You are on page 1of 67

PUBLISHED MONTHLY. PRICE, 2.00 PER ANNUM. SINGLE COPIES, 20 CENTS.

VOL. XI. JUNE, 1893. NO. 3.


THE
CHRISTIAN
SCIENCE
JOURNAL.
OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF
NATIONAL CHRISTIAN SCIENTISTS' ASSOCIATION.
FOUNDED APRIL, 1883, by the Author of SCIENCE AND HEALTH,
THE REV. MARY BAKER G. EDDY.
PUBLISHED BY
THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING SOCIETY,
62 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS.
Entered as second-class matter.
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
REVEREND MARY BAKER G. EDDY.
T
HE Rev. Mary Baker G. Eddy, discoverer and founder
of Christian Science, was born in the town of Bow,
New Hampshire. Her parents were Mark and Abi-
gail B. Baker. Among her ancestors may be mentioned,
Gen. John Macneil and Gen. Henry Knox. The family line-
age goes back to Scotland, and among the more remote
ancestry was Sir John Macneil, a Scottish knight who
attained to much prominence in his day and generation as a
statesman and diplomat.
Her great grandmother on the paternal side was Marion
Moor, whose family were said to have belonged to the origi-
nal stock from whom was descended Hannah More, "t he
pious and popular English authoress."
Among her relations of the present day who have attained
to prominence in law and politics, are Hon. Hoke Smith,
President Cleveland's Secretary of the Interior, and Gen. H.
M. Baker, now a member of Congress.
Her brother Albert Baker, was a lawyer of unusual bril-
liancy and ability and at the early age of thirty years had
won high distinction at the bar. He had been elected to
Congress, but was prevented by death from taking his seat.
In her work Retrospection and Introspection, Mrs. Eddy
thus refers to her parents:
" My father possessed a strong intellect and an iron will.
Of my mother I cannot speak as I would, for memory recalls
qualities to which the pen can never do justice. The follow-
ing is a brief extract from the eulogy of Rev. Richard S.
Rust D. D., who for many years had resided in Tilton, and
knew my sainted mother in all the walks of life."
The character of Mrs. Abigail Ambrose Baker was distinguished for
numerous excellencies. She possessed a strong intellect, a sympathizing
heart, and a placid spirit. Her presence, like the gentle dew and cheer-
ful light, was felt by all around her. She gave an elevated character to
101
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
102 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE JOURNAL.
the tone of conversation in the circles in which she moved, and directed
attention to themes at once pleasing and profitable.
As a mother, she was untiring in her efforts to secure the happiness
of her family. She ever entertained a lively sense of the parental obli-
gation, especially in regard to the education of her children. The oft-
repeated impressions of that sainted spirit, on the hearts of those
especially entrusted to her watch-care, can never be effaced, and can
hardly fail to induce them to follow her to the brighter world. Her life
was a living illustration of Christian faith.
The religious element was strongly marked in Mrs. Eddy' s
character from her earliest childhood. She early imbibed
high conceptions of the office of divine Love. She was un-
able to reconcile the doctrine of eternal punishment with the
Biblical teaching that God is Love, and that he is infinite.
She could think of no place within the infinite where God's
love was inefficacious, much less, a place where it could be
transformed into eternal hate. These reflections, and her
Scriptural studies, led her at the early age of twelve years
to begin " disputing with the doctors " upon this and kindred
subjects. She avowed her inability to accept the Calvinistic
doctrine of election, or foreordination and predestination.
But notwithstanding these reservations, she was admitted to
membership in the Congregational church of her native place.
She maintained her connection with this church until she or-
ganized her own Christian Science Church in Boston.
At the age of sixteen she had formed such literary habits
that she became a valued contributor to the press and periodi-
cals. Her literary tastes took the form of poetry as well as
prose, although but few of her poems have been published.
But it is not as much of her early life and writings that
we wish to speak, as of her " greater works " since she became
imbued with that spirit of Truth which led her to the
investigations and labors resulting in giving to the world
t hat wonder f ul book SCI ENCE AND HEALT H, WI T H KEY T O
THE SCRIPTURES.
SCIENCE AND HEALT H is unique in literature. It is the
first book to announce the fact that, as a system, " Chris-
tianity must be Science, and Science must be Christianity,
else one or the other is false and useless." It is impossi-
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
REVEREND MARY BAKER G. EDDY. 103
ble, according to the system enunciated by this book, to be a
true Christian without leading a truly Scientific life; and it
is impossible to be a true Scientist without leading a truly
Christian life.
The author draws the line sharply between pseudo-science
and Science. That is, between those systems of human
speculation and hypotheses which assume to be science, but
which are lacking the element of stability and are ever-
changing, and that unchanging Trut h which is absolute and
eternal in its method and operation. The former is of man ;
the latter is of God. And the more nearly the human mind
lives in at-one-ment with the divine Mind, the more nearly it
approaches to an understanding of the one absolute Science.
From this standpoint of God and man, therefore, the
author very naturally and very wisely adopted as a name by
which to designate the system thus revealed to her, the
words, Christian Science. Nor did she intend that this
name should be applied alone to designate a particular sect
or class of people. It will be seen by the careful reader, that
whatever partakes of eternal Truth (which she often refers
to as Christ-Truth) is Christian Science, so far as it does so
partake, and so far as it is demonstrated to be Truth.
The highest conception of Trut h is Christ-knowledge, or
knowledge of the Christ. This knowledge includes the
teachings of the Bible as a whole. " Jesus the man was the
fleshly embodiment or representative of the Christ-Truth
upon this earth," and hence SCIENCE AND HEALT H refers to
him as " the greatest Christian Scientist the world has ever
known." Why? Because he had the greatest knowledge of
God, and " reflected more of the divine character than any
one else who appeared in the flesh." He was therefore more
Christianly Scientific than any one else.
The name selected for this book is not less unique than
the name its author has given to religion or Christianity.
Science and Heal t h! Science (knowledge) and Health
(wholeness) ! Knowledge of God is wholeness, and there is
no wholeness apart from this knowledge, this Science.
Hence it is not used in the sense alone of mere physical
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
104 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE JOURNAL.
healing, conspicuous as that is in this system, and important
as it is to humanity. I t also is t hat " heal t h" which
includes universal harmony, spiritual wholeness, the full-
grown man, the spiritual idea of God. This is the health to
be attained through right-living and earnest Christian
striving. To show mankind how to reach this goal upon
its immortal Principle or purely spiritual basis is the grand
purpose of SCIENCE AND HEALT H. I t unfolds the Scriptures
in such a way as to lead to clearer and better conceptions of
God, and the universe including man. I t opens to human
vision a new view of life and its purposes, of man and his
capabilities and possibilities. It lifts the sorrowing and de-
pressed out of the mortal "slough of despond" into which
they have fallen as the result of wrong conditions and
systems, and points them with unerring certainty to the
consolations, hopes and aspirations of the Gospel of Jesus
Christ.
Its results, as testified to by thousands who have been up-
lifted by its teachings, warrant the claim that it is that " Spirit
of Trut h " and that " Comforter" which Jesus said should
come after him.
I t is not a commentary of or upon the BI BLE. I t is an
interpretation of it in its entirety. I t teaches no doctrine of
man, but the law of God. I t does not select fragmentary or
isolated passages of Scripture and endeavor to conform them
to preconceived opinions or hypotheses. I t touches that
mighty book at all sides, and brings its infinite meaning down
to human comprehension. Those who have for years been
studying it in connection with the BI BLE, are more and more
deeply impressed with its far-reaching interpretation, and the
marvelous manner in which it clears up otherwise obscure,
perplexing, and often apparently contradictory statements.
It is the uniform testimony of its oldest and most painstaking
students that they have never yet found a statement of
SCIENCE AND HEALT H which has not its basis in the BI BLE.
This is not a hasty or biased conclusion, but is the result of
close application and study by persons, many of whom had
been conscientious and apt Bible scholars, according to the
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
REVEREND MARY BAKER G. EDDY. 105
old interpretations, for many years. I t is not too much then,
to claim for the authorship of this book the distinction of
inspiration, as that term is properly used.
The intelligent reading of this book, according to their
unsought testimony, has healed hundreds of persons of dis-
eases and complications of diseases, which had baffled the
best skill of all the schools of medicine, as well as all other
known means ; and while healing them physically, it has up-
lifted them spiritually in such manner that they have come
into this temple of the better understanding of divine law,
literally "leaping and shouting and praising God." I t has
already passed to its seventy-fifth edition, and the demand
for it exceeds present ability to meet it.
It has found its way into almost all parts of the world.
Among other notable places where it has been received and
read, is the Academy of Greece. The earnest Science worker
through whose good offices it was presented to this Academy
thus speaks of the manner of its introduction there :
" The conditions under which the book, SCIENCE AND
HEALT H, was presented to the Academy of Greece were very
suggestive. The Board of Philosophers were scattered all
over the world trying to find the solution of the great question,
' What is life ?' I told the director of the Musee that I had
a book which gave the solution of this great problem, and I
should take great pleasure in presenting their Library with a
copy, and requested him to call the attention of their philos-
ophers to it when they returned. He promised to do so.
About six months after my return I received the certificate
of its reception in their Library, and of its being given a place
there. As this is the one educational institution of Greece,
I think this book will be read, and will do its own work. I
was pleased to hear from the book many months after, and it
appears it was not overlooked."
The author has similar certificates from all the chief classi-
cal sources in Europe, America and Russia.
Mrs. Eddy refers to the motives by which she was governed
in entering upon her great undertaking in the following ten-
der t ones:
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
106 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE JOURNAL.
I saw before me the sick, wearing out years of servitude to an unreal
master, in the belief that the body governed them, rather than Mind.
The lame, the deaf, the dumb, the blind, the sick, the sensual, the sinner,
I wished to save from the slavery of their own beliefs, and from the edu-
cational systems of the Pharaohs who to-day hold the children of Israel
in bondage. I saw before me the awful conflict, the Red Sea, and the
wilderness; but I pressed on, through faith in God, trusting Truth, the
strong deliverer, to guide me into the land of Christian Science, where
fetters fall, and the rights of man to freedom are fully known and ac-
knowledged.
She again writes:
When apparently near the confines of mortal existence, standing already
within the shadow of the death-valley, I learned these truths in Divine
Science: that all real Being is in the divine Mind and idea; that Life,
Truth, and Love are all-powerful and ever-present; that the opposite of
Truth called error, sin, sickness, disease, deathis the false testimony
of false material sense; that this false sense evolves, in belief, a subjec-
tive state of mortal mind, which this same mind calls matter, thereby
shutting out the true sense of Spirit.
Speaking of her experiments along the line of homeopathic
treatment of cases she writes:
The drug was attenuated to such a degree that not a vestige of it
remained; and from this fact I learned that it was not the drug which
cured, or changed the symptoms. I have attenuated Natrum muriaticum
(common table salt) until there was not a single saline property left.
" The salt had lost its savor;" and yet with one drop of that attenuation
in a goblet of water, and a teaspoonful of the water administered at
intervals of three hours, I have cured a patient sinking in the last stage
of typhoid fever.
As the result of such experiments she very naturally
arrived at the conclusion that " the highest attenuation of
homeopathy, and the most potent, steps out of matter into
Mind ; and thus it should seem that Mind is the healer, or
metaphysics, and that there is no efficacy in the drug."
By this teaching, the divine Principle of Jesus' healing is
rendered humanly practical, and a definite rule taught, upon
which could be founded a system of healing for all. The
great fact is found demonstrable, that "al l causation is Mind,
and that divine Mind is at once supreme and infinite Intelli-
gence, and is the living Principle or omnipresent and omnip-
otent Life of the universe." Also that " this all-pervading
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
REVEREND MARY BAKER G. EDDY. 107
Intelligence is absolute Good, containing no admixture or
adulteration of evil, and knowing not evil, because Good
is itself omnipotent and infinite, leaving no room for the
presence of evil as a fact of the universe." I t has only such
reality or existence as depraved mortal conceptions have
given it.
Mrs. Eddy' s other writings consist of " Unity of Good,"
" Retrospection and Introspection," " No and Yes," " Rudi-
ments and Rules of Divine Science," " Christian Healing,"
"People' s idea of God," "Pond and Purpose," and many
articles which have at different times been published in this
JOURNAL.
These smaller works are, of course, based on SCIENCE AND
HEALT H, but many of them are intended to, and do answer,
in concise form, the questions which are most frequently
asked concerning Christian Science, its aims, and underlying
principles. As helps to the study of SCIENCE AND HEALT H,
they are most valuable.
We have the pleasure, through the kindness and generosity
of Mr. S. A. Bowers, a leading photographer of Concord,
New Hampshire, of presenting to our readers as a frontis-
piece in this issue a very correct view of " Pleasant View,"
the country home of Mrs. Eddy. An interesting feature of
this picture is the pond, the contributions for making which,
brought forth from Mrs. Eddy' s pen, that remarkable pro-
duction, " Pond and Purpose." EDI TOR.
NOTICE.
The article in May JOURNAL in relation to the use of Church
Rules by other churches of Christ, Scientist, was not designed to
give them the right to publish and print said Rules, but to give
notice that they would be supplied by the Christian Science
Board of Directors, who hold the copyright of said Tenets and
Rules. All communications to be addressed to Wm. B. Johnson,
41 G St., So. Boston, Mass.
WM. B. JOHNSON, Secretary Board of Directors.
The Christian Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1893
Public domain Collection contents made available by The Ark: www.arkpublications.com
S
A
M
P
L
E
Mary Baker Eddy
New England in the first quarter of the nineteenth century was little
different from what it had been at the time of the revolution. Life was
relatively simple; the dark satanic mills had not yet marred the charms
of the rural landscape, as they were to do as the century progressed.
Traditional Calvinist belief still probably dominated much of the thinking
although challenged by Unitarianism and Transcendentalism.
The village of Bow in New Hampshire could readily serve as the
model community for later writers seeking to evoke, in a more worldly
age, the charms of the simple life. The orthodoxy of religious thought
determined the moral character of the community, but the relative
rigidity of belief was leavened by the ideas of progress and democracy.
The Yankee denizens with such concepts could readily regard
themselves as the beau idal citizens of the republic.
Mary Morse Baker was born in 1821. She was the sixth and
youngest child of Noah and Abigail Baker. (Eddy, which is the name
most commonly associated with her she assumed upon marriage to
her third husband.) As a child Mary Baker was somewhat frail, but
her ailments were never precisely defined. Her general malaise was
such that she was indulged by her parents and brothers and sisters.
Her attendance at school was irregular, but her second brother, Albert,
took it upon himself to encourage her general reading. He introduced
her to such compilations as The English Reader, which ensured that
she became acquainted with the accepted best prose and poetry of
the day.
Like many of her contemporaries in the 1830s and 1840s, she
amused herself in writing poetry or what passed for poetry. These
literary effusions, of no great merit, were decidedly typical of the
period. One brief example will serve to illustrate this fact.
Love, Lady Love
There is a joy in loving
But sigh not when you find
That man is fond of roving
He like the summer bee
2003 The Lutterworth Press
112 Deviating Voices
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
Takes wings through beautys bowers
And knows not where to choose
Among so many flowers
Love, Lady Love
Laetitia Elizabeth Landon or Marguerite Blessington would have
appreciated such sentiments and written in a not dissimilar fashion.
Although she was accepted as a full member of the Sanbornton
Congregational Church the family had acquired a new home in
Sanbornton when she was fifteen she was somewhat unorthodox in
her personal beliefs. She declined to accept the generally assumed
Calvinism, and found it impossible to believe that salvation was the
privilege of the few. It was not the stern judgemental Jehovah but
rather the loving Father that appealed to her.
When she was twenty-two she married George Glover. The latter,
although born in New Hampshire, had business interests in South
Carolina. Glover, according to report, was friendly and gregarious
with a positive and optimistic outlook on life. Mary Baker knew that
her new life would be very different from that previously experienced.
Following their marriage the young couple made their home in
Wilmington, North Carolina. The brides health improved, and good
prospects for the future seemed to be assured. Sadly, such was not to
be the case. Glovers business interests fell into difficulties, but far
worse the young man caught yellow fever and expired. He died in
June 1844 after only six months of marriage. His widow was left
virtually penniless, and, moreover, she was pregnant. The obvious
solution was for her to return to New Hampshire where she could
expect to be supported by her family.
Mary Glovers child was born on 12 September 1844. He was
christened George Washington Glover after his late father. The infant
was put into the care of Mabola Sanborn since his mother was too
frail to care for him properly. The subsequent story of George
Washington Glover is a somewhat melancholy one. Mary Glover was
not really a maternal person. The boy was farmed out for much of
the next decade. When he was aged eleven it was decided that he
should accompany his foster parents when they moved to one of the
western states.
Although in later years Mary Baker Eddy seems to have convinced
herself that she had been duped by others into agreeing to this
arrangement, this was not true. In fact, this was a most satisfactory
situation for her. Mother and son were not to meet for some two
Deviating Voices 113
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
decades.
Mary Glovers own life took a turn for the better when she met
Daniel Patterson. He was handsome, gregarious and appeared
reasonably prosperous. He was a dentist with a decent practice, and
marriage to him would ensure a happy and secure future. His financial
situation was, however, not what it seemed, and under a faade of
respectability the newly married couple were very impoverished. Since
she was unable to participate as an equal in the local society, she
became something of a recluse. To occupy her time she entertained
herself reading the Bible and she, like the mediaeval contemplatives,
fixed her mind on other-worldly matters to escape from the miseries
of her present situation.
Whatever the exigencies of her existence she experienced at this
time, she seems to have retained a generally orthodox theology. She
had no doubts about the eternal life in the hereafter being convinced
that she would rejoin her deceased mother and favourite brother. She
was not attracted to spiritualism, but she was uncritical about the Fox
sisters. At no time was she tempted to attempt contact with the
other side, and later, in fact, she was to reject spiritualism totally.
In September 1859, the fortunes of the Pattersons reached their
nadir, their furniture went to auction and their property was sold. They
were reduced to the indignity of boarding house life. In an attempt to
alleviate the situation, Mary Patterson made modest contributions to
various newspapers. Her endeavours had some success and she
received a little money for her efforts.
The outbreak of the Civil War brought her in contact with her son.
She had heard nothing from him for a decade. He wrote that he had
joined an infantry regiment in Wisconsin. She seems to have been
relatively pleased to have news of him, but was not overly encouraging
and did little more than to acknowledge receipt of his letter.
She continued to be a semi-invalid and, in an attempt to find a cure,
took an interest in homeopathic medicine of various sorts. One form
of treatment that she tried was to place herself in the care of a
hydropathic practitioner. His efforts on her behalf were not particularly
successful. While experiencing the hydropathic treatment, she learned
about the work of Phineas Quimby who, according to what she read,
seemed to have almost miraculous powers.
What was Quimbys method exactly? He asserted that patients
were not cured by drugs or any medicines but through something
quite different. He noted that Disease is the name of the disturbance
of the fluids in the mind. Initially he had believed that cures could be
114 Deviating Voices
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
effected through mesmerism, and that his patients would need to be
hypnotised, but ultimately he rejected this idea. Rather he used
suggestion and a sort of physical manipulation which embodied what
he called animal magnetism. Apparently a force passed from
Quimby to the patient, and that in consequence he could explain the
nature of the illness. By so doing he could effect a cure by ensuring
the patient knew the truth of the particular malaise. A later writer
noted that Quimby seems to have cured disease through the mind. To
be effective the patient had to have implicit faith, and to believe there
was no pain. Quimby was to play a special role in the ultimate teachings
of Mary Baker Eddy.
It appeared as if Quimby were able to bring about an improvement
in Mary Pattersons health after she had visited him in Portland, Maine.
She had no doubts of the effectiveness of his method. She collected
Quimbys ephemeral writings, and enthusiastically wrote and even
delivered some lectures to popularise his activities. She even attempted
to use his so-called transference practice herself on some friends
and acquaintances with considerable success. She did not feel totally
secure in these activities, and was in constant contact with Quimby
to ensure that somehow she herself did not fall into ill health. This
relationship came to an end when he died in January 1866 and she
felt very bereft indeed.
However, a month later an event occurred which was to change
her life. She had a serious accident, and fears were expressed that
she would die. She did not die, but apparently experienced something
very unusual for it was from this time forward one can date her special
mission. She now believed that fear, pain and death were irrelevant
and that this life being the sole reality of existence and that everything
in it being spiritual, divine, immortal and wholly good.
Her domestic life did not reflect her renewed vigour. Patterson
was notoriously unfaithful, and she finally informed him they would
have to part. He agreed to the separation possibly in the belief that it
was only temporary but he was wrong, and they were divorced seven
years later. He lived until 1896 and made nothing of his life. His wifes
decision was perhaps somewhat unforgiving, but she gained a freedom
without which she could never have undertaken the great mission for
which she became so famous.
With no husband and no further contact with her son, Mary
Patterson was able to occupy herself as she chose. She began to put
her thoughts into an organised form. She rejected Quimbys idea that
the human mind healed and replaced it with the concept that God was
Deviating Voices 115
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
the healer; that it was a divine principle not a human one. Man, she
said, was made in Gods image, a spiritual idea that is perfect and that
in his likeness of God wholly good and wholly spirit.
Her first convert was Hiram Cofts. He and his wife were impressed
by her seeming healing powers, and he asked to become her pupil.
Initially she was reluctant to accept him, but in due course she did so.
He became a professional healer. The agreeable relationship between
teacher and student did not long continue. The two parted in an
acrimonious fashion.
After moving to Amesbury Mary Glover, as she now called herself,
was to acquire two new disciples. One, Sarah Bingley, was to practice
as a healer using her teachers method for some three decades. The
other was Richard Kennedy. He was to be the first of a series of
youthful male protgs, almost all of whom were to have disagreements
with their mentor. Richard Kennedy became an accomplished healer,
and his success brought her to the attention of other potential pupils.
Inevitably, not all were satisfied with her tuition. For example, Wallace
Wright, initially a success, had doubts of the efficacy of her instruction
and when reproved by her he became angry. The upshot was that he
wrote a letter to The Lynn Transcript declaring that her so-called
moral science was but a form of mesmerism. The matter might
have ended there she totally rejected his remarks but Richard
Kennedy himself agreed with Wright and therefore all contact between
Mary Glover and her erstwhile protg ended. Such schisms were to
become part and parcel of the whole development of Christian
Science. Mary Glover was to require a total commitment to her
teachings, any deviation meant disloyalty and ultimately expulsion.
The one positive result of the quarrel was that she was able to cast
aside permanently any influence Quimby might have had on her
formerly, magnetism and mesmerism were to be replaced by her own
very personal religious beliefs. It was obvious that some sort of corpus
evolve for the future. She began to write what was to be her major
opus under the title Science and Health. It was published in October
1875. By then she had bought a house in Lynn, Massachusetts, had
some real adherents and had received a form of approbation from
Bronson Alcott. The reviewers in general seem to have greeted her
book in a favourable fashion. She could congratulate herself on her
modest successes.
What was she like? She was in her early fifties having retained her
good looks and her girlish figure. She was noticeable for her attractive
appearance and general stylishness. Not for her were the drab colours
116 Deviating Voices
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
generally associated with middle-aged females; rather she selected
blues, mauves, pinks and shades of green. Her dresses were not plain
and severe but embellished with bows and flounces with touches of
lace at the neck and wrists. Her hair was not yet grey but a light
brown in colour and always handsomely coiffed. Middle-aged women,
particularly if they have good looks and intelligence, are very attractive
to younger men. Mary Glover was to be no exception.
At this juncture, three relatively youthful admirers entered her life.
