Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

# LABORATORY MANUAL ECE 132 BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT NO. 1
AC circuits: Familiarization of resistors, capacitor and inductor

## Familiarization of resistors: Learning Objectives:

Explain the function of and unit of resistors Measure the value of a resistor Measure the tolerance of a resistor Explain the types of resistors

Resistors: Oppose the flow of current (electrons) Resistance is measured in Ohm 1000 Ohm resistor is shown as 1 k Ohm and 1000 K Ohm resistor is shown as 1 M Ohm

Types of resistors: Fixed Variable Fixed resistors: Carbon film, metal film, wire wound resistors (value of resistor is specified and cannot be changed) Variable resistors: Semi fixed completely variable, potentiometer (can be changed by rotating the wiper) Reading value of fixed resistors: Resistors are color coded as they are too small for the value to be written on them. There are 4 or 5 bands of color. Value of a resistor is decoded from these bands of color.

## Reading value: Step 1:

If your resistor has four color bands, turn the resistor so that the gold or silver band is on the right hand side or the end with more bands should point left. Step 2: The first band is now on the left hand side. This represents the first digit. Based on the color make a note of the digit. In this case- 4 band its 5 and for 5 band its 2. Step 3: The second band represents the second digit. The colors represents the same numbers as did the first digit. In this case- 4 band its 6 and for 5 band its 3. Step 4: The third band divulgues how many zeros to add/divide to the first two numbers for a 4 band resistor. In this case- 4 band its 4 zeros to be added. So value is 560K. Step 5: The third band denotes the 3rd digit for a 5 band resistor. In this case -5 band its 7. So the value of the 5 band resistor is 237 Ohms as its multiplier digit is 0. Tolerance: The last band denotes the tolerance. So the value of the 4 band resistor it is +/- 1%.

Tolerance of a resistor is also an important property to consider A 100 Ohm resistor with a 10 % tolerance can mean its value can be any fixed value between 90 to 110 Ohms A 120 Ohm resistor with a 10 % tolerance can mean its value can be any fixed value between 108 and 132 Ohms So there is some overlap between 100 Ohm and 120 Ohm resistance in terms of its limits.

Mnemonic to remember:

Carbon film resistors: Most general purpose, cheap resistor Tolerance of resistance value is usually +/- 5 % Power ratings of 1/8 W, 1/4 W, and 1/2 W are usually used Con: Tend to be electrically noisy

Metal film resistor: Used when higher tolerance is needed, ie more value They have about +/- 0.05 % tolerance

Wire wound resistors: A wire wound resistor is made of metal resistance wire, and because of this they can be manufactured to precise values Also, high wattage resistors can be made by thick wire material Have very high power ratings

Familiarization of Capacitor: Learning Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. Provides definition of capacitance and name its unit Explain how capacitor can be constructed to give a particular value of capacitance Explain why capacitor has maximum working voltage Determine experimentally the energy stored in the capacitor

5. Identify the value and type of capacitor 6. Determine the polarity of terminals What is a capacitor? A capacitor is an electronic component which has a wide range of uses in various circuits due to their ability to store charge.

There are several types of capacitors which will vary in its construction but all will function in the similar way Construction of capacitor: The basic construction of all capacitor is that it consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an insulating medium (dielectric). An insulator is a medium which is non- conducting i.e. it shows high resistance to the path of letting to electric current flow through it.

For a capacitor the simplest type of capacitor used is air. Other types are oil or paper. Real capacitors are made by taking thin strips of metal foil and the appropriate dielectric medium and sandwiching them. Capacitor achieves large area (thus large capacitance) by taking a large area of foil sandwiching the insulating medium and rolling them in form of a cylinder. Capacitor is so called because of its capacity to store energy. Capacitor are marked by a value indicating its capacitance i.e. their ability to store charge. Capacitance can be thought of as the electrical capacity of the body. It is measured in Farads. Maximum working voltage: If the voltage across the capacitor plates is too high the insulator between the plates fails to insulate and charge passes from one plate to another. Capacitors are usually marked with the working voltage to avoid this situation. A good thumb rule is that never place a voltage to the capacitor which exceed two third of its maximum voltage especially in alternating current circuits. Function of capacitor: Consider a circuit set up i.e the capacitor is connected in series with the ammeter and the switch is closed. The ammeter will show 1. 2. 3. 4. Steady state reading A reading of zero Flip back and forth Flip on one side and come back to zero.

Now let us extend this by using a galvanometer on both sides of the capacitor and using a two way switch If the switch is connected to p then 1. 2. 3. 4. Neither moves Both flick briefly to left Both flick briefly to right They flick briefly in opposite directions

Now if the switch is connected to the o terminal: 1. 2. 3. 4. Neither moves Both flick briefly to left Both flick briefly to right They flick briefly in opposite directions

If instead of first moving it to p if its moved to o then it might be the possibilities as mentioned above.

