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trigonometry

M M Almanjumi

School of Maths UNSW

Sydney 2052 Australia

Abstract

The work is devoted to the study of The Zome System in rational trigonometry and projective rational trigonom-

etry. By using The Zome System no more the fteen triangles and nineteen tetrahedrons have been found. Major

results also include six new theorems which have been developed using rational trigonometry.

1 Introduction

Geometry continues to fascinate us over time with the patterns of sizes, angles and shapes using the universal

language of mathematics to reveal those patterns. The Zome system is an exceptional ball-and-strut system,

designed for children but also appeals to professionals in both eld of science and art. The system consists of

geometric holes in sphere-shaped connectors and each ball is linked to another by means of sticks with dierent

shapes and colours to make the construction simple.

A new theory of trigonometry, called rational trigonometry, was developed in 2005 by N. J. wildberger (UNSW)

in Divine Proportions: Rational Trigonometry to Universal Geometry, Wild Egg Books, Sydney, 2005. Rational

trigonometry is a new framework that replaces distance and angle with quadratic concepts called quadrance and

spread. The projective plane inherits a rich metrical structure which extends to higher dimensions and arbitrary

elds, a fact which has major implications for algebraic geometry, and possibly also for dierential geometry.

Thales theorem and Pythagoras theorem are particularly important here with the wide variety of classical spherical

formulas being replaced by simpler, polynomial relations.

In this project we are going to rstly look at the background of the Zome system. Secondly we will then give basic

denitions and facts of rational trigonometry covering four theorems proposed by N. J. Wildberger. We used these

to establish 6 new theorems. This is done by constructing fteen possible triangles using the Zome system derived

from a regular pentagon. Finally we give main denitions and laws of projective trigonometry covering twelve

theorems given by N. J. Wildberger. We then construct nineteen possible tetrahedrons using the fteen triangles

that we found by using the Zome system. After determining the projective quadrances for each tetrahedron, we

then used the Projective Cross Law Theorem in order to determine the projective spreads for each tetrahedron.

2 The Zome System

In structural design or construction, a Zome is a large family of geometric shapes that can be built and gives

self-supporting volumes without the need for internal support and in which one can live and enjoy all the space,

cosmetics lines, the roundness of the dome, polygonal and no right angles. The structure is like a skeleton, and the

organization of the balanced facets is of an amazing strength. As it is easy to construct, one can direct what he

wants: from the niche of a dog, a bird aviary, a workshop, shelter with tools or materials, greenhouse as extra room

and of course as a full habitat for the largest.

The mathematics set of the Zome system is a plastic construction composed of balls and sticks called respectively

nodes and struts. When assembled together they form an amazing mathematically and creatively fascinating

structures.

The Zome tool struts colours are usually red, yellow, blue, and green. They have respectively pentagon, tri-

angular, rectangle and rhombus end shapes. They come in small, medium and large sizes. However, we will not

use the green ones in this project. Green struts are those generally necessary for building regular tetrahedrons,

octahedrons and are a little harder to work with.

1

Figure 1: White node and struts

ht t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l - p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l . ht m l

2.1 Possible constructions

Below are some possible constructions that be made from using the Zome system.

2.1.1 Tetrahedron

This has four faces, four vertexes and six edges.

Figure 2: Tetrahedron

2

2.1.2 Cube

This has six faces, eight vertexes and twelve edges.

Figure 3: Cube ht t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l -

p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l . ht m l

2.1.3 Octahedron

This has eight faces, six vertexes and twelve edges.

Figure 4: Terahedron and Octahedron

ht t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l - p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l . ht m l

3

2.1.4 Dodecahedron

This has twelve faces, twenty vertexes and thirty edges.

Figure 5: Dodecahedron

ht t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l -

p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l . ht m l

2.1.5 Building Icosahedron

This has twenty faces, twelve vertexes and thirty edges.

This can be done by rst connecting twelve red (pentagon) struts to a white node and connecting twelve white

nodes to each of the ends of those struts. This gives the foundation for the main structure, where each of twelve

external white nodes are connected to the neighboring ve white nodes using blue (rectangle) struts. After removing

the internal white node and connected twelve struts it gives the Icosahedron.

Figure 6: Icosahedron

ht t p : / / w w w . g e o r g e h a r t . c o m / v i r t u a l - p o l y h e d r a / z o m e t o o l . ht m l

4

3 Rational trigonometry

It is a new framework for planar trigonometry and been proposed [N J Wildberger]). Rational trigonometry replaces

distance and angle with quadratic concepts called quadrance and spread. The usual laws are replaced by purely

algebraic analogs, with the consequence that they hold in much wider generality, allow more accurate calculations,

and are much easier to learn. The usual menagerie of transcendental circular functions and their inverses play no

role.

3.1 Basic denitions and facts of rational trigonometry

Denition 1 The quadrance Q(

1

,

2

) between the points

1

[r

1

, j

1

] and

2

[r

2

, j

2

] is the number

Q(

1

,

2

) (r

2

r

1

)

2

+ (j

2

j

1

)

2

.

Denition 2 The spread : (|

1

, |

2

) ,which is a number between 0 and 1, is the notion of angle between to lines |

1

and |

2

Theorem 3 The Triple quad formula suppose that

1

,

2

and

3

are points with Q

1

Q(

1

,

2

) , Q

2

Q(

1

,

3

) and Q

3

Q(

2

,

3

) . Then

(Q

1

+Q

2

+Q

3

)

2

= 2

_

Q

2

1

+Q

2

2

+Q

2

3

_

.

precisely when

1

,

2

and

3

are collinear.

Theorem 4 Pythagoras theorem

One of the fundamental theorems, in rational trigonometry becomes more general, extending to an arbitrary

eld, not of characteristic two.

(Pythagoras theorem) Suppose that the triangle

1

3

has qudrances Q

1

Q(

2

,

3

) , Q

2

Q(

1

,

3

) and

Q

3

Q(

1

,

2

) . Then

Q

1

+Q

2

= Q

3

precisely when

1

3

and

2

3

are perpendicular.

Theorem 5 The spread law

Suppose three points

1

,

2

and

3

form non-zero quadrances Q

1

Q(

2

,

3

) , Q

2

Q(

1

,

2

) and Q

3

Q(

1

,

3

) . Dene the spreads :

1

: (

1

2

,

1

3

) , :

2

: (

2

1

,

2

3

) and :

3

: (

3

1

,

3

2

) . Then

:

1

Q

1

=

:

2

Q

2

=

:

3

Q

3

.