The first was Daniel Spofford who ultimately became a most successful
healer. He was to fall in love with her, and would have liked to marry
her if he had been able to divorce his wife, which he could not do.
The second was George Barry who unlike Spofford was content to
exist in the role of son. He appears to have been useful acting as
an amanuensis, and coping with domestic affairs. He always addressed
Mary Glover as Mother. The third individual was Asa Gilbert Eddy,
and he was to have a role much more important than the other two.
In March 1876 Asa Gilbert Eddy enrolled in one of her classes. He
quickly became totally committed to a belief in Christian Science.
Indeed, on a later occasion, Mary Glover was to say that he was the
first person other than herself to designate himself as such. He was
apparently a thoroughly nice person with an endearing character. He
could under no circumstances be thought scintillating, but he was
sociable and kind. He proposed to her and she accepted, and they
were married on 1 January 1877 in a quiet and unostentatious fashion.
The reaction of the other two swains was mixed. Barry was quietly
accepting while Spofford was deeply wounded. While Barrys position
in the domestic life of the household was necessarily lessened, Spofford
continued, despite his jealousy, to be in favour, and he was charged
with the responsibility of the publication and sales of Science and
Health. Financial difficulties ensued and the anticipated new edition
did not appear. On 20 December 1877 he was formally expelled from
the Christian Science Association. He was given a month to submit to
direction and to admit error, but he declined to do so. A second vote
was taken which re-affirmed the first, he was officially expelled for
what was called immorality. This word in the vocabulary of Mary
Baker Eddy meant immorality of belief. Attempts were made by
friends of both parties to patch up the quarrel, but without success.
In the summer of 1879 Mary Baker Eddy formally established the
Church of Christ Scientist. The basic tenets of the church can be
summarised under the general title Scientific Statements of Being.
Firstly, There is no life, truth, intelligence nor substance in matter.
Deviating Voices 117
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
Secondly, All is infinite mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is
all in all. Thirdly, Spirit is immortal truth; matter is mortal error.
Fourthly, Spirit is the real and eternal; matter is the unreal and
temporal. Fifthly, Spirit is God, and man is His image and likeness.
Lastly, Therefore man is not material; he is spiritual. She was to
write, erring finite human mind has an absolute need of something
beyond itself for its redemption and healing. This healing is from
sin primarily and disease secondary; healing is not just a bodily change
but an aspect of full salvation from the flesh as well. She rejected the
idea that healing was an end in itself, healing was one essential aspect
of salvation.
Certain words, which she used in her correspondence and writings,
served to express ideas in a sort of shorthand form. The first was
chemicalise, which meant an individuals behaviour was irritating,
obdurate and tactless, and it required admonishment. The second was
immorality, which implied opposition to the ideas and leadership of
Mary Baker Eddy. Individuals who were deviationists were expelled
from the society under the term immorality. The third word was
malpractice. This was a sort of mesmeric or animal magnetism
expressed and directed to another to cause acute distress. Mary Baker
Eddy was to aver that malpractice was the cause of her husbands
death.
In June 1882 her husband Gilbert Eddy died. It was a devastating
blow; she was convinced that he was the victim of mesmerism and
malicious malpractice all emanating from the machinations of those
who opposed her leadership. A medical practitioner, Rufus King
Noyes, one who was not opposed to the idea of metaphysical healing,
was convinced rather that Gilbert Eddy had succumbed to a fatal
heart attack. She rejected Noyess opinion completely. She believed
that mesmeric poison had murdered her husband.
After a brief sojourn away from Boston, she returned, determined
to continue her teachings. She had asked her son to come and stay
they had met again a few years previously though the encounter was
only marginally successful but he declined to accept her invitation.
The orthodox religious bodies initially had paid scant attention to her
teachings, but with success, criticism and attacks became more
common. One critics comment annoyed her particularly in that he
associated her with Madame Blavatsky. As a result, she gave a public
lecture in Boston in which she firmly rejected such an idea. To promote
and protect her teachings, she would have to define her ideas
specifically. She would recruit persons who could carry the message.
118 Deviating Voices
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
The potential teachers were carefully selected by Mary Baker Eddy
herself, and were to be the recipients of the message in twelve lessons.
The neophytes were to study the writings of the leader and to heal
since they had experienced truth and could set others free. Mary
Baker Eddy inspired her pupils, as a mentor she praised and
admonished. Of course, there were those who failed, who fell into
malicious mesmerism or malpractice and per force became
separated from her society. Her Journal of Christian Science
became the principal source for the dissemination of her ideas and
precepts. Her close assistant and editor was James Harvey Wiggin
who never himself became a Christian Scientist, but he was able to
revise her writings in a professional fashion, thereby to ensure that
her ideas were expressed in a more cogent manner.
Although George Washington Glover had rejected his mothers
request to come to Boston when his stepfather Gilbert Eddy died, he
and his wife and children came for a lengthy sojourn in 1887. Like the
earlier visit, this present one was not overly happy, and he and his
family were easily persuaded after some six months to return to South
Dakota. His mother provided the funds for the journey; indeed, over
the years she continued to augment the resources of her son, which
enabled him to live comfortably. However, after this visit contacts
between Mary Baker Eddy and George Washington Glover continued
but in a restrained fashion.
In 1889, she closed the Massachusetts College of Metaphysical
Science, which she had established a few years previously. She also
officially dissolved the Christian Science Association, and declared
that she had ceased all pastoral duties. She announced that she was
retiring from Boston. Had her critics triumphed and driven her into
exile? The crucial clue to the future had they but known where to
look was the fact that she had acquired land in that part of Boston
known as Back Bay where in the fullness of time she was to build
the great edifice, The Mother Church.
She moved to Concord in New Hampshire establishing herself in a
pleasant rural situation. She was now 68 years of age, still attractive
and stylish in dress. Her special air of serenity made her most agreeable
company. She proceeded to produce a new and revised text of Science
and Health. This was to become the authoritative version. Her life
was comfortable, friends ensured that she had an adequate income
and the household consisted of Calvin Frye, her secretary, a cook, a
housekeeper and a gardener. In addition, from time to time her adopted
son Ebenezer she called him Benny-Foster Eddy lived with her.
Deviating Voices 119
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
This young man had followed another protg, William Gill, in her
affections. Gill was essentially a person of little real understanding
and after the most inevitable quarrel was expelled from the Society
for the usual reasons. Benny Eddy regarded Mary Baker Eddy
Mother as he called her with obvious affection. Initially the
relationship was a happy one, but almost inevitably there was to be
friction between the two of them. He began to act as if he were the
anointed successor, and implied that Mother was a fragile being,
mildly senile who required his directing hand. In fact, she allowed him
little real power, real authority other than her own was vested in the
three associates or trustees in Boston.
At the Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1893, there was a world
congress of Christian Scientists. Some four thousand people attended.
She did not personally address the assembly preferring to have a
chosen friend, Judge Septimus Hannon, deliver the speech which she
had written. The Christian Science congress was part of a larger
body, the Parliament of Religions, which was convened at the same
time. The significance of this joint assembly assured that Christian
Science could be seen as part of a global movement; it was no longer
an isolated and obscure sect.
The decision to erect what was The Mother Church was taken
early the next year. Forty friends students, teachers and believers
each contributed one thousand dollars to defray expenses. The building
was completed by late December of that year and the first service
was held on the thirtieth of the month. She, herself, was not present,
and on the formal dedication she was again absent. The speech which
she had written for this occasion was read on her behalf by Henrietta
Clark, a professional elocutionist. Her adopted son was much
displeased by this procedure as he had hoped to be the centre of
attention himself. By excluding him in this fashion Mother knew
precisely what she was doing and why.
Her initial visit occurred in April and it was a moment of triumph.
The huge building was the visible proof of her success. On this occasion
she conducted a form of service incorporating a favourite hymn and
the ninety-first psalm. To add to the sense of occasion she actually
arranged to sleep in one of the side rooms in the church. Two months
later on a second visit she delivered a short homily. The topic of the
discourse was not one of self-congratulation, but rather on repentance
and sin. There never seems to have been much humour or lightness
in her public commentary. Perhaps the only occasion was when she
decided to have the Westminster chimes shut off at night as she
120 Deviating Voices
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
observed the purpose of Christian Science was not to give the
neighbours sleepless nights.
In the midst of these triumphs the relationship between Foster Eddy
Benny and herself was to end. Initially she tried to keep
something of the earliest affection for him, but finally recognised that
he did not have the necessary capacity to sustain any real position in
the church or in her life. She banished him from Concord and observed,
Flattery and pleasure seeking. He ceased to be regarded as a son,
and only emerged from the shadows a few years later and in a
somewhat despicable fashion. Each protg, and they were inevitably
younger men, brought to her a sense of renewal, each must owe
everything to her and if the individual attempted any form of
independence for whatever reason, he was cast into outer darkness.
The fall of Lucifer could not have been more complete.
Christian Science was no longer just a North American phenomenon.
In 1897, a church was formally inaugurated in England and soon after
in Australia and New Zealand. Branches were to be found also in
France and Germany. In the latter, a somewhat nationalistic
organisation was to develop which was not entirely in keeping with
the announced precepts of The Mother Church. There were few
inroads made in the Latin countries as the Roman Catholic hierarchy
regarded Christian Science as a most dangerous heresy.
Success brought more critics inevitably. One of her most famous
opponents was Mark Twain. His hostility arose in no small part because
he had hoped that through Christian Science he might find a cure for
his daughters infirmities. Sadly this did not occur. In his anger, he
felt that Mary Baker Eddy had traded on hope for her own nefarious
purposes. He decided she was a charlatan who had acquired wealth
and power through devious means. He felt it was hypocritical that
she allowed herself to be addressed as Mother thereby usurping
the Virgin Mary herself. He regarded her as being intellectually
pretentious, her writings superficial and he observed, She has no
more intellect than a tadpole, until she comes to business she is a
marvel.
The turn of the century saw the First Church of Christ Scientist in
a situation of almost euphoric prosperity. The Church did not however
participate in social, cultural or philanthropic activities, the membership
were to be active in such matters as individuals not as the Church
itself. She herself was relatively generous with donations to selected
charities; she lent her name to promote international well being such
as The Hague Peace Conference, but always as herself alone. She
Deviating Voices 121
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
did, however, allow the French government to name her as an officier
dAcadmie.
Public admiration brought her to the attention of the gutter press.
Articles that appeared in The New York World implied that she was
either senile or worse, that the person who purported to be the Concord
Saint was an impostor. She actually allowed herself to be interviewed,
but when the reporters were received, they were very chagrined to
find her very much in charge of herself and the church. McClures
Journal, a well-known muck-raking periodical, also published some
very negative commentary. These articles were written by the author
Willa Cather and ultimately appeared in a book. The church in due
course acquired the manuscript and arranged also that a number of
copies of The Life of Mary Baker Eddy and the History of Christian
Science were deliberately destroyed.
A further attack on Mary Baker Eddy was conjured up by William
Chandler, who declared she was incompetent to handle her own
affairs. He enlisted the support of George Washington Glover.
Ebenezer Foster Eddy also joined this camarilla. A judicial suit ensued.
The court-appointed witnesses reported that she was totally sane and
totally able to manage her own affairs. Chandler, Glover and Eddy
gained nothing, and were regarded by the public at large as villainous
schemers preying on an old woman. They also had to pay all of the
court costs.
Mary Baker Eddy surprisingly forgave George Glover and Ebenezer
Foster Eddy. To the former she gave nearly a quarter of a million
dollars and to the latter some fifty thousand. Both had to agree that
neither would contest her will. Sensibly, they accepted her proposition.
George Washington Glover returned to South Dakota, Foster Eddy
retired to rural Vermont. Neither played any further role in her life
and both were extremely lucky to receive anything from her,
considering their behaviour.
After the conclusion of the case, she abandoned her home in
Concord and bought a mansion in Boston. At the same time she decided
to become the publisher of a newspaper that was to cover international
affairs and intellectual and cultural matters. The Christian Science
Monitor, as the newspaper was called, was to become one of the
most respected in the United States. The editorial board over the
years were to maintain the highest standards, and the paper was
recognised as being intellectually stimulating.
Her final year was one of unusual calm. She had rejected all efforts
from her followers to write her memoirs, saying, As Mary Baker
122 Deviating Voices
S
A
M
P
L
E
2003 The Lutterworth Press
Eddy I am the weakest of mortals, but as the Discoverer and Founder
of Christian Science I am the bone and sinew of the world. She
retained to the last her stylish outward appearance. Death per se
meant nothing to her, she was totally serene. She died on 3 December
1910 and was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge,
Massachusetts. Her detractors asserted that in her tomb was a
telephone so that she could communicate with the world on some
occasion upon her return.
Mary Baker Eddy was a curious individual. She had what might be
described as a sort of divine madness. That she was paranoid cannot
be denied; that she was despotic and autocratic can be seen in her
treatment of her church and her protgs. Disobedience to the orders
of the leader was followed by instant punishment, the ultimate being
banishment from her presence. Her role as Mother allowed her to
express herself in the pretence of moral and intellectual justification.
She was able to disguise personal hostility in the guise of mentor. She
frequently was purely whimsical in her metaphysical pronouncements
and the logicality of her commentary quite lacking. She used the
language of the philosopher or the scientist but tended to put her own
gloss on whatever she wrote. Science and Health contained all that
one needed to know; through its authors writings one became aware
of the truth.
At the time of her demise there were some 50,000 members of the
Church, a quarter of a century earlier there had been about 60. The
Church came to be regarded as a comfortable billet of the middle
classes but how does one account for Lady Astor, the actress Joyce
Grenfell, Lord Lothian, sometime British ambassador to the United
States, and Sir James Butler, an eminent Cambridge historian?
Christian Science has a minor role in feminist history. Activity in
the church is one in which women have taken a major role. Mary
Baker Eddy was often commended in her own day for her brilliant
organisational skills which were generally assumed to be masculine
attributes. Her successes were not due to sweetness and light.
Revolutionaries, and she was a revolutionary, do not object to destroy
the deviant in the name of the cause. The latter is more important
than any individual, except perhaps for the leader, and she was always
the leader.
201 201
JULIAN OF NORWICH AND MARY BAKER
EDDY
Deidre Michell
738 Bridge Road
Salisbury East
South Australia 5109
Introduction
Although separated in time by five hundred years, there are remarkable similarities in
the theologies of Julian of Norwich and Mary Baker Eddy
1
. And it is on these similarities
that this paper is focused because I believe that it is at these crucial points of
convergence that Julians and Eddys theologies became transformative and remain
so today. I have on numerous occasions experienced the efficacy of Eddys theology
and therefore would further contend that contemporaries of Julians would also have
experienced healing as a result of her teaching.
But the women resemble each other in ways other than their theologies. For
example, both women were seriously ill at the time of their revelatory experiences and
as a result of which they were healed, with no periods of recuperation recorded.
Healing for these women was profound as Eddy had been an invalid for almost all her
45 years, and Julian confessed to a readiness to die at the time of her visions. And yet
these two women went on to live well into old age. Eddy was 89 at the time of her
death in December 1910. Julian was the beneficiary of a will in 1416 so we can assume
she was still alive then, and to have lived into her seventies would have been
extraordinary for the times.
2
My contention is that their near death experiences gave
1
Eddy would not have known about Julians revelations at the time of her own, given that
it was not until 1901 that Julian of Norwichs book became widely available. UpJohn,
Sheila. In Search of Julian of Norwich (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1989) 8,
notes that Revelations of Divine Love was edited in 1901 by 46 year old Grace Warrack,
about whom there is very little information as there is little about Julian herself.
2
Crisp, Beth R. Seeking the Feminine: An Exploration of the Spiritual Writings of Hildegard
of Bingen and Julian of Norwich, Pacifica 10 (1997) 311. As Upjohn, 90, points out, the
realities of the fourteenth century meant that 30 was middle age, and 50 the normal limit
of it.
1
Eddy would not have known about Julians revelations at the time of her own, given that
it was not until 1901 that Julian of Norwichs book became widely available. UpJohn,
Sheila. In Search of Julian of Norwich (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1989) 8,
notes that Revelations of Divine Love was edited in 1901 by 46 year old Grace Warrack,
about whom there is very little information as there is little about Julian herself.
2
Crisp, Beth R. Seeking the Feminine: An Exploration of the Spiritual Writings of Hildegard
of Bingen and Julian of Norwich, Pacifica 10 (1997) 311. As Upjohn, 90, points out, the
realities of the fourteenth century meant that 30 was middle age, and 50 the normal limit
of it.
JULIAN OF NORWICH AND MARY BAKER
EDDY
Deidre Michell
738 Bridge Road
Salisbury East
South Australia 5109
Introduction
Although separated in time by five hundred years, there are remarkable similarities in
the theologies of Julian of Norwich and Mary Baker Eddy
1
. And it is on these similarities
that this paper is focused because I believe that it is at these crucial points of
convergence that Julians and Eddys theologies became transformative and remain
so today. I have on numerous occasions experienced the efficacy of Eddys theology
and therefore would further contend that contemporaries of Julians would also have
experienced healing as a result of her teaching.
But the women resemble each other in ways other than their theologies. For
example, both women were seriously ill at the time of their revelatory experiences and
as a result of which they were healed, with no periods of recuperation recorded.
Healing for these women was profound as Eddy had been an invalid for almost all her
45 years, and Julian confessed to a readiness to die at the time of her visions. And yet
these two women went on to live well into old age. Eddy was 89 at the time of her
death in December 1910. Julian was the beneficiary of a will in 1416 so we can assume
she was still alive then, and to have lived into her seventies would have been
extraordinary for the times.
2
My contention is that their near death experiences gave
202 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 202 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
these women an encounter with God in accord with that experienced by the earliest
Christians when the phenomena of physical healing was still known and expected.
3
Because they were women and despite their evident popularity and success in
their own times, the work of Julian and Eddy has been largely ignored by mainstream
theologians, although Julian became very popular in the late twentieth century. To
have achieved success given the particularities of their historical context, Julian and
Eddy may have worked out strategies to resist the hegemonic ideals of submissive
women restricted to the private sphere, but I believe it was their passionate conviction
that whatever work they did could be attributed to God that allowed them to transcend
their specific cultural limitations.
Setting out to write a theological book would have been impossible for Julian, as
this was the province of masters, those men who attended university.
4
Beth Crisp
argues that visionary literature in medieval times was predominantly the domain of
female writers and that it was not only a socially acceptable form of self-expression
for women but also allowed them to transcend the boundaries which kept women out
of teaching and preaching.
5
While her male contemporaries were documenting their
teaching, Julian was drawing on her actual experiences.
6
However, Grace Jantzen has
traced what appears to have begun as a tolerant attitude toward the visionary
experience to what became a deep mistrust and condemnatory attitude toward it.
7
Although women visionaries were not singled out for condemnation, the overall
effect of the attitude was to marginalize the women and define true mysticism as
male.
8
Beth Crisp points out that one of the reasons for the revival in popularity of
Julian of Norwich in the 1970s was because of Julians embracing of feminine images
of God, and that conversely, it is likely that this emphasis on the feminine may
explain why she was so little known in previous times.
9
Eddy expected her teachings and demonstrations of healing to be embraced by
the mainstream churches of her day, but this did not happen. Instead, conflict with
3
From research I have done previously, it appears that physical healing was a feature of
Christianity into the fourth century.
4
Pelphrey, Brant The Way of the Christian Mystics. Volume 7. Christ our Mother. Julian of
Norwich (Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1989) 102.
5
Crisp, 313.
6
Crisp, 313.
7
Jantzen, Grace M Power, Gender & Christian Mysticism (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 1995) 184.
8
Jantzen, 184.
9
Crisp, 310.
3
From research I have done previously, it appears that physical healing was a feature of
Christianity into the fourth century.
4
Pelphrey, Brant The Way of the Christian Mystics. Volume 7. Christ our Mother. Julian of
Norwich (Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1989) 102.
5
Crisp, 313.
6
Crisp, 313.
7
Jantzen, Grace M Power, Gender & Christian Mysticism (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 1995) 184.
8
Jantzen, 184.
9
Crisp, 310.
these women an encounter with God in accord with that experienced by the earliest
Christians when the phenomena of physical healing was still known and expected.
3
Because they were women and despite their evident popularity and success in
their own times, the work of Julian and Eddy has been largely ignored by mainstream
theologians, although Julian became very popular in the late twentieth century. To
have achieved success given the particularities of their historical context, Julian and
Eddy may have worked out strategies to resist the hegemonic ideals of submissive
women restricted to the private sphere, but I believe it was their passionate conviction
that whatever work they did could be attributed to God that allowed them to transcend
their specific cultural limitations.
Setting out to write a theological book would have been impossible for Julian, as
this was the province of masters, those men who attended university.
4
Beth Crisp
argues that visionary literature in medieval times was predominantly the domain of
female writers and that it was not only a socially acceptable form of self-expression
for women but also allowed them to transcend the boundaries which kept women out
of teaching and preaching.
5
While her male contemporaries were documenting their
teaching, Julian was drawing on her actual experiences.
6
However, Grace Jantzen has
traced what appears to have begun as a tolerant attitude toward the visionary
experience to what became a deep mistrust and condemnatory attitude toward it.
7
Although women visionaries were not singled out for condemnation, the overall
effect of the attitude was to marginalize the women and define true mysticism as
male.
8
Beth Crisp points out that one of the reasons for the revival in popularity of
Julian of Norwich in the 1970s was because of Julians embracing of feminine images
of God, and that conversely, it is likely that this emphasis on the feminine may
explain why she was so little known in previous times.
9
Eddy expected her teachings and demonstrations of healing to be embraced by
the mainstream churches of her day, but this did not happen. Instead, conflict with
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 203
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 203
orthodox churches dogged the history of the movement.
10
Jean McDonald argues
that much of the ridicule to which Eddy was subjected by nineteenth century men,
including the clergy, was not specific to Eddy but was the way in which these men
responded to public women.
11
That is, they disparaged and trivialized the work of
women and attributed their motives to envy of maleness and wishing to be a man.
12
Yet Christian Science, although founded by a woman, was not a womans movement
and in fact included a large number of men in its numbers and in positions of
prominence, although female practitioners outnumbered males by five to one in the
early days.
13
Men were the true scientists, writers, intellectuals, thinkers, so,
as womans movement, Christian Science was by contrast everything
that was feminine - unscientific and unintellectual, ludicrous and
illogical.
14
Neither Eddys nor Julians experiences were consistent with male church
teaching
15
. And yet it is at the very points of divergence from church teachings that
the womens theologies meet and promote transformation and healing. The crucial
points of agreement between the theologies of these two inspiring women are the
wholly loving and never angry nature of God, the insubstantial nature of sin, rejection
of a father only image of God, and an emphasis on our Godly rather than sinful
nature. These aspects of Julians and Eddys theology is explored in detail in this
paper, as it is my contention that each is critical to the practice of Christian healing as
recorded in Scripture.
Understanding God through Near Death Experiences
It is of significance that both Julian of Norwich and Mary Baker Eddy were fatally ill
