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VOLUME1 NUMBER1

1/1997

MACHINING
Cover Story Patrick Racing Features American Performance Gyroplane Precision Industry News New Options

VOLUME1

SPRING1997

In this issue of
CoverStory

NUMBER1

MACHINING
1
Patrick Racing American-Made Speedsters

Patrick Racing
COVER STORY

American-Made Speedsters
by Paul Garson

A.P.E.Motors

RotaryAirforce

Haas #13 VF-1 Still Runs Like New

TechTopics

Gyroplane Flies with the Haas VF-3

Fixed Focus Did You Know? Tooling Tips

NewProducts

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Machining Center New Features

IndustryNews

20

Haas New Home Haas Spins a Web

THE MASTHEAD: CNC Machining is published by Haas Automation Inc., 2800 Sturgis Road, Oxnard, CA 93030-8933. (805) 278-2800, Fax (805) 278-2255. Postmaster: Invalid mailing addresses should be returned to Haas Automation, 2800 Sturgis Road, Oxnard, CA 93030-8933 postage guaranteed by Haas Automation. CNC Machining is distributed free of charge by Haas Automation Inc., and its authorized dealerships, agents and distributors. CNC Machining accepts no advertising or reimbursement for this magazine. All contents of CNC Machining are Copyright 1997 and may not be reproduced without written permission from Haas Automation Inc. CNC Machining is distributed through a worldwide network of Haas Automation Distributors, and by individual subscription request. Contact Haas Automation headquarters via mail or fax to be added to subscription list. Published quarterly. Haas Automation, Inc. & CNC Machining Magazine names. Designed and Printed in the U.S.A. www.HaasCNC.com

igel Patrick served a rather speedy apprenticeship in the profession of drag racing. In 1977 he began collecting his first Christmas-tree reaction times, and by 1978 hed made a quantum leap to the top of the Pro Street class, dominating the field three years running. He earned number-one plates from two sanctioning bodies, and quickly upped the ante by entering the rarefied atmosphere of Funny Bike competition, building and racing turbo, nitro-injected, and blown alcohol-injected E.T. eaters.
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...Each head is a perfect clone of the original,...

Im proud of the extra-heavyduty heads Im able to produce

His efforts were finally rewarded in 1984 with an MDRA National Championship in Funny Bikes, and the AMA Drag Bike National Championship in Top Fuel, a serious drag race double-header. A year later, Nigel opened the doors of his new high-performance facility, Patrick Racing in Fountain Valley, California. Once operating in earnest, he channeled his considerable talents into research and development, focusing on cylinder heads and normally aspirated engines. Acknowledged worldwide as an expert in high-performance cylinder heads and precision engine building, Nigel utilizes an air flow bench and Superflow engine dynamometer in his workshop. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, Nigel invested in a Haas VF-0 Vertical Machining Center, and TekSoft CAD/CAM design software for his PC. This setup enables Nigel to literally sculpt billet cylinder heads from blocks of raw aluminum stock. His high-performance engines are in use by many street performance riders and race teams, some who are direct competitors. Nigels CNC-machined heads for Harley-Davidson Twins are cut from solid, 8.5 square, 25-pound blocks of aircraft-quality 6061 T6 aluminum. Patricks cylinder heads are more robust and precision cut than their stock counterparts, and much more aesthetically pleasing. Nigels success with these heads is due to his balanced desire for both their looks and the punch that they deliver.

on the Haas machine.

Machining his way down from the 25-pound block to the completed 10-pound unit involves some fairly complicated processes. As it turns out, Nigel says, it actually involves some five different moving axes, something I wouldnt be able to do without the Haas rotary table. Nigel utilizes a fully-integrated Haas TRT-310 tilting rotary table giving him access to various complicated angles on the part, and enabling him to form the many intricate shapes and contours of the heads with a single setup. Actually, Nigel says, its really a high-tech way to manufacture these high-performance heads. Each one is a perfect clone of the original, because of the super-tight tolerances the Haas holds. I can maintain a 0.0001 of an inch accuracy each and every day. When the process is over, each perfect,10.5-pound billet head has been through five different setups on the Haas VMC, and has a machined surface accuracy of 0.0002. All major machine work has been completed, including the finished external

shape, the receptacles for the valve guides and seats, and all the tapping and drilling to hold the rocker boxes, intake manifold and exhaust pipes. Nigel is able to machine 30 heads at a time before moving on to the cutting of valve seats, and the flow-dynamic porting that gives these heads that extra performance boost that Harley riders are after. To date, Patrick Engineerings product line includes billet heads for both Harley-Davidson Big Twins and Sportster models (1984 to present). In response to overwhelming customer demand he offers all cylinder heads in eight different bolt hole patterns, with even more variations on the way. In the past two years, business has been so successful that Nigel needed to purchase another CNC machine just to keep up with the orders. In December 1995, when shopping for a new machine, he only cared to look through one catalog. This time, he purchased a Haas model VF-4 with a larger xyz envelope to accommodate the odd shape of the billet heads. The VF-4 gives him a little more working room, and speeds up

production enough to make the extra cost worth the investment. Although his original Haas VF-0 is still in daily use churning out perfect copies of the Patrick performance heads, it continues to provide closetolerance finishes as good as the first day it was used. Nigel Patricks success has been built on solid design, and the ability to provide that little-bit-extra that customers sometimes dont expect. Im proud of the extra-heavy-duty heads Im able to produce on the Haas machine, says Nigel. Theyre about a pound heavier than the stock units, mostly because of the extra material around the combustion chamber... of course, theyre also much stronger, since theyre made of aircraft 6061 T6. You know, Im also proud of the fact that Im one of the only aftermarket manufacturers of this quality of performance parts using an American-made CNC mill, said Nigel. The Haas machines have served me well, and Im glad the parts I make for American bikes are made in the USA on an Americanmade CNC machine.

