lower self, one should conquer lust by spiritual strength of Ka consciousness.



Chapter FOur


Part One

knOwled ge OF ka k a s at i s F i e s e v e r y O n e
Part Two

a n a ly s i s O F k a r m a karma-yO ga in knOwled ge
Part Three

saCriFiCe OF knOwled ge guru gives knOwled ge

paritrya sdhn vinya ca duktm dharma-sasthpanrthya sambhavmi yuge yuge To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion, I Myself appear, millennium after millennium. Bg. 4.8



Chapter Four, Part One Lord Ka said: 1 The sungod learned this science from Me, and he taught it to Manu. Then Manu, mankinds father Taught it to his son Ikvku. 5 Lord Ka said, both you and I have many births long passed. I can remember all of them, but you cant think of the last. 6 Although unborn, without old age which is far from the norm, though lord of all, I yet appear in my transcendental form. 7 Whenever and wherever there is decline in true religion, I come to bring true love of God and stop all irreligion. 8 To save good people and kill demoniac minds of all bad men, to establish religious principles, I come again and again.

2 Thus saintly kings in disciplic succession got knowledge with realization. But passing time destroyed the chain, science lost by deviation. 3 Because you are My devotee I tell you this ancient history. Because you are My friend you can understand its mystery. 4 Arjuna asked: How can it be the sungod is older than You, yet many millions of years ago he was instructed by You?


9 Anyone who at his death My birth and acts does understand, after his death does not come back, but achieves My eternal land. 10 Being absorbed in Me, from attachment, anger, and fear free, purified by knowledge of Me, wise souls attained pure love for Me. 11 As everyone surrenders to Me they get their just reward. Since everyone follows Me, they on their path go forward. 12 Men worship demigods, desiring success avidly. Of course, by working hard like this, men get results speedily. 13 According to natures modes and work societys divided into four. Though Im the creator, without a change I am yet the nondoer.

14 There is no work that affects Me, nor do I want the fruit. Nor will there be entanglement for one who knows this truth. 15 All liberated souls have worked like this since the start of creation. So think of Me and do your work and youll get liberation.


Chapter Four, Part One Summary 1. Knowledge of Ka (Verses 1-10): Ka instructs Arjuna in the history of Gt which was spoken many millions of years ago to the sungod and was later passed down in disciplic succession to saintly kings. But the chain was broken, so Ka is now explaining the same knowledge to Arjuna because he is a devotee and friend of Ka. The Lord appears in different ages to rectify lost religious principles, to protect His devotees and to kill the demons. One who understands His transcendental nature and activities does not take birth again, but attains pure love and goes back to Godhead. 2. Ka Satisfies Everyone (Verses 11-15): As people worship Ka, He reciprocates with them. In the beginning, He created varrama according the work and qualities of human beings, yet He is above it, since He has no desire for the fruits of work in this world.


Chapter Four, Part Two 16 Even wise men are confused to know whats action and inaction. Now Ill explain what action is, so youll get liberation. 17 Good action is called karma, Bad deeds are called vikarma. Yet one who works and thinks of Me Is receiving akarma. 18 One who sees inaction in action and action in passivity, is always transcendental though engaged in activity. 19 One is known to be in knowledge Who acts free of material desire, Since all his fruitive action Is burned up by knowledges fire. 20 Ever satisfied and independent, no attachment in his mind, he performs no fruitive action, though doing work of any kind. 21 Such a man of understanding acts with controlled intelligence and mind, without proprietorship, no reaction will bind. 22 Freed from duality, without envy, satisfied with any gain, steady in success and failure, hes freed from karmas chain.


23 One who works but remains unattached becomes transcendental, since his knowledge is unmatched. 24 One absorbed in Ka in his spiritual constitution attains the spiritual world because of his spiritual contribution.


Chapter Four, Part Two Summary 3. Analysis of Karma (Verses 16-18): Krsna explains karma (pious work), vikarma (impious work) and akarma (devotional work). 4. Karma-yoga in Knowledge (Verses 19-24): One who is absorbed in Ka consciousness while doing his work, unattached to the fruits, attains the spiritual world.


Chapter Four, Part Three 25 Some worship demigods with sacrificial fire, while others offer sacrifice to Supreme Brahmans fire. 26 Brahmacrs sacrifice the hearing and the senses, while ghasthas sacrifice the objects of the senses. 27 Those who are interested in self-realization, through the fire of controlled mind give the breath as oblation. 28 Some give up possessions In severe austerity, Others study Vedas, practice yoga, Take vows in great sincerity. 29 Some will stop the breath to remain in trance, while others stop their eating so that they may advance. 30 All these sacrificers from all sins become clear, tasting sacrificial nectar, attain the spiritual atmosphere. 31 If one thinks that sacrifice can be neglected, then in this life or after, what joy can be expected? 32 All these different sacrifices are from Vedas created. Knowing them as such youll become liberated. 33 Greater than sacrifice of possessions material is sacrifice of work in knowledge spiritual. 34 Approach a guru and learn the truth. inquire from him submissively And render your service, Since he has seen the truth decisively.


35 When you have learned about the truth divine youll know that everyone is in Me and is Mine. 36 Even if youre sinful, If you stay in Gts boat, Crossing ocean of miseries, Very easily youll float. 37 As the blazing fire Burns firewood into ashes, So the fire of knowledge All reaction smashes. 38 When you have enjoyed knowledges transcendental fruit, very soon youll hear Kas transcendental flute. 39 A faithful man, always absorbed does make his senses cease, and quickly attains the supreme spiritual peace.

40 For the ignorant and faithless no happiness will sprout, because for God and scriptures they have the greatest doubt. 41 One who has renounced the fruits of action, with doubts destroyed is free from reaction. 42 Thus your doubts should be slashed by wisdoms light. armed with yoga, now stand and fight!


Chapter Four, Part Three Summary 5. Sacrifice of Knowledge (Verses 25-33): There are many sacrifices, both material and spiritual, but the best is the sacrifice of knowledge while working. 6. Guru Gives Knowledge (Verses 34-42): Just approach a guru who has seen the truth by inquiring from him submissively and serving him. You will gain knowledge that everything is within Ka and belongs to Him. A faithful man who works for Ka becomes free from sins, whereas the doubting soul gains unhappiness. Therefore, Arjuna is urged by Ka to take the weapon of knowledge, to stand and fight.



Chapter Five


Part One

k a r m a -y O g a i s B e s t p r O C e s s O F k a r m a -y O g a
Part Two

s O u l , s u p e r s O u l a n d n at u r e s u p e r s O u l m e d i tat i O n
bhoktra yaja-tapas sarva-loka-mahevaram suhda sarva-bhtn jtv m ntim cchati A person in full consciousness of Me, knowing Me to be the ultimate beneficiary of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods, and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attains peace from the pangs of material miseries. Bg. 5.29


Chapter Five, Part One

Arjuna said: 1 First You say renounce, then work at Your behest. Now kindly tell me clearly which of the two is best.

5 One who knows the two paths lead to the same goal, sees the paths as one and sees things as a whole. 6 Renunciation without devotion will make one simply bored. Devotees, being purified Go quickly to their Lord. 7 One who works in devotion, to everyone is dear, controlling mind and senses, reactions come not near.

Lord Ka said: 2 Work and renunciation are both good for liberation, but of the two, work in devotion beats renunciation. 3 Who neither hates nor desires the fruits is liberated in all his pursuits. 4 Ignorant people see in the two paths a different trend, but wise men see them both leading to the selfsame end.

8-9 Aloof from all his senses even while asleep, a devotee thinks of Krsna within himself so deep. 10 One who gives his works fruits to the Supreme Power, is like a lotus leaf unaffected by a shower.


11 The yogis abandon all material aspiration, act with body, mind, intelligence for purification. 12 One who gives his fruits to Me attains unending peace. For one who wants to have the fruits, reactions never cease.


Chapter Five, Part One Summary 1. Karma-yoga is best (Verses 1-6); Again confused, Arjuna asked which is best: renunciation or work in devotion. Lord Ka answers that although both are good for liberation, devotional service is best. 2. Process of Karma-yoga (Verses 7-12): One who works in devotion to Ka attains peace, whereas One who is greedy for the fruits becomes entangled.


Chapter Five, Part Two 13 When one controls his nature, no work he creates, and happily he resides in the city of nine gates. 14 The master of the body, of material work not creator, nor creating any fruits all is done by material nature. 15 The Lord is not responsible for sinful acts or pious, yet everyones bewildered by ignorance, causing crisis. 16 When knowledge enlightens one, ignorance destroyed in every way, this knowledge lights up everything, as sun lights up the day. 17 When ones intelligence, mind, faith, are fixed in the Supreme state, cleansed of all misgivings, on liberations path proceeds straight. 18 Seeing Supersoul in hearts like television, the sage sees all with equal vision. 19 With mind in equanimity, beyond both birth and death, hes flawless like Brahman living in Brahman with every breath. 20 Without joy for something pleasant nor unhappy for the unpleasant, intelligent, knowing the science of God, he is always transcendent. 21 Without attraction to material pleasure, in trance, enjoying spiritual pleasure, concentrating on the Supreme, his pleasure is without measure. 22 Material senses pleasures later pierce with miserys dart, pleasure which is quickly ending sages never will take part.


23 When the senses agitate, one responds with toleration, one remains happy in the state of self-realization. 24 When ones happiness is internal one rejoices within, the Supreme he will attain, now illumined from within. 25 Beyond duality and doubt, working for mankinds salvation, being freed from all sins, he soon gets liberation. 26 Free from anger and material desires, always striving for perfection, the pure devotees quickly move in the Supreme Lords direction. 27-28 Controlling senses, mind and breath, in Supreme meditation, free from desires, fear and anger, one achieves liberation.

29 Knowing Me as Lord of planets, purpose of all austerities, well-wisher of all living beings, gains freedom from all miseries.