From the behavior of the ammeter needle it suggests that the current first flows in one way and then it flows in the other direction when the switch is moved from p to o So this suggests that 1. 2. 3. 4. Equal amount of current flows off from one plate to the other More charge flows of from plate A onto B More charge flows of from plate B onto A No charge flows at all

Charging and discharging of capacitor: We can say that capacitor is charged when connected to P and discharged when connected to terminal O Charging: The plate of the capacitor that is connected to the negative terminal of the battery accepts electrons that the battery is producing. The plate of the capacitor that is connected to the positive terminal of the battery loses electrons to the battery. Once it is charged, the capacitor has the same voltage as that of the battery. Let us connect a battery a light bulb and a capacitor in series. What are the possibilities that are about to happen? 1. The bulb will glow as long as the battery is connected 2. It will never glow 3. It will first glow and then dimming of slowly and then finally turns off If we then remove the battery and replace it with a wire, current will flow one plate of the capacitor to the other. The bulb will glow initially and then dim as the capacitor discharges, until it is completely out. A static description of a capacitor behavior is understood by the expression Q = CV where Q is the total charge, C signifies how big the capacitor is and V is the voltage across it. The dynamic description i.e. the one which changes with time is given by the equation. I = dV/dt This is just time derivative of static description, C is the constant with respect to time and I is the rate at which charge flows. This essentially shows that the bigger the current the faster the capacitors voltage changes. Analogy: Think of capacitor as a tub that can hold charge. A tub of large diameter (C), holds a lot of water (Q) for a given height (V). If we fill the tub with a thin straw (small I) then water level V-

will rise slowly. If we use a large pipe (large V) then water level will rise faster. Similar for draining (discharging) tub. Of course a tub of larger diameter takes longer to fill than a tub of smaller diameter. Classification of Capacitors: Polarized: They have a positive and negative electrode. o Electrolytic o Tantalum o Super Un-Polarized: They dont have a positive and negative electrode indication o Ceramic o Multilayer ceramic o Polystyrene film o Polyester film o Polypropylene o Mica Electrolytic capacitor: Electrolytic capacitors are polarized and they must be connected the correct way round. It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. Tantalum capacitors: Tantalum bead capacitors are polarized and have low voltage ratings like electrolytic capacitors. Usually, the + symbol is used to show the positive component lead. Modern tantalum bead capacitors are printed with their capacitance, voltage and polarity in full. However older ones use a color-code system which has two stripes (for the two digits) and s spot of color for the number of zeros to give the value in F. Un-Polarized capacitors - small values upto 1 F:

## Un-Polarized capacitors Color code:

Familiarization of inductor: Learning Objectives: Explain function of inductor Explain the factors influencing inductance Function of an inductor: The function of a value is to control the amount of fluid that flows through a pipe. In an electric circuit, the resistor is used to control the amount of current that flows through a conductor. Another device that controls the current is the inductor: However unlike the resistor that affects the current uniformly at all times, the inductor only affects currents when they are changing in value. Similarity with capacitor: Rate of change of voltage in a capacitor depends upon the current through it Rate of change of current in an inductor depends upon the voltage applied across it. Like capacitive current, inductive current is not simply proportional to voltage. Unlike the situation in a resistor, the power associated with inductive current (V times I) is not turned into heat but is stored as energy in the inductors magnetic field. V = L*dI/dt, Where, L is the inductance and is measured in henry. Putting a voltage across an inductor causes the current to rise as a ramp. 1 volt across 1 henry produced a current that increases at 1 amp per second Structure of an Inductor: It consists of a wire wound as a coil around a core. The core may consist of a air filled hollow tube or solid material.

Inductance: The amount of inductance in henries a coil has, is determined by the following factors:

Inductive Kick: An inductor is capable of producing a momentary voltage that is much higher than the voltage of the power source that supplied the current to create its magnetic field. This temporary voltage is called an inductive kick. Example of applications of inductive devices to provide an inductive kick is a combustion engine ignition system that creates the spark across the gap of the spark plug.

Result: The basic fundamentals of passive elements have been studied. Learning outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words.

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

Wiring of different lamp control, stair casing circuits, Assembly and wiring of fluorescent tube light.

To control one lamp with the help of Two way switch Material Used: Switch board, Two way switch, Lamp holder, PVC wires, Switch sheet, Casing & Capping batten, Lamp, Nail & Screw Tool used: Combination pleir, Test pen, Screw driver, Knife, Poker Learning objective: Assembly and wiring of fluorescent tube light Circuit Diagram:

Outline of Procedure: 1) Take a wooden board. 2) Fixed casing & capping on wooden board & fixed three switch board at the end of casing & capping batten two for 2 way switch & one for Lamp. 3) Fixed Lamp holder on board. 4) Connect Phase wire to lamp holder through switch. 5) Connect neutral wore directly to lamp holder. 6) Check the circuit before connecting main supply. Precautions: 1) All connection should be tight. 2) Wire should not over long. 3) After completing the job all tools must be kept at proper place. 4) Keep your mind and eyes on the job & dont talk any one while working. 5) Tools not being used should not be scatter on working table.

## Learning outcome: To be written by students in 50 to 70 words

Lay out of complete house wiring with batten wiring with lamp, fan, tube light.
Equipment/Tool Used: 1- phase energy meter, DP main switch, fuse, neutral link, Combination pliers, screw

driver, test pen, side cutting plier, and electrician knife. Consumable Material:
Learning Objective: PVC Wire, Screw, PVC Batten, , Lamp holder, switch sheet, switch board, Insulation tape, fuse wire, lamp, tube fitting. To practice how to make the connection of house wiring and domestic appliances.

Outline of Procedure:
Fixed 1-phase energy meter, DP main switch and switch board on their on respective places. Make the connection as per circuit diagram. Connected phase wire to lamp, socket, tube light and fan through switch and connect neutral directly. Now, switch on the power supply and job will the function. Result: 1. Analysis of the connection of domestic wiring. 2. Proper connection of lamp, tube light and fan. Precaution: 1. Connection should be tightly done. 2. Keep your mind and eyes on the job and dont talk any one while working. 3. Tools being used should not be allowed to scatter on working table. . Learning Outcome:

## Assembly and wiring of fluorescent tube light

Equipment/ Tool Required: Learning Objective:
Reference Drg. No.

## Combination pleir, test pen, screw driver, knife, poker

To practice how to make the connection of tube light. LPU/ELECT/04(b)

Circuit Diagram:

Outline of Procedure:
1) 2) 3) 4) Result: Make the tube light circuit as shown in circuit diagram. Connect phase wire through switch. Connect neutral wire directly to tube rod. Connect starter to two spare terminals.

## Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words

EXPERIMENT NO. 3

Distribution board (To make a single phase main distribution board with five outgoing circuits for light and fan load including main switch and fuses (only internal connections), Wiring and testing of alarm and indicating relays, indicating lights etc.)

To prepared a distribution board with four outgoes circuit for fan and light load along with main switch and fuses
Equipment/ Tool Required: DP main Plier, Screw Driver, Test pen, Claw hammer, Poker, Knife, Energy meter,

Switch, Distribution box 4-way, MCB 6A, Neutral link. Consumable Material: board. Learning Objective:
PVC Wire, Screw, PVC Batten, Switch, Lamp holder, switch sheet, switch

In this the student knows how to divide the load to different circuit.

Outline of Procedure:
1. First of all we fixed energy meter, main switch, and distribution box on wooden board and a Bus bar and neutral link fused in distribution box. 2. Now Connect Phase wire to bus bar and neutral wire to Neutral link. 3. One Phase wire taken from main bus bar and neutral wire from Neutral Link through fuse or MCB each ckt is made from pair of Phase and Neutral wire. Result: In this system the number of ckt and Sub ckt are divided on the basis of Load to be connected to the supply.

## Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words

EXPERIMENT NO. 4

PN Junction Diode (To study the VI characteristics of PN junction diode and Zener diode) Plotting V-I characteristics of PN junction diode: Equipment Required: Diode D1N4002, Resistor 1 k , Multimeter , Wires. Material Required: Bread board, connecting wires Software Required: Pspice Learning Objective: Study of characteristics of a diode. Circuit diagram:

Outline of Procedure: Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram. Use PSpice to obtain the i-v characteristic of the diode with model number D1N4002. Sweep the input voltage from -15 V to 15 V. When simulation is complete probe graphic window appears. Add the trace I (D1). This is the trace of the diode current versus the supply voltage Vss. We need to change the x-axis variable to V (Vd) to obtain the plot of diode current versus diode voltage. To do this from the Plot pull-down menu select X Axis Settings, click the Axis Variable button to open the variable list, and select V (Vd) to be the horizontal axis. After performing the simulation, implement the same on the bread board to draw VI characteristics of PN junction diode.

Ideal graph:

Plotting V-I characteristics of Zener diode: Equipment Required: Zener Diode D1N750, Resistor 1 k , Multimeter . Material Required: Bread board, connecting wires Software Required: Pspice Learning Objective: Study of characteristics of a Zener diode. Circuit diagram:

Outline of Procedure: Construct the above schematic and label the output node as Vout. Select the setup from the analysis menu; click the DC Sweep dialog button. The DC sweep dialog box appears. For the Sweep variable type select the voltage source, and set its name to V1. Using the sweep type linear, set the starting value to 0, end value to 20 and increment to 0.05. When simulation is complete probe graphic window appears. From the Plot pull-down menu select X Axis Settings, click the Axis Variable button to open the variable list, and select V (Vout) to be the horizontal axis. Ideal graph:

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the V-I Curves of PN and Zener diode in PSPICE window. Cautions: Connect circuit very carefully with all components from proper Library. Result: In this, we studied the characteristics of PN junction and Zener diode. Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words

EXPERIMENT NO. 5

Voltage regulator (Implementation of voltage regulator using Zener diode) Voltage regulator:

## Learning Objective: To know about voltage regulation

Outline of Procedure:

## RESULT- In this, we studied how Zener diode acts as voltage regulator.

Precautions: Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear. Do not short circuit +ve and - ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit. Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words.

EXPERIMENT NO. 6

Rectifier (Implementation of half wave and full wave rectifier using diodes on bread board and also on Pspice) Half wave rectifier:

Outline of Procedure:

Output waveforms:

## Full wave rectifier:

Outline of Procedure:

Output waveforms:

Result: Rectification of Halfwave and fullwave using diodes have been studied. Precautions: Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear. Do not short circuit +ve and - ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit. Learning outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words.

EXPERIMENT NO. 7

Resonance (To verify series and parallel resonance in AC circuits) Series resonance:

Outline of Procedure:

Parallel resonance:

Outline of Procedure:

Result: Series and parallel resonance in AC circuit have been studied. Precautions: Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear. Do not short circuit +ve and - ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit. Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words

EXPERIMENT NO. 8

Bipolar junction transistor (To study the VI characteristics of Bipolar junction transistor) CB configuration:

Learning Objective:- To plot the transistor characteristics of CB configuration. THEORY: In this configuration the base is made common to both the input and out. The emitter is given the input and the output is taken across the collector. The current gain of this configuration is less than unity. The voltage gain of CB configuration is high. Due to the high voltage gain, the power gain is also high. In CB configuration, Base is common to both input and output. In CB configuration the input characteristics relate IE and VEB for a constant VCB. Initially let VCB = 0 then the input junction is equivalent to a forward biased diode and the characteristics resembles that of a diode. Where VCB = +VI (volts) due to early effect IE increases and so the characteristics shifts to the left. The output characteristics relate IC and VCB for a constant IE. Initially increased IC also increases. proportionality. Though increase in VCB remains a constant for all values of VCB once it levels off.

Outline of Procedure: Input characteristics: It is the curve between emitter current IE and emitter-base voltage VBE at constant collectorbase voltage VCB. 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Set VCE=5V, vary VBE in steps of 0.1V and note down the corresponding IB. Repeat the above procedure for 10V, 15V. 3. Plot the graph VBE Vs IB for a constant VCE. Output characteristics: It is the curve between collector current IC and collector-base voltage VCB at constant emitter current IE. 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Set Ib=20 mA, vary Vce in steps of 1 V and note down the corresponding Ic.repeat the above procedure for 40 mA,80 mA etc.. 3. Plot the graph VCE Vs IC for a constant IB. 4. Find the h parameters .

Results: Fill in the observed response in the following table and design the characteristics on its basis. Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words CE configuration:

## Learning Objective:- To plot the transistor characteristics of CE configuration.

Outline of procedure: Input characteristics: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Set VCE ,vary VBE in regular interval of steps and note down the corresponding IB reading. Repeat the above procedure for different values of VCE. 3. Plot the graph: VBE Vs IB for a constant VCE.

Output characteristics: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Set IB, Vary VCE in regular interval of steps and note down the corresponding IC reading. Repeat the above procedure for different values of IB. 3. Plot the graph: VCE Vs IC for a constant IB.

Model graph:

Result: The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter (CE) configuration were plotted.

## Learning Outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words

EXPERIMENT NO. 9

DC motor (Realization of the Direction control for DC motor circuit) Direction control of DC motor: Equipment Required: Wires, Multiple Power Supply & multimeter. Material Required: Resistor (10K, 2.2 K -2 each), Diodes (IN4007-5), Transistor (instead of TIP31 use BC 548) and DC motor (12V). Learning Objective: Direction control of DC motor using transistors. Outline of Procedure: Connect circuit as per as the circuit diagram. Operate switches S1 and S2 to direction control of DC motor. Circuit Diagram:

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the direction of rotation of motor as we turn on the switches S1 and S2 alternately. Precautions: Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear. Do not short circuit +ve and - ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit. Learning outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words.

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

Thyristor (Study the VI characteristics of a thyristor) VI characteristics of a Thyristor: Apparatus required: SCR TY604, power supplies, wattage resistors, ammeter, voltmeter. Learning Objective: To study the VI characteristics of a Thyristor Circuit Diagram:

Outline of Procedure:

Result :
V-I characterstics of SCR have been studied.

Precautions: Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear. Do not short circuit +ve and ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit. Learning outcome: To be written by students in 50-70 words.