Theorem 6 The cross law

Suppose three points

1

,

2

and

3

form quadrances Q

1

Q(

2

,

3

) , Q

2

Q(

1

,

3

) and Q

3

Q(

1

,

2

) ,

and dene the cross c

3

c (

3

1

,

3

2

) . Then

(Q

1

+Q

2

Q

3

)

2

= 4Q

1

Q

2

c

3

.

5

3.2 Triangles, consisting of zome system

Using the zome system we can construct many triangle, each formed by 3 3 = 9 dierent sticks: 3 blue called

1

1

, 1

2

, 1

3

( respectively small, medium and large), also 3 red called 1

1

, 1

2

, 1

3

( respectively small, medium and

large), also 3 yellow called 1

1

, 1

2

, 1

3

( respectively small, medium and large).

Figure 7: Struts

These can be used to create triangles, and we are going to study some of these triangles to determine the

quadrances of each of the sticks above, and also the spreads formed by any two sticks intersecting from a vertex (

white ball ).

Consider rst the following pentagon.

6

Figure 8: Pentagon

We will draw a line from to C which will be 1

2

.

We have a triangle 1C and we are going to study this triangle as a rst triangle.

3.2.1 The First Triangle:

Figure 10: The rst triangle

7

As you can see this triangle 1C, we take this triangle from the pentagon above.

So, we have in this triangle

:

1

= :

3

= c =

5

p

5

8

:

2

= , =

5 +

p

5

8

We assume that

Q(, 1) = Q(1, C) = 1

1

= 1

Now, we want to nd 1

2

, we can apply the spread law to nd 1

2

, the spread law is

:

1

Q

1

=

:

2

Q

2

=

:

3

Q

3

By substituting the values that we have in the spread law

:

1

1

1

=

:

2

1

2

=

:

3

1

1

Hence,

c

1

=

,

1

2

Now, we have that

1

2

=

,

c

=

5+

p

5

8

5

p

5

8

=

1

2

p

5 +

3

2

= t

we can also infer that

1

3

= t

2

3.2.2 The Second Triangle:

We can construct the second triangle from three sticks of 1

1

, and we are also going to study this triangle.

Figure 11: The second triangle

8

we know in this triangle the three quadrances

Q(, 1) = Q(, C) = Q(1, C) = 1

1

= 1.

So, we can use the cross law to nd one of the three spreads.

The cross law is

(Q

1

+Q

2

Q

3

)

2

= 4Q

1

Q

2

(1 :

3

)

By substituting the values in the cross law

(1

1

+1

1

1

1

)

2

= 41

1

1

1

(1 :

3

)

Hence,

(1 + 1 1)

2

= 4 (1) (1) (1 :

3

)

We will have that

:

3

=

3

4

Because the triangle is equilateral.

Hence,

:

2

= :

1

= :

3

=

3

4

3.2.3 The third triangle:

we can construct the third triangle from two sticks of 1

2

and one stick of 1

1

.

Figure 12: The third triangle

We know in this triangle that

9

Q(, 1) = 1

1

= 1

Q(, C) = Q(1, C) = 1

2

= t =

1

2

p

5 +

3

2

We know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to nd one of the three spreads.

(Q

1

+Q

2

Q

3

)

2

= 4Q

1

Q

2

(1 :

3

)

By substituting the values in the cross law

(1

1

+1

2

1

2

)

2

= 41

1

1

2

(1 :

3

)

Hence,

(1 +t t)

2

= 4 (1) (t) (1 :

3

)

We have that

:

3

=

1

4t

(4t 1)

Thus,

:

3

=

1

4

_

3+

p

5

2

_

_

4

_

3 +

p

5

2

_

1

_

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Because the triangle is isosceles

Hence,

:

3

=

5 +

p

5

8

= , = :

1

Now, we can apply the spread law to nd :

3

.

:

3

1

s

=

:

1

1

m

Hence,

:

3

1

=

,

t

=

5+

p

5

8

3+

p

5

2

=

5

p

5

8

= c

3.2.4 The fourth triangle:

We can construct the fourth triangle from two sticks of 1

1

and one stick of 1

1

.

Figure 13: The fourth triangle

10

we have that

Q(, C) = Q(1, C) = 1

1

= , =

5 +

p

5

8

Q(, 1) = 1

1

= 1

We know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to nd one of the three spreads.

(Q

1

+Q

2

+Q

3

)

2

= 4Q

1

Q

2

(1 :

3

)

By substituting the values in the cross law

(1

s

+1

s

1

s

)

2

= 41

s

1

s

(1 :

3

)

Hence,

(, +, 1)

2

= 4 (,) (,) (1 :

3

)

We have that

:

3

=

1

4,

2

(4, 1) =

1

4

_

5+

p

5

8

_

2

_

4

_

5 +

p

5

8

_

1

_

=

4

5

Now, we can apply the spread law to nd :

1

.

:

1

1

s

=

:

3

1

s

By substituting the values.

:

1

,

=

4

5

1

Thus,

:

1

=

4

5

,

Because the triangle is isosceles.

Hence,

:

1

= :

2

=

4

5

,

3.2.5 The fth triangle:

We can construct the fth triangle from one stick of 1

1

, one stick of 1

2

and one stick of 1

1

.

Figure 14: The fth triangle

11

we have that

1

1

= 1, 1

2

= ,t

:

3

=

4c

5

In this case we have two quadrances and one spread, so, by using the cross law we will nd the third quadrance

which is 1

1

.

(1

1

+1

2

1

1

)

2

= 41

1

1

2

(1 :

3

)

Hence

(1 +,t 1

1

)

2

= 4,t

_

t

t + 1

_

We have that

(1 +,t)

2

+1

2

1

2 (1 +,t) 1

1

= t

2

Now, we have a quadratic equation.

1

2

1

2 (1 +,t) 1

1

+ (1 +,t)

2

t

2

= 0

By solving the quadratic equation, we have that

1

1

=

3

4

From this result we infer that

1

2

=

3

4

t

1

3

=

3

4

t

2

Now, we can apply the spread law to nd :

1

.

:

1

1

1

=

:

3

1

1

By substituting the values.

:

1

1

=

4

5

3

4

Hence,

:

1

=

16

15

c

We can also apply the spread law to nd :

2

.

:

2

1

2

=

:

3

1

1

By substituting the value.