Chapter Five, Part Two Summary 3. Soul, Supersoul, and Nature (Verses 13-16): As the soul desires, the Supersoul sanctions and nature supplies. The Supersoul is therefore not responsible for the reactions that come, as it is a matter of ignorance or knowledge of the conditioned soul that makes a difference. Knowledge is like the sun which lights up the heart. 4. Supersoul Meditation (Verses 17-29): One who meditates on the Supersoul as the best friend, the Lord of all planets, and the purpose of all austerities, enjoys happiness within and freedom from all miseries.



Chapter six


Part One

n e O p h y t e t O a d va n C e d y O g r e g u l at i O n s O F y O g a
Part Two

higher levels OF praCtiCe s u p e r s O u l r e a l i z at i O n

Part Two

unsuCCessFul yO g tOpmOst yOg

yoginm api sarve mad-gatenntar-tman raddhvn bhajate yo m sa me yuktatamo mata And of all yogs, the one with great faith who always abides in Me, thinks of Me within himself, and renders transcendental loving service to Me he is the most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all. That is My opinion. Bg 6.47


Chapter Six, Part One 1 One who works with detachment is a mystic true. No need to give up everything and no work does he do. 7 With mind controlled, linked with Supersoul, one will attain tranquility. distress and happiness, heat and cold, he sees with true equality.

2 To link with the Supreme is yoga and renunciation. To be a yogi he must renounce sense gratification. 3 A neophyte must do his work To practice yoga eightfold; Whereas one who has achieved success Need not workso its told. 4 One has attained to yoga by renouncing material affinity, not acting for the senses, nor in any fruitive activity. 5-6 For one of controlled mind, his mind as friend is best, since the uncontrolled mind of enemies is greatest.

8 When satisfied by knowledge and full realization, stones and gold are just the same by his calculation. 9 An even more advanced yog we will find, who sees the friends and enemies with an equal mind. 10 With mind fixed on Supersoul, alone in a place secluded, the yogs mind is then controlled, and in no way deluded. 11-12 With deerskin upon kua grass one can yoga practice start, controlling mind and senses, purifying the heart.


13-14 The yog stares at noses tip his posture like a pole, no fear, no sex, with mind on Me, making Me lifes highest goal. 15 With action, body, mind controlled, one will reach the Lords abode, the highest of all places, giving up the material road. 16-17 For one whose eating, sleep and work and pleasure regulated, by yoga practice constantly all pains are mitigated. 18 When the yog practices yoga, disciplining mental activity, meditating on Supersoul, he attains yogic divinity. 19 As a lamps flame in a windless place has no fluctuation, the yog with controlled mind remains steady in his meditation.


Chapter Six, Part One Summary 1. Neophyte to Advanced Yog (Verses 1-9): A neophyte on the eightfold yoga path must do his work while practicing yoga, while an advanced practitioner may cease from materialistic work. As one advances on the path, he sees material loss and gain as well as different friends and enemies with an equal mind. 2. Regulations of Yoga (Verses 10-19): To practice yoga one must go to a secluded place, control the mind and senses, sit in yogic sanas, fixing the mind on the Supersoul in the heart. He must be regulated in eating, sleeping, working and recreation and remain always steady in his meditation.


Chapter Six, Part Two 20-23 When one can see the highest Self in joyous meditation, no miseries will trouble him, being freed of contamination. 24 One should practice yoga with faith, determination, controlling sensesGod will help, seeing your dedication. 25 Gradually, with full conviction, step by step one should advance, with mind fixed on the Self alone, completely in a trance. 26 Whenever the mind wanders one must bring it quickly back, controlling it completely and keeping it on track. 27 One whose mind is peaceful, fixing it on Me within, attains the highest happiness, and he is freed from sin. 28 Steady in the Self, in unlimited happiness, free from material dust, in touch with Supreme consciousness. 29 When the yog sees all beings, within them he sees Me, and everyone in Me, everywhere does he see Me. 30 For one who sees Me everywhere, and everything in Me, I am never lost to him, nor is he ever lost to Me. 31 The perfect yog truly knows that the Supersoul is Me. He worships Me and always Remains with Me. 32 The perfect yog sees all beings with equal vision, whether happy or distressed, whatever the transition.


33 Arjuna said, This yoga seems to me impractical. The mind is so unsteady, to control it is impossible! 34 For the mind is restless, turbulent, obstinate, very strong, and harder than to catch the wind it cant be tamed for long! Lord Ka spoke: 35 To curb the restless mind is a difficult achievement, but it is possible by practice and detachment. 36 For one whose mind is uncontrolled there is much complication, but one who works with controlled mind gets self-realization.


Chapter Six, Part Two Summary 3. Higher Levels of Practice (Verses 20-27): As one advances in his trance of meditation on Supersoul, he achieves the highest happiness, in touch with the Lord within. From where the mind wanders, the yog must always bring it back under control. 4. Supersoul Realization (Verses 28-36): Constantly meditating on the Supersoul within, the yog perceives the Supersoul within all living beings. In such a state of divine love, he is never lost to Ka. He sees Ka as Supersoul in all beings. Arjuna declares the yoga system to be impractical for him since the mind is so restless. The Lord explains that it is possible to control the mind by practice and by detachment.


Chapter Six, Part Three

Arjuna Inquired: 37 What happens to the yog who begins self-realization, but later leaves to enjoy again? What is his destination? 38 Does such a man, like riven cloud, deviated, only perish? Not material, nor spiritual, no shelter does he cherish. 39 Now I have told You, Ka Of everything I doubt. Except for You no one is there who can factually take it out. Lord Ka spoke: 40 My devotee is auspicious and will never meet destruction. One who does good, My friend is never covered by corruption.

41 The unsuccessful yog will enjoy so long in heaven. Then born again from wealthy men, Or the son of a Brahmin. 42 Or if hes really fortunate hell take his birth again in a family of devotees who are rarest among men. 43 On taking such a birth he again will get the chance to make much further progress. To success he will advance. 44 Through practice in his previous life he seeks the yoga system, beyond the Vedic principles, he leaves materialism.


45 After many, many births of sincere yogic endeavor, the yog finally achieves the supreme goal forever. 46 A yog is higher than a karm, And higher than a jn, And higher than ascetic too So always be a yog! 47 The yog who will think of Me, with faith and spiritual love, is close to Me in yogic bond. Of all yogs hes above.


Chapter Six, Part Three Summary 5. Unsuccessful Yog (Verses 37-45): Arjuna asks what is the destination of the unsuccessful yog. Ka explains that the yoga practice is never lost and his next birth will be in a rich or pious family, or if he is very fortunate, in a family of devotees of the Lord. He is naturally attracted to the yogic principles and tries to advance further to achieve complete success. 6. Topmost Yog (Verses 46-47): The yog is higher than the karm, jn and ascetic. But of all yogs, the devotee who is intimately connected with Ka, always meditating on Him in transcendental faith and loving service is the highest of all.



Chapter seven


Part One



supreme the essenCe

Part Two

the impiOus and piOus demigOd wOrshippers and impers Onalists FreedOm FrOm Bewilderment
raso ham apsu kaunteya prabhsmi ai-sryayo praava sarva-vedeu abda khe paurua nu O son of Kunt, I am the taste of water, the light of the sun and the moon, the syllable o in the Vedic mantras; I am the sound in ether and ability in man. Bg 7.8



Chapter Seven, Part One Lord Ka spoke: 1 O Arjuna please hear how with mind attached to Me, by practicing yoga free from doubt you can know everything of Me. 5 Besides this inferior nature, is a superior energy of Mine, who are all living beings, who struggle, though theyre divine. 6 Of all material and spiritual you should know for certain, that Im its dissolution as well as its origin. 7 No truth is above Me, of all beings Im the head. All things do rest on Me as pearls strung on a thread.

2 Now I shall tell you knowledge of everything complete, both material and spiritual, which cannot be beat. 3 Of many thousands among men one may try to become free, and of those who are free, few know the truth of Me. 4 Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence, false ego my material energies created, but yet they are separated.

8 I am the taste of water, of sun and moon the light, O in Vedas, sound in ether, and all of mans might. 9 I am fragrance of the earth, and the heat in fire, the life of all that lives, and all penance ascetics do desire.


10 Know that of all living beings Im the original seed, intelligence of the wise, and power of men of mighty deed. 11 I am the strength of strong men with no passion or desire, I am sex life in marriage, with a sacrificial fire. 12 All the modes of nature are My energy material, yet I am independent and completely spiritual. 13 Deluded by the modes, the whole world knows Me not, Since Im above, inexhaustible, and by the modes not caught. 14 These modes belong to Me, so theyre difficult to flee. Just surrender unto Me; easily cross it and be free.


Chapter Seven, Part One Summary 1. Ka is Supreme (Verses 1-7): Out of many millions of men, hardly one will know Ka as the supreme truth, from whom all energiesmaterial and spiritualemanate. 2. Ka is the Essence (Verses 8-14): One who knows that Ka is the essence of all elementsthe taste of water, the light of sun and moon, etc.surrenders to Ka and easily gets free from the modes of nature. Others remain struggling in ignorance of Ka.


Chapter Seven, Part Two 15 Those who will not worship Me are lower than a fool, materialistic, atheistic, learning nothing in their school. 16 Four kinds of pious men surrender unto Me distressed, the poor, inquisitive, searching knowledge about Me. 17 Of these, the one in knowledge, always serving Me, is best of allto him Im dear, and he is dear to Me. 18 Though all these souls are great, the one in knowledge is above, united with Me in service, in transcendental love. 19 After many births of knowledge, one surrenders to My care, knowing Me the cause of all. Such a soul is very rare. 20 Those who worship demigods, minds filled with material desire follow all the rules and regulations for the fruit to which they aspire. 21 As Supersoul in ones heart, I make his faith steady, so he can devote himself to his favorite deity. 22 With such a faith, he worships and obtains his every need, but actually these benefits are from Me alone, indeed! 23 Less brainy men like demigods, who give fruits temporary. But My devotees worship Me Reaching My place extraordinary. 24 Foolish men who know Me not think Ive assumed this form. They do not know My spiritual nature, changeless, beyond the norm.