A.P.E. Motors
Haas #13 VF-1 Still Runs Like New
by Bob Thomas
It started out as a Japanese-made Kawasaki. But, before long, almost every part had been replaced by a beefed-up custom-made part. Now, its actually an American-made bike. In 1989, APE was a job shop weaning itself off aerospace work by developing a line of high-performance motorcycle parts. Most of these parts are machined out of aluminum, and involve drilling holes or milling pockets and profiles. Since the parts are used as covers and plates, its important they have a smooth finish. In addition, some parts, such as cam sprockets, are milled out of light steel. APE initially farmed out work to local job shops equipped with CNC mills. But as these shops became busy in the late 80s, it became increasingly difficult to get parts made fast enough to satisfy customers, without cost-prohibitive rush charges. So, APE looked into buying its own CNC mill. We had to buy our own CNC mill, says Jay Esbach, president of APE. We didnt have a choice. If we didnt deliver on time and at the right price, our distributors would buy from our competitors and wed be out of business, Esbach said. In 1989, Haas Automation began manufacturing machining centers to compete with the low-cost offshore brands. Back then most people thought the reason not to buy a Haas was, even if they built a machining center that worked, there was no guaranty it would last past the warranty. Of course, they were all wrong, and that attitude has changed now. I never would have bought a firstyear machining center, said Esbach, but I knew Gene Haas. He said hed stand by his machines, so we bought a Haas VF-1, serial number 00013, and a 5C collet indexer. Were still using it, and its still cutting parts just like new, notes Esbach. The Haas VF-1 has travels of 20 x 16 x 20 (xyz), direct drive with a toothed-drivebelt, and 10-hp spindle that delivers up to 7,500 rpm. It has a wide, cast-iron base that provides dependable cutting torque and superior rigidity. to Ben Esbach, who programs the VF-1, the Haas control is easy. The control of the VF-1 is made by Haas. Its a 32-bit Fanuc compatible control that executes 500 blocks per second of programming. (The only difference between old and new VF-1s is

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merican Performance Engineering (APE) of Burbank, California, makes parts for some of the fastest motorcycles in the world, including a 1000-hp bike that does 0-234 mph in just over six seconds.

The VF-1 did two-months-worth of work in two days. So we were able to expand our product line, and offer more parts. Plus, the VF-1 helped us with our corporate identity. We could engrave our trademark monkey on most of our parts. That has helped us in Japan, where they wont buy our parts without our trademark monkey, adds Esbach. One of the biggest differences between machining centers is found in their controls. Some are easy to use and program; some arent. According

that program execution speed is now up to 1,000 blocks per second.) It features a number of Haas OneTouch features, including OneTouch Powerup, which turns the power on, homes all axes, picks the number 1 tool and loads it into the spindle so the machine is ready to make chips. I like the way its easy to set the work coordinate system offsets. You indicate a hold, touch a button and the offsets are loaded automatically. Those are the G50 codes, which are
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Rotary Airforce
Gyroplanes Fly with the Haas VF-3
by Bob Thomas

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otary Air Force, of Saskatchewan, Canada, has manufactured Gyroplanes since 1970. A Gyroplane is an experimental, ultra-light aircraft with its lift and drive provided by a free-wheeling rotor system. Technically, its not a helicopter, as the craft requires a minimum of 50 feet for a runway. Gyroplane kits are sold in the U.S. for use in crop dusting, cattle control and pleasure.

"We build aircraft and, of course, everything we build has got to be right on the money. Its got to be right; somebodys life is depending on it, said Shane Seitz, manufacturing manager of Rotary Air Force. At the beginning of 1994, the company decided to upgrade their manual machining operations to CNC. The objective was to increase productivity and quality, while decreasing cycle times and the time it takes to complete prototypes. A dozen machining centers were evaluated over a four month period. In July 1995, the company purchased a Haas VF-3 machining center. The VF-3 weighs 12,500 lbs. and has travels of 40 x 20 x 25 (xyz). It has a 15-hp motor, gearedhead, heavy-duty water-cooled spindle, speeds up to 10,000 rpm, and a 20-pocket electronic tool changer. The high-speed, dual 32-bit Fanuc compatible control is also built by Haas. We were a manual machine shop transferring all our machining operations to CNC, Seitz said. The VF-3 has a nice control thats really simple to use. You know the control is simple when the guys youre training pick up on it fast, he said. The VF-3 has all the power and spindle rpm we need, and it gives us the most bang for the buck. Advanced OneTouch features on the Haas-built control save training and production time. For example, Haas OneTouch power-up turns the power on, homes all axes, picks up the #1 tool and loads it into the spindle, so the machine is ready to make chips. Tool-length setup stores offsets for 50 different tools (new VF-3s store 100 offsets), and can be programmed with either radius or diameter, whichever the operator is most familiar with. Work coordinate offsets are loaded automatically with one button after touching-off the part. OneTouch tool offset sets toollength offsets with one button, and another button loads the next tool automatically for offset measurement.

Prototype Production: From Months to Weeks


I can draw an air foil with our CAM system, and send the program via DNC to the VF-3 for testing in less than a day, Seitz said. We can prove the program in single-block mode and edit right on the machines

We can prove the program in single block mode and edit right on the machines control.

operator-defined parameters an alarm comes on, virtually eliminating damage to the part from a dull tool. Single-block mode allows one line of code to be run at a time. The operator pushes a button to execute each line of code. Formerly, prototyping required drawing a profile and sending it to a vendor. From the drawing the vendor generated a CNC program, then made the cut. If there were additional changes to the prototype part, the whole process had to be repeated until the part was correct. Now, 5,000 lines of code can be generated and machined in just five hours. CNC programs are sent to the Haas for proofing and editing, Seitz said. Short programs and basic editing are done right at the mill. It brought our prototype-to-production time down from months to weeks.