12

:

2

,t

=

4

5

3

4

Hence,

:

2

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

=

t

3

3.2.6 The sixth triangle:

We can construct the sixth triangle from one stick of 1

1

, one stick of 1

2

and one stick of 1

2

.

Figure 15: The sixth triangle

we know in this triangle (by comparing this triangle with the previous triangles which we previously solved

them)

Q(, C) = 1

2

=

3

4

t, Q(1, C) = 1

2

= ,t, Q(, 1) = 1

1

= ,

:

2

=

4

5

Now, we can apply the spread law to nd :

1

.

:

1

1

2

=

:

2

1

2

=

:

3

1

1

By substituting the values in the spread law.

:

1

1

m

=

:

2

1

m

Hence,

:

1

,t

=

4

5

3

4

t

13

We have that

:

1

=

16,

15

We can also apply the spread law to nd :

3

.

:

3

1

s

=

:

2

1

m

By substituting the values in the spread law.

:

3

,

=

4

5

3

4

t

Hence,

:

3

=

16,

15t

=

16

_

5+

p

5

8

_

15

_

3+

p

5

2

_ =

2

3

2

15

p

5 =

16c

15

3.2.7 The seventh triangle:

we can construct the seventh triangle from one sticks of medium blue (1

2

), one stick of medium red (1

2

) and one

stick of small yellow (1

1

).

Figure 16: The seventh triangle

In this triangle we know the spreads :

2

and the three quadrances 1

2

, 1

2

and 1

1

by comparing this triangle with

the previous triangles.

Q(1, C) = 1

2

= ,t, Q(, C) = 1

2

= t, Q(, 1) = 1

1

=

3

4

:

2

=

16,

15

14

Now, we want to nd :

2

by applying the spread law we will have:

:

1

1

2

=

:

2

1

2

Hence,

:

1

,t

=

16

15

t

we have that

:

1

=

16,

2

15

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

, t =

3 +

p

5

2

Thus,

:

1

=

16

_

5+

p

5

8

_

2

15

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

=

3 +

p

5

6

=

t

3

We can also apply the spread law to nd :

3

.

:

3

1

s

=

:

2

1

m

Hence,

:

3

3

4

=

16

15

t

We have that

:

3

=

48

60

t

=

4

5

,

t

Notice that

,

t

= c

Thus,

:

3

=

4

5

c

3.2.8 The eighth triangle:

We can construct the eighth triangle from two sticks of 1

2

and one stick of 1

1

.

15

Figure 17: The eighth triangle

In this triangle we have the two spreads (:

1

, :

2

) and the three quadrances by comparing this triangle with the

previous triangle.

Q(, C) = Q(1, C) = 1

2

=

3

4

t, Q(, 1) = 1

1

= 1

:

1

=

16,

2

15

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

=

t

3

= :

2

Now, by using the spread law, we can nd :

3

:

3

1

1

=

:

1

1

2

Hence,

:

3

=

16

2

15

3

4

t

We have that

:

3

=

64,

2

45t

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

, t =

3 +

p

5

2

we can substitute for , and t.

Thus,

:

3

=

64

_

5+

p

5

8

_

2

45

_

3+

p

5

2

_ =

4

9

16

3.2.9 The ninth triangle:

We can construct the ninth triangle from two stick of 1

1

and one stick of 1

1

.

Figure 18: The ninth triangle

We know in this triangle that

Q(, C) = Q(1, C) = 1

1

=

3

4

, Q(, 1) = 1

1

= 1

We know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to nd one of the three spreads.

(1

1

+1

1

+1

1

)

2

= 41

1

1

1

(1 :

1

)

Hence,

_

1 +

3

4

3

4

_

2

= 4 (1)

_

3

4

_

(1 :

1

)

We have that

:

1

=

2

3

Because the triangle is isosceles.

Thus,

:

1

= :

2

=

2

3

Now, we can use the spread law to nd :

3

:

3

1

1

=

:

2

1

1

Hence,

:

3

1

=

2

3

3

4

We have that,

:

3

=

8

9

17

3.2.10 The tenth triangle:

Figure 19: The tenth triangle

We know in this triangle the following,

Q(, 1) = 1

2

=

3

4

t, Q(1, C) = 1

1

=

3

4

, Q(, C) = 1

1

= , =

5 +

p

5

8

:

1

=

4

3t + 3

=

16c

15

:

2

=

64,

2

45t

=

4

9

In this case we know two spreads and the the three quadrances. So, we can use the spread law to nd the third

spread :

3

.

:

3

1

2

=

:

1

1

1

Thus,

:

3

3

4

t

=

4

3+3

3

4

We have that,

:

3

=

4t

3t + 3

we can substitute for

t =

3 +

p

5

2

.

Hence,

:

3

=

4

_

3+

p

5

2

_

3

_

3+

p

5

2

_

+ 3

=

2

15

p

5 +

2

3

=

16

_

5+

p

5

8

_

15

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

18

Thus,

:

3

=

16,

15

3.2.11 The eleventh triangle:

Figure 20: The eleventh triangle

We know in this triangle that

Q(, C) = Q(1, C) = 1

1

=

3

4

Q(, 1) = 1

2

= t =

3 +

p

5

2

For this triangle we know the three quadrances. So, we can use the cross law to nd :

1

.

_

1

2

+

3

4

3

4

_

2

= 41

2

1

1

(1 :

1

)

Thus,

_

t +

3

4

3

4

_

2

= 4 (t)

_

3

4

_

(1 :

1

)

We have that

:

1

=

3 t

3

=

3

_

3+

p

5

2

_

3

=

3

p

5

2

3

We will call

3

p

5

2

= t

Thus,

:

1

=

t

3

Because the triangle is isosceles

Hence,

:

1

= :

2

=

t

3

Now we know the three quadrances and two spreads. So, We can use the spread law to nd the third spread :

3

.

:

3

1

m

=

:

1

1

s

19

Hence,

:

3

t

=

3

3

3

4

Notice that

t =

3 +

p

5

2

Thus,

:

3

=

4

9

.

3.2.12 The twelfth triangle:

Figure 21: The twelfth triangle

We know in this triangle the following

1

1

= ,

1

2

= t

:

1

= :

2

=

1

t + 1

=

4c

5

We know three quadrances and two spreads in this case we can apply the spread law to nd the third spread :

3

.