25 For the foolish among men I stay covered by Mys curtain. They dont know Im infallible and unborn for certain. 26 As Supreme Lord I know everything future, present, past as well. I know all living beings, but of Me no one can tell. 27 O Arjuna, all living beings are born into delusion, by dualities of desire and hate, overcome with illusion. 28 One who has acted piously, whose sins have reached cessation, freed from all dualities, serves Me with determination. 29 Intelligent souls who serve Me well desiring liberation, are in Brahman, full well knowing all worldly and spiritual manifestation.

30 One who knows Im behind sacrifice, the universe, demigods all can understand and know Me even when he hears deaths call.


Chapter Seven, Part Two Summary 3. The Impious and Pious (Verses 15-19): Impious menfools, materialistic, bewildered scientists, atheistsdo not surrender to Ka. Pious menwhen distressed, in need of money, or inquisitive, searching for truthworship Ka. The wise man is best since he serves Ka in knowledge 4. Demigod Worshippers and Impersonalists (Verses 20-25): Less intelligent men worship demigods to fulfill material desires, not knowing that Ka in the heart strengthens their faith, and also gives the material benefits. Those who have no intelligence think Kas form is temporary, yet unknown to them, Ka is unborn. For such foolish men, Ka remains eternally covered by the curtain of yoga-my. 5. Freedom from Bewilderment (Verses 26-30): Ka knows everythingpast, present, future. But all beings of this world, not knowing Him, are born into delusion, overcome by desire and hate. Yet there are those pious men whose sins are finished, freed from dualities, who serve Ka with determination. Desiring liberation from old age and death, they work on the Brahman platform and at the time of death understand Ka as the underlying principle behind all sacrifices, the universe and the demigods.



Chapter eight


Part One

arjunas QuestiOns rememBering ka yO ga-mira Bhakti

Part Two
pure devOtiOnal serviCe m at e r i a l a n d s p i r i t u a l w O r l d s devOtiOnal serviCe inCludes all

anta-kle ca mm eva smaran muktv kalevaram ya prayti sa mad-bhva yti nsty atra saaya And whoever, at the end of his life, quits his body, remembering Me alone, at once attains My nature. Of this there is no doubt. Bg 8.5


Chapter Eight, Part One, Arjuna inquired: 1-2 Of Brahman, self, demigods, and work I wish to know the truth. Where is the Lord of sacrifice? At deathhow can we know You? Lord Ka replied: 3 The living being is Brahman, his self his eternal nature. Karma is action to gain a body of material feature. 4 The universe is the Lords own form; always changing material nature; and I am the Supersoul in the heart of every creature. 5 One at death remembering Me, from his body going out, at once attains My nature. Of this there is no doubt. 6 Whatever one will think of when his body he will quit, that thought will always stay with him and he will attain it. 7 Always think of Me as Ka, while you stand and fight. With your mind attached to Me, youll attain Me with delight. 8 One who never deviates and always thinks of Me, by chanting Hare Ka, is sure to reach Me. 9 The Lord is oldest, knows it all, smaller than the small, maintainer, an effulgent person transcendental to all. 10 Raising life air between the eyebrows, one who at the time of death, remembers Ka only goes to Him with his last breath.


11 Persons learned in the Vedas, saying O, who are great sages, enter into Brahman, and are celibate through the ages. 12 One is fixed in yoga, from all mundane acts detached, bringing life air to the top of head, mind on Ka in heart attached. 13 Being fixed in yoga practice, chanting Kas name or O, one who thinks of Ka, leaves this world, to the eternal world goes home.


Chapter Eight, Part One Summary 1. Arjunas Questions (Verses 1-4): Arjuna asks r Ka about Brahman, the self, the demigods, fruitive work, the Lord of sacrifice and how to remember Ka at the time of death. Lord Ka answers the first seven questions. 2. Remembering Ka (Verses 5-9): Ka recommends that Arjuna fight and at the same time think of Him. rla Prabhupda explains that the easiest way to think of Ka is to chant Hare Ka. 3. Yoga-mira Bhakti (Verses 10-13): Yogs may think of Ka at the time of death, chant okra, practice controlling the breath and raising the life airs to the top of the head. Then they may go to Ka.


Chapter Eight, Part Two 14 For one who always thinks of Me Im easy to obtain. Always serving Me with pleasure, no material desires remain. 15 Kas devotees never return to this fleeting world of pain. Enjoying highest happiness, there is no greater gain. 16 Within this universe, high to low its a miserable place. But one who comes to stay with Me, no birth or death will face. 17 A thousand ages all combined will make Brahms daylight. A thousand ages more will make Lord Brahms dark night. 18 When Brahms day is manifest all beings come alive. But then again they all will die when his night will arrive. 19 Again, again the day will come and all beings will evolve, but then again the night will come and they will all dissolve. 20 Yet there is a spiritual world which is never diminished, beyond creation or destruction, when all these worlds are finished. 21 That world is called infallible, where there is never lack. And one who goes to My abode will never come back. 22 The Lord who lives in His abode, by devotion one can attain, and yet Hes all-pervading, within Him all things remain. 23 Now hear from Me the different times which I will now explain, by which one comes back to this world or in the spiritual world remains.


24 Those who know Supreme Brahman will leave during fire and light, while the sun is in the north, during the moons bright fortnight. 25 Those who leave during the smoke, or go up to the moon, in black fortnight, sun in the south will come back very soon. 26 While passing from this world, in the day or darkness black in day one never comes again, in darkness one comes back. 27 Devotees who know these two paths are never in confusion. So always fix yourself in loving devotion. 28 From Vedic study, sacrifice, charity, knowledge, all results one will receive if one just takes to bhakti My abode he will achieve.


Chapter Eight, Part Two Summary 4. Pure Devotional Service (Verses 14-16): Since this world is temporary and miserable, mahtms always think of Ka and go to Him, never to return to this world. 5. Material and Spiritual Worlds (Verses 17-22): This material world is created and destroyed again and again. Thus here all beings live and die repeatedly. But transcendental to this is the spiritual world from which no one returns. 6. Devotional Service Includes All (Verses 23-28): Although there are different times at which the yogs leave this world, the devotees do not fear, for they are in Kas hands. They know that all the results derived from Vedic study, charity, karmaka and jna-ka are included in devotional service to Ka and at the end the devotee surpasses all by going to the spiritual world.



Chapter nine


Part One

king OF knOwled ge a C i n t ya -B h e d B h e da t at t va
Part Two

devOtees and nOndevOtees universal FOrm

Part Three

demigOd wOrshipers and devOtees pure devOtiOnal serviCe

mahtmnas tu m prtha daiv praktim rit bhajanty ananya-manaso jtv bhtdim avyayam O son of Pth, those who are not deluded, the great souls, are under the protection of the divine nature. They are fully engaged in devotional service because they know Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, original and inexhaustible. Bg 9.13 satata krtayanto m yatanta ca dha-vrat namasyanta ca m bhakty nitya-yukt upsate Always chanting My glories, endeavoring with great determination, bowing down before Me, these great souls perpetually worship Me with devotion. Bg 9.14


Chapter Nine, Part One

Lord Ka spoke: 1 O Arjuna, because Youre never envious I shall speak a truth mysterious, saving you from miseries most treacherous

5 Yet all are not in Me. Behold My mystic manifestation! I maintain all; Im everywhere, yet My self is the source of creation. 6 As the mighty wind rests always in ethereal space, all beings rest in Me. Theyre always in their place. 7-8 Again and again by My will there is creation. Again and again There is annihilation. 9 All this work does not bind Me as I have spiritual engagement. Yet in this world Im neutral as if full of detachment.

2 This knowledge is most pure, of all education the king, religions perfection, the path of joy, gives realization everlasting. 3 Those who are not faithful as they traverse this path return to repeated birth and death. 4 In My form unmanifest I pervade the universe. Although all are in Me, I am not in all things diverse.


10 This great material nature is under My direction producing all beings in creation and destruction.


Chapter Nine, Part One Summary 1. King of Knowledge: (Verses 1-3): The Lord promised to speak the most elevated confidential spiritual knowledge to Arjuna because he is not envious. This knowledge is joyful, the perfection of religion. Those who do not accept the path of devotional service return to the path of birth and death. 2. Acintya-bhedbheda Tattva (Verses 4-10): Although Lord Ka is present everywhere in His unmanifested form, He is always enjoying in the spiritual world. Although creation and destruction happen according to His will, He is not attached to it.



Chapter Nine, Part Two 11 Fools always deride Me when I descend as human being, ignorant of My spiritual nature, My control of everything. 12 For such bewildered souls, of atheistic philosophy, whatever they may desire will end in catastrophe. 13 Those undeluded mahtmas work under divine protection, engaged in My devotional service, knowing Me as the Lord in perfection. 14 Always chanting My glories, serving with determination, bowing down before Me, worshiping Me without cessation. 15 Indirectly do others worship Me, as the universal form, or as the supreme one, or in any demigods form. 16 The ritual am I, and I only the sacrifice, the offering and oblation, the healing herb, the butter, fire, and spiritual vibration. 17 Of this universe I am the father, mother, support and grandfather. I am wisdoms object, o in the Vedas, the k, Sma, Yajur Vedas. 18 I am the goal, sustainer, master, witness, abode, refuge, and dearest friend indeed. I am everythings basis, creation and end, the resting place and eternal seed.


19 I control the rain, and the drought and heat. I am immortality and death, matter and spirit are at My feet.


Chapter Nine, Part Two Summary 3. Devotees and Nondevotees (Verses 11-15): Atheistic men deride Kas form and reap the results of frustration in all endeavors. Devotees, however, take shelter of Kas internal potency, always chanting, worshiping and serving Ka with determination. Still others worship Ka indirectly in the universal form, as the demigods, or as the supreme Brahman. 4. Universal Form (Verses 16-19): Lord Kna is all aspects of the worship of the universal form: the mantras, the goal, the Vedas, the support, mother, father, witness, beginning and end, immortality and death personified.