at the time of the revelations which changed their lives. As Brant Pelphrey points
1 0
Gottschalk, Stephen The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973) 158.
1 1
McDonald, Jean A. Mary Baker Eddy and the Nineteen-Century Public Woman: A
Feminist Reapraisal, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 2.1 (Spring 1986) 100-111.
1 2
McDonald, 100.
1 3
Gottschalk, 244.
1 4
McDonald, 103 On p. 105, McDonald notes that it was Eddys radical insistence that
God is not the cause of evil that appealed to many converts.
1 5
Crisp, 314.
orthodox churches dogged the history of the movement.
10
Jean McDonald argues
that much of the ridicule to which Eddy was subjected by nineteenth century men,
including the clergy, was not specific to Eddy but was the way in which these men
responded to public women.
11
That is, they disparaged and trivialized the work of
women and attributed their motives to envy of maleness and wishing to be a man.
12
Yet Christian Science, although founded by a woman, was not a womans movement
and in fact included a large number of men in its numbers and in positions of
prominence, although female practitioners outnumbered males by five to one in the
early days.
13
Men were the true scientists, writers, intellectuals, thinkers, so,
as womans movement, Christian Science was by contrast everything
that was feminine - unscientific and unintellectual, ludicrous and
illogical.
14
Neither Eddys nor Julians experiences were consistent with male church
teaching
15
. And yet it is at the very points of divergence from church teachings that
the womens theologies meet and promote transformation and healing. The crucial
points of agreement between the theologies of these two inspiring women are the
wholly loving and never angry nature of God, the insubstantial nature of sin, rejection
of a father only image of God, and an emphasis on our Godly rather than sinful
nature. These aspects of Julians and Eddys theology is explored in detail in this
paper, as it is my contention that each is critical to the practice of Christian healing as
recorded in Scripture.
Understanding God through Near Death Experiences
It is of significance that both Julian of Norwich and Mary Baker Eddy were fatally ill
at the time of the revelations which changed their lives. As Brant Pelphrey points
1 0
Gottschalk, Stephen The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973) 158.
1 1
McDonald, Jean A. Mary Baker Eddy and the Nineteen-Century Public Woman: A
Feminist Reapraisal, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 2.1 (Spring 1986) 100-111.
1 2
McDonald, 100.
1 3
Gottschalk, 244.
1 4
McDonald, 103 On p. 105, McDonald notes that it was Eddys radical insistence that
God is not the cause of evil that appealed to many converts.
1 5
Crisp, 314.
204 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
204 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
out, it is more than likely that Julian died after suffering for a week from an illness.
16
After a number of visions, she awoke in pain, but after sleep experienced a resumption
of the visions and teachings. Thirty hours after the showings began, Julian awoke,
healed, with a new understanding of life, of God and of herself.
17
The profound experience upon which Eddy founded her subsequent career was
a healing following a potentially fatal fall on the ice, the final in a series of illnesses
which plagued her life and rendered her an invalid for most of it. She says That short
experience included a glimpse of the great fact that I have since tried to make plain to
others, namely, Life in and of Spirit; this Life being the sole reality of existence.
18
This episode led to transformation and healing, as also experienced by Julian of
Norwich. Indeed, Gottschalk suggests that Eddys language in describing her healing
is like that used by many mystics, despite her specific repudiation of mysticism.
19
Mrs Eddy told her household of a patient who had passed on with consumption,
whom she had raised from the dead. She said such a flood of realization of the continuity
of Life poured into her consciousness that she was able to say with full confidence,
Arise, and the young woman did arise, healed.
20
For Julian, the Near Death Experience (NDE) seemed to be enhanced by her
meditation on the crucifix, leading to an altered state of consciousness.
21
According
to Ken Vincent, meditation is the primary medium by which mystical experiences are
sought, and is the common link among all great religious leaders.
22
Vincent argues
from his research into NDEs that they provide us with what he calls a generic vision
of how humans see God, and in fact he asserts that these visions are more
out, it is more than likely that Julian died after suffering for a week from an illness.
16
After a number of visions, she awoke in pain, but after sleep experienced a resumption
of the visions and teachings. Thirty hours after the showings began, Julian awoke,
healed, with a new understanding of life, of God and of herself.
17
The profound experience upon which Eddy founded her subsequent career was
a healing following a potentially fatal fall on the ice, the final in a series of illnesses
which plagued her life and rendered her an invalid for most of it. She says That short
experience included a glimpse of the great fact that I have since tried to make plain to
others, namely, Life in and of Spirit; this Life being the sole reality of existence.
18
This episode led to transformation and healing, as also experienced by Julian of
Norwich. Indeed, Gottschalk suggests that Eddys language in describing her healing
is like that used by many mystics, despite her specific repudiation of mysticism.
19
Mrs Eddy told her household of a patient who had passed on with consumption,
whom she had raised from the dead. She said such a flood of realization of the continuity
of Life poured into her consciousness that she was able to say with full confidence,
Arise, and the young woman did arise, healed.
20
For Julian, the Near Death Experience (NDE) seemed to be enhanced by her
meditation on the crucifix, leading to an altered state of consciousness.
21
According
to Ken Vincent, meditation is the primary medium by which mystical experiences are
sought, and is the common link among all great religious leaders.
22
Vincent argues
from his research into NDEs that they provide us with what he calls a generic vision
of how humans see God, and in fact he asserts that these visions are more
1 6
Pelphrey, 18.
1 7
Pelphrey, 18.
1 8
Eddy, Mary Baker Miscellaneous Writings 1883-1896 (Boston: Trustees under the Will
of Mary Baker G Eddy. 1925) 24.
1 9
Gottschalk, 31. It seems to me that Eddys rejection of mysticism is because she regarded
revelatory experiences as not extraordinary, not mysterious, but well within the experi-
ence of all who contemplated God and thus spiritualise their thought.
2 0
Keyston, David Lawson The Healer. The Healing Work of Mary Baker Eddy (Seattle:
Cross & Crown Publications, 1994) 39.
21
Julian of Norwich Revelations of Divine Love (Translated by Clifton Wolters, Middlesex:
Penguin, 1966) 65.
2 2
Vincent, Ken. R. Visions of God from the Near Death Experience (New York: Larson
Publications, 1994) 13.
1 6
Pelphrey, 18.
1 7
Pelphrey, 18.
1 8
Eddy, Mary Baker Miscellaneous Writings 1883-1896 (Boston: Trustees under the Will
of Mary Baker G Eddy. 1925) 24.
1 9
Gottschalk, 31. It seems to me that Eddys rejection of mysticism is because she regarded
revelatory experiences as not extraordinary, not mysterious, but well within the experi-
ence of all who contemplated God and thus spiritualise their thought.
2 0
Keyston, David Lawson The Healer. The Healing Work of Mary Baker Eddy (Seattle:
Cross & Crown Publications, 1994) 39.
21
Julian of Norwich Revelations of Divine Love (Translated by Clifton Wolters, Middlesex:
Penguin, 1966) 65.
2 2
Vincent, Ken. R. Visions of God from the Near Death Experience (New York: Larson
Publications, 1994) 13.
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 205 MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 205
consistent than those which come to us from within the context of major religions
and which therefore have been culturally embellished and theologically reworked.
23
Citing a twelfth-century Buddhist work, The Tibetan Book of the Dead, Vincent
further argues that in our NDEs the universal experience is one of light and yet we see
the beings of our personal religions.
24
So in ancient Egypt, the vision was of Osiris,
for those who belong to the Islamic tradition, the vision is of God, and for Christians
it is Jesus.
25
In this context it is interesting to compare the following description of Jesus from
a contemporary NDE,
I would say it was Jesus Christ; I mean it looked like him. He was
dressed in a robe that was a robins egg blue, and a long flowing robe
that wrapped around him and he had this staff that was a bright gold.
It must have been ten feet high. I was looking at him. We were having
a conversation... There wasnt any unpleasant feelings during the whole
experience...Vision was clear, everything that was there stood out...The
colors had a brilliance, this whole person had a brilliance or an aura
about him...It was probably the happiest Ive ever been.
26
with that of Julians image of her Lord, whom she interpreted as God the Father.
After this he [Jesus] treated my soul to a supreme and spiritual
pleasure...I was so happy spiritually that I felt completely at peace
and relaxed: nothing on earth could have disturbed me...At the same
time our good Lord said, most blessedly, See, how I have loved you.
His clothes were full and flowing and seemly. Their colour was the
blue of the sky, restrained but beautiful; his countenance full of pity;
his face was a light tan in colour and he had regular features; his eyes
were dark, beautiful, and true, filled with loving compassion....
27
Like other mystical experiences, the NDE is often a life-changing one and now
occurs more frequently due to modern medical methods of resuscitation. So it is
possible for us to have contemporary accounts of religious experiences from a wide
variety of sources which are striking in the consistency of the revelations which are
2 3
Vincent, 10.
2 4
Vincent, 10.
2 5
Vincent, 11.
2 6
Vincent, 49.
2 7
Julian of Norwich, 86,100,145.
consistent than those which come to us from within the context of major religions
and which therefore have been culturally embellished and theologically reworked.
23
Citing a twelfth-century Buddhist work, The Tibetan Book of the Dead, Vincent
further argues that in our NDEs the universal experience is one of light and yet we see
the beings of our personal religions.
24
So in ancient Egypt, the vision was of Osiris,
for those who belong to the Islamic tradition, the vision is of God, and for Christians
it is Jesus.
25
In this context it is interesting to compare the following description of Jesus from
a contemporary NDE,
I would say it was Jesus Christ; I mean it looked like him. He was
dressed in a robe that was a robins egg blue, and a long flowing robe
that wrapped around him and he had this staff that was a bright gold.
It must have been ten feet high. I was looking at him. We were having
a conversation... There wasnt any unpleasant feelings during the whole
experience...Vision was clear, everything that was there stood out...The
colors had a brilliance, this whole person had a brilliance or an aura
about him...It was probably the happiest Ive ever been.
26
with that of Julians image of her Lord, whom she interpreted as God the Father.
After this he [Jesus] treated my soul to a supreme and spiritual
pleasure...I was so happy spiritually that I felt completely at peace
and relaxed: nothing on earth could have disturbed me...At the same
time our good Lord said, most blessedly, See, how I have loved you.
His clothes were full and flowing and seemly. Their colour was the
blue of the sky, restrained but beautiful; his countenance full of pity;
his face was a light tan in colour and he had regular features; his eyes
were dark, beautiful, and true, filled with loving compassion....
27
Like other mystical experiences, the NDE is often a life-changing one and now
occurs more frequently due to modern medical methods of resuscitation. So it is
possible for us to have contemporary accounts of religious experiences from a wide
variety of sources which are striking in the consistency of the revelations which are
2 3
Vincent, 10.
2 4
Vincent, 10.
2 5
Vincent, 11.
2 6
Vincent, 49.
2 7
Julian of Norwich, 86,100,145.
206 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 206 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
taken from many people from different cultures, ethnic groups, and religious training
and in which God is described as a being of light, usually ineffable and sometimes
labelled as a particular religious figure.
28
But the overwhelming sense that one is left
with on reading NDEs is that people experience love, peace, awe, a sense of being
nurtured, a oneness with the source of this light and love, and even a cessation of
pain.
29
In this context, it is not surprising that both Julian and Eddy emphasised and
developed theologies of God as Love subsequent to their near death experiences.
God is Love
Whoever does not love does not know God, for God is Love. (1 John 4:8)
Julians idea of a God who is Love would have challenged the then prevalent notions
of God as harsh and punitive, as Eddys rejection of the anthropomorphic, Calvinist
God of wrath as well as of love also went against the popular grain.
30
In the
theology of both women, love is not an attribute of God, but rather the love of God
is identical with the being of God.
31
This love is shared with humanity, and our lives
are a growing into a mature expression of love.
32
Crucial to both Julian and Eddys
theologies is the abiding love of God right now for us all. This is expressed by Julian
when she writes Yes indeed, he [the Lord] loves us as much here as he will do there
2 8
Vincent, 16. In his book, Ken Vincent gives examples of the way in which people can
change after an NDE, for example from p. 103 Its okay if my husband is an atheist and
doesnt believe in God, it really is okay...Prior to my experience, no way! I would have
wanted to change them, mold them, manipulate them...to get them on my way of think or
doing things. and on p. 107 ...I dont fear death. Those feelings vanished. I dont feel bad
at funerals anymore. I kind of rejoice at them, because I know what the dead person has
been through. I believe that the Lord may have sent this experience to me because of the
way I felt about death.
2 9
Some examples of statements taken from Vincents book are: ...radiating so much love. It
was the most beautiful feeling Ive ever experienced, I felt everyone loved me there,
An absolute white Light that is God - all loving and I went directly into The Light, and
my pain ceased. There was a feeling of extreme peace.
3 0
Nuth, Joan M Wisdoms Daughter. The Theology of Julian of Norwich (New York:
Crossroad, 1991) 119. Gottschalk, 49. Gottschalk notes that it was not altogether unusual
for rebellion against the Calvinist notion of God to surface at this period, but Eddys
rejection of anthropomorphism certainly differentiates her from other Protestant ortho-
doxy of the time.
3 1
Pelphrey, 26.
3 2
Pelphrey, 26.
2 8
Vincent, 16. In his book, Ken Vincent gives examples of the way in which people can
change after an NDE, for example from p. 103 Its okay if my husband is an atheist and
doesnt believe in God, it really is okay...Prior to my experience, no way! I would have
wanted to change them, mold them, manipulate them...to get them on my way of think or
doing things. and on p. 107 ...I dont fear death. Those feelings vanished. I dont feel bad
at funerals anymore. I kind of rejoice at them, because I know what the dead person has
been through. I believe that the Lord may have sent this experience to me because of the
way I felt about death.
2 9
Some examples of statements taken from Vincents book are: ...radiating so much love. It
was the most beautiful feeling Ive ever experienced, I felt everyone loved me there,
An absolute white Light that is God - all loving and I went directly into The Light, and
my pain ceased. There was a feeling of extreme peace.
3 0
Nuth, Joan M Wisdoms Daughter. The Theology of Julian of Norwich (New York:
Crossroad, 1991) 119. Gottschalk, 49. Gottschalk notes that it was not altogether unusual
for rebellion against the Calvinist notion of God to surface at this period, but Eddys
rejection of anthropomorphism certainly differentiates her from other Protestant ortho-
doxy of the time.
3 1
Pelphrey, 26.
3 2
Pelphrey, 26.
taken from many people from different cultures, ethnic groups, and religious training
and in which God is described as a being of light, usually ineffable and sometimes
labelled as a particular religious figure.
28
But the overwhelming sense that one is left
with on reading NDEs is that people experience love, peace, awe, a sense of being
nurtured, a oneness with the source of this light and love, and even a cessation of
pain.
29
In this context, it is not surprising that both Julian and Eddy emphasised and
developed theologies of God as Love subsequent to their near death experiences.
God is Love
Whoever does not love does not know God, for God is Love. (1 John 4:8)
Julians idea of a God who is Love would have challenged the then prevalent notions
of God as harsh and punitive, as Eddys rejection of the anthropomorphic, Calvinist
God of wrath as well as of love also went against the popular grain.
30
In the
theology of both women, love is not an attribute of God, but rather the love of God
is identical with the being of God.
31
This love is shared with humanity, and our lives
are a growing into a mature expression of love.
32
Crucial to both Julian and Eddys
theologies is the abiding love of God right now for us all. This is expressed by Julian
when she writes Yes indeed, he [the Lord] loves us as much here as he will do there
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 207 MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 207
when we stand before his blessed face.
33
Eddys view was that this love is eminently
practical, supplying us with all our human needs, and is provable through healing.
The following is a story which illustrates Eddys emphasis on the practical nature of
knowing that God does indeed love us now.
When Mrs Eddy was living in Lynn, one day someone was
sent to her from a distance in the city and asked her to come to
visit a lady who was dying with consumption, and she said she
would. She took a cab at the door-way and went to this person,
and on the way when near her destination, saw a hunchback in
the street and the carriage passed very close to him; as it passed
him, one wheel went down into a rut and splashed him all over
with water. He immediately became angry, but she leaned out of
the carriage and said to him, Little man, God loves you, and
went on her way a few hundred feet. The young fellow watched
her.
She went into the house, stayed about a half hour, healed
her patient, and as she came out, there was a tall young man
standing at the curbstone, and he went up to her and said, Are
you the lady that told me God loved me? She looked at him
closely, and he said, Look at me, how I have straightened up,
and expressed gratitude.
34
Another point of agreement between Eddy and Julian is that God is never angry.
Our real self, or soul as Julian names it, is forever united with God who is
unchangeable goodness and between God and our real self (or soul), there is
need neither for anger nor forgiveness.
35
Healing in Christian Science holds to this
knowledge of everyones real self as being innocent and completely good. All else is
illusion. Healing is also predicated on the understanding that God and the real man
[self] are inseparable:
36
Contrary to the prevailing understanding about the anger of
God, Julian maintained that the whole of life is grounded and rooted in love, and that
3 3
Julian, 118.
3 4
Keyston, 82.
3 5
Julian, 133.
3 6
Eddy, Mary Baker, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (Boston: First Church of
Christ, Scientist, 1934) 476.
3 3
Julian, 118.
3 4
Keyston, 82.
3 5
Julian, 133.
3 6
Eddy, Mary Baker, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (Boston: First Church of
Christ, Scientist, 1934) 476.
when we stand before his blessed face.
33
Eddys view was that this love is eminently
practical, supplying us with all our human needs, and is provable through healing.
The following is a story which illustrates Eddys emphasis on the practical nature of
knowing that God does indeed love us now.
When Mrs Eddy was living in Lynn, one day someone was
sent to her from a distance in the city and asked her to come to
visit a lady who was dying with consumption, and she said she
would. She took a cab at the door-way and went to this person,
and on the way when near her destination, saw a hunchback in
the street and the carriage passed very close to him; as it passed
him, one wheel went down into a rut and splashed him all over
with water. He immediately became angry, but she leaned out of
the carriage and said to him, Little man, God loves you, and
went on her way a few hundred feet. The young fellow watched
her.
She went into the house, stayed about a half hour, healed
her patient, and as she came out, there was a tall young man
standing at the curbstone, and he went up to her and said, Are
you the lady that told me God loved me? She looked at him
closely, and he said, Look at me, how I have straightened up,
and expressed gratitude.
34
Another point of agreement between Eddy and Julian is that God is never angry.
Our real self, or soul as Julian names it, is forever united with God who is
unchangeable goodness and between God and our real self (or soul), there is
need neither for anger nor forgiveness.
35
Healing in Christian Science holds to this
knowledge of everyones real self as being innocent and completely good. All else is
illusion. Healing is also predicated on the understanding that God and the real man
[self] are inseparable:
36
Contrary to the prevailing understanding about the anger of
God, Julian maintained that the whole of life is grounded and rooted in love, and that
208 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 208 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
without love we cannot live.
37
Eddy is not explicit about God never being angry, but
an analysis of her theology suggests that it is impossible for God to be angry because
God knows nothing about evil or sin, all of creation being good. It was intolerable to
Eddy to attribute to God any form of imperfection, rather she believed that it was
misconceptions of God that lead to disease and discord in the human experience.
38
God as Mother
It appears that in Julians day the idea of God as mother was not as surprising as it
was in the twentieth century.
39
The early Christians were familiar with feminine
metaphors for God but these had been suppressed by the fifth century, although
attempts to revive them had been made by Bernard and Anselm in the eleventh
century.
40
Anselm referred to Christ as a nursemaid and Meister Eckart in the
thirteenth century called Christ Mother.
41
Richard Rolle, too, used feminine images
for God.
42
Jantzen stresses that Julians teaching on mother was orthodox, but that
Julians metaphors have been suppressed and the development of the father metaphor
allowed to reign unchallenged until recently by feminists, accompanied by
bewilderment and outrage.
43
But, although in the medieval era both males and females
3 7
Julian, 137.
3 8
Gottschalk, 50.
3 9
Upjohn, 51.
4 0
Beer, Frances Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge: The
Boydell Press, 1992) 152. Beer points out that Clement of Alexandria said God himself
is love; and out of love to us became feminine. In His ineffable essence He is Father; in his
compassion to us He became Mother, that Ambrose remarked Christ is the virgin who
entered into marriage, carried us in her womb, gave birth to us, and fed us with her own
milk, and that even Augustine used a maternal image, although he stipulated its meta-
phorical use Just as a mother, suckling her infant, transfers from her flesh the very same
food which would otherwise be unsuitable to the babe...so the Lord, in order to convert his
wisdom into milk for our benefit, came to us clothed in flesh.
4 1
Pelphrey, 39.
4 2
Crisp, 315. Crisp also mentions Bernard of Clairvaux and points out that these men learnt
their spiritual practices from women. Ironically, Rolle was exceedingly misogynist. Clifton
Wolters, The English Mystics. In The Study of Spirituality edited by Cheslyn Jones,
Geoffrey, Edward Yarnold (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986) writes, He [Rolle]
stresses his misogyny throughout his works, and though this attitude is not unusual in a
time when many medievals laid mans sins at Eves door, with Rolle it takes on unwonted
bitterness (p. 331). Interestingly, however, Jantzen notes that Rolle was actually accused
of being feminine and indeed dressed himself in his sisters cast offs. See Jantzen, 190.
4 3
Jantzen, 303.
3 7
Julian, 137.
3 8
Gottschalk, 50.
3 9
Upjohn, 51.
4 0
Beer, Frances Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge: The
Boydell Press, 1992) 152. Beer points out that Clement of Alexandria said God himself
is love; and out of love to us became feminine. In His ineffable essence He is Father; in his
compassion to us He became Mother, that Ambrose remarked Christ is the virgin who
entered into marriage, carried us in her womb, gave birth to us, and fed us with her own
milk, and that even Augustine used a maternal image, although he stipulated its meta-
phorical use Just as a mother, suckling her infant, transfers from her flesh the very same
food which would otherwise be unsuitable to the babe...so the Lord, in order to convert his
wisdom into milk for our benefit, came to us clothed in flesh.
4 1
Pelphrey, 39.
4 2
Crisp, 315. Crisp also mentions Bernard of Clairvaux and points out that these men learnt
their spiritual practices from women. Ironically, Rolle was exceedingly misogynist. Clifton
Wolters, The English Mystics. In The Study of Spirituality edited by Cheslyn Jones,
Geoffrey, Edward Yarnold (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986) writes, He [Rolle]
stresses his misogyny throughout his works, and though this attitude is not unusual in a
time when many medievals laid mans sins at Eves door, with Rolle it takes on unwonted
bitterness (p. 331). Interestingly, however, Jantzen notes that Rolle was actually accused
of being feminine and indeed dressed himself in his sisters cast offs. See Jantzen, 190.
4 3
Jantzen, 303.
without love we cannot live.
37
Eddy is not explicit about God never being angry, but
an analysis of her theology suggests that it is impossible for God to be angry because
God knows nothing about evil or sin, all of creation being good. It was intolerable to
Eddy to attribute to God any form of imperfection, rather she believed that it was
misconceptions of God that lead to disease and discord in the human experience.
38
God as Mother
It appears that in Julians day the idea of God as mother was not as surprising as it
was in the twentieth century.
39
The early Christians were familiar with feminine
metaphors for God but these had been suppressed by the fifth century, although
attempts to revive them had been made by Bernard and Anselm in the eleventh
century.
40
Anselm referred to Christ as a nursemaid and Meister Eckart in the
thirteenth century called Christ Mother.
41
Richard Rolle, too, used feminine images
for God.
42
Jantzen stresses that Julians teaching on mother was orthodox, but that
Julians metaphors have been suppressed and the development of the father metaphor
allowed to reign unchallenged until recently by feminists, accompanied by
bewilderment and outrage.
43
But, although in the medieval era both males and females
wrote of Christ as mother, it is Julian who developed this metaphor most
thoroughly.
44
Julians emphasis on Jesus as mother is not only the development of
an idea of kindness or tenderness in God, but the affirmation of bodily existence and
rejection of ascetism, as well as the notion of inseparability of the relationship between
us and God, emphasized by Julians use of the knitting metaphor.
45
Upjohn argues that Julian was a young mother whose children had died and
therefore the mother imagery reflects her own experience, while other scholars
suggest that Julians own experience of being mothered may explain her image of
Jesus as mother.
46
But however Julian came to the imagery, it is obvious that she
sees the work of God most clearly in the process of giving birth and in the daily care
of others, which can be analogous to the process of birth and rebirth as we mature
into our divine nature. But Julian never implies that Christ is female.
47
Rather, the
images are more that women are like Christ in their daily work of mothering.
48
Nor is
Julian saying that there is maleness or femaleness in the trinity, even though her
image seems more literal than figurative, ie, she says, God is as really our Mother as
he is our Father.
49