Smooth Surface Finish


The most critical component on the gyroplane is the hub bar that holds the main rotor blades. It was redesigned this summer, Seitz said. The tolerance is 0.0005-inch and the surface finish must be smooth. Many of our components require a smooth surface finish, so we use double point or single point mills at 9,500 rpm to turn out surface finishes like glass. The hub bars look like mirrors, with surface finishes of 0.3 micrometers. Thats proof the VF-3s spindle and fixture are super rigid, Seitz said. The VF-3s accuracy of 0.0002inch is attributed to heavy castings that reduce vibration, and ball screws mounted at both ends to reduce thermal growth. Wide-stance castings and a liquid-cooled spindle further enhance rigidity. Made of solid 6061 T6 Aluminum, the hub bar is 2112 long by 3 by 112. Its sides are flat, but at angles. Viewed from the side, its machined into a very flat V with 15-degree slopes on each side, and a flat center section. The hub bar
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control. Once we get the first part out, we dont have any QC problems with tolerances that dont fit. Theres no deviation from one part to the next, he said. The company has found the toolload monitor, tool-life management and single-block modes critical to proving out parts without crashing tools. The tool-load monitor keeps track of spindle load for each tool, and warns when the load exceeds an operator-defined safety margin. So when the tool load alarms are set to tight tolerances, the machine shuts down before a tool crash occurs. The tool-life management system keeps track of how long a tool is in the feed mode. When tool time exceeds

APEMotors
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RotaryAirforce
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Fixed Focus
TECH TOPICS ECH OPICS

really simple to do. The offsets are really easy to enter on that machine. You touch the tool to the part, press a button and the coordinates are saved, Ben Esbach said. Another feature that saves time is the editor. Its easy to use, and quick. For example, to get to the bottom of a program, push a button and youre there instantly. The Fanuc control on our other machine takes a while to scroll through the program, reports Ben Esbach. The Haas control has a number of features that ease programming

Most of the work we do on the mill is cosmetic making parts that look good on the motorcycle. We put grooves on them, mill out fancy-shaped pockets and inscribe our name. The Haas mill makes a great engraving machine. Our logo, a monkey holding a little APE sign, is programmed on our CAM system, and engraved on the parts, he adds. Hole locations on parts can be pretty important; they often have to line up with fixtures. In the case of APEs parts, the holes often must match holes on a motorcycle engine casting. We drill holes in the parts, then have to fit the parts into another fixture. They fit every time, says Ben Esback. The graphics on the control show the part being cut, and also let you know whether youve got your work zero coordinates set, he said. OneTouch power-up saves us time.On our other CNC you have to load the X and Z coordinates in the morning to let the machine know where it is. The Haas control also has built-in online help, which helps with programming. For example, enter the coordinates to program a circle or radii, and the control will write the Gcode for you. Its almost like having a CAM system in the control. My CPA says he can tell when I bought each CNC machine, adds Esbach, because we increased our sales and profits after every purchase. In fact, we grew 1,000% in seven years. Were finding it difficult to keep up with the orders again, so were going to buy a couple more Haas machines.

The Ball Bar Test It's the Only Way


absolute accuracy of each Haas machine. The test is done with a bar that can output micron (0.0000393") changes in length.

determines the rotor-blade angle. This angle is partially determined by machining, then the hub bar is put into a pressure jig and bent to the exact coning angle.These angles must be within 0.001-inch tolerance to clear the rotor head components. The final operation is boring holes in the end of the hub bar, Seitz said. Since a special fixture stands the 2112 bar on end for this operation, we needed the long z travel the Haas VF-3 provides.

Rotor Molds
Rotary Airforce just put its first aluminum mold into production. Its a compression mold for the 163-inchlong fiberglass rotor blade. Machined in sections out of aluminum, it has a tolerance of 0.001-inch This is the first time the companys been able to machine molds out of solid aluminum blocks. The blocks are assembled together to form an aluminum mold that can be heated and cooled. Tolerances are super critical when youre machining a mold in pieces, said Seitz. The tolerance on the rotor mold is 0.001-inch, because once the rotor is made it has to be hand finished. Spindle speed and feed override features on the control allow us to vary the speeds and feeds at any time during machining operations, he said. The VF-3 is very fast. I can feed tools up to 300 inches per minute and rapid at 710 inches per minute, with smooth tool changes. We like the VF-3, Seitz said. It proved to be a profitable investment.

Industry people in-the-know have been aware for years that Haas Automation Inc. puts every machine they build through a rigorous ball-bar test before shipping. Although most machine-tool manufacturers shy away from taking the time to double check their machines with the intensity that Haas does, most will at least check some of the machine's geometry with a laser system. Unfortunately, old-style laser inspection can only check a single axis at a time; and, at that, it can only check the straight-line accuracy of that axis. Haas uses the more stringent ball-bar test, checking not only linear accuracy, but also the overall machine geometry. The ballbar test is a tell-all examination that ultimately insures the three-dimensional squareness and

It is attached to both the spindle and a fixed point on the table. The machine is then put through a series of circular moves in the X/Y plane, and half-circle moves in the X/Z and

Y/Z planes. Encoder data from the bar is fed into a computer, which outputs a chart of the machines accuracy. Any deviations in squareness or length show up as distorted circles and are very easy for a technician to spot. Because of their rigorous attention to detail and insistence on producing only quality machine tools, Haas sends the results of this ball-bar test, as well as numerous other detailed inspection check lists, along with each machine. They see it as assurance to their customers that the machine they receive is accurate, properly aligned and ready to make chips. From Haas' standpoint, it's the only way to do things.

and reduce errors, such as the ability to change between Yaznac and Fanuc settings. And, a built-in safety feature stops the program from running if the wrong tool is called up. This command can be disabled, if you want to take a chance.