Chapter Nine, Part Three 20 By sacrifice to the demigods one worships Me indirectly. After reaching Indras planet, he enjoys perfectly. 21 So enjoying for years on the planets of heaven, tasting fleeting happiness, they come to earth again. 22 For those who worship Me without deviation, I protect whatever they have and give them self-realization. 23 Whatever one gives to other gods is really meant for Me. Demigods give Me all they get, but thisone does not see. 24 I am the object of your sacrifice, the only enjoyer of all. Those who deny My spiritual nature certainly they must fall.

25 The demigod worshippers will live with the same; those who worship ghosts, with ghosts will be; ancestor worshippers, with ancestors will live; and those who worship Me will live with Me. Chapter Nine, Part Three Summary 5. Demigod Worshippers and Devotees (Verses 20-25): Demigod woshippers attain flickering heavenly happiness, only to return to suffering on this earth. The devotees, however, are always protected by the Lord, who provides their every need. Those who worship demigods go to demigods, but devotees go to Ka.



Chapter Nine, Part Four 26 If one offers Me a leaf, fruit, water or flower, I accept that offering by devotions power. 27 All that you eat, or do, or offer, or give away, You should offer to Me, while you also pray. 28 In this way youll be freed from karmas chain. Youll be liberated and My abode youll attain. 29 I am equal to all. Im in everyones heart. But My devotee is My friend from him Ill never part. 30 Even if sometimes My devotee does wrong, consider him saintly if to Me his service stays strong. 31 Quickly righteous he becomes as his heart he purifies. Declare it boldly My devotee never dies! 32 Even vaiys, women, drs who for Me have dedication, can surely approach the supreme destination. 33 And even greater still are the righteous and the saintly who in this world of misery always serve Me.


34 Always think of Me; bow down and worship Me. Completely absorbed in Me, you will surely come to Me.


Chapter Nine, Part Four Summary 6. Pure Devotional Service (Verses 26-34): Ka claims all living beings as His children, so He fulfills everyones desires. But He takes special care for those who become His devotees. If His devotees sometimes make mistakes, He picks them up and makes them pure. And though they may have no qualification for spiritual life, if they are sincere, He accepts them and brings them to His side in the spiritual world. All fallen souls may take shelter of Ka by thinking of Him, worshiping Him, and they will surely reach the supreme destination.



Chapter ten


Part One

ka is Origin C at u l O k
mac-citt mad-gata-pr bodhayanta parasparam kathayanta ca m nitya tuyanti ca ramanti ca The thoughts of My pure devotees dwell in Me, their lives are fully devoted to My service, and they derive great satisfaction and bliss from always enlightening one another and conversing about Me. Bg 10.9
Part Two

arjunas re Quest kas OpulenCes

Part Three

mOre OpulenCes a l l - p e r va d i n g s u p e r s O u l



Chapter Ten, Part One Lord Ka said: 1 O Arjuna, please listen to My word supreme, for your benefit and joy beyond your dream. Neither demigods nor sages know My source, for in all respects I am their source. 8 3 As unborn, Supreme Lord if one knows Me undeluded among men, from sin he is free. 9 4-5 Intelligence, knowledge, forgiveness, truthfulness, pain and joyous sensations, birth, death, satisfaction, charity are among My various creations. 6 The Four Kumras, Manus, and seven great sages, all creatures born from Me throughout the ages. One who knows this glory and power of Mine engages purely in My service divine. Both material and spiritual come from Me. Knowing this, wise men worship only Me. My surrendered pure devotees always think of Me. Their happiness is always to converse about Me.

7 2



One whos constantly devoted and worships Me with love, attains knowledge from Me, by which he reaches Me above. Out of compassion for them, I, dwelling in the heart, destroy with shining knowledge, their ignorance so dark.



Chapter Ten, Part One Summary 1. Ka is Origin (Verses 1-7): Lord Ka is the origin of all demigods, sages, all creatures and all qualities, such as intelligence, knowledge, pain and pleasure. 2. Catu lok (Verses 8-11): Great surrendered devotees who know that Ka is the origin of everything, worship Ka and derive great happiness conversing about Him. This pleases Lord Ka, who enlightens them within their hearts.



Chapter Ten, Part Two Arjuna spoke: 12-13 Youre Supreme Brahman, Absolute Truth, divine person original. Youre explaining this to me, as all great sages also tell. 14 O Ka, I accept as truth all that You have told. Neither gods nor demons know Your personality of old. 15 You alone know Yourself Oh Lord of all divinity, Lord of beings, Lord of universe, Oh Lord of infinity. 16 Please tell me in detail of Your powers divine which pervade the universe and make it shine. 17 On You how shall I meditate? On what various forms may I contemplate? 18 Of Your glories and potencies I do desire to hear again. Of this I never tire. Lord Ka said: 19 Since I have limitless opulence, I will mention those of prominence. 20 I am the Supersoul in everyones heart. Of all beings Im the end, the middle and the start.


21 Of dityas I am Viu, And the sun is My eye. Im Marci of the Maruts, Of starsthe moon in the night sky. 22 Of the senses Im the mind; of the Vedas I am Sma; of living beings Im consciousness; of demigods Im Indra. 23 Of the Rudras Im Lord iva; Of yakas Im Kuvera; I am Agni of the Vasus and of mountains I am Meru. 24 Of priests Im Bhaspati, lord of devotion. Of generals Im Skanda and of water Im the ocean. 25 Of vibrations I am o; of sages, Bhgu of great fame; Im immovable Himlayas; Im chanting of the holy name.

26 Of trees Im the fig; of sages Im Nrada; of singers Citraratha; of siddhas Im Kapila. 27 Of horses born of nectar Im Uccairav; Of men Im the king; Of elephants Im Airvata. 28 Of weapons Im the thunderbolt; of cows Im surabhi; Im Kandarpa, god of love; of serpents Im Vsuki.


Chapter Ten, Part Two Summary 3. Arjunas Request (Verses 12-18): Arjuna accepts Ka as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then requests knowledge of His opulences. 4. Kas Opulences (Verses 19-28): Lord Ka describes His chief opulences: He is the beginning, middle and end of all creatures; chief demigod Indra; chief Rudra iva; chief priest Bhaspati; chief serpent Vsuki.



Chapter Ten, Part Three 29 Of Nga snakes Im Ananta; of lord of aquatics Varuna; of ancestors Im Aryam; Im Lord of death, Yama. 30 Of demons Im Prahlda who is without a crime. of beaststhe lion; of birdsGaruda; of subduers I am time. 31 Of fighters great I am Rma; I am the wind of purifiers; of fish I am the shark; I am the Ganges among rivers. 32 I am the beginning, the middle and the end of all creations; Im the spiritual science of self; Im the truth among logicians. 33 Of letters I am A I am time which lasts forever; of creators I am Brahm whose faces turn everywhere. 34 I am all-devouring death; creator of all things yet to be; among women Im fame fortune, speech, intelligence, faithfulness, patience, memory. 35 Of hymns Im Bhat-sma; Im Gyatr sung by brhmaas; Of months, November-December; Im spring amongst the seasons. 36 Im the gambling of the cheats; Of the splendid Im the splendor; I am the strength of the strong; I am victory and adventure. 37 Of the Vis I am Vsudeva; of Pavas I am Arjuna; of sages I am Vysa; of great thinkers Im Uan. 38 Among punishments I am the rod that does chastise; Im morality, Im silence; Im the wisdom of the wise.


39 Of all existences Im the generating seed. Of all the moving or unmoving, theres no one I dont feed. 40 Of all My opulence theres abundance without limit. Ive just given indication, of My opulence infinite. 41 Know that all glorious, beautiful, mighty creations, spring but from a spark of My fragmental manifestations. 42 For all this detailed knowledge, say what need is there? with a spark of Myself Im pervading everywhere.


Chapter Ten, Part Three Summary 5. More Opulences (Verses 29-37): Lord Ka further elaborates on His opulences, such as: chief ViVsudeva, chief PavaArjuna, chief sageVysa. 6. All-pervading Supersoul (Verses 39-42): After giving an indication of His many opulences, Lord Ka concludes that all glorious things spring from but a spark of His power.



Chapter eleven


Part One

arjunas re Quest arjunas visiOn

Part Two

divine eFFulgenCe arjunas Bewilderment

Part Three

kas instruCtiOns a r j u n a s p r ay e r s
Part Four

a r j u n a s p r ay e r s kas supreme FOrm

r-bhagavn uvca klo smi loka-kaya-kt pravddho lokn samhartum iha pravtta te pi tv na bhaviyanti sarve ye vasthit pratyankeu yodh The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Time I am, the great destroyer of the worlds, and I have come here to destroy all people. With the exception of you [the Pavas], all the soldiers here on both sides will be slain. Bg 11.32



Chapter Eleven, Part One Arjuna said: 1 I have heard Your confidential instruction, and you have dispelled all my illusion. Lord Ka said: 5 Now behold, O Arjuna, this opulence of Mine thousands of multicolored forms divine. 6-7 Please see now the demigods and every living creature. See all you may want now, as well as in the future. 8 But you cannot see Me with your present eyes. To see My mystic opulence Ill give you divine eyes. Sjaya said: 9 The Supreme Lord of all power transcendental then displayed His form universal.

2 I have heard in detail of birth and death of all beings. Although You create, Youre aloof from everything. 3 Although I see here Your actual position how have you entered this cosmic manifestation? 4 If you think Im able to see Your cosmic form, then please show me Your universal form.


10-11 Arjunja saw unlimited mouths, unlimited eyes, with dazzling ornaments, surpassing the skies. 12 If thousands of suns were at once to rise, one could imagine the effulgence of the Lord within the sky. 13 Arjuna could see the whole universe in one place, though divided into thousands within universal space. 14 Then Arjuna, astonished, his hair standing on end, offered respectful prayers, forgetting Ka was his friend.