:

3

1

2

=

:

1

1

1

Hence,

:

3

t

=

4

5

,

We have that

:

3

=

4

5

,

=

4

5

c

,

t

Notice that

t

,

=

1

c

Thus,

:

3

=

4

5

20

3.2.13 The thirteenth triangle:

We can construct the thirteenth triangle from one stick of 1

3

, one stick of 1

1

and one stick of 1

3

.

Figure 22: The thirteenth triangle

when we compare this triangle with the previous triangles we would have the all three spreads which appear in

the previous triangles and the three quadrances as well.

Q(, C) = 1

3

=

3

4

t

2

Q(./) = 1

3

= t

2

Q(1, C) = 1

1

= ,

:

1

=

3 t

3

=

3

_

3+

p

5

2

_

3

=

1

2

1

6

p

5 =

t

3

:

2

=

4

5

,

:

3

=

16,

15

3.2.14 The fourteenth triangle:

We can construct the fourteenth triangle from one stick of 1

2

, one stick of 1

1

and one stick of 1

3

.

Figure 23: The fourteenth triangle

21

We know in this triangle the following:

Q(, C) = 1

2

= t

Q(./) = 1

3

=

3

4

t

2

Q(1, C) = 1

1

= ,

:

1

=

3 t

3

=

3

_

3+

p

5

2

_

3

=

1

2

1

6

p

5 =

t

3

:

2

=

4

3t + 3

=

4

3

_

3+

p

5

2

_

+ 3

=

2

3

2

15

p

5 =

16

_

5

p

5

8

_

15

=

16c

15

Now, we know three quadrances and two spreads. So, we can use the spread law to nd the third spread :

3

.

:

3

1

b

=

:

1

1

s

Hence,

:

3

3

4

t

2

=

1

2

1

6

p

5

,

we have that

:

3

=

1

8,

_

p

5t

2

3t

2

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

, t =

3 +

p

5

2

Thus,

:

3

=

1

8

_

5+

p

5

8

_

_

_

p

5

_

3 +

p

5

2

_

2

3

_

3 +

p

5

2

_

2

_

_

=

1

10

p

5 +

1

2

=

4

_

5+

p

5

8

_

5

We have that

:

3

=

4,

5

3.2.15 The fteenth triangle:

We can construct the fteenth triangle from one stick of 1

1

, two stick of 1

1

and one stick of 1

2

.

22

Figure 24: The fteenth triangle

when we compare this triangle with the previous triangles we would have the all three quadrances which appear

in the previous triangles and the three spreads as well instead of :

2

which is equal to 1.

The three quadrances are:

Q(, 1) = 1

2

= t

Q(.C) = ,

2

Q(1, C) = 1

1

= 1

The three spreads are:

:

1

=

4c

5

:

2

= 1

:

3

=

4

5

,

3.3 Some theorems that we can get from the triangles above.

Theorem 7 The possible spreads between two blue sticks is

,, c, 1 and

3

4

.

Theorem 8 The possible spreads between two red sticks is

4

5

.

Theorem 9 The possible spreads between two yellow sticks is

4

9

and

8

9

.

23

Theorem 10 The possible spreads between blue stick and red stick is

4,

5

and

4c

5

.

Theorem 11 The possible spreads between blue stick and yellow stick is

t

3

,

t

3

and

2

3

.

Theorem 12 The possible spreads between red stick and yellow stick is

16c

15

and

16,

15

.

In brief, this a catalog of ZOME triangles which is made by using ZOME system.

24

Figure 25: A catalog of ZOME triangles

So far we have found no more than fteen triangles by using The Zome System.

25

4 Rational projective trigonometry

As rotation of earth aects our view of sky and the objects in it. Though the longitudinal angle becomes an

important and unavoidable concept but for many spherical geometrical applications, there is no uniform motion

around a xed axis that plays such a distinguished role. For this kind of stationary spherical geometry there is a

rational version of the classical theory which again is simpler, more elegant and accurate. This theory is developed

in the more natural setting of projective trigonometry. The projective plane inherits a rich metrical structure which

extends to higher dimensions and arbitrary elds.

The sphere has equation r

2

+j

2

+.

2

= 1 and center O = [0, 0, 0] . Any two non-antipodal points and 1 lying

on it determine a unique spherical line, or great circle arc, which is the intersection of the sphere with the plane

O1. Any two such spherical lines intersect at a pair of antipodal points.

In nineteen century, an alternative of nding the antipodal points on the sphere is consider the associated line

through the origin O passing through the antipodal points. Such a line will be called a projective point. Similarly

a plane through O will be called a projective line.

Figure below shows a spherical triangle formed by three spherical points , 1 and C and three great circle arcs,

and on the right the corresponding projective triangle, consisting of three projective points a, / and c, and the three

projective lines that they form.

Figure 25: Spherical and projective triangle ht t p : / / w i l d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i ve Tr i g . p d f

26

4.1 Main denitions and laws of Projective trigonometry

Denition 13 A projective triangle a

1

a

2

a

3

is a set of three non-collinear projective points.

Figure 27: Three views of a projective triangle http://wildegg.com/papers/ProjectiveTrig.pdf

Denition 14 The projective quadrance (a

1

, a

2

) between two projective points a

1

and a

2

is dened to be the

spread between them.

Denition 15 The projective spread o(1

1

, 1

2

) between two projective lines 1

1

and 1

2

is dened to be the spread

between them.

4.1.1 Theorem 1 (projective Thales theorem)

suppose 1

1

and 1

2

are distance projective lines intersection at the projective point a and with a projective spread

of o. Choose a projective point / 6= a on one of the lines, say 1

1

, and let c be the projective point which is the foot

of the (or a) perpendicular projective line from / to 1

2

as in gure . If q(/, c) = and (a, /) = r then

o =

r

27

Figure 28: Projective Thales theoremspherical and projective views ht t p : / / w i l d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i ve Tr i g . p d f

4.1.2 Theorem 2 (Projective triple quad formula)

If the three projective points a

1

, a

2

and a

3

are collinear, then

(

1

+

2

+

3

)

2

= 2

_

2

1

+

2

2

+

2

3

_

+ 4

1

3

.

4.1.3 Theorem 3 (Dual projective triple quad formula)

If the three projective lines 1

1

, 1

2

and 1

3

are concurrent, then

(o

1

+o

2

+o

3

)

2

= 2

_

o

2

1

+o

2

2

+o

2

3

_

+ 4o

1

o

2

o

3

.

4.1.4 Theorem 4 (Projective Pythagoras theorem)

Suppose that a

1

a

2

a

3

is a projective triangle with projective quadrances

1

,

2

and

3

, and projective spreads o

1

, o

2

and o

3

. If o

3

= 1 then

3

=

1

+

2

2

.

28

4.1.5 Theorem 4 (Dual projective Pythagoras theorem)

Suppose that a

1

a

2

a

3

is a projective triangle with projective quadrances

1

,

2

and

3

, and projective spreads o

1

, o

2

and o

3

. If

3

= 1 then

o

3

= o

1

+o

2

o

1

o

2

.

Figure 29: Pythagoras theoremspherical view

ht t p : / / w i l d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i ve Tr i g . p d f

4.1.6 Theorem 6 (Projective spread law)

Suppose that a

1

a

2

a

3

is a projective triangle with projective quadrances

1

,

2

and

3

, and projective spreads o

1

, o

3

and o

3

.Then

o

1

1

=

o

2

2

=

o

3

3

.

4.1.7 Theorem 7 (Projective cross law)

Suppose that a

1

a

2

a

3

is a projective triangle with projective quadrances

1

,

2

and

3

, and projective spreads o

1

, o

2

and o

3

. Then

(o

3

3

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

1

) (1

2

) (1

3

) .

4.1.8 Theorem 8 (Dual projective cross law)

Suppose that a

1

a

2

a

3

is a projective triangle with projective quadrances

1

,

2

and

3

, and projective spreads o

1

, o

2

and o

3

. Then

(o

1

o

2

3

o

1

o

2

o

3

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1 o

1

) (1 o

2

) (1 o

3

) .

4.1.9 Theorem 9

The projective quadrea = (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

) of the projective points a

1

= [r

1

: j

1

: .

1

] , a

2

= [r

2

: j

2

: .

2

] and a

3

=

[r

3

: j

3

: .

3

] i

=

(r

1

j

2

.

3

r

1

j

3

.

2

r

2

j

1

.

3

+r

2

.

1

j

3

+j

1

r

3

.

2

r

3

j

2

.

1

)

2

(r

2

1

+j

2

1

+.

2

1

) (r

2

2

+j

2

2

+.

2

2

) (r

2

3

+j

2

3

+.

2

3

)

29

4.1.10 Theorem 10 (Right projective triangle)

Suppose a right projective triangle has projective quadrances

1

,

2

and

3

, and projective spreads o

1

, o

2

and o

3

= 1.

Then any two of the ve quantities f

1

,

2

,

3

, o

1

, o

2

g determine the other three, solely through the three basic

equation

3

=

1

+

2

2

o

1

=

1

2

o

2

=

2

3

Figure 30: Right projective triangle

ht t p : / / w i l d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i ve Tr i g . p d f

4.1.11 Theorem 11 (Projective isosceles triangle)

Suppose a projective isosceles triangle has projective quadrances

1

=

2

= and

3

, and projective spreads

o

1

= o

2

= o and o

3

.Then

3

=

4 (1 o) (1 )

(1 o

q

)

2

and o

3

=

4o (1 o) (1 )

(1 o

q

)

2

30

Figure 31: Projective isosceles triangle

ht t p : / / w i l d e g g . c o m / p a p e r s / P r o j e c t i ve Tr i g . p d f

4.1.12 Theorem 12 (Equilateral projective triangles)

Suppose that a projective triangle is equilateral with common projective quadrance

1

=

2

=

3

= , and with

common projective spread o

1

= o

2

= o

3

= o. Then

(1 o

q

)

2

= 4 (1 o) (1 ) .

4.2 Tetrahedrons, consisting of ZOME triangles.

Using ZOME triangles we can construct many tetrahedrons based on the triangles that we have previously studied

in subsection 3.2. This is made possible to achieve by projecting a line from each angle (ball) of the triangles

previously built to a single point connected by another ball forming a tetrahedron and we are going to study some

of these tetrahedrons to determine the projective spread and the projective quadrnace.

In the following subsection 4 random tetrahedrons have been studied to determine the projective spread and

the projective quadrance.

31

4.2.1 The rst tetrahedron

Figure 32: The rst tetrahedron

Figure 33: The rst tetrahedron

32

Figure 34: The rst tetrahedron consisting of four zome triangles

4.2.2 The main results of the rst tetrahedron.

Projective spreads o

1

=

5

6

o

2

=

5

6

o

3

=

5

6

o

4

=

15

16

o

5

=

15

16

o

6

=

15

16

Vertex Projective quadrances

1

11

=

8

9

,

12

=

8

9

and

13

=

8

9

2

21

=

2

3

,

22

=

2

3

and

23

=

3

4

3

31

=

3

4

,

32

=

2

3

and

33

=

2

3

4

41

=

2

3

,

42

=

2

3

and

43

=

3

4

There are 4 vertexes and each vertex has a projective triangle.

33

a) Projective triangle at vertex

1

.

Figure 35: Projective triangle at vertex

1

Now, we know

11

,

12

and

13

.

11

=

12

=

13

=

8

9

.

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads).

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

12

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

8

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

8

9

__

1

8

9

__

1

8

9

_

4

6561

(32o

4

27)

2

=

4

729

The solution is:

o

4

=

15

16

or

3

4

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

11

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

8

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

8

9

__

1

8

9

__

1

8

9

_

4

6561

(32o

5

27)

2

=

4

729

34

The solution is:

o

5

=

15

16

or

3

4

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

11

12

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

8

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

8

9

__

1

8

9

__

1

8

9

_

4

6561

(32o

6

27)

2

=

4

729

The solution is:

o

6

=

15

16

or

3

4

b) Projective triangle at vertex

2

.

Figure 36: Projective triangle at vertex

2

Now, we know

21

,

22

and

23

.

21

=

2

3

22

=

2

3

23

=

3

4

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

35

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

21

22

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

__

1

3

4

_

1

1296

(16o

5

3)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

5

=

15

16

or

9

16

) o

5

=

15

16

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

3

21

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

__

1

3

4

_

1

144

(6o

3

1)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

3

=

5

6

or

1

2

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

22

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

__

1

3

4

_

1

144

(6o

1

1)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

1

=

5

6

or

1

2

36

c) Projective triangle at vertex

3

.

Figure 37: Projective triangle at vertex

3

Now, we know

31

,

32

and

33

.

31

=

3

4

32

=

2

3

33

=

2

3

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

32

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

2

3

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

_

1

1296

(16o

6

3)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

6

=

15

16

or

9

16

) o

6

=

15

16

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

37

This will lead to

(o

3

31

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

3

4

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

_

1

144

(6o

3

1)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

3

=

5

6

or

1

2

) o

3

=

5

6

Thirdly, the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

2

31

32

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

3

4

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

_

1

144

(6o

2

1)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

2

=

5

6

or

1

2

d) Projective triangle at vertex

4

.

Figure 38: Projective triangle at vertex

4

38

Now, we know

41

,

42

and

43

.

41

=

2

3

42

=

2

3

43

=

3

4

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

41

42

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

__

1

3

4

_

1

1296

(16o

4

3)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

4

=

15

16

or

9

16

) o

4

=

15

16

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

41

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

__

1

3

4

_

1

144

(6o

1

1)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

1

=

5

6

or

1

2

) o

1

=

5

6

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

39

(o

2

42

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

2

3

3

4

2

3

2

3

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

2

3

__

1

2

3

__

1

3

4

_

1

144

(6o

2

1)

2

=

1

9

The solution is:

o

2

=

5

6

or

1

2

) o

2

=

5

6

4.2.3 The second tetrahedron

Figure 39: The second tetrahedron

40

Figure 40: The second tetrahedron

41

Figure 41: The second tetrahedron consisting of four zome triangle

4.2.4 The main results of the second tetrahedron.

Projective spreads o

1

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

o

2

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

o

3

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

o

4

= , o

5

= , o

6

= ,

Vertex Projective quadrances

1

11

=

4

5

,

12

=

4

5

and

13

=

4

5

2

21

=

4

5

,

22

=

4

5

and

23

=

3

4

3

31

=

3

4

,

32

=

4

5

and

33

=

4

5

4

41

=

4

5

,

42

=

4

5

and

43

=

3

4

There are 4 vertexes and each vertex has a projective triangle.

42

a) Projective triangle at vertex

1

.

Figure 42: Projective triangle at vertex

1

Now, we know

11

,

12

and

13

.

11

=

12

=

13

=

4

5

.

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads).

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

12

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

_

4

625

(8o

4

5)

2

=

4

125

The solution is:

o

4

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

5

8

1

8

p

5 = c

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

11

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

_

4

625

(8o

5

5)

2

=

4

125

43

The solution is:

o

5

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

5

8

1

8

p

5 = c

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

11

12

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

_

4

625

(8o

6

5)

2

=

4

125

The solution is:

o

6

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

5

8

1

8

p

5 = c

b) Projective triangle at vertex

2

.

Figure 43: Projective triangle at vertex

2

Now, we know

21

,

22

and

23

.

21

=

4,

5

22

=

4,

5

23

=

3

4

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

44

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

21

22

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

4,

5

4,

5

4,

5

4,

5

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

__

1

3

4

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

10

o

5

+

1

10

p

5o

5

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

5

=

33

8

p

5

75

8

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

) o

5

= ,

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

3

21

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

__

1

3

4

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

3

+

3

40

p

5o

3

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

3

=

3

2

p

5

7

2

or

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

22

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

3

4

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

__

1

3

4

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

45

Hence,

_

3

8

o

1

+

3

40

p

5o

1

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

1

=

3

2

p

5

7

2

or

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

c) Projective triangle at vertex

3

.

Figure 44: Projective triangle at vertex

3

Now, we know

31

,

32

and

33

.

31

=

3

4

32

=

4,

5

33

=

4,

5

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

32

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

4,

5

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

_

46

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

10

o

6

+

1

10

p

5o

6

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

6

=

33

8

p

5

75

8

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

) o

6

= ,

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

3

31

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

3

4

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

3

+

3

40

p

5o

3

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

3

=

3

2

p

5

7

2

or

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

) o

3

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

Thirdly, the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

2

31

32

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

3

4

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

2

+

3

40

p

5o

2

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

2

=

3

2

p

5

7

2

or

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

47

d) Projective triangle at vertex

4

.

Figure 45: Projective triangle at vetrex

4

Now, we know

41

,

42

and

43

.

41

=

4,

5

42

=

4,

5

43

=

3

4

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

41

42

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

3

4

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

10

o

4

+

1

10

p

5o

4

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

4

=

33

8

p

5

75

8

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

) o

4

= ,

48

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

41

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

3

4

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

1

+

3

40

p

5o

1

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

1

=

3

2

p

5

7

2

or

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

) o

1

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

2

42

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

3

4

4,

5

3

4

4,

5

4,

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

3

4

__

1

4,

5

__

1

4,

5

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

2

+

3

40

p

5o

2

1

5

p

5 +

1

4

_

2

=

3

10

1

10

p

5

The solution is:

o

2

=

3

2

p

5

7

2

or

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

) o

2

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

49

4.2.5 The third tetrahedron

Figure 46: The third tetrahedron

Figure 47: The third tetrahedron

50

Figure 48: The third tetrahedron consisting of four zome triangles

4.2.6 The main results of the second tetrahedron.

Projective spreads o

1

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

o

2

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

o

3

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

o

4

= , o

5

= , o

6

= ,

Vertex Projective quadrances

1

11

=

16

15

,

12

=

8

9

and

13

=

16

15

2

21

=

4

5

,

22

=

4

5

and

23

= c

3

31

= ,,

32

=

2

3

and

33

=

3

4

41

=

3

,

42

=

2

3

and

43

= ,

There are 4 vertexes and each vertex has a projective triangle.

51

a) Projective triangle at vertex

1

.

Figure 49: Projective triangle at vertex

1

Now, we know

11

,

12

and

13

.

11

=

16,

15

12

=

8

9

13

=

16,

15

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads).

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

12

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

8

9

16,

15

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

16,

15

__

1

8

9

__

1

16,

15

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

16

27

o

4

+

16

135

p

5o

4

4

15

p

5

2

9

_

2

=

4

45

16

405

p

5

The solution is:

o

4

=

3

4

p

5

3

4

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

52

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

11

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

16,

15

16,

15

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

16,

15

__

1

8

9

__

1

16,

15

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

8

15

o

5

+

8

45

p

5o

5

4

15

p

5

2

9

_

2

=

4

45

16

405

p

5

The solution is:

o

5

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

3

2

p

5

5

2

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

11

12

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

16,

15

__

1

8

9

__

1

16,

15

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

16

27

o

6

+

16

135

p

5o

6

4

15

p

5

2

9

_

2

=

4

45

16

405

p

5

The solution is:

o

6

=

3

4

p

5

3

4

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

b) Projective triangle at vertex

2

.

53

Figure 50: Projective triangle at vertex

2

Now, we know

21

,

22

and

23

.

21

=

4c

5

22

=

4c

5

23

= c

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

21

22

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

4c

5

4c

5

4c

5

4c

5

c + 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4c

5

__

1

4c

5

_

(1 c)

Notice that

c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

3

10

o

5

1

10

p

5o

5

+

13

40

p

5 +

3

8

_

2

=

3

10

p

5 +

7

10

The solution is:

o

5

=

55

8

p

5

115

8

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

) o

5

= ,

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

54

This will lead to

(o

3

21

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

4c

5

c

4c

5

4c

5

c + 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4c

5

__

1

4c

5

_

(1 c)

Notice that

c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

3

1

8

p

5o

3

+

13

40

p

5 +

3

8

_

2

=

3

10

p

5 +

7

10

The solution is:

o

3

=

11

2

p

5

23

2

or

1

10

p

5 +

1

2

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

22

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

4c

5

c

4c

5

4c

5

c + 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4c

5

__

1

4c

5

_

(1 c)

Notice that

c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

3

8

o

1

1

8

p

5o

1

+

13

40

p

5 +

3

8

_

2

=

3

10

p

5 +

7

10

The solution is:

o

1

=

1

10

p

5 +

1

2

or

11

2

p

5

23

2

55

c) Projective triangle at vertex

3

.

Figure 51: Projective triangle at vertex

3

Now, we know

31

,

32

and

33

.

31

= ,

32

=

2

3

33

=

t

3

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

32

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

2

3

t

3

,

2

3

t

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4 (1 ,)

_

1

2

3

_

_

1

t

3

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

1

3

o

6

+

1

9

p

5o

6

7

24

p

5 +

5

24

_

2

=

7

18

1

6

p

5

The solution is:

o

6

=

75

16

p

5

159

16

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

56

) o

6

=

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

3

31

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

,

t

3

,

2

3

t

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4 (1 ,)

_

1

2

3

_

_

1

t

3

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

5

12

o

3

+

1

6

p

5o

3

7

24

p

5 +

5

24

_

2

=

7

18

1

6

p

5

The solution is:

o

3

=

89

10

p

5

39

2

or

1

10

p

5 +

1

2

) o

3

=

1

10

p

5 +

1

2

Thirdly, the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

2

31

32

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

,

2

3

,

2

3

t

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4 (1 ,)

_

1

2

3

_

_

1

t

3

_

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

Hence,

_

5

12

o

2

+

1

12

p

5o

2

7

24

p

5 +

5

24

_

2

=

7

18

1

6

p

5

The solution is:

o

2

=

9

5

p

5

7

2

or

1

5

p

5 +

1

2

57

d) Projective triangle at vertex

4

.

Figure 52: Projective triangle at vertex

4

Now, we know

41

,

42

and

43

.

41

=

t

3

42

=

2

3

43

= ,

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spreads)

Firstly, we want to compute the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

41

42

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

t

3

2

3

t

3

2

3

, + 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

t

3

_

_

1

2

3

_

(1 ,)

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

and t =

3 +

p

5

2

Hence,

_

1

3

o

4

+

1

9

p

5o

4

7

24

p

5 +

5

24

_

2

=

7

18

1

6

p

5

The solution is:

o

4

=

75

16

p

5

159

16

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

) o

4

= ,

58

Secondly, we want to compute the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

41

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

t

3

,

t

3

2

3

, + 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

t

3

_

_

1

2

3

_

(1 ,)

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

and t =

3 +

p

5

2

Hence,

_

5

12

o

1

+

1

6

p

5o

1

7

24

p

5 +

5

24

_

2

=

7

18

1

6

p

5

The solution is:

o

1

=

1

10

p

5 +

1

2

or

89

10

p

5

39

2

) o

1

=

1

6

p

5 +

1

2

Thirdly, we want to compute the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead law

(o

2

42

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

2

3

,

t

3

2

3

, + 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

t

3

_

_

1

2

3

_

(1 ,)

Notice that

, =

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

and t =

3 +

p

5

2

Hence,

_

5

12

o

2

+

1

12

p

5o

2

7

24

p

5 +

5

24

_

2

=

7

18

1

6

p

5

The solution is:

o

2

=

1

5

p

5 +

1

2

or

9

5

p

5

7

2

) o

2

=

1

5

p

5 +

1

2

59

4.2.7 The fourth tetrahedron

Figure 53: The fourth tetrahedron

Figure 54: The fourth tetrahedron consisting of four zome triangles

4.2.8 The main results of the fourth tetrahedron.

Projective spreads o

1

=

3

p

5

16

+

9

16

o

2

= , o

3

= , o

4

=

3

p

5

16

+

9

16

o

5

=

1

2

o

6

= ,

60

Vertex Projective quadrances

1

11

=

4

5

,

12

=

16

15

and

13

=

2

3

2

21

=

4

5

,

22

=

2

3

and

23

=

16

15

3

31

=

4

5

,

32

=

4

5

and

33

=

4

5

4

41

=

8

9

,

42

=

16

15

and

43

=

16

15

There are 4 vertexes and each vertex has projective triangle.

a) Projective triangle at vertex

1

.

Figure 55: Projective triangle at vertex

1

Now, we know

11

,

12

and

13

.

11

=

4,

5

12

=

16c

15

13

=

2

3

So, we can use the projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spread).

Firstly, the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

12

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

16c

15

2

3

4,

5

16c

15

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

16c

15

__

1

2

3

_

61

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

and c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

4

9

o

4

4

45

p

5o

4

+

1

30

p

5 +

1

6

_

2

=

2

45

p

5 +

2

15

The solution is:

o

4

=

9

16

p

5

27

16

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

Secondly, the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

11

13

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

4,

5

2

3

4,

5

16c

15

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

16c

15

__

1

2

3

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

and c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

1

900

_

p

5 + 5

_

2

(2o

5

+ 1)

2

=

2

45

p

5 +

2

15

The solution is:

o

5

=

1

2

or

3

2

Thirdly, the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

11

12

11

12

13

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

11

) (1

12

) (1

13

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

4,

5

16c

15

4,

5

16c

15

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

16c

15

__

1

2

3

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

and c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

4

15

o

6

+

1

30

p

5 +

1

6

_

2

=

2

45

p

5 +

2

15

The solution is:

o

6

=

3

8

p

5

15

8

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

62

b) Projective triangle at vertex

2

.

Figure 56: Projective triangle at vertex

2

Now, we know

21

,

22

and

23

.

21

=

4,

5

22

=

2

3

23

=

16c

15

So, we can use projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spread)

Firstly, the projective spread o

5

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

5

21

22

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

5

4,

5

2

3

4,

5

16c

15

2

3

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

16c

15

__

1

2

3

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

and c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

1

900

_

p

5 + 5

_

2

(2o

5

+ 1)

2

=

2

45

p

5 +

2

15

The solution is:

o

5

=

1

2

or

3

2

63

Secondly, the projective spread o

3

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

3

21

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

4,

5

16c

15

4,

5

2

3

16c

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

2

3

__

1

16c

15

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

and c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

4

15

o

3

+

1

30

p

5 +

1

6

_

2

=

2

45

p

5 +

2

15

The solution is:

o

3

=

3

8

p

5

15

8

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

Thirdly, the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

22

23

21

22

23

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

21

) (1

22

) (1

23

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

2

3

16c

15

4,

5

2

3

16c

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4,

5

__

1

2

3

__

1

16c

15

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

and c =

5

p

5

8

Hence,

_

4

9

o

1

4

45

p

5o

1

+

1

30

p

5 +

1

6

_

2

=

2

45

p

5 +

2

15

The solution is:

o

1

=

9

16

p

5

27

16

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

64

c) Projective triangle at vertex

3

.

Figure 57: Projective triangle at vertex

3

Now, we know

31

,

32

and

33

.

31

=

4

5

32

=

4

5

33

=

4

5

So, we can use projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spread)

Firstly, the projective spread o

6

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

6

32

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, susbtituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

6

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

_

4

625

(8o

6

5)

2

=

4

125

The solution is

o

6

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

5

8

1

8

p

5 = c

) o

6

= ,

Secondly, the projective spread o

3

by using the projective the cross law.

65

This will lead to

(o

3

31

33

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, substituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

3

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

_

4

625

(8o

3

5)

2

=

4

125

The solution is:

o

3

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

5

8

1

8

p

5 = c

) o

3

= ,

Thirdly, the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

2

31

32

31

32

33

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

31

) (1

32

) (1

33

)

Therefore, substituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

4

5

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

__

1

4

5

_

4

625

(8o

2

5)

2

=

4

125

The solution is:

o

2

=

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= , or

5

8

1

8

p

5 = c

d) Projective triangle at vertex

4

.

Figure 58: Projective triangle at vertex

4

66

Now, we know

41

,

42

and

43

.

41

=

8

9

42

=

16,

15

43

=

16,

15

So, we can use projective cross law to nd the three face spreads (Projective spread)

Firstly, the projective spread o

4

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

4

41

42

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, substituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

4

8

9

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

16,

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

8

9

__

1

16,

15

__

1

16,

15

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

Hence,

_

16

27

o

4

+

16

135

p

5o

4

4

15

p

5

2

9

_

2

=

4

45

16

405

p

5

The solution is:

o

4

=

3

4

p

5

3

4

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

) o

4

=

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

Secondly, the projective spread o

1

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

1

41

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, substituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

1

8

9

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

16,

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

8

9

__

1

16,

15

__

1

16,

15

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

Hence,

_

16

27

o

1

+

16

135

p

5o

1

4

15

p

5

2

9

_

2

=

4

45

16

405

p

5

The solution is:

67

o

1

=

3

4

p

5

3

4

or

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

) o

1

=

3

16

p

5 +

9

16

Thirdly, the projective spread o

2

by using the projective cross law.

This will lead to

(o

2

42

43

41

42

43

+ 2)

2

= 4 (1

41

) (1

42

) (1

43

)

Therefore, substituting the values in the law we get:

_

o

2

16,

15

16,

15

8

9

16,

15

16,

15

+ 2

_

2

= 4

_

1

8

9

__

1

16,

15

__

1

16,

15

_

Notice that

, =

5 +

p

5

8

Thus,

_

8

15

o

2

+

8

45

p

5o

2

4

15

p

5

2

9

_

2

=

4

45

16

405

p

5

The solution is:

o

2

=

3

2

p

5

5

2

or

1

8

p

5 +

5

8

= ,

) o

2

= ,

68

The same process leads us to nd no more than 19 tetrahedrons as shown in the following catalog.

69

Figure 59: A catalog of ninteen tetrahedrons

5 Conclusion

The Zome system remains an outstanding and sophisticated tool to express mathematical thoughts into tangible

structures. We have used this system to nd six new theorems by rational trigonometry which has proved to be very

useful for locating and determining any spreads and quadrances in triangles. A good idea for this research will be the

use of these results in the future to investigate the case of determining the solid spread in the nineteen tetrahedrons

developed in this completed work. It would be recommended for further research in rational trigonometry to explore

the possibility of still more theorems. The Egyptians and Greeks would have loved this tool!

70

6 Bibliography

[1] D.Booth. The new Zome Primer in Five Fold Symmetry. Hargittal , World Scientic Publishing Company, 1992.

[2] G.Hart, H.Picciotto, Zome Geometry: Hands-on with Zome Models, Key Curriculum Press, 2001.

[3 ] G. Hart, Zometool Polyhedra. [online] available from [1 June 2011]

< http://www.georgehart.com/virtual-polyhedra/zometool.html

[ 4] P .Hildebrandt.. Zome-inspired Sculpture. Colorado: Zometool .2006 Inc. online] available from<http://www.zometool.com/Resources/Papers-

and-Presentations [1 June 2011]

[5 ] J. Kappra, (2001). Connections: The Geometric Bridge Between Art and Science. Massachusetts: World

Scientic Publishing. [1 June 2011]

[ 6] D.A. Richter. Two results concerning the Zome model of the 600-cell. [Online]. Available from [1 June

2011]

<http://homepages.wmich.edu/~drichter/papersrichter/zome600cell2005.pdf

[7 ] N.J Wildberger. Projective and spherical trigonometry, School of Mathematics UNSW Sydney. (2007).

[8 ] N.J Wildberger, Divine Proportion: Rational trigonometry to Universal Geometry, Wild Egg Books, Sydney,

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