For Julian, the trinity comprises the father, the mother (Christ), all wise, and the
holy spirit. Julian argues that Mary is the Mother of all, and therefore Mary is included
in the trinity since mother is the second person. By having motherhood as the essence
of Jesus humanity, Julian not only elevated the status of motherhood considerably
beyond church teachings, but demonstrated a positive regard for the sexuality of
women.
50
In church teachings, of course, Jesus as the visible image of the invisible
4 4
Crisp, 315 Crisp says that Julian may have been inspired by William of St Thierry who
two and a half centuries previously had suggested mother as the second person of the
trinity.
4 5
Pelphrey, 173. Joan Nuth also notes that the motherhood metaphor expresses well the
idea that we are always held united to God, which is our natural place, through a mothers
love which never leaves us. (68).
4 6
Upjohn, 68 Apparently many scholars believe that Julians imagery of Mother-God
comes from memories of her childhood, but Upjohn presents Sister Benedictas case for
Julian living in a household, not as a nun, and it is feasible that her husband and child/ren
died either through war or plague.
4 7
Upjohn, 52.
4 8
Upjohn, 53.
4 9
Beer, 152. Also Pelphrey, 39. Beer (p. 153) points to two distinct waves of misogynist
censorship: one in the fifth century and the other in the twentieth century which was
dismissive of the doctrine, treating it as metaphor only.
5 0
Crisp, 316
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 209
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 209
4 4
Crisp, 315 Crisp says that Julian may have been inspired by William of St Thierry who
two and a half centuries previously had suggested mother as the second person of the
trinity.
4 5
Pelphrey, 173. Joan Nuth also notes that the motherhood metaphor expresses well the
idea that we are always held united to God, which is our natural place, through a mothers
love which never leaves us. (68).
4 6
Upjohn, 68 Apparently many scholars believe that Julians imagery of Mother-God
comes from memories of her childhood, but Upjohn presents Sister Benedictas case for
Julian living in a household, not as a nun, and it is feasible that her husband and child/ren
died either through war or plague.
4 7
Upjohn, 52.
4 8
Upjohn, 53.
4 9
Beer, 152. Also Pelphrey, 39. Beer (p. 153) points to two distinct waves of misogynist
censorship: one in the fifth century and the other in the twentieth century which was
dismissive of the doctrine, treating it as metaphor only.
5 0
Crisp, 316
wrote of Christ as mother, it is Julian who developed this metaphor most
thoroughly.
44
Julians emphasis on Jesus as mother is not only the development of
an idea of kindness or tenderness in God, but the affirmation of bodily existence and
rejection of ascetism, as well as the notion of inseparability of the relationship between
us and God, emphasized by Julians use of the knitting metaphor.
45
Upjohn argues that Julian was a young mother whose children had died and
therefore the mother imagery reflects her own experience, while other scholars
suggest that Julians own experience of being mothered may explain her image of
Jesus as mother.
46
But however Julian came to the imagery, it is obvious that she
sees the work of God most clearly in the process of giving birth and in the daily care
of others, which can be analogous to the process of birth and rebirth as we mature
into our divine nature. But Julian never implies that Christ is female.
47
Rather, the
images are more that women are like Christ in their daily work of mothering.
48
Nor is
Julian saying that there is maleness or femaleness in the trinity, even though her
image seems more literal than figurative, ie, she says, God is as really our Mother as
he is our Father.
49
For Julian, the trinity comprises the father, the mother (Christ), all wise, and the
holy spirit. Julian argues that Mary is the Mother of all, and therefore Mary is included
in the trinity since mother is the second person. By having motherhood as the essence
of Jesus humanity, Julian not only elevated the status of motherhood considerably
beyond church teachings, but demonstrated a positive regard for the sexuality of
women.
50
In church teachings, of course, Jesus as the visible image of the invisible
God is used to tie the knot between maleness and divinity very tightly.
51
As
Elizabeth Johnson says, it is not crucial for the trinity to always be referred to as the
father, son and holy spirit, but that the exclusive use of these over the centuries has
caused alienation from other potential and previously used metaphors.
52
It is evident that Eddys experience of being mothered was a very positive one
and it may be this that caused Eddy to reject the predominantly masculine image of
God as father, and the traditional trinitarian formulation that excludes mother. For
Eddy, Life is represented by the father, Truth by the son, and Love by the mother.
53
Like Julian of Norwich, Eddy was not the first in her era to put emphasis on the
motherhood of God, as the Shakers and Theodore Parker had done so before her.
54
However, the particular significance for Eddy of the motherhood of God was her
sense that Christian Science itself, that is, the healing and sustaining presence of
God, Spirit, was the revelation of the motherhood of God.
55
And in Science and
Health she wrote, In divine Science we have not as much authority for considering
God masculine, as we have for considering Him feminine, for Love imparts the clearest
idea of Deity.
56
Both Julian and Eddy focus on motherhood while at the same time using the
masculine personal pronoun. However, Eddy did early on in her career write one
chapter of her textbook calling God She but this practice was discontinued by the
next edition.
57
Whereas Julian has no dichotomy between male and female in terms of
the equality of humanity, Eddy did specify that woman was the highest species of
man where man is the generic term for all women.
58
Even though the word
father is used more frequently than mother, there is no question that for Eddy,
the metaphors of father and mother were equally applicable, as evidenced in Eddys
spiritual interpretation of the Lords prayer.
59
5 1
Johnson, Elizabeth A. She Who Is. The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse
(New York: Crossroad, 1993) 35.
5 2
Johnson, 212. Johnson argues further that feminine images are needed to break the spell of
the masculine ones.
5 3
Eddy, Science & Health, 569.
5 4
Gottschalk, 52.
5 5
Gottschalk, 52.
5 6
Eddy, Science and Health, 517 According to Phyllis Trible (in Johnson, p. 101) both the
Hebrew word for womb and that for compassion are related to the verb and adjective
which mean to show mercy and merciful.
56
5 7
Gottschalk also notes this on p. 53.
5 8
Eddy, Mary Baker Unity of Good (Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G
Eddy. 1920) 51.
5 9
In her textbook, Science and Health, Eddy refers to God as Mother and Father four times,
210 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 210 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
5 1
Johnson, Elizabeth A. She Who Is. The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse
(New York: Crossroad, 1993) 35.
5 2
Johnson, 212. Johnson argues further that feminine images are needed to break the spell of
the masculine ones.
5 3
Eddy, Science & Health, 569.
5 4
Gottschalk, 52.
5 5
Gottschalk, 52.
5 6
Eddy, Science and Health, 517 According to Phyllis Trible (in Johnson, p. 101) both the
Hebrew word for womb and that for compassion are related to the verb and adjective
which mean to show mercy and merciful.
56
5 7
Gottschalk also notes this on p. 53.
5 8
Eddy, Mary Baker Unity of Good (Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G
Eddy. 1920) 51.
5 9
In her textbook, Science and Health, Eddy refers to God as Mother and Father four times,
God is used to tie the knot between maleness and divinity very tightly.
51
As
Elizabeth Johnson says, it is not crucial for the trinity to always be referred to as the
father, son and holy spirit, but that the exclusive use of these over the centuries has
caused alienation from other potential and previously used metaphors.
52
It is evident that Eddys experience of being mothered was a very positive one
and it may be this that caused Eddy to reject the predominantly masculine image of
God as father, and the traditional trinitarian formulation that excludes mother. For
Eddy, Life is represented by the father, Truth by the son, and Love by the mother.
53
Like Julian of Norwich, Eddy was not the first in her era to put emphasis on the
motherhood of God, as the Shakers and Theodore Parker had done so before her.
54
However, the particular significance for Eddy of the motherhood of God was her
sense that Christian Science itself, that is, the healing and sustaining presence of
God, Spirit, was the revelation of the motherhood of God.
55
And in Science and
Health she wrote, In divine Science we have not as much authority for considering
God masculine, as we have for considering Him feminine, for Love imparts the clearest
idea of Deity.
56
Both Julian and Eddy focus on motherhood while at the same time using the
masculine personal pronoun. However, Eddy did early on in her career write one
chapter of her textbook calling God She but this practice was discontinued by the
next edition.
57
Whereas Julian has no dichotomy between male and female in terms of
the equality of humanity, Eddy did specify that woman was the highest species of
man where man is the generic term for all women.
58
Even though the word
father is used more frequently than mother, there is no question that for Eddy,
the metaphors of father and mother were equally applicable, as evidenced in Eddys
spiritual interpretation of the Lords prayer.
59
Our Father-Mother God, all harmonious.
Adorable One.
Thy kingdom is come: thou art ever-present.
Enable us to know, - as in heaven, so on earth, - God is
omnipotent, supreme.
Give us grace for to-day; feed the famished affections;
And Love is reflected in love;
And God leadeth us not into temptation,
but delivereth us from sin, disease, and death.
For God is infinite,
all-power, all Life, Truth, Love, over all, and all.
60
The Problem of Sin and Suffering
Jantzen points out that the affective tradition of Julians time focused self-knowledge
on the ability to know ones sins and for this to be accompanied by contrition and
repentance. The self-knowledge advocated by Julian, however, is antithetical to this
tradition in that the emphasis is on a knowledge of oneself as God-like, and by
contemplation on this understanding of ourselves and on an all-loving God we learn
to take pleasure in ourselves.
61
Jantzen points out the audacity of this theology
because the implication for women was to overturn the long-held exhortations for
women to see themselves as the reason for the entry of sin into creation.
62
Although
Julian does question the presence of sin, she certainly does not link it in anyway to
women. Significantly, Julian is silent around the whole issue of sexuality, not
advocating chastity or virginity as requisite to holiness, and this at a time when
sexuality was regarded as a hindrance to spiritual progress.
63
Increased self-
knowledge, then, for Julian becomes equivalent to an increase in self-esteem and
self-worth.
Fundamental to the teaching and practice of Mary Baker Eddy is that God is All-
in-all, and that All that is made is the work of God, and all is good.
64
This is the
essence of what Julian is saying about the third revelation, viz, there is no other
and thirteen more times in her other writings. The motherhood of God is referred to
three times in her textbook.
6 0
Eddy, Science & Health, 16-17.
6 1
Jantzen, 152.
6 2
Jantzen, 153.
6 3
Jantzen, 153.
6 4
Eddy, Science & Health, 521.
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 211
MUTHERAJ: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 211
and thirteen more times in her other writings. The motherhood of God is referred to
three times in her textbook.
6 0
Eddy, Science & Health, 16-17.
6 1
Jantzen, 152.
6 2
Jantzen, 153.
6 3
Jantzen, 153.
6 4
Eddy, Science & Health, 521.
Our Father-Mother God, all harmonious.
Adorable One.
Thy kingdom is come: thou art ever-present.
Enable us to know, - as in heaven, so on earth, - God is
omnipotent, supreme.
Give us grace for to-day; feed the famished affections;
And Love is reflected in love;
And God leadeth us not into temptation,
but delivereth us from sin, disease, and death.
For God is infinite,
all-power, all Life, Truth, Love, over all, and all.
60
The Problem of Sin and Suffering
Jantzen points out that the affective tradition of Julians time focused self-knowledge
on the ability to know ones sins and for this to be accompanied by contrition and
repentance. The self-knowledge advocated by Julian, however, is antithetical to this
tradition in that the emphasis is on a knowledge of oneself as God-like, and by
contemplation on this understanding of ourselves and on an all-loving God we learn
to take pleasure in ourselves.
61
Jantzen points out the audacity of this theology
because the implication for women was to overturn the long-held exhortations for
women to see themselves as the reason for the entry of sin into creation.
62
Although
Julian does question the presence of sin, she certainly does not link it in anyway to
women. Significantly, Julian is silent around the whole issue of sexuality, not
advocating chastity or virginity as requisite to holiness, and this at a time when
sexuality was regarded as a hindrance to spiritual progress.
63
Increased self-
knowledge, then, for Julian becomes equivalent to an increase in self-esteem and
self-worth.
Fundamental to the teaching and practice of Mary Baker Eddy is that God is All-
in-all, and that All that is made is the work of God, and all is good.
64
This is the
essence of what Julian is saying about the third revelation, viz, there is no other
doer except God, which means that sin is not a thing that we do, not a deed, for in
all that was done, there was no sin shown.
65
In reflecting on the thirteenth revelation,
Julian says that she did not see sin, that:
I believe it has no substance or real existence. It can only be known
by the pain it causes. This pain is something, as I see it, which lasts
but a while. It purges us and makes us know ourselves, so that we ask
for mercy.
66
This is very much Eddys position as well. They who sin must suffer, she says,
and ...sin brings inevitable suffering.
67
The cause of sin Eddy sees as the duality of
matter and spirit, and the belief that we are matter, not spirit. The destruction of sin
(and sickness) comes with a change in thinking, that is, the recognition of ourselves
as spiritual beings. This is not simply a Platonic denigration of the material world, but
rather the notion that there is no solid matter, a position now held to by physicists.
68
Sin, according to Eddy, is not a thing, ie, it has no substance or real existence
just as Julian says above. Rather, it is a thought and that thought then manifests as
behaviour.
69
Sin in Christian Science means living as if one has a material selfhood,
not a spiritual one.
70
Eddy stresses that to either fear or to love sin is wrong, as either
of these positions make a reality of it because it is sins unreality or lack of divine
authority which allows us to overcome it.
71
For Christian Scientists, spiritual
6 5
Julian, 80.
6 6
Julian, 104.
6 7
Eddy, Science & Health, 11 and 37. Also see the Glossary p. 588 Hell: Mortal belief;
error; lust; remorse; hatred; revenge; sin; sickness; death; suffering and self-destruction;
self-imposed agony; effects of sin; that which worketh abomination or maketh a lie.
6 8
According to Steven Fair in the Christian Science Journal, July 1988, 19-23 and reprinted
in Christian Science. A Sourcebook of Contemporary Materials (Boston : The Christian
Science Publishing Society, 1990) 303-309, a summary of quantum physics would be that
there is no reality below or behind the surface appearance of matter; the appearance itself
is the reality. To put it another way, in quantum physics mathematical description is the
only knowable reality. However, he also cautions by quoting physicist Jeremy Bernstein
To hitch a religious philosophy to a contemporary science is a sure route to its obsoles-
cence. Eddys position that there is no solid matter just doesnt look as weird as it
would have when she first propounded it in 1875.
6 9
See Eddy, Science & Health, 234.
7 0
Gottschalk, 240.
7 1
Eddy, Mary Baker, Message to The Mother Church. Boston, Massachusetts. June, 1901
(Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G. Eddy, 1929) 12 See the entire article
No reality in evil or sin for an explication of Eddys thinking on sin and evil.
212 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 212 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
doer except God, which means that sin is not a thing that we do, not a deed, for in
all that was done, there was no sin shown.
65
In reflecting on the thirteenth revelation,
Julian says that she did not see sin, that:
I believe it has no substance or real existence. It can only be known
by the pain it causes. This pain is something, as I see it, which lasts
but a while. It purges us and makes us know ourselves, so that we ask
for mercy.
66
This is very much Eddys position as well. They who sin must suffer, she says,
and ...sin brings inevitable suffering.
67
The cause of sin Eddy sees as the duality of
matter and spirit, and the belief that we are matter, not spirit. The destruction of sin
(and sickness) comes with a change in thinking, that is, the recognition of ourselves
as spiritual beings. This is not simply a Platonic denigration of the material world, but
rather the notion that there is no solid matter, a position now held to by physicists.
68
Sin, according to Eddy, is not a thing, ie, it has no substance or real existence
just as Julian says above. Rather, it is a thought and that thought then manifests as
behaviour.
69
Sin in Christian Science means living as if one has a material selfhood,
not a spiritual one.
70
Eddy stresses that to either fear or to love sin is wrong, as either
of these positions make a reality of it because it is sins unreality or lack of divine
authority which allows us to overcome it.
71
For Christian Scientists, spiritual
6 5
Julian, 80.
6 6
Julian, 104.
6 7
Eddy, Science & Health, 11 and 37. Also see the Glossary p. 588 Hell: Mortal belief;
error; lust; remorse; hatred; revenge; sin; sickness; death; suffering and self-destruction;
self-imposed agony; effects of sin; that which worketh abomination or maketh a lie.
6 8
According to Steven Fair in the Christian Science Journal, July 1988, 19-23 and reprinted
in Christian Science. A Sourcebook of Contemporary Materials (Boston : The Christian
Science Publishing Society, 1990) 303-309, a summary of quantum physics would be that
there is no reality below or behind the surface appearance of matter; the appearance itself
is the reality. To put it another way, in quantum physics mathematical description is the
only knowable reality. However, he also cautions by quoting physicist Jeremy Bernstein
To hitch a religious philosophy to a contemporary science is a sure route to its obsoles-
cence. Eddys position that there is no solid matter just doesnt look as weird as it
would have when she first propounded it in 1875.
6 9
See Eddy, Science & Health, 234.
7 0
Gottschalk, 240.
7 1
Eddy, Mary Baker, Message to The Mother Church. Boston, Massachusetts. June, 1901
(Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G. Eddy, 1929) 12 See the entire article
No reality in evil or sin for an explication of Eddys thinking on sin and evil.
regeneration comes through an understanding of the self as spiritual and therefore
innocent, and this understanding brings with it a repugnance for sin and desire to
overcome it. Spiritual regeneration always accompanies physical healing and indeed,
as Jean McDonald notes, the healings pale before the the wonders of Spirit and
the spiritual regeneration now going on.
72
This is a common thread in contemporary
testimonies as well.
73
I agree with Jantzen that Julians theology is that suffering is caused by sin and
can be prevented by not sinning.
74
Julian represents sin as being unnatural, ie,
against our true divine nature. Since Augustine, Christianity in the West has viewed
humanity and divinity as two different ways of being, as opposites.
75
But for Julian
of Norwich, however, there is no division of the person into mind, body, spirit, but
rather one being, and that one being entirely spiritual, rejecting as she does that we
are a spirit inhabiting a body.
76
For both Eddy and Julian, salvation is not a moment
of being saved, but a rather a process of growing into our divine nature, into the
fullness of our humanity.
77
Their idea of salvation is that we are healed, or more
accurately, restored to wholeness.
Im not certain that Eddy would ever have described sin as worthwhile as
Julian does, although she would agree that it is through sin that we become sensitive
and compassionate toward others.
78
The idea of sin being somehow necessary was
not a new one, as it was incorporated into the church teachings of Julians time.
79
However, against the tradition of the time, Julians theology allows for the reality of
ongoing sin by humanity, the consequences of our actions being all that is required
by way of penance.
80
Eddy would certainly have agreed that there is no shame in
7 2
McDonald, 278.
7 3
For example, in the December 1992 edition of The Christian Science Journal there is a
testimony from a woman who spoke of healings of a broken leg, regular colds and a
constant shortage of money. At the conclusion of the testimony she writes: In the
process of spiritual rebirth, I have found the willingness to give up both criticism and a
certain sense of humour that actually downgrades others abilities and accomplishments.
Such tendencies must be relinquished in order to gain a fuller sense of mans spiritual
nature, and I have been able to do this (p. 50).
7 4
Jantzen, 179.
7 5
Pelphrey, 28.
7 6
Pelphrey, 169.
7 7
Pelphrey, 30.
7 8
Jantzen, 154.
7 9
Pelphrey, 148.
8 0
Pelphrey, 191.
regeneration comes through an understanding of the self as spiritual and therefore
innocent, and this understanding brings with it a repugnance for sin and desire to
overcome it. Spiritual regeneration always accompanies physical healing and indeed,
as Jean McDonald notes, the healings pale before the the wonders of Spirit and
the spiritual regeneration now going on.
72
This is a common thread in contemporary
testimonies as well.
73
I agree with Jantzen that Julians theology is that suffering is caused by sin and
can be prevented by not sinning.
74
Julian represents sin as being unnatural, ie,
against our true divine nature. Since Augustine, Christianity in the West has viewed
humanity and divinity as two different ways of being, as opposites.
75
But for Julian
of Norwich, however, there is no division of the person into mind, body, spirit, but
rather one being, and that one being entirely spiritual, rejecting as she does that we
are a spirit inhabiting a body.
76
For both Eddy and Julian, salvation is not a moment
of being saved, but a rather a process of growing into our divine nature, into the
fullness of our humanity.
77
Their idea of salvation is that we are healed, or more
accurately, restored to wholeness.
Im not certain that Eddy would ever have described sin as worthwhile as
Julian does, although she would agree that it is through sin that we become sensitive
and compassionate toward others.
78
The idea of sin being somehow necessary was
not a new one, as it was incorporated into the church teachings of Julians time.
79
However, against the tradition of the time, Julians theology allows for the reality of
ongoing sin by humanity, the consequences of our actions being all that is required
by way of penance.
80
Eddy would certainly have agreed that there is no shame in
7 2
McDonald, 278.
7 3
For example, in the December 1992 edition of The Christian Science Journal there is a
testimony from a woman who spoke of healings of a broken leg, regular colds and a
constant shortage of money. At the conclusion of the testimony she writes: In the
process of spiritual rebirth, I have found the willingness to give up both criticism and a
certain sense of humour that actually downgrades others abilities and accomplishments.
Such tendencies must be relinquished in order to gain a fuller sense of mans spiritual
nature, and I have been able to do this (p. 50).
7 4
Jantzen, 179.
7 5
Pelphrey, 28.
7 6
Pelphrey, 169.
7 7
Pelphrey, 30.
7 8
Jantzen, 154.
7 9
Pelphrey, 148.
8 0
Pelphrey, 191.
having sinned, or at least not once it has been healed. Eddy speaks of the destruction
of sin being the forgiveness of God, that is, the sin disappears through the action of
divine Love. There is a story that she healed her secretary of 28 years, Calvin Frye, of
dishonesty and theft very early on in their association.
81
Eddy held Frye in high
esteem during the years they worked together, so certainly for Eddy the sin was
changed to a thing of honour.
82
For Eddy, the problems of daily living are catalysts
for the ongoing revelation of our God-being.
83
In the thirteenth revelation, Julian says that in every soul to be saved is a godly
will that has never consented to sin, in the past or in the future.
84
Eddys theology,
like Julians, does not allow for separate souls trapped within a human body and
longing for release at death, nor for a location called heaven.
85
Rather, the notion that
we are all the image and likeness of God right now is foundational to her teaching,
and it is by recognition of and appeal to the Godly nature of us all that promotes
healing in all its aspects. The framework within which Eddy and Julian refer to this
Godly nature differs, but the practical outworking would elicit the same response, ie,
healing - reformation and transformation of bodies as well as of lives.
In the eight revelation, Julian talks of how the human body will suffer until it is
united with Christ.
86
Mary Baker Eddy asserts repeatedly in her teachings that it is
divine Mind, or God, which controls the body, our mortal physical nature and that
as this control is recognized and desired the inward (exalted and joyful and vital, all
peaceful and loving) should by grace draw the outward so that human nature
conforms to the divine and becomes harmonious and eternal.
87
8 1
See Keyston, 102. Mrs Eddy told the story of this healing in a letter to her lawyer, Frank
Streeter in 1907. Keyston has also found five separate accounts of Eddy raising Calvin
Frye from the death during the time he worked with her. See pp. 102-103.
8 2
Julian, 119.
8 3
Laird, Margaret Christian Science Re-Explored. A Challenge to Original Thinking (Los
Angeles: Margaret Laird Foundation, 1971), 8.
8 4
Julian, 118.
8 5
Heaven for Eddy is a state of consciousness, not a location. See her Glossary, Science &
Health, p. 587 Heaven. Harmony; the reign of Spirit; government by divine Principle;
spirituality; bliss; the atmosphere of Soul. See also p. 291 Heaven is not a locality, but a
divine state of Mind in which all the manifestations of Mind are harmonious and immortal,
because sin is not there and man is found having no righteousness of his own, but in
possession of of the mind of the Lord, as the Scripture says.
8 6
Julian, 92-93.
8 7
For example, see Science & Health, 417 ...the complete control which Mind holds over
the body. and on p. 169, If we understood the control of Mind over body, we should put
no faith in material means. Also see p. 184 and Julians writing, p. 93.
214 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 214 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
having sinned, or at least not once it has been healed. Eddy speaks of the destruction
of sin being the forgiveness of God, that is, the sin disappears through the action of
divine Love. There is a story that she healed her secretary of 28 years, Calvin Frye, of
dishonesty and theft very early on in their association.
81
Eddy held Frye in high
esteem during the years they worked together, so certainly for Eddy the sin was
changed to a thing of honour.
82
For Eddy, the problems of daily living are catalysts
for the ongoing revelation of our God-being.
83
In the thirteenth revelation, Julian says that in every soul to be saved is a godly
will that has never consented to sin, in the past or in the future.
84
Eddys theology,
like Julians, does not allow for separate souls trapped within a human body and
longing for release at death, nor for a location called heaven.
85
Rather, the notion that
we are all the image and likeness of God right now is foundational to her teaching,
and it is by recognition of and appeal to the Godly nature of us all that promotes
healing in all its aspects. The framework within which Eddy and Julian refer to this
Godly nature differs, but the practical outworking would elicit the same response, ie,
healing - reformation and transformation of bodies as well as of lives.
In the eight revelation, Julian talks of how the human body will suffer until it is
united with Christ.
86
Mary Baker Eddy asserts repeatedly in her teachings that it is