Chapter Eleven, Part One Summary Verses 1-8: Arjunas Request Arjuna requests to see the Lords universal form. The Lord prepares Arjuna by giving him divine eyes. Verses 9-14: Arjunas Vision Arjuna saw unlimited eyes, mouths dazzling like hundreds and thousands of suns. He momentarily forgot his friendship with Ka and became filled with wonder. Thus he began to offer prayers.



Chapter Eleven, Part Two Arjuna said: 15 In Your body I see demigods and other living entities. I see Brahm and Lord iva and other divinities. 16-17 I see many, many forms of unlimited opulence, but its difficult to see with Your glaring effulgence. 18 You are the supreme objective the oldest, inexhaustible, religions maintainer, the Supreme Godhead eternal. 19 You are the origin, no beginning, middle, end. With the sun and moon Your eyes, unlimited heat do You send. 20 Throughout the sky and all space You are all-pervading. By showing Your fierce form, all people Youre perplexing. 21 All demigods surrender, seeking Your protection, while chanting Vedic hymns of supreme perfection. 22 Beholding you in wonder are Lord iva, Vasus, Yakas, dityas, Gandharvas, Maruts and Asuras. 23 All planets are disturbed seeing Your many faces, eyes, Your terrible teeth, and so am I. 24 Seeing Your radiant color filling the skies, I am very afraid, seeing Your mouths and eyes.


25 Be merciful to Me. Seeing Your deathlike faces blazing, I cannot keep my balance. For me its too amazing. 26-27 All the soldiers are rushing into Your mouths at great speed, their heads crushed by Your teeth, a gruesome sight indeed! 28 As the rivers always flow down into the sea, so these warriors in Your blazing mouths perish easily. 29 All people madly rush into Your mouthsa blazing pyre, as moths will quickly fly into a blazing fire. 30 Devouring all people with Your scorching rays, destroying the worlds, Your effulgence ever stays.

31 Please tell me who You are. Your fierce form causes great fear. What is Your mission? Of this I want to hear.


Chapter Eleven, Part Two Summary Verses 15-23: Divine Effulgence Arjuna sees all living entities within the Lords universal form. Sages chant Vedic hymns while demigods surrender, very afraid. Verses 24-31: Arjunas Bewilderment Arjuna begs mercy, seeing all warriors rushing with full speed into the Lords mouths, being crushed between the teeth. He asks, Who are You and what is Your mission?



Chapter Eleven, Part Three Lord Ka said: 32 Time I am, the destroyer of all. Except for you Pavas all soldiers will fall. 33 Get up and fight! Regain your kingdoms government. Though Ive killed all enemies, you can be My instrument. 34 Bhma, Drona, Kara I have destroyed all your enemies. Simply fight and you will gain all victories. 35 After hearing these words, Arjuna, humble and meek, trembling and faltering began to speak. Arjuna said: 36 The world becomes joyful on hearing Your name. while pure beings bow down, the demons flee in shame. 37 Why dont they worship You, O Lord original, O cause of all causes, O Lord transcendental? 38 Youre the Supreme Person, the only sanctuary. You know everything, pervading all systems planetary. 39 I offer my obeisances You are moon, air, fire, water. I offer my obeisances, Youre controller, supreme grandfather.


40 Obeisances from all sides, O master of limitless might. Youre all-pervading and Youre everything in sight. 41-42 Though weve eaten together and Ive called You Ka, my friend, please forgive all my offenses, Ive committed without end. 43 Youre the universal father, spiritual master worshipable. You have no equal, and You are immeasurable.


Chapter Eleven, Part Three Summary Verses 32-34: Kas Instructions The Lord answers: Time I am and I have destroyed all Your enemies. You may simply be an instrument in the fight. Verses 35-43: Arjunas Prayers Arjuna offers obeisances to Ka as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and begs forgiveness for his past offenses.



Chapter Eleven, Part Four 44 O Supreme Lord, I bow down and beg Your mercy great. As a friend to friend, as father to son or as loverplease tolerate. 45 Seeing this universal form, my minds disturbed with fear. Be merciful to me and show Your personal form most dear. 46 I wish to see Your four-armed form with conch, club, lotus, wheel. I long to see this form of Yours, if You wish to reveal. Lord Ka said: 47 This universal form I do show you happily. No one has ever seen this form from My internal potency. 48 This form of mine cannot be seen by any great austerity, nor sacrifice, nor Vedic study, nor similar activity. 49 Your mind has been disturbed, but now you may be free. With peaceful mind please see the form you wish to see. Sjaya said: 50 While speaking to Arjuna, He showed His four-armed form, Encouraging Arjuna, He showed His two-armed form. Arjuna said: 51 Seeing your human form so beautiful, my mind is pacified and I am very peaceful.


Lord Ka said: 52 The form which youre now seeing is very, very rare. Demigods always desire this form which is beyond compare. 53 The form which you are seeing can never be known by charity, austerity I never can be shown. 54 By pure devotional service can I be known directly and you can also penetrate My deepest mystery. 55 My pure devotee, free from sinful activity, a friend to every entity will surely come to Me.


Chapter Eleven, Part Four Summary Verses 44-46: Arjunas Prayers Arjuna begs forgiveness for his past familiarity with Krsna and desires to see the Lords four-armed form. Verses 47-55: Kas Supreme Form Lord Ka revealed His four-armed form and most beautiful humanlike two-armed form. He explained that He can be known only by pure devotional service, free from jna and karma.



Chapter twelve


Part One

Bhakti Over impers Onalism p r O g r e s s i v e s ta g e s O F d e v O t i O n

ye tu sarvi karmi mayi sannyasya mat-par ananyenaiva yogena m dhyyanta upsate tem aha samuddhart mtyu-sasra-sgart bhavmi na cirt prtha mayy veita-cetasm But those who worship Me, giving up all their activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation, engaged in devotional service and always meditating upon Me, having fixed their minds upon Me, O son of Pthfor them I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death. BG 12.6-7
Part Two

d e vO t i O na l Q ua l i t i e s



Chapter Twelve, Part One Arjuna inquired: 1 Who is better One engaged in Your service or one who worships the impersonal, unmanifest? Lord Ka said: 2 He whose mind on My personal form is fixed is most perfect, since his faith is unmixed. 3-4 One who worships Brahman which is formless, beyond perception after many births of practice will also gain perfection. 5 Meditation on the formless is difficult for those of form. To gain perfection easily is way beyond the norm. 10 If you cannot practice bhakti, just try to work for Me. Youll become perfect by serving My devotee. 11 If you cannot work for Me, then give up your works fruit to some worthy cause, being satisfied in that pursuit. 6-7 For one devoted to Me without deviation, I deliver him swiftly on the path of liberation. 8 Just fix your mind on Me, with intelligence in Me. Thus without a doubt youll always live in Me. 9 If you cannot fix your mind without deviation, practice bhakti-yoga youll desire My destination.


12 If you cannot follow My path which is direct, then do karma, jna, dhyna, which is indirect.


Chapter Twelve, Part One Summary Verses 1-7: Bhakti Over Impersonalism Arjuna inquires which is better: devotional service or impersonalism. Lord Ka explains how devotional service is better because it is easier and more natural for the conditioned soul. Verses 8-12: Progressive Stages of Devotion Lord Ka gives a progressive path of advancement for the devotee from the highest devotee who always thinks of Him, to the lowest, who simply works for Him. For those who cannot follow the direct path of service to Ka or to His devotees, the indirect path of karma, jna, dhyna is recommended.



Chapter Twelve, Part Two 13-14 One who is not envious, equal in distress and happiness, engaged in devotional service, is very dear to Me. 15 One who disturbs nobody, not disturbed by anxiety, steady in happiness and distress, is very dear to Me. 16 Pure, expert, without cares, independent of common activity, not striving for some result, My devotee is dear to Me. 17 Neither lamenting, nor desiring for anything that be, renouncing auspicious, inauspicious, My devotee is dear to Me. 18-19 One whos equal to friend and enemy, fame and infamy, from contamination free, is very dear to Me. 20 Engaged in faithful devotional service, making the supreme goal Me, following this imperishable path, My devotee is very dear to Me. Chapter Twelve, Part Two Summary Verses 13-20: Devotional Qualities A pure devotee is an unenvious friend to all, free from anxiety, equal in happiness and distress, unattached to the result of work, always engaged in devotional service. As such, he is very dear to Ka.



Chapter thirteen


Part One

ketra and ketraja prO Cess OF knOwled ge

Part Two

OBjeCt OF knOwled ge prakti and purua

Part Three

knOwled ge

upadranumant ca bhart bhokt mahevara paramtmeti cpy ukto dehe smin purua para Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul. Bg 13.23



Chapter Thirteen, Part One Arjuna asked: 1-2 What is prakti, purua, knowledge and its goal, the field and its knower? Please tell me so Ill know. Lord Ka replied: The body is the field and its knower is the soul. 3 Im also knower in all bodies. They are in My dominion. Knowing body and its owners is knowledgein My opinion. 4 Now Ill describe activities field and how its constituted, its changes, causes, knower, how his influence is distributed. 5 Knowledge of field and knower is told by sages in the Vedas, especially in Vednta-stra, written by Vysadeva. 6-7 Five elements, false ego, intelligence, ten senses, mind and convictions, sense objects, desire, hatred are the field and its interactions. 8-12 Approaching a spiritual master, nonviolence, tolerance, humility, cleanliness, self control, renunciation, simplicity. Of lifes problemsbirth, death, old age, diseasehaving perception; with detachment for home, wife, land, wealth and children. Without false ego, accepting distress, happiness with even mind; constant devotion to Me of the purest kind.


Detachment from the masses, seeing importance of self-realization, philosophical search for Absolute Truth all are knowledges manifestation. 13 Brahman, the spirit, is knowledges goal and its subordinate to Me. It lies beyond the cause and effect of this world that you see. 14 His hands and legs, His eyes and faces are pervading everywhere. He hears everything and in this way lives everywhere. 15 The Supersoul is the source of senses, yet He is without senses. Unattached though creator, Hes above, yet master of modes of nature. 16 Internally and externally, the Lord exists in all. Although far away beyond the senses, He is also near to all.