CHATSWORTH, CA In past years such complex jobs as performance head-porting required skilled craftsmen to painstakingly sculpt the ports by hand a process that could take days. The new 5-axis horizontal from Haas Automation accomplishes the same job in just a few hours. In todays competitive world, thats the difference between winning and coming in second. Based on Haas shop-proven HS-1R horizontal machining center (24 x 20 x 22 travels), the HS-1R 5AX comes standard with a 15 x 40 extended table, an HRT-210 (8.27 platter) rotary table, and full 5-axis control. Two different A-frame support blocks plain bearing or needle bearing are available as options, as well as a 20 x 20 table for added flexibility. Built of heavily-ribbed, Americanmade iron castings, this machine utilizes Haas exclusive anti-flex, torque-tube design for superior rigidity. A 15-hp motor drives the high-capacity spindle to 7,500 rpm through an oil-cooled, 2-speed gearbox. The 24-pocket tool changer is fully-enclosed to

protect tool tapers from chips and coolant, and an automatic chip auger senses loads to prevent jamming. High-speed, brushless servo motors provide rapids up to 710 ipm to further reduce cycle times, and a 22-hp, 10,000-rpm spindle is available as an option. Driving the HS-1R 5AX is the highly-refined, user-friendly Haas CNC control. The 5-axis software has been fine-tuned for high speed to meet the challenge of processing large, complex files, such as those associated with cylinder-head machining. Memory is expandable to 8 megs, and a highspeed RS-422 port (115,200 bps) may be added for even more speed and versatility. The HS-1R 5AX is a versatile, high-performance machine perfectly suited for cylinder-head porting, manifold work and other compound machining operations. With a starting price less than $149,000, the HS-1R 5AX is less expensive than any competing machine.

The Haas CNC Control


TECH TOPICS ECH OPICS
by: Kurt Zierhut
When you receive (input) a program from the floppy disk, it is always a receive all. That is, there must be an Onnnn program name in the floppy files. The name you enter on the input line is the file name. Program files on a floppy still must start and end with a %, like RS-232. You can select an axis for jogging by entering that axis name on the input line and pressing the Handle/ Jog button. This works for the normal X, Y, Z, and A axes, and the B, C, U, and V auxiliary axes. Searching for something in a program can be done in either Mem or Edit mode by entering the address code (A,B,C etc.), or the address code and value (A1.23), and pressing the down or up cursor button. If you enter just the address code and no value, the search will stop at the next use of that letter, regardless of value. It is not necessary to turn off coolant, stop the spindle, or move the z-axis prior to a tool change. The control handles those tasks and, in fact, it will be faster because the control will overlap some of these operations (do them all at the same time). The Help display has all the G and M codes listed. To get to them quickly, press the Help button and then the C button. There is an alarm History which shows the previous 100 alarms. You can get this display by pressing the Right cursor button. Press Right cursor again to select the normal alarm display. You can move a block of lines from one program to another by defining a block with the F1 and F2 buttons, then selecting another program and copying them to the second program by pressing Insert. There is a reminder of this at the bottom of the screen when you go to the second program. You can turn off a block definition by pressing the Undo button. This returns the cursor display functions to normal. You can write the Macro variables to RS-232 or floppy by pressing Prog List and then selecting the macro variable display page (page down from Curnt Cmds). You can also load the macro variables back in this same way. The coolant pump can be turned on or off manually any time a program is running. This will override what the program commands until the program commands on or off. This also applies to the chip conveyor. The spigot position can be changed manually any time a program is running. This will override what the program commands until another spigot position is commanded (H code is programmed or coolant is turned on). The Jogging speeds of 100, 10, 1.0 and 0.1 inches per second can be adjusted by the feed rate override buttons. This gives an additional 10% to 200% control. You can stop or start the spindle anytime you are at a single-block stop or a feed-hold. When the program starts again, the spindle will be restored to the state commanded in the program. When tapping, you do not need to turn the spindle on with M03 or M04. The control starts the spindle itself prior to each cycle and it will, in fact, be faster if you do not turn on the spindle, as the control must stop it again anyway. The action taken by the control when the operator presses Reset is controlled by several settings. These are: 31 to reset the program pointer to start of program, 56 to reset to default G codes, and 88 to reset overrides to 100%. This control can turn itself off in ways controlled by settings. These settings are: 1 to turn off after machine is idle for nn minutes, and 2 to turn off when M30 is executed. In addition, for safety reasons, the control will turn itself off if an overvoltage or overheat condition is detected for longer than four minutes. There are, in fact, so many settings which give the user powerful command over this control that users should read the entire settings section of the manual to get an idea of what is possible. It is possible to control a Haas rotary table using the serial port and macros from our control or ANY Fanuc-compatible control. An example set of macros is available from the Haas applications department. If you are having occasional errors when using RS-232 communications, X-modem is a standard communications mode which is much more reliable when a few errors occur. Our control supports this, as do almost all software communication packages for PCs. You can turn the Mill's tool carousel without changing tools by using M39 and Tnn. This can be used to recover from some unusual conditions. However, it will also tell the control you have a different tool in the spindle, which may not be the case. A tool overload condition, as defined by the Tool Load Monitor display (Curnt Cmds, page down), can result in one of four actions by the control. They are controlled by setting 84 and can be: Alarm to generate an alarm when overload occurs; Feed Hold to stop with Feed Hold when overload occurs; Beep to sound audible alarm when overload occurs; or Pause to temporarily Feed Hold the control when overload occurs. Setting 85 is one of the most powerful settings in this control. When it is set to the accuracy required by the user, the machine can be programmed at any feed rate up to the maximum without the errors ever getting above that setting. The control will ONLY slow at corners WHEN IT IS NEEDED. This setting actually defeats all of the years of discussion by competitors needing multiple block lookahead. This control actually does look ahead for block interpretation up to 20 blocks. This is NOT NEEDED for high speed operation. It is instead used to insure that DNC program input is never starved, and to allow cutter compensation to have non-XY moves inserted while cutter compensation is on. The feed rate which is entered in your program can be misinterpreted if you do not use a decimal point. BUT setting number 77 can be used to change how the control interprets the feed rate WHEN THEIR IS NO DECIMAL POINT. The values in this setting can select the Fanuc default, to assume integer values, or to place the decimal in a selected position.

Did You Know That...


When in Edit or Mem mode, you can select another program quickly by simply entering the Onnnn program name you want and pressing cursor down. You can output several programs at once to the serial port by typing all the program names together on the input line and pressing send. When you send files to the floppy, you must put the highlighted cursor on the program you are saving or on the ALL. Also, the name entered on the input line is the floppy file name. If you have the rigid tapping option, you can verify the exact spindle speed by checking the second page of Diagnostic data.

Look to future issues of CNC Machining for more tips and tricks to help with your everyday use of the Haas control.

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Tooling Tips
TECH TOPICS ECH OPICS
Tooling Tips and Techniques From the Application Experts at Kennametal Inc.

The size and horsepower of the machine tool will

Basic Milling Cutter Application and Maintenance

help determine what cutter geometry can be used. Positive


parts, or weaker fixturing, require freercutting geometries, like double positive or shear-angle cutters. proper torque specifications. Before mounting the cutter, check cutter bore, keyways and mounting faces for dirt or burrs. Double-check all bolts when mounting the cutter to the spindle. Long-term maintenance, performed on a weekly or monthly basis, also involves close inspection of the cutters for damaged hardware, excessive wear, or other irregularities that may have been missed during daily care. This is the time to make sure that screws and sliding contact surfaces have sufficient highpressure, high-temperature lubricants. Simple, consistent maintenance, along with correct cutter application, can help you mill consistently and productively over the long term. For more expert cutting tool application advice, including answers to your specific application questions, call the experts at Kennametal Application Support at 1-800-835-3668.

ndexable-insert milling cutters are mechanically simple toolholders that can be expected to provide

long and reliable service. Problems that arise usually result from a conflict between cutter design and application, or a lack of proper maintenance.

Application: Cutter Pitch


One of the key considerations regarding cutter application is proper cutter pitch. Workpiece material considerations, machine-tool horsepower, and metal removal rates can also help determine proper cutter pitch. Relatively soft materials, like aluminum and low carbon steel, produce chips which are difficult to curl, so coarse cutter pitch can be beneficial. But milling operations involving materials like gray cast iron, which produce a powdery chip, can actually benefit from the use of fine pitch cutters. Adequate machine-tool horsepower can permit feeding medium and fine pitch cutters at their proper chip loads of .008 to .010 ipt; sufficient horsepower can also enable metal removal rates to be increased with medium and fine-pitch cutters.

Wear in the chip gullets of the cutter is normal, but one of the most common indicators of milling cutter misapplication is extraordinary wear. A way to combat gullet wear is to switch to a cutter with a coarser pitch that provides a larger chip gullet for easier chip evacuation. An alternate wear-reduction method, if you're unable to reduce pitch, is to lower the cutter feed rate (inch per tooth). A change to a cutter with high-shear angle geometry can also reduce excessive wear, because the highshear inserts will kick chips up and out of the cutting area. If the cutter is worn excessively in areas other than the chip gullet, look

for interference points on the fixture or workpiece, where chips may be building up.

Application: Cutter Geometry


Tailoring cutter geometry to the operation at hand is another critical component of proper cutter application. Workpiece material considerations again play a role, as double-positive or high-shear geometry cutters are good choices for milling softer materials. If the part being machined does not require milling to a square shoulder, use of a leadangle cutter will produce a thinner and therefore more easily-curled chip. When milling gray cast iron, on the other hand, a double-negative geometry is ideal, and permits the use of a maximum number of cutting edges. Chip-formation considerations make lead-angle cutters necessary when milling hightemperature alloys. The size and horsepower of the machine tool will help determine what cutter geometry can be used. Positive and high-shear geometries lend themselves to lower horsepower machines, while negative geometries require higher horsepower machines. Finally, the configuration of the workpiece, and its fixturing, can dictate the choice of cutter geometry. Specifically, thin-walled

and high-shear geometries lend themselves to lower horsepower machines, while negative geometries require higher horsepower machines.

Maintenance: Long, and Short-Term


After application considerations, cutter maintenance is the way to assure long and reliable service. Maintenance can be broken down into daily steps and long-term routines. On a daily or shift-by-shift basis, a logical time for maintenance is when indexing inserts. After removing the inserts, blow out and wipe out all pockets to remove chips or fine particles. On the inserts themselves, remove any built-up edges before indexing, so that the insert and wedge seats properly. Take this opportunity to replace any damaged or badly worn hardware, make sure all nests and inserts are properly seated, then tighten all screws to the

Left: Examples of course pitch (left) and fine pitch milling cutters. Coarse pitch cutters work well in materials that produce soft, difficult-tocurl chips, like aluminum and low-carbon steel. Fine pitch cutters can be productively applied on workpiece materials that produce a powdery chip, such as grey cast iron.

Right: Ongoing inspection and maintenance of cutter hardware is critical to the productivity, accuracy, and safety of milling operations. Insert-holding nests and wedges are subject to high pressures and continual abrasion, and should be replaced before excessive wear causes problems.

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The Machining Center


NEW PRODUCTS
run on single-spindle VMCs to machine multiple parts with fewer tool changes. Designed with a narrow footprint specifically for use with multi-spindle mills and pallet systems, the HRT-160-SP accommodates parts on a 6.3 (160 mm) platter. The rotary table's six standard T-slots easily accommodate six-inch chucks. The table mounts in the horizontal position, and allows feeding of parts through a 1.5" diameter thruhole to a depth of approximately six-inches from the face of the platter. Rotary tables decrease cycle times by providing versatility and flexibility in workpiece positioning. For example, a rotary table can rotate a part into position for each machining operation, eliminating the need to refixture, and the extra handling required for repositioning. The HRT-160-SP provides true simultaneous 4th-axis cutting (A axis is fully interpolated with xyz axes) when mounted on Haas vertical or horizontal machining centers. Mounted on non-Haas machines, the HRT-160-SP allows non-interpolated rotation (semi 4th-axis) by using an M-function to initiate positioning. Accuracy and reliability of the rotary table are guaranteed by such features as a 0.5-hp DC servo motor with 63:1 worm gear ratio, a hardened and CNC-ground worm shaft with pre-loaded angular contact bearings, and a hardened precision-ground table. Backlash is reduced through use of a CNC-hobbed "deep-tooth engagement" worm gear. The HRT-160-SP provides accuracy of 15 arc seconds with repeatability of 10 arc seconds. Resolution is 0.001 degrees and maximum feed rate is 80 degrees per second. second and tilt speed is variable up to 60 degrees per second. The T5C handles small parts with a 5C collet with air collet closer, or five-inch, 3-jaw chuck. Maximum combined fixture and workpiece weight is 30 lbs. The T5C incorporates the latest design concepts for long life, high reliability and accuracy. Rotary axis accuracy is 45 arc seconds, with repeatability of 10 arc seconds and resolution of 0.001 degrees. The accuracy and reliability of the tilting rotary table is guaranteed by such features as a hardened and CNCground worm shaft with pre-loaded angular-contact bearings, and a hardened, precision-ground platter. Backlash is reduced through the use of a CNC-hobbed deep-tooth engagement worm gear.

Applied Technology the Rotary Way


Haas Automation has released their new 32-page rotary catalog and application guide for 1996-97. This full-color brochure opens with a bit of Haas history, then details the ongoing development of the most popular rotary tables in the world. Throughout the remaining pages, each series of indexers and tables gets its own section, complete with dimension drawings, specifications and example applications. The back of the brochure lists a host of accessories and available options for the entire line of rotary products. Increasing productivity is the name of the game, and Haas plays it well. Get your hands on what has been described as the most well thought out book covering the industry's best conceived, designed, and built rotary products.

VMC with Extra-Long 120" X-Travel, Only From Haas


Designed for extra-long parts, such as wing spars and molds, the Haas VF-10 Vertical Machining Center features travels of 120" x 32" x 30". Built of heavily-ribbed, American-made iron castings for structural integrity and rigidity, this C-frame VMC utilizes triangulated, widestance construction to damp vibration and prevent flex. The result is accuracy of 0.0002 inch and repeatability of 0.0001 inch. For more precise positioning, linear (glass) scales are available as an option. The VF-10 is available with a 40-taper or 50-taper spindle, and a 15-hp motor drives the water-cooled spindle to speeds of 7,500 rpm through a two-speed gearbox. A 20-pocket automatic tool changer comes standard, with a 32-pocket changer available as an option. Both changers are fully-enclosed to protect tool tapers from chips and coolant, and feature tool-to-tool change times of approximately 5 seconds. The optional 50-taper spindle is driven by a 30-hp motor that delivers 450 ft-lbs of torque for heavy material removal and true high-torque power.

Tilting Rotary Table for 5-Axis Machining


The T5C 2-axis tilting rotary table provides five-axis positioning with 360 degrees of rotation and 240 degrees of tilt for machining operations. The tilting rotary table decreases cycle times by providing versatility and flexibility in workpiece positioning. When mounted on Haas VMCs or horizontals, the T5C provides fully-interpolated, true-simultaneous 4th- and 5th-axis positioning (A and B axes of the rotary table are fully interpolated with x,y,z axes of the machining center). On other machining centers the T5C allows non-interpolated rotation and tilt, with positioning triggered by an M-function to the rotary tables control box. Rotation speed is variable up to 200 degrees per

New, Compact HRT-160-SP Rotary Table


The compact design of the new Haas HRT-160-SP allows fitting of multiple units to multi-spindle machining centers with a spindle distance of 11 (or more), as well as to single-spindle machining centers. To increase productivity and efficiency, more than one HRT-160-SP can be

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The Machining Center


NEW PRODUCTS

The Latest CNC Machines from Haas


the NC program or, in manual mode, by the operator. The HL-2 weighs 8,000 lbs. and the HL-4 weighs 11,000 lbs.; both feature a unique torque-tube, cast-iron base for torsional rigidity. Oversized guides, with an unusually wide stance, enhance rigidity and stability for heavyduty cutting. The slant-bed design facilitates chip flow into the reservoir. The HL-2 CNC lathe features a 15-hp drive,providing spindle speeds of 50 to 3,750 rpm, and an automatic 10-station tool turret. The HL-4 CNC lathe features a 30-hp drive, providing spindle speeds of 30 to 3,500 rpm, and an automatic 12station tool changer. The Haas-built control features dual, high-speed 32-

Two New Precision Lathes, with Programmable Tailstocks, Are Big Hits with Haas Customers
The compact HL-2 and largestance HL-4 slant-bed CNC lathes with programmable tailstocks have gained a serious following among Haas customers. The HL-2 features a 10 x 20 work envelope with 20 swing, and the HL-4 has a 14.25 x 34 work envelope with 25 swing. Both CNC lathes feature simple designs and rugged construction to assure uptime reliability and economical operation for competitive performance. A programmable hydraulic tailstock provides high accuracy positioning by reducing part flexing. The cast-iron, programmable tailstock, with widespaced linear guides, provides a superstable base. Motion is controlled by

bit processors, and is Fanuc compatible. Located for easy part setup and tool loading, the control has unique Haas OneTouch features, such as power-up, which combine to further enhance productivity.

Two New Haas VMCs Feature Extra-Long Travels


The Haas VF-7 VMC, with 84" x 32" x 30" (xyz) travels, and the VF-9 VMC, with 84" x 40" x 30" (xyz) travels, provide the largest travels available on C-frame vertical machining centers. TheVF-7 and VF-9 provide economical solutions for large, square-format parts, such as engine blocks and mold bases. These new Haas VMCs utilize heavy-duty, cast-iron A-frame construction for structural integrity and rigidity. Accuracy is 0.0002 inch and repeatability is 0.0001 inch. Linear (glass) scales are available as an option.

Large Y-axis VMC Provides Moldmakers with a Competitive Advantage


The all-new Haas VF-8 VMC, with travels of 64" x 40" x 30" (xyz), provides the longest Y-axis travel available on a C-frame vertical machining center. Previously, expensive gantry mills requiring lots of floor space would have been necessary to machine such large parts as molds and sheet-metal tooling. The VF-8 is an economical solution for such large, square-format parts. Weighing over 24,000 lbs, the VF-8 utilizes heavy-duty, castiron A-frame construction for structural integrity and rigidity. The machine provides accuracy of 0.0002 inch and repeatability of 0.0001 inch. A 15-hp motor, with two-speed gearbox, drives the water-cooled spindle to speeds of 7,500 rpm (a 22-hp, 10,000 rpm spindle is available as an option). A standard 20-pocket (40-taper) automatic tool changer is fully enclosed to protect tool tapers from chips and coolant. Tool-to-tool changes are approximately 5 seconds.

Haas Horizontal Now Features Larger Travels


The Haas HS-1 is a traveling-column, 4th-axis horizontal machining center. This low-cost, high-production horizontal features new heavyduty castings and larger travels of 24 x 20 x 22 (xyz). Weighing in at over 13,000 lbs, the HS-1's heavy-duty iron castings are fully ribbed for structural integrity and rigidity. Accuracy is 0.0002 inch and repeatability is 0.0001 inch. A 15-hp motor, with two-speed gearbox, drives the oil-cooled spindle to speeds of 7,500 rpm, and easily performs heavy-duty cutting operations. A standard 24-pocket (40-taper) automatic tool changer is fully-enclosed to protect tool tapers from chips and coolant.

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New Features
Y
NEW PRODUCTS
32-Tool Option for VMCs
Set up 32 tools and run multiple jobs, or a family of parts, for just-in-time manufacturing. The all-new Haas 32-pocket tool changer utilizes a 2-pin geneva motion for fast, random tool selection. The tool changer automatically travels the shortest distance to the next selected tool. Built with the same technology as the time-proven 20-pocket tool changer, the new 32-tool option features the unique Haas sinusoidal-motion arm to accelerate and decelerate shuttle movement with only two moving parts. This provides smooth tool changes and reliable, long-life operation. Each of the 32 tool pockets features a sliding cover to prevent chips from entering and sticking on the tool tapers. With this expanded tool option complicated parts and operations, like in-process inspection and lights-out manufacturing, are much easier to program. Haas suggests using the 32-pocket tool changer for back-up tooling, in conjunction with macros to move to the secondary tool, when utilizing tool-life management.

New Automatic Parts Catcher and Tool Presetter for Haas CNC Lathes

The new Haas Automatic Parts Catcher is a labor-saving feature which frees the operator to perform other tasks while the CNC lathe with bar feeder runs unattended. Adjustable for part length and diameter, the pneumatically-powered APC swings into position to catch parts as they are completed. The Haas Tool Presetter is a compact, manually-operated arm which swings into position to set tool offsets. The Tool Presetter is permanently mounted on the spindle housing, with all wiring enclosed to protect against damage from chips and coolant. Haas line of compact, slant-bed CNC lathes features unique torque-tube, cast-iron bases for torsional rigidity. Oversized guides, with an unusually wide stance, enhance rigidity and stability for heavy-duty cutting and competitive performance. The CNC lathes feature a 10" x 20" or 14.25" x 34" work envelope, a 20" or 25" swing, and are available with programmable tailstocks. The HL-1 and 2 feature 15-hp drives with spindle speeds of 50 to 3,750 rpm. The HL-3 and 4 feature 30-hp drives with spindle speeds of 30 to 3,500 rpm. An Automatic Tool Turret is available with 10 or 12 pockets. The Haas-built, Fanuc compatible, dual 32-bit control is located for easy part setup and tool loading. Unique Haas OneTouch features increase productivity, such as OneTouch Tool Offset and OneTouch Power-Up sequences.

Lathe Gearbox
The shop-proven Haas HL-3 and HL-4 CNC lathes are now available with a performance-enhancing 2-speed gearbox. The smooth and powerful transmission provides extra power and smooth finishes for lowspeed, high-torque cutting operations. The gearbox option supplies 750 ft. lbs. of spindle torque at a low 400 rpm this is for serious metal removal. The Haas Lathe gearbox option is designed for applications that require the removal of more material, at higher rates, from largerthan-usual parts.

Multi-Function Jog Handle with Remote Control Features


Most machines use the jog handle to move the axes around. On Haas machines the jog handle can also be used in other modes to cursor through the program for faster editing, or scan through offsets, parameters, etc. When running a program in single block, the handle can be used to step through a program. Mold makers will find this an exceptional feature, since you can step through 100 blocks of code with one rotation of the handle. A new feature for the Jog Handle allows it to override spindle and feedrate commands. Speeds and feeds can be varied in 1% increments from 0 to 999% for the utmost in control. Remote Jog Handle option Speed setups and get a closer look at your work, while moving through all three axes with our Remote Jog Handle.

50-Taper Spindle Option for VMCs


The new Haas 50-taper spindle is built with the same rigid, dependable technology utilized in the shop-proven 40-taper spindle. Take heavier cuts with larger diameter, longer length tools. The all-new Haas 50-taper spindle is driven by a 30-hp motor that produces 450 ft. lbs. of torque, and winds up to 5000 rpm. The spindle, which is driven through a 2-speed, liquid-cooled, geared head, is mounted in a super-rigid headstock that provides 38 of z-axis clearance, and moves on super-precise 40mm ballscrews.

Z
Chip Auger
Tried, true and machine-shop proven. Eliminate chip handling chores by utilizing a compact, built-in automatic chip auger. Chips are compressed and wrung of coolant, and discharged at a 24 height. Or, you can employ Haas traditional chip conveyor to discharge chips into a standard 55 gallon drum.

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Industry News
Haas New Home
Haas Sponsors Hendrick Motorsports NASCAR Racing Effort
Haas new 415,000 sq. ft. facility in Ventura County, scheduled to open in March, 1997.

Web Page puts the C into Convenience


As record-breaking numbers surf the pipeline of the world wide web, and corporate participation on the information superhighway grows, Haas Automation catches the wave with their new web site. To find Haas on the web, point your browser to http://www.HaasCNC.com. Featuring colorful graphics and neatly designed pages, the Haas web site is well organized and easy to view. Click on our Product Center for information on all CNC machines and rotary products. Here, product icons link to short editorial descriptions of each product line, and to scrolling chats for specifications. Color images of most machines show the depth and variety of the Haas line. Other areas within HaasCNC.com are: a Company Profile section detailing the Haas history; a Sales department featuring an on-line survey; a Service Center thats still under development; and a Dealer Network with interactive map that lets you pinpoint any area of the world for distributor information, and provides links to Haas distributor home pages. Visitors should also take note of our easy-to-use e-mail section, and custom literature-request form. Although this web site is one of the metalworking industrys most complete and well thought out, Haas has big plans for future expansion. We feel this site is a really good start, said Peter Zierhut, Haas Marketing Manager. But the future will hold some very useful expansions to the current areas, and a lot of interactive capabilities for our visitors. We foresee a day when distributors will be able to access drawings for service purposes in a matter of seconds; and our customers will be able to seek service help, on line, 24-hours a day. A graphical data base will house photos of each of our machines, and have video clips of the machines in action. There also will be a specification chart for each machine, as well as the cross-reference chart we currently employ, Zierhut said. I figure that, fairly soon, our distributors will be able to place orders on-line through an interactive form. If youre into metalworking, go to HaasCNC.com and experience all the web has to offer. While youre there, be sure to bookmark the site, because if I know anything about Haas Automation, the site is sure to be an ever-evolving area of the world wide web. HaasCNC.com A place to watch the future unfold, and get some useful information at the same time.

By March, 1997, Haas Automation will be fully operational in their new manufacturing facility in Oxnard, California. The new 415,000 sq. ft. facility is located on an 86-acre industrial site south of the 101 Freeway, and a few miles from the Pacific Ocean. This new facility will house one of the largest, most modern machine-tool manufacturing facilities in the U.S. Utilizing flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) for lights out operation, it will be the most automated machining facility in the western United States. The completion of this new facility enables Haas to locate all its manufacturing operations under one roof. Daily operations will be further streamlined through improved organization and a major investment in new equipment. Haas is investing an additional $10 million in new manufacturing equipment on top of the estimated $20 million price tag for the new plant. The major reason Haas in investing as much as we are, said Denis Dupuis, Haas general mangaer, is so we can continue doing what weve always done increase our productivity and efficiency, while manufacturing even better products at even lower prices. As for the decision to move to Oxnard, the major reasons seem to be the overall quality of life, and the cooperation Haas has received from the city. Weve been impressed with the Citys streamlined permit process, said President Gene Haas. Its made the process of moving our operations that much easier. In addition to the 415,000 sq. ft. facility, Haas plans to build an industrial complex on the remaining 40 acres of land. Future expansion is already part of the plan, Haas said. The new facilitys one-year construction period will generate approximately $9 million, and employ more than 100 people. When the move is complete, the expected impact to the community will be over $30 million, and more than 500 people will be employed. Haas non-stop sales increase, which began in 1989, is attributed to its quality products, innovative designs, reliability and fair prices. The company increased its sales 566 percent during the period of 1989 through 1994, when sales reached $89 million. In 1995 sales increased 90 percent to $168 million, and in 1996 sales increased again to $230 million.

Competition is fierce in car racing, and no one wants to come in second. Race teams are forced to find new ways of squeezing out performance to stay on top. Hendrick Motorsports of Harrisburg, North Carolina, is one of the largest, most sophisticated and successful racing operations in the world. Hendrick is a leading force in NASCAR racing, and has been winning races since 1984. During the 96 season, Hendrick drivers Terry Labonte (5) and Jeff Gordon (24) finished first and second place respectively in Winston Cup points. Hendrick needed flexible machine tools for highly specialized work, but wanted affordable, reliable machines with lots of features. To meet these needs they teamed up with Haas Automation for the 1996 and '97 Winston Cup racing seasons. The Haas 5-axis HMC allows Hendrick to perform complex jobs like finish-porting, with high speed and accuracy, while the Haas VF-4 VMC and HL-4 CNC lathe fit the bill for less complex parts. "We are pleased to have Haas as a sponsor, said Randy Dorton, Director of Engine Development for Hendrick Motorsports. After thoroughly researching the machine-tool industry, we found Haas was the numberone choice for the CNC equipment we were looking for. We need to produce more quality, high-tolerance parts, so we can continue winning races and capturing championships. At Hendrick Motorsports, we want to continue as a leading force in NASCAR racing. By teaming up with Haas Automation, we feel we've positioned ourselves with the ability to manufacture super-high-quality parts something that's necessary to build high-speed precision engines and reliable race cars."

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At Haas, we dont think CNC technology thats affordable, well built, precise and operator-friendly is too much to ask for...

Its everything.