divine Mind, or God, which controls the body, our mortal physical nature and that
as this control is recognized and desired the inward (exalted and joyful and vital, all
peaceful and loving) should by grace draw the outward so that human nature
conforms to the divine and becomes harmonious and eternal.
87
8 1
See Keyston, 102. Mrs Eddy told the story of this healing in a letter to her lawyer, Frank
Streeter in 1907. Keyston has also found five separate accounts of Eddy raising Calvin
Frye from the death during the time he worked with her. See pp. 102-103.
8 2
Julian, 119.
8 3
Laird, Margaret Christian Science Re-Explored. A Challenge to Original Thinking (Los
Angeles: Margaret Laird Foundation, 1971), 8.
8 4
Julian, 118.
8 5
Heaven for Eddy is a state of consciousness, not a location. See her Glossary, Science &
Health, p. 587 Heaven. Harmony; the reign of Spirit; government by divine Principle;
spirituality; bliss; the atmosphere of Soul. See also p. 291 Heaven is not a locality, but a
divine state of Mind in which all the manifestations of Mind are harmonious and immortal,
because sin is not there and man is found having no righteousness of his own, but in
possession of of the mind of the Lord, as the Scripture says.
8 6
Julian, 92-93.
8 7
For example, see Science & Health, 417 ...the complete control which Mind holds over
the body. and on p. 169, If we understood the control of Mind over body, we should put
no faith in material means. Also see p. 184 and Julians writing, p. 93.
Limitations are put off in proportion as the fleshly nature
disappears and man is found in the reflection of Spirit....I endeavored
to lift thought above physical personality, or selfhood in matter, to
mans spiritual individuality in God, - in the true Mind, where sensible
evil is lost in supersensible good. (Mary Baker Eddy)
88
In the eighth revelation, Julian says that earthly suffering is to be endured as
Jesus endured. The point of this is to raise us even higher in bliss
89
. Mary Baker
Eddys teaching ministry was undertaken so that people may know how to over come
their suffering experienced through sickness and sin. She taught that suffering is
a mistake, error, that could be overcome by Truth. That is, she taught that it is not
inevitable, nor God given, but rather our failure to apprehend our divine nature, and
the control that God has over our lives.
90
However, she also taught, and it is a
prevalent view amongst Christian Scientists, that out of any suffering can come an
awakening to divine reality, or the present reign of God.
91
Eddy did not teach that
suffering must be endured for its own sake, but nor is Julian saying this, and her
experience demonstrates Eddys words, viz, out of her suffering came a renewed
sense of God, her life, and reality.
Our Godly Nature
Our real self according to Julian is our soul and according to Eddy is our spiritual
identification as the image and likeness of God, or our God-being as she says in her
first edition of Science & Health .
92
Apparently Eckhart also held that our essential
self remains inseparably with God, but this self for Eckhart was defined in terms of
a male higher intellect, whereas for Julian it is centred in the will.
93
It is our sensual
self that is constantly lapsing into evil, and this is what causes a split between our
real self and our sensuality.
94
Julian then insists on reintegration between the
88
Eddy, Retrospection & Introspection, (Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G
Eddy. 1920) 73
8 9
Julian, 96.
9 0
Eddy says on p. 457 of Science & Health that Her prime object, since entering this field
of labor, has been to prevent suffering, not to produce it.
9 1
Eddy, Science & Health, 196 Better the suffering which awakens mortal mind from its
fleshly dream, than the false pleasures which tend to perpetuate this dream.
9 2
Eddy, Science & Health, 1
st
edition, 104. Mary Baker Eddy was known as Mary Baker
Glover in 1875 when her book was first published. She married Asa Gilbert Eddy on
January 1, 1877.
9 3
Jantzen, 148.
Limitations are put off in proportion as the fleshly nature
disappears and man is found in the reflection of Spirit....I endeavored
to lift thought above physical personality, or selfhood in matter, to
mans spiritual individuality in God, - in the true Mind, where sensible
evil is lost in supersensible good. (Mary Baker Eddy)
88
In the eighth revelation, Julian says that earthly suffering is to be endured as
Jesus endured. The point of this is to raise us even higher in bliss
89
. Mary Baker
Eddys teaching ministry was undertaken so that people may know how to over come
their suffering experienced through sickness and sin. She taught that suffering is
a mistake, error, that could be overcome by Truth. That is, she taught that it is not
inevitable, nor God given, but rather our failure to apprehend our divine nature, and
the control that God has over our lives.
90
However, she also taught, and it is a
prevalent view amongst Christian Scientists, that out of any suffering can come an
awakening to divine reality, or the present reign of God.
91
Eddy did not teach that
suffering must be endured for its own sake, but nor is Julian saying this, and her
experience demonstrates Eddys words, viz, out of her suffering came a renewed
sense of God, her life, and reality.
Our Godly Nature
Our real self according to Julian is our soul and according to Eddy is our spiritual
identification as the image and likeness of God, or our God-being as she says in her
first edition of Science & Health .
92
Apparently Eckhart also held that our essential
self remains inseparably with God, but this self for Eckhart was defined in terms of
a male higher intellect, whereas for Julian it is centred in the will.
93
It is our sensual
self that is constantly lapsing into evil, and this is what causes a split between our
real self and our sensuality.
94
Julian then insists on reintegration between the
88
Eddy, Retrospection & Introspection, (Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G
Eddy. 1920) 73
8 9
Julian, 96.
9 0
Eddy says on p. 457 of Science & Health that Her prime object, since entering this field
of labor, has been to prevent suffering, not to produce it.
9 1
Eddy, Science & Health, 196 Better the suffering which awakens mortal mind from its
fleshly dream, than the false pleasures which tend to perpetuate this dream.
9 2
Eddy, Science & Health, 1
st
edition, 104. Mary Baker Eddy was known as Mary Baker
Glover in 1875 when her book was first published. She married Asa Gilbert Eddy on
January 1, 1877.
9 3
Jantzen, 148.
substance and sensual, therefore bringing the whole into unity with God, within
whom we are already enfolded.
95
Eddy has a different way of expressing a similar notion of integration. She talks of
the five material senses (our sensuality) as being the reason for not being able to
perceive God right now, and for all discord or sin. The body to Eddy is spiritual, not
material, although nonetheless concrete and real and experiencable.
96
Therefore
Eddy argues for a turning away from the illusion perceived through our five material
senses to perception via what she calls spiritual sense, which lifts human
consciousness into eternal Truth.
97
As our consciousness rises to acknowledge
and accept the spiritual reality of harmony we bring that harmony into our present
human experience, despite what the material senses declare possible or probable.
For Eddy, then, there is no denial of the existence of our sensuality, but she redefines
it in terms of a spiritual reality and in this way is expressing the same idea of integration
that Julian does when she speaks of bringing the whole of the self, sensuality
included, into the unity of the love of God.
98
Like Julian, Eddy does not advocate ascetic practices, stating in fact that Jesus
was no ascetic, and neither is Christian Science a prescriptive denomination.
99
However, Eddy did require members of her Mother Church to totally abstain from the
use of tobacco and alcohol, not an uncommon theme amongst other Protestant
churches of the day, but the motivation for abstinence in Christian Science was
focused on the efficacy of spiritual treatments rather than use of material stimulants.
100
Eddy actually warned people not to live beyond their own level of spiritual growth,
advising adherents to emerge gently from matter into Spirit.
101
Julian says in the fourteenth revelation that not only does our soul (our real self)
dwell in God, but there is really no difference in substance between God and ourselves,
rather that all is God, even though in her mind our substance, or soul, dwells within
God. For Eddy, God is all that exists, and this is an essential ingredient in a metaphysical
treatment as she outlined - ...you will find the ensuing good effects to be in exact
proportion to your disbelief in physics, and your fidelity to divine metaphysics,
9 4
Jantzen, 148.
9 5
Jantzen, 149.
9 6
In Christian Science. A Sourcebook of Contemporary Materials, 161.
9 7
Eddy, Science & Health, 95.
9 8
Jantzen, 149.
9 9
Eddy, Science & Health, 53.
100
Gottschalk, 241.
101
Eddy, Science & Health, 485.
216 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
216 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
substance and sensual, therefore bringing the whole into unity with God, within
whom we are already enfolded.
95
Eddy has a different way of expressing a similar notion of integration. She talks of
the five material senses (our sensuality) as being the reason for not being able to
perceive God right now, and for all discord or sin. The body to Eddy is spiritual, not
material, although nonetheless concrete and real and experiencable.
96
Therefore
Eddy argues for a turning away from the illusion perceived through our five material
senses to perception via what she calls spiritual sense, which lifts human
consciousness into eternal Truth.
97
As our consciousness rises to acknowledge
and accept the spiritual reality of harmony we bring that harmony into our present
human experience, despite what the material senses declare possible or probable.
For Eddy, then, there is no denial of the existence of our sensuality, but she redefines
it in terms of a spiritual reality and in this way is expressing the same idea of integration
that Julian does when she speaks of bringing the whole of the self, sensuality
included, into the unity of the love of God.
98
Like Julian, Eddy does not advocate ascetic practices, stating in fact that Jesus
was no ascetic, and neither is Christian Science a prescriptive denomination.
99
However, Eddy did require members of her Mother Church to totally abstain from the
use of tobacco and alcohol, not an uncommon theme amongst other Protestant
churches of the day, but the motivation for abstinence in Christian Science was
focused on the efficacy of spiritual treatments rather than use of material stimulants.
100
Eddy actually warned people not to live beyond their own level of spiritual growth,
advising adherents to emerge gently from matter into Spirit.
101
Julian says in the fourteenth revelation that not only does our soul (our real self)
dwell in God, but there is really no difference in substance between God and ourselves,
rather that all is God, even though in her mind our substance, or soul, dwells within
God. For Eddy, God is all that exists, and this is an essential ingredient in a metaphysical
treatment as she outlined - ...you will find the ensuing good effects to be in exact
proportion to your disbelief in physics, and your fidelity to divine metaphysics,
9 4
Jantzen, 148.
9 5
Jantzen, 149.
9 6
In Christian Science. A Sourcebook of Contemporary Materials, 161.
9 7
Eddy, Science & Health, 95.
9 8
Jantzen, 149.
9 9
Eddy, Science & Health, 53.
100
Gottschalk, 241.
101
Eddy, Science & Health, 485.
confidence in God as All, which the Scriptures declare Him to be, or as Julian
phrases it ...God wants us to realize by faith that we are in fact more in heaven than
on earth.
102
This lack of distinction between our real selves (the soul) and God
talked of by Julian, comes through in Eddys first edition of Science and Health in
1875 when she talks of the I of us being Spirit, not matter.
103
By the 1910 and final
edition of Science and Health, Eddy is not so explicit in her assertion of this oneness,
although it is implicit in her logic and explicit in the story of a conversation with a man
who was suffering from jaundice to whom she said that God was his Mind, his
Life.
104
Although there are essential christological differences between the two women,
both have at the core of their understanding the idea that we are all created to look
like God, or Christ.
105
In Jesus, we see our true nature.
106
Julian arrives at this
conclusion by way of the trinity, and Eddy by arguing that Jesus is not the only son
of God, that we are in fact all the Christ in our God-being. Even though differing
paths have been taken, the same conclusion has been reached for both women, that
is, Christ is our true nature, which is always kept safe no matter what is happening
to us.
107
In Julians second revelation she talks of the safety inherent in a knowledge
of God as ever present and the desire of God to be seen.
108
Throughout Eddys
textbook it is obvious that she believes it is possible to come to understand God
(Spirit, Truth, Principle) and that this understanding leads to healing, which is the
practical demonstration or outworking of understanding God. There is no sense in
which for Eddy God is incomprehensible, although she readily acknowledges that
this understanding is the work of eternity.
109
For Mary Baker Eddy, our safety lies
in our understanding of God as Love, and evil as unreal, having no power but to
destroy itself. It cannot harm you [viz, the spiritual self]; it cannot stop the eternal
currents of Truth.
110
The emphasis then for Eddy and for Christian Scientists is
what Margaret Laird calls the selfconscious living of [our] divinity.
111
102
Eddy, Science & Health, 397 and Julian, 159.
103
Eddy, Science & Health, 1
st
edition, 198.
104
Keyston, 140.
105
Pelphrey also notes this on p. 161.
106
Pelphrey, 29.
107
Pelphrey, 198.
108
Julian, 77.
109
Eddy, Science & Health, 3.
110
Eddy, Miscellaneous Writings, 157.
111
Laird, p. xxvii.
confidence in God as All, which the Scriptures declare Him to be, or as Julian
phrases it ...God wants us to realize by faith that we are in fact more in heaven than
on earth.
102
This lack of distinction between our real selves (the soul) and God
talked of by Julian, comes through in Eddys first edition of Science and Health in
1875 when she talks of the I of us being Spirit, not matter.
103
By the 1910 and final
edition of Science and Health, Eddy is not so explicit in her assertion of this oneness,
although it is implicit in her logic and explicit in the story of a conversation with a man
who was suffering from jaundice to whom she said that God was his Mind, his
Life.
104
Although there are essential christological differences between the two women,
both have at the core of their understanding the idea that we are all created to look
like God, or Christ.
105
In Jesus, we see our true nature.
106
Julian arrives at this
conclusion by way of the trinity, and Eddy by arguing that Jesus is not the only son
of God, that we are in fact all the Christ in our God-being. Even though differing
paths have been taken, the same conclusion has been reached for both women, that
is, Christ is our true nature, which is always kept safe no matter what is happening
to us.
107
In Julians second revelation she talks of the safety inherent in a knowledge
of God as ever present and the desire of God to be seen.
108
Throughout Eddys
textbook it is obvious that she believes it is possible to come to understand God
(Spirit, Truth, Principle) and that this understanding leads to healing, which is the
practical demonstration or outworking of understanding God. There is no sense in
which for Eddy God is incomprehensible, although she readily acknowledges that
this understanding is the work of eternity.
109
For Mary Baker Eddy, our safety lies
in our understanding of God as Love, and evil as unreal, having no power but to
destroy itself. It cannot harm you [viz, the spiritual self]; it cannot stop the eternal
currents of Truth.
110
The emphasis then for Eddy and for Christian Scientists is
what Margaret Laird calls the selfconscious living of [our] divinity.
111
102
Eddy, Science & Health, 397 and Julian, 159.
103
Eddy, Science & Health, 1
st
edition, 198.
104
Keyston, 140.
105
Pelphrey also notes this on p. 161.
106
Pelphrey, 29.
107
Pelphrey, 198.
108
Julian, 77.
109
Eddy, Science & Health, 3.
110
Eddy, Miscellaneous Writings, 157.
111
Laird, p. xxvii.
For Eddy, self-knowledge has two parts. The first is that we need to know who we
are in relation to God and this is made specific in her statement that where To the
senses, Jesus was the son of man: in Science, man is the son of God.
112
And again,
time will reveal man collectively, as individually, to be the son of God.
113
Eddys
theology is predicated on the notion that Jesus was not in fact the only son of God,
we all are, and this understanding of our relationship with God is crucial in Eddys
healing practice and in the continued practice of Christian Science. The other
component of self-knowledge for Eddy is that as we learn more of God so we are able
to discern elements of thinking and behaviour which are at odds with our
understanding of God, and give up these ways of being in the world. This
understanding of ourselves as God-like can only lead to an increase in feelings of
esteem and worthiness for ourselves and others as we recognise their God-being
as well. The following are examples of prayers that Eddy encouraged amongst the
metaphysical workers in her home.
Divine Love fills every avenue, flows through every channel, and
removes every obstruction. There is one infinite Mind and that Mind
is my Mind and governs me. All my thoughts come to me from this
Mind and return to their source...You are the child of the loving God,
surrounded and protected by infinite Love...you are entirely well, and
continually held in the presence of God...I am Gods image and likeness,
reflecting a full, perfect image of Life, Mind, action...
114
While Christian Science is known for its emphasis on physical healing, what is
not so well understood is that the practice of Christian Science is not always
undertaken for therapeutic purposes, but rather the bringing forth of the Christ or the
progressive demonstration of our spiritual status.
115
As we come to understand
that all life proceeds from God and is continuous then physical healing can also be
realized. In Christian Science, physical healing comes to be a conversion experience
and it is this aspect that is often emphasised in testimonies.
116
112
Eddy, Mary Baker, Message to The Mother Church. Boston, Massachusetts. June, 1901
(Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G. Eddy, 1929) 10 and Miscellaneous
Writing, 161.
113
Eddy, Miscellaneous Writing, 164.
114
Course in Divinity and General Collectanea of items by and about Mary Baker Eddy
(Freehold, New Jersey: Rare Book Company, c 1950) 70, 71.
115
Gottschalk, 93.
116
Gottschalk, 234.
218 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
218 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
For Eddy, self-knowledge has two parts. The first is that we need to know who we
are in relation to God and this is made specific in her statement that where To the
senses, Jesus was the son of man: in Science, man is the son of God.
112
And again,
time will reveal man collectively, as individually, to be the son of God.
113
Eddys
theology is predicated on the notion that Jesus was not in fact the only son of God,
we all are, and this understanding of our relationship with God is crucial in Eddys
healing practice and in the continued practice of Christian Science. The other
component of self-knowledge for Eddy is that as we learn more of God so we are able
to discern elements of thinking and behaviour which are at odds with our
understanding of God, and give up these ways of being in the world. This
understanding of ourselves as God-like can only lead to an increase in feelings of
esteem and worthiness for ourselves and others as we recognise their God-being
as well. The following are examples of prayers that Eddy encouraged amongst the
metaphysical workers in her home.
Divine Love fills every avenue, flows through every channel, and
removes every obstruction. There is one infinite Mind and that Mind
is my Mind and governs me. All my thoughts come to me from this
Mind and return to their source...You are the child of the loving God,
surrounded and protected by infinite Love...you are entirely well, and
continually held in the presence of God...I am Gods image and likeness,
reflecting a full, perfect image of Life, Mind, action...
114
While Christian Science is known for its emphasis on physical healing, what is
not so well understood is that the practice of Christian Science is not always
undertaken for therapeutic purposes, but rather the bringing forth of the Christ or the
progressive demonstration of our spiritual status.
115
As we come to understand
that all life proceeds from God and is continuous then physical healing can also be
realized. In Christian Science, physical healing comes to be a conversion experience
and it is this aspect that is often emphasised in testimonies.
116
112
Eddy, Mary Baker, Message to The Mother Church. Boston, Massachusetts. June, 1901
(Boston: Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G. Eddy, 1929) 10 and Miscellaneous
Writing, 161.
113
Eddy, Miscellaneous Writing, 164.
114
Course in Divinity and General Collectanea of items by and about Mary Baker Eddy
(Freehold, New Jersey: Rare Book Company, c 1950) 70, 71.
115
Gottschalk, 93.
116
Gottschalk, 234.
Conclusion
As pointed out in the introduction, mainstream theology has resisted giving serious
attention to the theologies of these women. Despite the current popularity of Julian
of Norwich, it is still possible to do a course on the trinity and to not hear about
Julians trinitarian theology, and yet it is of particular contemporary relevance because
of the mother metaphor she used. And Eddys work is almost totally ignored, even
though equality between women and men was permanently established in the
structure of her church from the outset, and she established a proven and effective
healing tradition. We are still far from an ideal of gender balance in theology.
Robin Young argues that because of Julians solitary life she would not have
been concerned with reform in the church, but rather with comforting those in
despair of Gods mercy.
117
I would contend, however, that in addition to providing
comfort in the sense we understand the word, Julian is likely to have been effectively
healing others given her that her theology at crucial points is similar to Eddys, and
that Eddy proved the demonstrable nature of her theology repeatedly.
118
As evidence of the transformative nature of her theology, it should be pointed
out that when Julian wrote the second version of her Revelations, the Long Text,
some fifteen years later, the self-abnegation with which she had subjected herself in
the Short Text had diminished somewhat. Julian is still a wretch, but no longer a
sinful creature or worm, and the sense of inferiority as a woman completely
disappeared.
119
Not only is this evidence of Julians rejection of church instilled
misogyny, but it also reflects the healing nature of Julians (and Eddys) theology of
the motherhood of God.
It is not only a confident eschatology that Julian teaches, one of eventual
restoration as argued by Young. Rather, I would suggest that her teaching in
combination with the concrete experience of her healing, would have brought her to
the realization that not only will all be well at the end of time, but that all can be well
in this human experience, that is, Julians is also a realized eschatology. Pelphrey
extends this argument further by showing that the promise Julian heard was actually
in all three tenses, ie, all would have been well, all is well and all will be well without
the presence of sin.
120
Eddys eschatology, too, is not only concerned with the
117
Young, Robin Darling Holy Women: Their Spiritual Influence in the Middle Ages, in
Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church edited by Robin Maas & Gabriel
ODonnell (Nashville: Abingdon Press. 1990) 412.
118
The Collins Dictionary includes ease of body in its definition of comfort.
119
Jantzen, 178.
120
Pelphrey, 117.
Conclusion
As pointed out in the introduction, mainstream theology has resisted giving serious
attention to the theologies of these women. Despite the current popularity of Julian
of Norwich, it is still possible to do a course on the trinity and to not hear about
Julians trinitarian theology, and yet it is of particular contemporary relevance because
of the mother metaphor she used. And Eddys work is almost totally ignored, even
though equality between women and men was permanently established in the
structure of her church from the outset, and she established a proven and effective
healing tradition. We are still far from an ideal of gender balance in theology.
Robin Young argues that because of Julians solitary life she would not have
been concerned with reform in the church, but rather with comforting those in
despair of Gods mercy.
117
I would contend, however, that in addition to providing
comfort in the sense we understand the word, Julian is likely to have been effectively
healing others given her that her theology at crucial points is similar to Eddys, and
that Eddy proved the demonstrable nature of her theology repeatedly.
118
As evidence of the transformative nature of her theology, it should be pointed
out that when Julian wrote the second version of her Revelations, the Long Text,
some fifteen years later, the self-abnegation with which she had subjected herself in
the Short Text had diminished somewhat. Julian is still a wretch, but no longer a
sinful creature or worm, and the sense of inferiority as a woman completely
disappeared.
119
Not only is this evidence of Julians rejection of church instilled
misogyny, but it also reflects the healing nature of Julians (and Eddys) theology of
the motherhood of God.
It is not only a confident eschatology that Julian teaches, one of eventual
restoration as argued by Young. Rather, I would suggest that her teaching in
combination with the concrete experience of her healing, would have brought her to
the realization that not only will all be well at the end of time, but that all can be well
in this human experience, that is, Julians is also a realized eschatology. Pelphrey
extends this argument further by showing that the promise Julian heard was actually
in all three tenses, ie, all would have been well, all is well and all will be well without
the presence of sin.
120
Eddys eschatology, too, is not only concerned with the
117
Young, Robin Darling Holy Women: Their Spiritual Influence in the Middle Ages, in
Spiritual Traditions for the Contemporary Church edited by Robin Maas & Gabriel
ODonnell (Nashville: Abingdon Press. 1990) 412.
118
The Collins Dictionary includes ease of body in its definition of comfort.
119
Jantzen, 178.
120
Pelphrey, 117.
future, but the here and now, and our challenge is to become aware of the reign of
God through the awakening of the spiritual sense and to prove this by healing.
121
The theologies of Julian of Norwich and Mary Baker Eddy are not only
transformative and healing, but relevant to contemporary issues, particularly
considering the resistance to feminine images of God, and the need for a strong
tradition of women in Christianity. I believe that theologians and those involved in
pastoral education need to give more attention to these women and their work than
is the current situation.
121
Gottschalk, 97.
220 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000) 220 COLLOQUIUM 32/2 (2000)
future, but the here and now, and our challenge is to become aware of the reign of
God through the awakening of the spiritual sense and to prove this by healing.
121
The theologies of Julian of Norwich and Mary Baker Eddy are not only
transformative and healing, but relevant to contemporary issues, particularly
considering the resistance to feminine images of God, and the need for a strong
tradition of women in Christianity. I believe that theologians and those involved in
pastoral education need to give more attention to these women and their work than
is the current situation.
121
Gottschalk, 97.
'.
BLISS' ltlI'A.PP' 5 SfUDKHTS llSOOIJ.fIOI
o OH OOTOBER 12. 196,
BY
BLOI SE XAllURY DA.PP
K.Ulr BUD BDD'f SPE.US IU TREKOIJT TEMPLE. BOSTOD,
June 6th, 1899.
J.f THE AIDlUAL XEEflBG Ol!' THE MOTHER OHOROR:
Dear Studente I
I want to tell TOU of the m09t 1JDportant dar
in JIl7 life the dar OIL Which I hea.rd a.nd sa.. our dea.r Lea.der.
KaI'7 :Baker Bdd7. del1ver an address. n was right,here in.BoeteD.
in the large Quditor1\lJ1l. ot fremont temple, lI"hsre the members of
l'
,
I
!he Mother Churoh held their innual !!I.etinK \bat Tear caJune 6th, 1899.
I
I i
I had come to Boeton from Bmlth 0011869 to attend
, I
Ii
the Oommunion Servioo and the Annual Heatlon ot The Kother Ohurch,
i
"
,
i

, "
H1 elster, who later became a of Ohristian Solence in
I
,
,
Ban 1r8noleoo, vas in Boston etud;rlng music.
It vas in the mor.n1ng of Annual Heeting that ve
met one of Mrs. Eddy's students, and ehe sald ; -GIrle, when do

;you plan to arrive at Annual Meeting?- We answered that the KeeUng
'.
-_I
.as at 2.00 glolook. BO ...e tbougbt ve ..-auld gBt about 1.30.
,
- 2 -,
She said, with grea1; JD.esn1ng and emphasis, that if VB 4ilUl
'
t
o
arriYe at the Keeting by 10 o'olock, "0 probahlT would not get
seat. Ve +fleM"!!". her, and vent on our wu.y._
Eum .e Vllrl out of her haarlng, said to each other.
ll11hat: get to the Keating at 10 o'cloOk, and walt fO\ll" hO\ll"B
ul1t11 tbe Kaetlng be,p,n.e: lfl:q. that doul1't make lIense.
Vhat VOIlld ...8 do, lI8.1t1I16 four HOlreTu', Mrs. lI4dy'e
student had spoken with BUch earnllstn8sB, thll,ttll'e were 1m.prflued.

and we said to eaoh othllr that 11'11' might malte the conoeBslolt of
arriving at noon, and eo h.e.Te Just t1l"0 hoUrs to 118.1t. So ve
agreed to meet at the front door of felll.pIe at nOOI1.
J.IIl" so V8 did._
As ve entered tbe lObb;y of '1'reJD.Ol1t '1'ltlllpls frl)Ql the

s1;ree1i. there vas no one Ul. s1ght. Ani there vas lJ\1oh silence;
and such a Bllose of 8Il1ptin8<1<1 manifest. We said to elloh' other,
" In, lOU 8e8. Ifll are all early. there 1en't BDTllne here a\ all."
SO W, lI8.lked over to the ata1rwBl Wh1ch led to the 61ld11;iIlr1W1l noor.
and le1surely ol1l1Lbed the stspe. 'l'hen: W8 lI8.lled llVsr 10 tbe door
'.1
of til.- su411ior1um, snd 100keCl In.
"".
i' +
Ie vere shp1.7 stu..n.ned v1 th vhat ve sav :
o
'rut great aud1tor1Ull1 vas filled v1th people trom tloor to
oe1l1ng. Bot an empt1 eeat wall' to be seen, e.nylIhere: And such
e1lenoe as prBT&1led. such saored s1lence. the preseDCe ot
Sp1rit seemed to be brood1ng over "that vast au41lmOe. !to I&OrteJ.
II1nd sellllled to be preeant -- ths s1lence ot God I s preeenoe4
lIhen ve bad recovered trom our &hook 8ItDU6h

ve hastened up that sta1l'1lB.7 to the t1ret be.lctulJ. but tound

,
no the top baloony ---and there. waj' baok. :
,
"" saw two empt1 seats. and dropped 1nto them._
'!hen tor the tims, we looked at the
I
'l'l1ere vas II. row ot empt1 cha1ra e.t the baok or the platf01'lll.
,
,
the pulp1t vas 1n 1te e.oeuetamed place at the tront gz the plattorm4

, ,
,I
Then bes1de 1t. also at the edge or the plattorm, was an armoha1r
,
" upholstered w1th rose-oolored velvet, and 1n tront ot 1t. on the
,
,
tloor. mak1ng a toot-stool, vas a oushion ot vb1te roses:
then lfe knn that X1's. Edd1 vas com1ng to that Meet1q;4:
We understood theh the reverent s1lence ot "that gree.t tbraDg ot
the 1Il8lllbeI1l ot na.e Hother Church. rhe1 were e.wa1t1ng the1r
",.,
-,'
.
.,' -
Ct God-aPllolnt,d and God"-o.nolnted Leader, and were purlty1.Dg their
thought to rece1Te her. ' Do mortal mind seemed present oDl1
the s11enoe aP4 eacrsdnepB of oonsolousnaoa.
'rhen lflll began. 1;0 nee 1n thought also, and to prepare our
oODsciousness to reCa1Ta our great Leader. lor the ne%i two
.. did that all best we oould._

At 2.00 o'clock, Mr. Me Xenzle. the President ot
the Meeting. began hiB readings from the Bible and Scienoe Bnd

Health. Presently, the door at the end of the platform opened
and 1n 1IBU:ed Judge Banna , hiB face s1mply beaming, and on
hie arm. the 40.101;18ot lUUe lad1 ......Ud gracetplly beside him.
She vas be8uUfully drened. nth an GrqU1elte bonnet on btr head.
, 'he oole audience arose to greet her. She
escorted: to the armohair vi ttl 1t8 p1110w o:r 'IJM:te
vas then
roses at the foot.
Preeently, ehe began her address to ths membera of her Church.
That address will be found toda1 on page one mmdred andttdrt1'i"one
41
of H1scellAI\1. It was a short address. and filled nth love
and bleeetng. Her T01ee vae feminine. but eo d1ettnet that 1t
oould be heard 1n everT corner of the aud1toriUlll..
:,i1
,
I
;0
Mrs.
II "There 1e
I
"5 '
,
-
Bdd1 B8iel in part.
eCllll.etbli1& IrUggestlve to me 1D thie hour of the latter
I
8Y8 ot 'the 08Jltury. fll1f'1111ng muah of the divine law
and the gl;lllp81 Divine I,crre bae the band and
I
enooursged the heart. of every member (If this large ohurob,
Ob. IIlEl7 these noh b1eeelnge continue and be 1nereaeed:
Divine Love hath opened th.e 80:1;8 Beautiful to U8, were VB


mar eee God and live. ase good in good. -- God all, ons,
one X1ll.d and tbat divine; where we IIIBJ" lc;rve our neighbor a8
ourselvee, and bleSB at1I' enemiee.... Bo all earthI e
children: at last ComB to aclmOYledge God and be one;
inhabit BW hOlJ' hill 'the God-oravned summit 0. divine Solan08;
the ohuroh mll1tant riee to the ohureh triWII'pbant. and
Zion be glorified. H
....................
I bad to leave 'the earlJ'lln order to get back
to oollege on t1me. But I vent on rq va.7 rejoicing and

thank1ng Gull tbat I bad. E1un and heard tbs WDIIlDJl whoSEI comlD&
,
in this centu17 vas prophesied in the 54th ohapter or Isaiah
and. in the ohapter of the Apocalypse.
-
-.
It h oe1"ta.l.Dl.:1 t.bat Vhen Irs, Iddy "a. preeent
o
vl"b. us !raont !blple in tbe la.t rear cl tlls D1n.eteu:tb.
oenW%)o , t.bat l:na Dhl1ll.11i 'beg1n hal' all.drBBB to ue nth the 'loris
EIha bad ueB4 1n Solenel and 3,al1.b rearl befon.in Ur
a.lT8111 ot 'th. t-IreUt.l:L obaptu 01" 'tob,e J.pooa.lfpe8. "'re8 br n'n8.
She BaT8 1. Seieno, and Bealthl
line twel..tth ohapter ot tbe J.pooa17ple, or bvelaUOD of St. Jobn.
bas a spedal eageetlVBD8BS In oannlotlon nth th.
oeDW%)o. ltl the opeu1J:1g at 'the aixth seal. tlPil$1 of Blx thlN.-n4
reare dnce J.4am, the dleUn.otlve featun ba. to t.he
prnt &6e.- (a&a -
!ben tol101fe 1mm.d1......l.1' Ule .t1ret Terss or the
12th ohapte:r OZ BlvelatlOD. Whloh reads I

lAnd there appe8nd a gna1; lfllndli!l:r in heaTOn; a olothed
ri'tob. BUll, and tbe Jloon UZl4er bel' feet,
oron of tvelve ."tars.-
Uld upon ber bead 8 .,,;:
,
OIlre1.l. 110 Ohrhtlan So1entlst 08.!1. pClss1bJ.T tau to see the

T1:t.e.l coonBotlon at IIu'Y Bakor -.ldy and ObrleUan Sot.1l0e with tbe
12'5h oap1;er of Ue look 01' b"elaUOlt :'
-





. .
: i I o D . O p u s - - ' \ t I . O l l 1 - B ' B O i i i 1 1 8 1 "
. l ' t T l f t l ' U ! 8 o t t u " 8 8 C I b . % i l l ' l { ' + 0 \ a o 9 c a l ) 8 I " e q \ 1 0
l m l ' : r ' j : s o d 4 0 E l l t ' + . 1 0 1 I 1 l t l ! l I l : - r q o . : l e t { ' P t l ' I I u _ O J l 8 1 1 \ 1 0
U O n 4 " l : & : o l l 8 l 1 < q ' l l ' + ' P i E 1 8 1 U 1 ' U , U O O . : I 9 \ d ' 8 ' q t l e q \ . 1 0 E l l s . l t m r B E l t I l ,
o
----------------
,i
,
:
- 7 "
,
,
,0
1hen we are g1ven that
,
J
"Cbr18t. God's idea. lI1ll eventuallJ rule all l:IA'tltmS and peoples -
imp.mUvely. absoluts17. :t1nallJ'';'' nth dl-r:1ne SoleDoe.
'lbis 11111111lculate 1d\la, represen'tsd firllr1; b1 Illo!LD and, according
to the Revelator, last b1 voman. will bapthe with fire; and
the fiery baptism nll burn up the otlan of error .11ob. '\he
fervent heat of 'lntrh and Love. melting and pur1!)"lng even the

gold or bnmen obazaotar." (SlH 5651 16 - 22).

1I"0v, I !19k ;YOl'l. could e.ny OhrletlaD 8010n1;18t pOB81bl:1
doubt that...". Baku MdT. the :D1sooverer and J'ounder .ll1dLeader
of Ohrietlan Scienoe, 1e the WOII\B.U oi" the .1pooalJ'poe.
and that the 12th chapter of RevelB.t1on 1e a prophec1 of the
;
coming and t.r11J,11lph of Bclence. '1 rhe facts are abeolutltlJ'
apparent to one no e'tudloli1 understandingly "lohe cblilpter 011 the
.lpOl;lalnleB 1n ScIence and
...............

)Ire. Eddy never again appeared publ1ca1l1 1n Boeton- af1;er
'or
address 1n rrellont Temple on June 6th, 1899. at the turning
of the oentury,. I never eav her aga1n. Btlt I both say ire?




. I 9 ' q ' q O ' f q " I i B l o : : r r e . 9 ' 1 1 : , + p t l 1 l ' 9 1 1 ' P l ' 0 0 . : l i i l ' l l : 1 0 U 0 1 , + 9 d l o l , + U " I
p e . r O V 6 9 ' 1 1 : ' + I p U l l , + W . l a ' l l : P . : l l i 0 ' q p U B (

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

o
"9 '
-
, "
!he WlndOY. Beeklnt'; and P1ndlng. In ){re. Eddy'. Room
!here 18 another point a b ~ t our L
e
a4er Whioh I would lite
to call to your attentlon--a TBrJ important point. It baa '0 dO
with the window in Kre. Eddy's Room in thie edifice. S1lJ:I,ce the
Room haB been closed to v!ol:Coro. thie 1II1ndOT Dan be eeen onl1' frgll
'hili oute1d8 of' the church.
Ae you stand outs1de of this original edifice of !he Kotber
Churoh a1; the apex of tbe church, and look aeroee at the ape!:

trom the corner ot IOrwR7 Street. -you see firet e
tover at the Tar, torefront or The Kother Ohurch.
amall rounded
On the "BCOnd
floor or thie toyer are three windoWs WhiCh look out frOD. Mother'e
Boom. You can BeE! o!l1.J' the m1ddle ldndoll" frOlll t.he apel: outside
of the ohlU"cb..
!!lOY, vbat 11 the 1I1ndO'lf Which 10 in the vert torerront
of The Mother Ohurch! The subject of 110 1e taken from Mre. EddT's
Posm, "Ohriet and OhriBtmas," and portrays Krs. Edd7 sittibg at
CD
"
her deek, with thD Bible opened before her, and a lighted oandle
stick on 1;he table heside it. But far greater 1.ba.n the light of the
aandle 1s "the B"tream of Ugh"t which en!olds her. This llght is
T
_ 10
pouring upon he'r trom tbll glow:1ng ,"tar which Beeme to oame frOID.
o
outside of the windOW. 1'b.le star illumines moat of the 111uetrat.
,
10nl 1n Ohr1et &/14 Ohr1e'tomlLe. 'fbe oan41e-Ul!iht ot tal'th palee
1n the l1ght of the atar. Ie not this the star of 1lethlehem, and.
the star of Divine Solenoe1
The point I want to emphasize to TOU 18 that thlll
VliII"T first lmpruslon tbat Viii 8,t of The llother Ohurch 1s of
our dear Leader, the Diecoverer of Chrletlan Scienoe, receiving
th.e l1ght of Divine Scienoe. We owa tllle appearing of
Science to her alonll. Ve should remember thie V111111 ve look up
at thie W1ndow from the outside of thilll origlDal edifioe of
The Kother Ohurch.
In her Sermon at the Dedioat1on of this edifioe
on January 6th, 1895. Mrs. EddJ WTotel

, Out of the moutheo! babes and Ducklings Thou hast perfected
praies.' Y Then after speaking ot tbe resident who v,r,
.ork,r, tor tb, cburcb at that time a, Ir', Eddy

continn,s to say 1n h,r addr"al
-Sweet sooiety. preciouB your lOTins h,artB and d,tt
tins,rs dietilled the n,otar and paintsd tbe finsst tlov,rs
>.
1
- 11 +
o in tbe fabrio at: thie -- eTIUl 1'te c:entre-p1eoa. -
Kotber' e Room 1n 'rhe P1re't Oburc:t! of Christ, Sc:1ent19t, in Boaton,
(Pulpit atld Preee, 6124-26). Juet thlnk ot: Bare
Mrs. Eddy oalls Ketber'e Room tbe cetltre-piec:e of the ehurch

In her Dedicatory Addresa for the Ixteneion of
'rhe Kother ohurcb on June 10, 1906. )Ire. :Bdq again ret:erred to
l!!Iother! ROODl. She wrotel
" 'the modest edifioe of The Kotber Churcb of Ohrist. Sc:ient1et,
begBll Vitb tbe c:roeei its exoeleior extension il the orown
'the room of your Leader rema1ne in tbe beg1nn1ng of this edit1c:e

eV'1de.nc:1.ng the praise of babee and the word Yb10h proc:eedetb out
ot the Doutb of God.- (Kiecellany 61
fbul!l, in tb4i T!lrJ:; toretrcm:t ot tb111 might,. C1blU'oh

is Kother's BoOlll, to wblcb Mrs. Eddy refen in botb of her
Ded1oatorJ Addressee, In that room tberevrema1ns the lone figure
of our Leader, "Seeking and P1nd1ns" the T:rutlh, bringing to us
the Oc:m!c:rter promised ue two tbousand lears ago bl C1hr1et Jesus,

One might eek wll1. since Kother'e Room is the centre-piece
of The Kother C1hurch, ae l!trf:l. Bddy oalled it, did she put a By-lev
,
II
-
12
."
In the HaIlUB.l as 1'ollowsl
o
-Mrs. Mdl'S Room. (Seel. 17) the rooiIL 1n TI:l.e Mother OhLlroh
fCrllL8rlJ' maY'll. 9S 'Mcther I e RoOlll
l
shall bereafter be olosed
" ' . "--... -."...,., ,
.
to vleHore." (Ke.nual. page 59).
,
Yauld not the reaaon probab11 be the same onB wb1ch
I
cauud Brs. Md1 to withdraw rolll circulation tor a wb.11e her
I
Foem, and She wr1teg the P08mt
, ,
I

II "!he Illustrations yere not for a golden calt, at whioh


,I
I:
i
l
the dek ]lI81 look and be healed , Whosoever looks to lIlB
,
I
:e
pereolUlIlJ' tor hll!l healt.h or bolinsse, mistakes.... '1'b1s little
I

,
,
i1LBBBeILgsr has done Its work, f'ul!111sd 11;e minion, ret1re:l. nth
hbnor on11 to reappear In due season." (Mis. pages J07 and JOB)
.lIld Obr1at &1Id Ohr1aUllL. hall reappeared th1a past luna
In a ney edlt10n, and eas1 to study. vith olear illustrations.
Ye are gratefu1 to the a1er"t Pub1lehere' A.gen"t. and to all llho
made thle edltlon poselble.
1
One tlme a etudent WIIoe viB1Ung Mra. Bddl at Pleaaant ViB.....

and ne e:r:preeelng her deep SraU"tud, ;Cor ....hIl.'l; Kre. Edd1 had done
tor till 1n br1ng1na: OhrlElt1an ScleIloe to tlB. lira. Edd7 loDkell tlP.,an4
eald earneetlJ'. Ilyou do not mean IlI;1 pereo1l&l1tll do l0tl'l"
-
.:. l'
,
"
)
"Oh, no, Mother," the student answered in substance. "I mean what
1011 have done for the world and for us in bringing us ths C1lJ11forter,
and ehovine ue the true meaning of God end His Ohrist."
Hrs. Edd;r answered, "Yes, I am the 'II1ndow tlU'ough Vb.1ch the
light comss. II
!'fo Ohristian Soientist would confuee the light '111 th
the glass through which the light comes. the light and the glaee
are not the same, but how t1la.nktul we are for the tranepareuo1

through which the light ie manifeet:.
So we have in the Manual the B;y-law closing Mrs. Eddy's
Room to V'1li11tore, Q.nd n hQ,ve Q.lllo 1n thll Karmal a Bl-l.aY ut111i
it a dall.1 dU't;y to remember ou.r Leader. Thie By-law rsadSI
"It shall be the dut;y of every mamber of thie Ohurch to defsnd himself

daily againet aggressive mental euggestion, and uot be made to forget
nor to negleot hie dut;y 'to God, 'to his Leader, and to 1IIlLl1lr.1nd."
(Manual, page 42).

~ h u s we see here 'the admoni't10n no't to be made 'to forget
'the human foo'ts'tsps of our Leader 1n being prepared for for't;y-f1ve
,
;years to rece1ve 'the So1enoe of Ohristiani't;y) _d hel 1e.*, n"e

."" [. ,;
-
, ~ . , , ' "


,'., '"
-
"
"
T
.;. 1.'" .:.
o.n4 het forty-flve l8a1"11 Yh "lIewblishlng the Causs or Ob.r1eU_ Boleaa_
on the Roell:. Ohrist.
We must n010 givs undll.o at\en1ilol1. 1;0 hilt bown !oQwteps,
o
nor :r.'" be J!!@de to forget 't.hem.. But. nOW ." 'JIUst eee her 5\E!.1];r
ae the Lnder of BolenoB, go-nnd.Ds the mole wort!
foreysr.
Let \loB remember 'thet 11l1elJ XDapp, lu, hie bool:.
"!he Deet1nT of 'rbe Kother ChUroh," Q,ll.otee a lett.Br frOlll JU's, Bdd1
to JUdge Ha.llIla, in .blob Ilhe sayel
'The 'trutb 1n regard to your Leader heale the det and. sane t.he ellmltr
The stullents of 11111115 Inapp have been 'taught these true

vievpoln'h ot our Leader, and. the;r nIl p:reeerve thea. and. 41U1.onetrah
the truths ot Christian Solenoe. they will love their I.eader.
and len her Ohurcb, and love their teaoher. Bllss XMpp.
'1hey willcarr,- OD. proteo't-ltlg what thll::J have been

with graU1;\l,4s and Joy:
GOD BLllSS YOU .lLL--UB BE 018;
,