17 Though the Supersoul appears to be divided like the sun, in everyones heart, yet He is only one. 18 He is the goal of knowledge and is the source of light. Hes in everyones heart and is our hearts delight. 19 Thus the field, knowledge, knowable have been described summarily. My devotees attain to My nature by knowing this thoroughly.


Chapter Thirteen, Part One Summary Verses 1-7: Ketra and Ketraja Arjuna inquires about prakti, purua, knowledge and its goal, the field and its knower. The Lord explains that there are two knowers of the bodythe soul and Supersoul. Then, quoting various sages and the Vednta-stra, Lord Ka explains the field of activities, consisting of the ten senses, five elements, etc. Verses 8-12: Process of Knowledge The process of knowledge begins with humble submission to a spiritual master, which leads to understanding the temporary nature of material relationships and gives detachment. The most important quality is engaging in pure devotional service, which results in all other good qualities. Verses 13-19: Object of Knowledge Brahman, the spirit, is the knowable, and its basis is the Supersoul, who lives in everyones heart, the source and object of all knowledge, light and inspiration.



Chapter Thirteen, Part Two

20 Beginningless are living entities and material nature. Their changes and the modes are products of material nature. 21 Of material activities and effects, nature is the cause. Of sufferings and enjoyments, the living entity is the cause. 22 Living entities follow the path of life in material natures association, thus meeting good and evil species in eternal transmigration. 23 Yet the Supersoul exists, transcendental enjoyer and proprietor. In everyones heart He is overseer and permitter. 24 One who understands material nature, living entity and their interaction surely attains liberation, regardless of his present position.

25 Some realize Supersoul by meditation, others by knowledges cultivation, still others by working without desire for sense gratification. 26 Yet there are those in ignorance of any spiritual path, who hear of the Lord from authorities then transcend the material path. 27 All beings moving, nonmoving that you see in this creation are the field of activities and its knower in different combinations. 28 One who sees individual soul along with the Supersoul, knowing neither is ever destroyed, sees the Absolute Truth as a whole. 29 Seeing the Supersoul in all beings as an equal manifestation, one never degrades himself, and finally gets the spiritual destination.


30 One who sees in material activities that the body does everything he is actually the true seer knowing that the self does nothing. 31 When a man ceases to see the material bodies differentiation, he sees all beings everywhere and attains the Brahman conception. 32 The soul is transcendental thats the vision of eternity! Despite being in material nature, he has no material affinity. 33 As the all-pervading sky does not mix with anything, the soul in Brahman vision to the body does not cling. 34 As the sun illuminates everything within this cosmos, the soul within the body illumines by consciousness.

35 One who sees the difference between the body and the soul, understanding liberations process attains the supreme goal.


Chapter Thirteen, Part Two Summary Verses 20-26: Prakti and Purua The material nature, prakti, causes all material activities and effects, whereas the living entity cause his own suffering and enjoyment due to his misplaced desires. The Supersoul exists along with the soul in the heart, always permitting, witnessing and overseeing the souls activities. Supersoul realization is normally achieved by the paths of karma, jna, yoga, but in this age of Kali none of these are feasible, so it is recommended that one simply chant and hear Hare Ka, which can benefit anyone without previous qualification. Verses 27-35: Vision of Knowledge One who sees the Supersoul along with the individual soul in every body is not entangled with the body and achieves the transcendental destination due to his Brahman vision of eternity.



Chapter FOurteen


Part One

F at h e r COnditiOning OF the mOdes CharaCteristiCs OF the mOdes

Part Two
OF the



r e s u lt s

mOdes the mOdes

sattva rajas tama iti gu prakti-sambhav nibadhnanti mah-bho dehe dehinam avyayam Material nature consists of three modesgoodness, passion and ignorance. When the eternal living entity comes in contact with nature, O mightyarmed Arjuna, he becomes conditioned by these modes. Bg 14.5



Chapter Fourteen, Part One Lord Ka said: 1 Again I shall tell you this supreme wisdom, knowing which sages have all gained perfection. 5 Goodness, passion, ignorance are natures modes three which condition the living entity. 6 Pure, illuminating mode of goodness conditions one to knowledge and happiness. 7 Mode of passion born of desires forces one to do work for the fruit which he desires.

2 Being fixed in this knowledge youll become My friend, never born at creation nor disturbed at the end. 3 Unto Mydev I give My seed. Thus all living beings in that way we breed. 4 Of all living beings Mydev is mother, and I am also the seed-giving father.

8 Mode of ignorance causes delusion of madness, laziness, sleeping in illusion. 9 Goodness conditions to happiness, passion to ones fruits, ignorance to madness to each one as it suits.


10 Sometimes goodness wins the competition, then passion, then ignorance a constant repetition. 11 One can experience goodness manifestation when ones body is graced by knowledges illumination. 12 When passion increases its intensity, we find increased attachment, desire, and great activity. 13 When ignorance increases we find madness and illusion, inertia, darkness, and great confusion.


Chapter Fourteen, Part One Summary Verses 1-4: Ka as Father Ka is the father of all species of life and Mydevi is the mother. Verses 5-9: Conditioning of the Modes: Goodness conditions one to knowledge and happiness; passion conditions one to the fruits of action; ignorance conditions one to madness, laziness and sleep. Verses 10-13: Characteristics of the Modes: Goodness illuminates one with knowledge; passion increases attachment, activity and desires; ignorance increases madness, illusion, inertia.



Chapter Fourteen, Part Two 14 When one in goodness dies, he to the higher planet flies. 15 One who dies in passion will join those doing fruitive action. One who dies in ignorance becomes an animal of his preference. 16 Acting in goodness gives purification; passion gives distress. Ignorance gives foolishness manifestation. 17 From goodness one gets knowledge and from passion one gets sadness. From ignorance one gets foolishness, illusion and madness. 18 Those in goodness go to heaven; those in ignorance go to hell, while those in mode of passion on earthly planets dwell. 19 When you see in all activities these modes of material nature, seeing the Lord as transcendental, you can know My spiritual nature. 20 When the conditioned soul is able these three modes to transcend, free from birth and death, enjoys nectar without end. Arjuna inquired: 21 If one has truly transcended, then what is his behavior? And how does he transcend the modes of nature? Lord Ka replied: 22 One who hates not attachment, Or knowledge when they appear, Nor long for them excessively When they disappear


23 who is unconcerned with the modes reactions, remaining always firm, beyond distractions, 24 who sees equally a stone or piece of gold, honor or dishonor as equal hell behold, 25 renouncing fruitive work due to his devotional stature such a devotee has transcended the modes of nature. 26 One engaging in devotion without deviation, transcends the modes of nature, attains Brahman situation. 27 And I am the basis of Brahman eternal, of imperishable happiness and life immortal.


Chapter Fourteen, Part Two Summary Verses 14-18: Results of the Modes: Those in goodness go to heaven; those in passion go to earthly planets; those in ignorance go to hell or animal species. Verses 19-27: Transcending the Modes One engaged in undeviating devotional service to the Lord at once transcends the modes of nature and attains Brahman. Lord Ka is the basis of eternal Brahman.



Chapter FiFteen


Part One

t r a n s m i g r at i O n
Part Two

B a n ya n t r e e

k a a s m a i n ta i n e r s u m m a r y O F v e d n ta - s t r a
r-bhagavn uvca rdhva-mlam adha-kham avattha prhur avyayam chandsi yasya parni yas ta veda sa veda-vit The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: It is said that there is an imperishable banyan tree that has its roots upward and its branches down and whose leaves are the Vedic hymns. One who knows this tree is the knower of the Vedas. Bg 15.1



Chapter Fifteen, Part One

Lord Ka spoke: 1-2 Theres a banyan tree with upward roots; dharma, artha, kma, moka are its fruits. Some roots are also going down; to fruitive actions being bound. Some branches are lower, some are higher, but all are situated on desire. This material tree is a dim reflection of the spiritual tree which is Vedas perfection. 3-4 No one can find this trees foundation. One must cut it with detachment and determination. Then giving up this material dream, one must surrender to the Lord Supreme.

5 Freed from illusion and false association material lust and sense gratification, surrendering to Ka by this transformation, he goes back to Godheadeternal liberation. 6 My supreme abode does not need the sunshine, nor moonlight. One who goes there does not return, enjoying supreme delight. 7 My eternal parts, the conditioned souls, in this world are forever blind, struggling hard with the six senses, including the demoniac mind. 8 From body to body brought by conceptions of his mind, the conditioned soul wanders as aromas in air we find. 9 Thus getting a new body with ears, eyes, tongue and nose, following his minds desires, he gets the body which he chose.


10-11 One who sees this transmigration is situated in self-realization. But the fools absorbed in self-gratification will never get the inspiration.


Chapter Fifteen, Part One Summary Verses 1-5: Banyan Tree: The reflection of the spiritual world is like a banyan tree appearing in this material world and situated on desire. One must cut this tree with the weapon of detachment and then surrender to Lord Ka, going back to Godhead. Verses 6-11: Transmigration: The spiritual world is self-illuminated and one who goes there does not return to this material world. All living beings in this world are struggling with the mind and senses. At the end of life their conceptions carry them to the next body to enjoy or suffer. Self-realized souls can understand the process of transmigration, whereas to the foolish it ever remains a mystery.



Chapter Fifteen, Part Two 12 From Me comes the sun which turns darkness into light, and from Me comes the fire and the bright moonlight. 13 I enter into planets and thus they stay in orbits. I become the moon, and the plants grow up so soon. 14 I am the fire of digestion, the air of life outgoing and ingestion. 15 In the heart as Supersoul I make one remember and forget. The Vedas know Me as the Lord And the Vedas I edit. 16 In the material world every entity is fallible. In the spiritual world everyone is infallible. 17 The Supreme Lord is the Supersoul, who enters and maintains this universe whole. 18 Beyond all living beings, Ka says, Im transcendental, worshiped by all persons as the Supreme Personal. 19 One who knows Me as Supreme Lord is knowing everything, and he therefore loves My service with devotion hes engaging. 20 This knowledge of the Vedas is most confidential. One who knows this will be wise and will reach lifes true potential.


Chapter Fifteen, Part Two Summary Verses 12-15: Ka as Maintainer: Ka maintains everyone as Supersoul by entering the planets, giving the juice of life to all vegetables as the moon; by entering the body and acting as the fire of digestion and the air of life. He also maintains the subtle body by giving remembrance and forgetfulness. He is the goal of the Vedas. Verses 16-20: Summary of Vednta-stra: There are two classes of beings: fallible and infallible. Above these is the Lord as Supersoul, but the highest of all is Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who has this confidential knowledge of the Vedas worships Ka in pure devotional service.



Chapter sixteen


Part One

t r a n s C e n d e n ta l Q u a l i t i e s d e m O n i aC Q ua l i t i e s
Part Two

d e m O n i a C n at u r e r e s u lt s O F d e m O n i a C a C t i v i t i e s
tn aha dviata krrn sasreu nardhamn kipmy ajasram aubhn surv eva yoniu Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, I perpetually cast into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life. Bg 16.19



Chapter Sixteen, Part One Lord Ka spoke: 1 Fearlessness, self-purification, wisdoms cultivation, self-control, sacrifice, charity, Vedic study, simplicity, austerity, 5 The transcendental qualities will give one liberation; demoniac qualities give bondage and devastation. 6 In this world there are two classes of created men. Ive described to you the divine. Now hear about the demon. 7 Demoniac persons act without knowing right or wrong. Untruthful and unclean, they cant behave rightly for long.

2 Nonviolence, truthfulness, tranquility, renunciation, no faultfinding, compassion, gentleness, determination. 3 Vigor, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, not desiring honor, nonenviousness, are qualities of transcendence. 4 Demoniac qualities begin with arrogance, then pride, anger, conceit, harshness and ignorance.

8 They say this worlds unreal in God they do not trust. The worlds produced of sex desire and has no cause but lust. 9 Their intelligence is lost; theyll not follow good instruction. Instead they make such harmful things like weapons of mass destruction.


Chapter Sixteen, Part One Summary Verses 1-3: Transcendental Qualities Divine qualities include fearlessness and cultivation of knowledge for sannyss, austerity for vnaprasthas, sacrifice and charity for ghasthas, Vedic study for brahmacrs. Other qualities for all four varas include nonviolence, truthfulness, forgiveness and being nonenvious. Verses 4-9: Demoniac Qualities Demoniac qualities include pride, anger, conceit, harshness and ignorance. Such qualities lead to bondage, whereas divine qualities lead to liberation. They do not believe in God, and perform destructive activities.



Chapter Sixteen, Part Two 10 Obsessed with lust, pride, false prestige to increase their enjoyment, they work so hard at horrible jobs attracted by the impermanent. 11-12 They think to enjoy unlimitedly is lifes delicious honey. Though stung by desires, anxiety, anger, they illegally get their money. The demons think: 13-15 Now Ive become so very rich my enemies I will kill. Ill do sacrifice and charity and all desires fulfill. Lord Ka said: 16 Thus suffering anxieties, and bound by Mys spell, attached to sense enjoyment, they quickly fall to hell. 17 Deluded by wealth and false prestige, these self-complacent fools may make a show of spiritual life while neglecting all the rules. 18 Bewildered by pride, lust, anger and bereft of spiritual vision, theyre envious of the Lord Himself and blaspheme real religion. 19-20 Those envious, mischievous lowest of men, I throw to lowest species like dog, hog, snake and scorpion. 21 The three gates to hell lust, anger and greed should be shunned by all sane men. To degradation of soul they lead. 22 Escaping these three gates, one acts for self-realization and gradually attains the supreme destination.


23 One who throws away the scriptures, acting by his own speculation attains no perfection, nor happiness nor the supreme destination. 24 One must understand his duty following scriptural regulation, then act accordingly for gradual elevation.


Chapter Sixteen, Part Two Summary Verses 10-18: Demoniac Nature The goal of life for demons is to enjoy unlimitedly. In pursuance of this, they will beg, borrow or steal, even murder if necessary. Sometimes they may make a show of religion while neglecting the rules and regulations. Finally, they blaspheme the Lord and real religion. Verses 19-24: Results of Demoniac Activities Lord Ka throws these demons to the lowest species of life, where they remain birth after birth. The three gates to hell are lust, anger and greed. Therefore, all sane men should reject these three and instead act for self-realization to achieve the supreme destination.



Chapter seventeen


Part One

wOrship and FOOd in the mOdes saCriFiCe in the mOdes

Part Two

austerity in the mOdes Charity in the mOdes O m t at s at

sad-bhve sdhu-bhve ca sad ity etat prayujyate praaste karmai tath sac-chabda prtha yujyate yaje tapasi dne ca sthiti sad iti cocyate karma caiva tad-arthya sad ity evbhidhyate The Absolute Truth is the objective of devotional sacrifice, and it is indicated by the word sat. The performer of such sacrifice is also called sat, as are all works of sacrifice, penance and charity which, true to the absolute nature, are performed to please the Supreme Person, O son of Pth. Bg 17.26-27


Chapter Seventeen, Part One Arjuna asked: 1 What happens to one who worships by his imagination? Is he in goodness, or ignorance? Or is he in passion? Lord Ka replied: 2-3 Ones faith is of three kinds according to association with the material modes of nature goodness, ignorance and passion. 4 Men in goodness worship demigods, in passion they worship demons, while ghosts and spirits are worshiped by the most ignorant men. 5-6 Demons perform austerities not mentioned in the scripture. Impelled by pride and lust, themselves and Supersoul they torture. 10 Food in the mode of ignorance is more than three hours old. Its tasteless, putrid, unclean, stale and sometimes filled with mold. 11 Sacrifice according to duty offered with great respect is in the mode of goodness. No reward does he expect. 7 According to three modes one may perform austerity and eat his food, do sacrifice, and even give in charity. 8 Foods in goodness are juicy and sweet, give health, joy, purification. Theyre fattening and palatable, increasing life and satisfaction. 9 Bitter foods, sour, salty, hot will passionate people please. Such pungent, dry foods surely cause pain, distress and disease.


12 Sacrifice in passion by one whos proud and vain may be so grand and glorious, only for material gain. 13 Those who sacrifice without mantras, for the scriptures having defiance, without faith or gifts in charity are surely in ignorance.


Chapter Seventeen, Part One Summary Verses 1-10: Worship and Food in the Modes: Arjuna inquired of the person who worships according to his imagination. Lord Ka replied that such mens faith is of three kinds: in goodness, passion and ignorance. Food is of three kinds: Healthy, juicy, sweet foods are in the mode of goodness; bitter, sour, hot, salty foods are in passion; decomposing, tasteless, unclean foods are in ignorance. Verses 11-13: Sacrifice in the Modes: Sacrifice according to duty, with respect, without expectation of reward is in goodness; sacrifice with pride and for some gain is in passion; sacrifice without following the scriptures in ignorance.


Chapter Seventeen, Part Two 14 Worship of superiors is the bodys austerity also nonviolence, cleanliness, celibacy and simplicity. 15 Austerity of speech means speaking truth beneficially, avoiding offensive speech, reciting the Vedas regularly. 16 Austerity of the mind means simplicity, serenity, self-control and gravity, thinking with great purity. 17 In the mode of goodness one need not benefit materially, but desires Lord Kas pleasure through this threefold austerity. 18 Showy austerities performed by those of passionate temperament who desire respect and honor will not be permanent. 19 Practicing self-torture, a fool may do some penance, desiring to injure others hes in the mode of ignorance. 20 In the mode of goodness one gives out of duty, free of expectations, to Kas devotee. 21 Charity performed with great expectation or in a grudging mood is charity in passion. 22 Charity in ignorance is given at improper time and place to unworthy persons with respect not a trace. 23 Chanting o tat sat from beginning of creation, brhmaas performed sacrifices for Lord Kas satisfaction.


24 Sacrifices, charities, penances do spiritualists perform, beginning always with o to reach the Supreme platform. 25 Chanting the word tat, perform sacrifice, penance and charity. Getting free from material bondage is the purpose of spiritual activity. 26-27 The Absolute Truthsat is the object of devotion. Spiritual sacrifice, penance and charity are to please the Supreme Person. 28 Sacrifices, charities, austerities without faith in the Supreme are always useless like a temporary dream.


Chapter Seventeen, Part Two Summary Verses 14-19: Austerity in the Modes: Austerity in goodness by body, mind and words is performed for Lord Kas pleasure. Austerity in passion is performed to satisfy some personal desire for honor. Austerity in ignorance is harmful for oneself and others. Verses 20-22: Charity in the Modes: Charity in goodness is out of duty for the pleasure of Ka and His devotees. Charity in passion is with desire for results. Charity in ignorance neglects the scriptural rules. Verses 23-28: O tat sat: All sacrifices, charities and austerities should be performed along with chanting o tat sat for the pleasure of the Supreme Person. Without such chanting and faith in the Supreme, all performances are useless in this life and the next.



Chapter eighteen


Part One

k a r m a -y O g a j n a -y O g a
Part Two

arjuna agrees tO Fight

man-man bhava mad-bhakto mad-yj m namaskuru mm evaiyasi satya te pratijne priyo si me sarva-dharmn parityajya mm eka araa vraja aha tv sarva-ppebhyo mokayiymi m uca Always think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend. Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear. Bg. 18.65-66

Part Six

knOwledge in the mOdes aCtiOn in the mOdes wOrker in the mOdes


Part Three

u n d e r s ta n d i n g i n t h e m O d e s d e t e r m i n at i O n i n t h e m O d e s happiness in the mOdes COnClusiOn

Part Four

wOrshiping krsna thrOugh wOrk w O r s h i p i n g k r s n a t h r O u g h j n a -y O g a

Part Five

surrender tO krsna

Chapter Eighteen, Part One Arjuna said: 1 Please tell me the purpose of renunciation, and how to know sannysas manifestation. Lord Ka said: 2 Giving up the fruits of action is called renunciation, and that state is called sannysa by great learned men. 3 Some learned sages say, Give up fruitive activity! Whereas others never give up sacrifice, penance and charity. 4 Now please hear from Me about renunciation, described in scriptures as having three kinds of manifestation. 8 Renouncing duties as troublesome is mode of passion renunciation. Such action never leads to anyones elevation. 9 One who does his duty with a sense of dutifulness, not desiring the fruit is in the mode of goodness. 5 For sacrifice, charity, and penance never consider renunciation. Even great souls perform these for their purification. 6 Perform these activities without expectation, as a matter of duty. That is My opinion. 7 Never renounce prescribed duties; that is a great illusion. Giving up prescribed duties is mode of ignorance renunciation.


10 Those unattached to auspicious work, inauspicious work do not hate, have no doubts about work, being in mode of goodness state. 11 An embodied being cannot give up activities of any kind. Giving up the fruits of action he is of truly renounced mind. 12 After death those not renounced must suffer threefold fruits of action. But those in renounced order will have no reaction. 13-14 In performing all action there are five factors: the place, senses, performer, Supersoul, and the endeavor. 15 All actions right or wrong performed by body, speech or mind are caused by these factors of five kinds.

16 Neglecting these five factors, thinking oneself the only doer, one is not very intelligent, nor can one see things as they are. 17 One whose intelligence is free from false egos motivation, although killing in this world, is not bound by his action. 18 Knowledge, the knower and its object are actions motivation; the senses, work and doer are actions foundation.


Chapter Eighteen, Part One Summary Verses 1-12: Karma-yoga: Arjuna inquires which is better: renunciation or sannysa. Ka answers that real renunciation is to give up the results of ones work and perform ones duty with detachment. Verses 13-18: Jna-yoga: In performing all action there are five factors: the place, senses, performer, Supersoul, and the endeavor. One who understands these factors is free from false ego and is not bound by his actions.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Two 19 Knowledge, action and doer are known in categories three. Listen well now as they are described by Me. 20 One with knowledge in goodness perceives all souls as one undivided though divided like tiny rays of the sun. 21 Knowledge in passion sees the body as the soul. Or they see beyond the body no Supreme Soul. 22 Lacking knowledge of the truth is knowledge in darkness, being attached to work as everything desiring material happiness. 23 Actions done from duty, without love or hate, unattached to the fruit is in mode of goodness state. 24 Action done with great effort to fulfill sense desire, being pushed by false ego, will increase passions fire. 25 Action done in delusion not considering future consequence, inflicting painful injury is in the mode of ignorance. 26 The worker from attachments free, indifferent to failure or success, enthusiastic and resolute, is in the mode of goodness. 27 One attached to his works fruits, who is greedy and envious, is in the mode of passion, moved by happiness and distress. 28 One who works against the scriptures, insulting others, obstinate, cheating, is in the mode of ignorance always morose and procrastinating.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Two Summary Verses 19-22: Knowledge in the Modes: In goodness one sees the soul, in passion one sees different bodies, and in ignorance being attached to work for the body, ones knowledge is covered. Verses 23-25: Action in the Modes: In the mode of goodness, one performs action out of duty with detachment, in passion work is done with great effort for sense pleasure, and in ignorance action is done without considering future results by inflicting pain on others Verses 26-28: Worker in the modes: The worker in goodness is detached, enthusiastic and resolute; in passion he is envious and greedy for the fruits; in ignorance he works against the scriptures, morose and procrastinating, cheating.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Three 29 O winner of wealth, please listen as I will now tell of understanding and determination of three kinds in detail. 30 Understanding in goodness tells us what will liberate, what will bind, what we should or should not fear, and what is work of the right kind. 31 Understanding in passion knows not religious or irreligious, nor what work should not be done, nor what work is auspicious. 32 Understanding in darkness sees irreligion as religion, always going in the wrong direction, under great illusion. 33 Unbreakable determination sustained with steadfastness, controlling mind, life and senses, is in the mode of goodness. 34 One in the mode of passion has such determination, being attached to results in moneymaking for sense gratification. 35 In the mode of ignorance unintelligent determination cannot go beyond dreaming, fear, depression, lamentation. 36-37 Mode of goodness pleasure seems like poison purification, but ultimately one tastes nectar of self-realization. 38 Mode of passion pleasure seems like nectar happiness, but by contacting the senses quickly changes to distress. 39 From mode of ignorance pleasure always misery one will reap, to self-realization blind, caused by illusion, laziness, sleep.


40 Either demigod or human, there is no being that be who can say with conviction, From natures modes, Im free.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Three Summary Verses 33-35: Determination in the Modes: In goodness, determination is unbreakable with control of the mind, life and senses. In passion, one is determined to get results in religion for material gain to aid in sense gratification. In ignorance, there is no determination and one is lost in a dreamlike state, full of fear, depression and lamentation. Verses 36-39: Happiness in the Modes: Happiness in goodness seems like poison in the beginning, but is nectar in the end because it awakens one to self-realization. Happiness in passion from sense gratification is like nectar in the beginning, but poison at last. Happiness in ignorance is misery from beginning to end, being blind to selfrealization. Verse 40: Conclusion: no one in this world is free from the three modes of nature.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Four 41 Brhmaas, katriyas, vaiys, dras who they are we can know by the qualities of work in modes of nature which they show. 42 Qualities of work for brhmaas peacefulness, self-control, austerity, tolerance, honesty, wisdom, religiousness, and purity. 43 Qualities of work for katriyas heroism, power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and leaderships manifestation. 44 For vaiysfarming, business and cow protection. For dras serving others is their perfection. 45-46 By following ones qualities of work every man can gain perfection. Now hear how one can do this by following My instruction. 47 Although it may be imperfect better accept ones occupation. Prescribed duties of ones nature cant be touched by sinful reaction. 48 Every endeavor has some fault; it can never be perfect. Therefore work born of ones nature one should never neglect. 49 By self-control one gains the results of renunciation being unattached to material things, giving up sense gratification. 50 Now hear from Me in brief how to attain Brahman perfection by acting perfectly according to My description.


51-53 By intelligence gaining purification, controlling the mind with determination, giving up objects of sense gratification, controlling the tongue, always in trance, freed from lust and angers manifestation one certainly gets elevation to the position of self-realization. 54 One who has gained Brahman realization is free from desires and lamentation. Seeing equally all beings, he gains pure devotional servicereal liberation. 55 Only by devotional service can we the Supreme Lord understand. Being fully in love with Ka, we can enter GolokaHis spiritual land.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Four Summary Verses 41-48: Worshiping Ka Through Work: Brhmaas, katriyas, vaiys and dras can be understood by their qualities of work. When they work for Ka, all impurities are removed and they are freed from sinful reaction. Verses 49-55: Worshiping Ka Through Jnayoga: By following the process of knowledge one attains Brahman realization, freed from desire and lamentation. In this state, one attains pure devotional service to Lord Ka and one can understand Him. Thus one goes back to Goloka Vndvana at the end of life.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Five 56. My devotee who works hard under My protection, by My grace goes back to Godhead the supreme perfection. 57 Just perform devotional service, depending upon Me, working under My protection, become fully conscious of Me. 58 Being Ka conscious youll overcome all obstacles by My grace. But if you act through false ego youll be lost without a trace. 59-60 If you neglect My direction and do not fight any more, then youll still falsely fight since you must engage in war. 61 The Supreme Lord is sitting within every beings heart, directing all his wanderings through his body which is like a cart. 62 Surrender unto Him and youll gain peace without strife. His grace, going back to Godhead youll gain eternal life. 63 The most confidential knowledge I have now explained to you. Deliberate on this fully. Then do what you wish to do. 64 Ill again speak confidentially because youre My friend so dear. This is for your benefit, so please kindly hear. 65 Always think of Me, become My devotee Worship Me, offer obeisances to Me. I promise youll come to Me, since youre My friend, so dear to Me. 66 Give up all kinds of religion and surrender unto Me. Ill free you from your sins. From all fear now be free.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Five Summary Verses 56-66: Surrender to Ka: By performing pure devotional service to Lord Ka one overcomes all obstacles. Lord Ka therefore requests everyone to always think of Him, become His devotee, worship Him, offer obeisances to Him and surely one will come to Him. By surrendering to Ka one is free from sin and becomes fearless.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Six 67 Do not tell this secret knowledge to those not doing devotional service, nor to those who are not austere, nor to those who are envious. 68 For one who explains this secret to the gentle devotees, devotional service is guaranteed and he will surely come to Me. 69 There is not any servant more dear to Me than he, nor will there ever be one more dear to Me than he. 70 He who studies this conversation with great diligence surely worships Me by his intelligence. 71 One who listens with faith and without envy, attains the pious planets, from sinful reaction getting free. 72 O Arjuna, have you heard this attentively with your mind? Is your ignorance dispelled? Any illusion do you find? Arjuna said: 73 Memory regained by Your mercy, illusion gone, I see the facts. I am firm and free from doubts, and by Your guidance Ill now act. Sjaya said: 74 Thus Ive heard the conversation of two souls who are great and so wonderful is that message that my hair is standing straight. 75 By Vysadevas mercy Ive heard these talks directly from yogevara Lord Ka speaking to Arjuna personally.


76 As I repeatedly remember this transcendental treasure Lord Kas talks with Arjuna I feel transcendental pleasure. 77 Whenever Lord Kas form I do remember, I rejoice repeatedly and am struck with greater wonder. 78 Wherever there is Ka of all mystics the supreme and Arjuna, supreme archer, will come victory and power extreme.


Chapter Eighteen, Part Six Summary Verses 67-78: Arjuna Agrees to Fight: Lord Ka promises that one who preaches Gt to the devotees will gain pure devotional service and go back to Godhead. Arjuna is now freed from illusion and agrees to fight according to Lord Kas direction. After hearing the conversation between Ka and Arjuna, Sjaya is in ecstasy. Thus he declares that victory is assured wherever there is Ka, master of all mystic power, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer.