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No.52{A),Ground Floor, 12 Street,
Lanmadaw Twonship, Yangon.
Ph:{01) 224431
Future Publishing House
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2. Getting Started (Part II) c.c
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3. Getting Started (Part III) c¸,
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5. Getting Started (Part V) c,,
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6. SoItware Selection (Part I) c,¡
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8. SoItware Selection (Part III) c¸c
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Getting Started (Part I)
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Dialogue
Nat : Good morning, Mr. Sawyer. I'm Nat Davis Irom
Computer Consultants, Inc. You asked us to help
set up a computer system Ior your company.
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Seth : Hi, Nat. Call me Seth. Thanks Ior coming over so
quickly.Yes, I'm thinking oI getting a comput- er to
help me run the business and to keep the records.
People have told me that a computer could help.
But I don't know a thing about them. And iI I get
one, I only want one computer. I don't think I
need a computer system.
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Nat : A computer system can be just one small
computer. It's the general term Ior a Iunctioning
computer and all the necessary parts : the hard-
ware, which are the physical parts, and the
software, which are the instructions to make
the hardware work and perIorm tasks.
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Seth : Well, I'm not sure what I want or what I really
need. I have a good business and selling plants
and Ilowers, But there are only my wiIe and me
and three Iull time workers. I hire Iive or six part
time workers in the summer. I also have to keep
records oI several hundred customers.
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Nat : How about inventory - you know, the Ilowers
and plants you sell ?
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Seth : Oh, yes. I have to keep record oI these. In my
business, I also need to keep records on when
I plant and what Iertilizer I use. My wiIe and
I do the paperwork, but it takes a lot oI our
weekend time.
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Terminology Review
1. application software : _ + ¸ -. .,....±..- .±. .
¸Prewritten SoItware, ¸. .¸...¬· . -. . ¸.¸ · . ,¸
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e.g. Most small business require only a microcomputer
and application soItware.
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2. computer system : +¸.¡-..¸. + ¸ . ¡ -.· . .¸ .
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|entire Iunction computer or group oI computers,
including the physical parts and the instructions|
e.g. This computer system consists oI on CPU, one
screen, and one keyboard.
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3. hardware ¸¬..±_,
The physical parts oI the computer, including the CPU,
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hardware .. CPU, ...¸ -.¸ +.-- - .,.-.
e.g.(1) What hardware do you have Ior the system?
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e.g.(2) A printer is an important piece oI hardware.
Printer -. . . Hardware , ¸ ¬.,._+ .- ¬. - ¬. . . -. .
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4. software ¸¬...±_ ,
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¸ ¸_+...+ ...+ ± · .-. | Instructions to make a
computer perIorm tasks |
e.g. What kind oI software do I need to make my
computer work ?
5. inventory : . .. ...,.· . .¸.- . .,.. ..,¸ , .¸...
+ ¸.._.... ( products that a business has a available
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Getting Started (Part II)
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Dialogue :
Nat : A computer could deIinitely help you. You don't
need a big mainIrame or minicomputer. A mi-
crocomputer will do the work you need.
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Seth : I don't know what the diIIerences are. May be
I need a minicomputer.
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Nat : Some computers are more powerIul than oth-
ers. Only large corporations use mainIrames,
which are the most powerIul. The government
would use a mainIrame to keep records oI all
the datas.
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Seth : I certainly don't have the same needs as the
government.
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Nat : Companies that employ a Iew hundred people
and make about a million dollars would use
microcomputers. With both mainIrames and minis,
you can put a lot oI inexpensive work stations
on one Central Processing Unit or CPU.
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Seth : I really don't understand all this computer talk.
These special words have diIIerent meanings.
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Nat : I know what you mean. You will, though, have
to learn a Iew oI them. The central processing
unit is the 'brains' oI the computer. It's where
all the commands and directions are perIormed.
The work station is the monitor or screen and
the keyboard. Work stations are also called
Visual Display Terminals, or VDTs. II you
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have a lot oI people who will work on comput-
ers, you would need one or the other.
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Seth : As I said, it's just my wiIe and me.
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Nat : Right, so that's why I recommended a micro-
computer, which is also known as a personal
computer. It's called a personal computer
because it is one unit. That is, it is a work
station and CPU all together, and one person
controls and works on it at a time.
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-.. . , · ...¸. + ¸ .¡-.· ..¨-..¸. ± ·
-.+ ¬ +¸ .¡-.. Work Station ¸ CPU
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
Future Publishing House
¬..· . ¬- -+ , ¸. . · -. ¸ .-_ .+ -. . ¸ -_ .. .
¬ + ± ¸ ..¸. ¸. . ¬· . · . . . -. .·
Seth : Why is it called a microcomputer ?
¬+ -.._+.. .+.,+¸.¡-.· ..¨,-.·
Nat : Because the main part oI the CPU is a micro-
processor chip, which is a tiny piece oI silicon
imprinted electronically with all the commands
to control the computer.
.+., .,±+ ±. ..¸.,. CPU ,¸ ¬.+ ¬. -
¬... ¸..·. ..¸.,. +¸ .¡-.+ ±¸..¸..
¬. ¸ ... .+..· .¬..· .¸ ¬- ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸.
¸_.¬..¸.. .-...±..- .....- ±·+¸
¬.-¬....·.-.. ¸...-.
Seth : So, I should get a microcomputer ?
· ± +¸ .-. . + ., + ¸ .¡-. -. · .+ . .. ·..
Nat : Yes, a personal computer. They are much less
expensive than the other. Another reason Ior
getting a micro is that you will not need to hire
an expert to write soItware instructions Ior it.
You would have to do this with the mainIrame
and mini.
.¸ .-. ...¸.+¸.¡-.-.·... ... ¸.
+ ¸ .¡-..- . ¬¸...+ ¸ .¡-..- ±+ .. .
.+ ...-. . + ., + . . ¬¸... ¬._+.. .¸..+
+.-. .. . .±. . . ¸ ¸ _ +... .- .,..
+..+..-.¸. ...,. .. ·¬... .-.-.
.. . . ¸.., . ¸ . ¸ ¸¬- .+ ¸.¸· . , · . ..
Seth : I certainly don't want to have to hire any more
staII, except may be a consultant like you to
come give me advice now and then.
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
, .¸ , . +¸ .-. + ¬_+ _¬ .... .. -..·
¬_+ ... . ¸·-.¸. ·.-.+·¸.. .¸±........
...,. .. ......+ .· .. .-.
Nat : OI course not. The purpose oI a computer
should be to help you to do the same things
with Iewer staII, or do more with the same
staII. As I said, you won't need to have an
expert because there is so much oII-the-shelI
soItware that you can buy.
¬ · · .-.-. + ¸ .¡-.-.· ., ¸ ,_ , ..+
+ .¸±. .¸_.¸_ .¸ -_- + ..- ¸.¸· .. ..-..
+ + _ . ¸.. .. .-. . . - - _ -
.¸ ±. .¸ . · . -. + _ . ¸ .. .. .-.
+ ¸ .-. .¸ ... .· . .. - .. ¬.¸¸
+ . . + . . -. ¸ . ,, . .· ¬. . . .¸.
-. ._+.. ·± .-. OII - the - shelI soItware
¬.¸..+¬¸... , · ..
Seth : OII - the - shelI ?
OII - the - shelI ±-. -.·
Nat : Application soItware that is already written.
Application soItware means soItware that per-
Iorms a particular job. Accounting, Ior example.
Businesses sometimes must hire someone to
write application soItware Ior their needs. But
many kinds oI business tasks can be purchased
in stores. That's why it's called oII - the - shelI.
BeIore buying any hardware or soItware, how-
ever, you need to look at what you want the
computer to do Ior you.
Application SoItware ± -. ¬±. .. .,.¸. .
.... Application SoItware ±-. -..-¸...
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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¬·.+ .±.. , + - soItware + ± · .-.
¸...¸.,,. ..,. .+ . ¸.. ... . .. ...,. · . .¸ ..- .
-. .-. , . . . - , ¸ · ¬. . ¬- + application soIt-
ware + .,.. -.. -. ...++ ...,. .,..
.... . .. ...,.· . .¸ . ¬.¸ .¬... .... .+ .- .
± . .- . . .. . . .-. ¬ + oII - the - shelI ·
-.._+.. ..¨.· ± -... ¬..±_ ¸. , ¬...
±_ ....... .... ..¬-+ ·. . -.
+ ¸ .¡-. ¬· , .· ± -. .. _+_ . · ¬. -.
Seth : That's good idea. Where do we start ?
¬ .+.. .- ¬.... +¸.-. - -. .¸,.. .
.·..·
Terminology Review
1. application software (n) : _+¸-. .,.±..¸.. .±.. .
..¸... ¬· .-. . ¸.¸· . ,¸.,.±±..... .±...
2. central processing unit (CPU) : + ¸ .¡-.¬ ¸....+
¸+¸ .¡-.¬· . ¬..· .+ ¸.¸·. ... .¸,.,
3. computer system : +¸.¡-..¸.
¸Hardware .. SoItware ... ._,
4. hardware : ¬..±_ ¸+¸.¡-.¬ , ....± .,. ¬.-
¬......, CPU ... ¸ -. .. Keyboard ...._
5. mainframe : .+. . .,., . ._+ ..... . ¬. .,.¬. . ... ¬. +
¬. .¸.¸... ¬·¸ _+.... ·.¸.¸ ... +¸.¡-.
¸. .· .. ..¸,. ............ ,._ ,
6. microcomputer : micro .. - ...¸.+ ¸.¡-.
-. .¸ -_... ·-.¸.±+±¸..¸.¸.. ¬·.·....
+¸.¡-. ¬......
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
7. microprocessor chip : +¸.¡-. ¬·.·.,¸ ¬.¸...
.+..· .¬..· ... ¬ ·+±, ¸.¸.¸_.. . .-...±.....
±· +¸ ¬...... ¬.- ¬. ..
8. minicomputer (mini) : MainIrame ±+.._ ..... ¸..
Microcomputer ±+ _+.... + ¸ .¡-. ¸-. . ¸ -_ .. .
· ¬..._+ . ¬. .¸.¸. . ._ ,
9. off - the - shelf software : -. .-¸... ¬· . · . ,¸
_+¸-. .,.±±..... .±. .. ¸.- .± .-. ..... ._,
10. personal computer (PC) ÷ .+., +¸ .¡-.
¸-. . ¸. . ·. ¸· -. ¸.+.. .±.. ,+. . ... +¸.¡-.,
11. Silicon : ± · + ¸ ¸+ ¸ .¡-... ¸. , .¸ ¬ .. . ¬¸....._....
¸.¸· . ,.- . ¬. .¸.¸... ¸. .. . - . ¬...± . .-¸,._,
12. visible display terminal (VDT) : ...¸-...+.--
¸+¸ .¡-.+ ¬. .¸.¸.¸... .¸·, ._ .¸,.,
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Getting Started (Part III)
¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸
+ ¸.¡-.+ ¬. .¸.¸- ¬. . ¸ ±+ .. .¸- .._.
.- + ¬. ..,.-. + ¸ .¡-.+ , + . . ¸. .-.+ .., + ..¨..
Print ·.,.-. ¬. -.¸...-.+.-. +¸.¡-.¸ .,. -.
- ,¸ ±+..¬.... ..- . ¸...-.
Dialogue :
Nat : As I said, don't buy a computer until you know
what you want it to do. First do a "needs
analysis". It is a review to identiIy the tasks
you're doing now that a computer could per-
Iorm. This will help you to decide what kind oI
hardware and soItware to buy.
+¸ .-. .¸... .· .. + ¸.¡-.+ -.¬- +
.. - .. -.¬· , .· ± -. . - - . .¬..
+¸.¡-.+ ....¸¸. .±.¸.± . ·¬...-
. ¸.. ..- ¸... '' ¸.¸· . . ¬. + ¸ .¡-.+ ¸.¸· .
.±..,+..- ¬...-.. · . .¸- -..¸ .- +
... ¸.. ¸.¸·_ . ... .-. .. ¸...-. ¬.
-.· ¬..±_¸ ¬...±_.¸.+... ±.¸.-
.· ± -. ..-..+ +_.·. ..
Seth : Hardware would be the personal computer,
wouldn't it ? The CPUs and work station are
all together in a microcomputer, you said, What
else is there ?
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬..±_ . -. + . ,_ . . + ¸ .¡-. ¸.. .· . ..
. - - .·.. CPU ¸ work station . ¬..· .
¬- -+ . + ., + ¸ .¡-.± .. , -.· .. -..
.¸... -. .¸. ¬ . . -¸... -.... , ....·
Nat : The other mach piece oI hardware that you'll
need is a printer. You'll oIten need paper copies
oI the work you do on the computer.
.. -.. · ¬. - ¬..±_ , ¸ ¬¸...¬. + ¬. -
¬. ..+.-. .,. -.-. · .. ¸...-. + ¸.¡-.
..¨. . .. -..¸.¸· . - ¬· . , ¸ .+ ¡. - ¡.- ._+..¬
· ¬..·...
Seth : That's true. And I'll probably want to do some
letters. So, I'll need a personal computer and
printer.
¬ .¸ -... ¸...-. +¸.-.. ¬.¸¸...-
, + . . . ¬· , .+.. . ¬· , · . .. ._+..
+¸.-. ¬.¸¸ -. + .,_ . .+¸.¡-.¸ .,. -.
-. · . ·¬..·...
NAT : Sure. You should buy the least expensive hard-
ware. But Iirst you should make sure that the
hardware you get Iits you needs. That's the
reason Ior doing a needs analysis oI your
business tasks.
....-... -. .. -..¬.¸¸ ...¬.+ ..± .
¬..±_ + .. .. -. .... .±.¸ .± .
..-.. ¬..¬.. ¸.¸·.,..+ ..-..,,- ¬..
±_. ..-.., ¸ ·¬..-¸ ++_ ... .
.. -.. . .. ...,.· . .¸ .-..¸ .- , ¸ · ¬. . . .
...+ ¸.¸·.. ¬-+ ¬._+...¸...,. -....
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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Seth : What choices do I have ?
-.., .....- +¸.-. ¸.¸· .,.·
Nat : Let's consider printers Iirst. There are three
basic types : dot matrix printers, letter-quality
printers, and laser printers. The least expensive
are dot matrix printers. They are also Iast.
They are called dot matrix because they Iorm
the characters by using tiny dots.
.,.-..-+ .±.¸.±. .¸...._+_ _+.. dot
matrix .,. -. letter-quality .,.-.¸ .·±.
.,.-.± ¸.. ¬.¸..¬.¸.¬... ¸¸,.¸ . , .-. ...
¬.+ ..± .+.-. dot matrix .,. -.....
¸...-. . - . ¸.¸ ·_.¸.¸-. .- .
..... - ¬.+ ¬.¸..+ .- + ¬. .¸.¸¸.. .¸..
¬+,...· ..-+ . ... .¸._.±..-¬- +._+..
dot matrix · ..¨_+-. ¸...-.
Seth : Cheap and Iast : that's good. I'll get a dot matrix
printer.
....+..¸.. ¸.¸-..¸. .+...-... Dot
Matrix Printer . +¸.-. . ..
Nat : It might be a good choice. But Iirst, do you
write many letters.
¬ .+.. .- ., ... . ¸.. . . .-. ....
.±.¸.±. .....-.+ ..-.. .........,...·..
Seth : We print out a lot oI bills, oI course. And
about three times a year - in the spring Iall,
and christmas - I send letters to hundreds oI
residents in my area. I have to pay someone
to do them Ior me. I also send special notes
now and then to good customers.
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
-+. .-. ...-.. .. · . ¬..._+ . , + . . ,.
-. ¸...-. -.. ... ¸¸,_+. .¸ .. ¸. .±.. .¸.
,.. ¸ .,. ..- +.·. . +¸ .-. . +¸ .-.
¸..¸..., - .¸±. . ,..........± ...-. ,.
-. +¸.-. ¬-+ ¬ .-·.. -..-.¸.+
.. ...,.-. ...+ ._ .+.. ..- ± -. .-.·
...¸...-·_. . ,.-.
Nat : You seem to need a printer that will give you
good-looking letters. You might want to con-
sider the best letter-quality printers Ior the
lowest price are daisy wheel printers. They're
called daisy wheel printers because their print-
ing device is round and shaped like a Ilower. It
has an arm, or petal, Ior each character.
.. +.. ¸ .+.. .- ...- .. -..+ .... .. -..
¬.¸¸ .,.-.-.·. ·¸,-. ..-..¬.¸¸
letter-quality .,. -..- + .¸ ..... · ¬. . . -.
¬¸.±. ....¸.¬-+ ¬.+...±. letter-quality
.,.-..- +.-. daisy wheel .,.-..- . ¸...
-. ¬.,.-..-+ daisy wheel printers ·
..¨,- ¬._+...,..+.-. ¬ .,. -..-,¸ . ..
- +,... ·..¸ ..¸¸.. .¸.-... ¸ ..¬.¸ -
.¸·. ¬.,. -... ¬+ ,...·. -. ..¬- +
.. -..¸. ¸., . ... -.. . , _+.-.
Seth : Good, My wiIe and I have been thinking oI
putting out a newsletter three or Iour times a
year. So a daisy wheel, letter-quality printer is
a good idea.
.+.. ..¸. -. .. .._+. ¸.,.·._+. .-. .· .
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
Future Publishing House
-. .... ±-. +¸.-. »¸.¸ +¸ .-. .¸ ....±..
¸. ..¸. ._+.. letter quality .,. -.¸.. - daisy
wheel . .,.. .+...- ¬ .....
Nat : Well, But daisy printers are also very slow and
noisy. Today people who want quality with speed
are buying laser printers. Laser printers use a
beam oI light to make images on the paper.
.+.. .¸. .... daisy .,.-..- . ¬· ¸...
.+.¸.. ±_.-. ¬. ..-. . ¬¸.¸. ¸.¸ ¬,_
¬.. .+ ¬· , . .- . .·±..,. -..- +
.. .¸_+.¸. .·±..,. -..- . .+ ¡..¨. .
., ..- ¸.¸·.. ¬·. ..,..¸._ + ¬..¸.¸.-.
Seth : Are these the most expensive ?
¬.-+ ...¬_+ .± ..·..
Nat : Yes, They give good-quality print and are as
Iast, or Iaster, than dot matrix printers. You
would save time, and you would not need to
pay someone to do your letters Ior you. II you
really want to do a newsletter, a laser printer
might be the best.
-.-. .- . ¬,_¬.. ..+.. ..+.. .
. . . ..._+¸. . ·. ¸.¸ _+.-. ¸. ..-. dot matrix
.,.-.±+ .¸.¸.-. ..-..¬.¸¸ ¬.¸+¸
.+..· . .. ..-..¬-+ ...- + , +...
-.¸.-....++ ....,. .· .-.-. .-. .· .
-. .... + ¬. ¸-+. ¸.¸· .. ¬· ,,. .·±.
.,.-.-.·.. ¬.+...±. ¸.... .-.
Seth : Okay, I'll consider it.
¬.+ +¸ .-. ¬+ .¸...._+_ .¸...
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Terminology Review
1. daisy wheel printers : letter quality printers that use,
a round printing device each character mounted on a
petal, or arm.
· .. . .- . . . + , ..+ ¬. .¸ .¸ ... ¬,_ ¬.. .
.+.. ..¸- .,.-....
2. dot matrix printers : Iast, inexpensive printers that
Iorm characters wit a series oI tiny dots.
..... - ¬.+¬.¸..+.-¸ ..· .¬+ ,..-+ . ¸._.
...- ·. ¸.¸¸.. ..... ._+ .- .,.-....
3. laser printers : printers that use a beam oI light to
make images on the page; Iaster than a daisy
wheel printer, higher quality and Iaster than a dot-matrix
printer.
...+....¨.. . ,..- ¸.¸·.. ¬·...,.. ¸._ + ¬. .
¸.¸- .,. -.... ¸...-. ¬ .,.-..- . daisy wheel
.,.-..-±+ .¸.¸ .-. dot-matrix .,.-..- ±+
.. ¬,_¬....+.. .¸.. .. ¸.¸±¸ .-.
4. needs analysis : a review to identiIy the tasks that
a computer could be used to do.
+¸.¡-.-.·.+ ¬+..-.. ¸.¸·. ..... -..¸...+
...¸.,¸ ¸.¸·_.....
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Getting Started (Part IV)
¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸
+ ¸ .¡-. ¬. .¸.¸. ...¬- + ¬.,._+ .· - Hardware
¸ .- .+ - ¬._+.. .¸.. .,.+ .¬.+ . .+...¸...¸ .. .
.··..-¸,. ..-.
Dialogue
Seth : Now, what about the soItware ?
.+.. .¸. .±. ..¬._+... .¸...¸.
Nat : Wait a minute, we haven't Iinished with the
hardware. You must decide what kind oI com-
puter you want.
.¬.... .¸. hardware ¬._+.. . .¸. .......·
.. -..¬· , -. -. · + ¸ .¡-. ¬.¸.¬...·
± -. ±.¸.-,..
Seth : We decided a personal computer.
... ¸. + ¸ .¡-.+ +¸ .-. - ± .¸.- ±...-.
Nat : Yes, but there are many diIIerent kinds. For
example, you can get diIIerent kinds oI moni-
tors. The two basic kinds are color monitors
and monochrome monitors.
- + .... + ¸...¸...¸..- ¬.¸ .¬....... .
, -. ¸...¬..¸.. ..-..¬.¸¸ + ¸...¸...¸..-
...¸-. ¬.¸ .¬....- ,. . -. ¬.¸..¬.¸. ¬...
. . . +.-. +.·.... ¸ -..- ¸ . . ., . .
...¸-..- ¸.._+-.
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Seth : Go ahead, please.
.+.» .¸.¸¸.. ±+.¸...¸.
Nat : Color monitors allow you to set a variety oI
diIIerent colors on the screen. Monochrome
means one color but actually these monitors
have two the color oI the characters and the
background color.
+.·....¸ -..- . .+,. ..¨. . + ¸...¸...¸.. -
¬.,.. .¸.. + ,, . .±.., +...-. . . ., . .
+.-. -. .,..±+ ± ·-. .... ¬.¸
-+. .-. ¬ ... ¸ -..- . . ¬.,.. . . .¸ .
, -. ¬+,...· ..-,¸ ¬.,.. ¸ .¸.+. ¬.,..
- . ¸..-.
Seth : What do you recommend ?
..-.. -.+ ¬_+ ¸.¸.·
Nat : Well, color monitors are improving all the time.
But they still don't Iorm the characters as
sharply as monochrome monitors do. Color
monitors are good Ior making charts, but it is
easier to read words and numbers on a mono-
chrome monitor. And monochrome monitors are
cheaper.
.+.. .¸. .· +.·.... ¸ -..- . ¬. ¸ ¸ ¬.
- .-+ .¸_+-. .... . . ., . .... ¸ -.
.- .. ..· ..- , ..·. .¸.- ... ..·.+ .-.
.,- . +.·.... ¸ -..-. »....- .,.± .
.+.. .-. .... . . ., . .... ¸ -...¨. .
.+..· ..- ¸ ¸ .- .-+ .-. ·.+.-.
¸. ..-. . . ., . . ... ¸ -..- + . ¸. . .....
.-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
Future Publishing House
Seth : You've convinced me. We'll get a monochrome
monitor.
.. -..+.-. +¸ .-.+ ¬. ¸ + ±.±. , ..,..
¸..·_..¸... +¸ .-. - . . . ., . . ... ¸ -.+
.,·...
Nat : I think that's a wise choice. Now what colors?
I recommend amber, which is pale orange yel-
low, on a black background. Most people think
that amber creates less eye strain, but some
people like green on black.
. _¬ ¬.¸.. ¬¸.. , - ., .... . ¬. -.
¬.,.. .- ., ..· +¸.-.+.-. ¬¸+ .,..
.¸.+ . ..¨. . · .. . ... ¬..,.. , - ¬. -.+
¬_+¸.¸.-. · ¬.... +.-. ¬. -. ¬.,.. .
. + . ¬.. . + . ¸_ . .¬.. .¸ - . ..-. ·
±. _+-. .... ¬.¸ ¸· .- +.-. ¬¸+
.,....¨.. ¬....,.. + _+ ¸+. ..+-.
Seth : I was thinking black on white would be more
natural like the print in a book.
+¸ .-.+.-. ..¬...¨.. . . . ±...· ¬¸.¡
..¨.. ¬¸+ .,..+ .¸. . .-..+·...· .-.
.¸.-.
Nat : The white is too bright and will hurt your eyes.
¬¸.¡.,.. +.-. .¸...-.+.¸. . ..-..,¸ .+·.
.-+ ± .+¸.+...· ...
Seth : What else do I need to decide about the
computer ?
+ ¸.¡-.¸ .- .+¸.. ±.¸.-. +¸.-. -..-
·¬.....·
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Nat : You need to think about power. Which involves
two things: memory and speed.
.. -..¬.¸¸ ..¸.- .+ ¸. . .¸ ..... · ¬. -.
¬ ... . - _¬ ¸ ¬¸.¸ . ¸ .± - ¬,.. . . ¸
.- .+ -.
Seth : Can you explain about computer's memory ?
+¸.¡-., ¸ .-_¬ ¸.-.+ ¸.. ..-.. ,..¸...
.·..
Nat : You can think oI a computer's memory in two
ways : active memory and storage memory.
..-..¬.¸¸ + ¸.¡-. . -_¬± .,. ¸_.·.. ¸
. + .¸ ..... . -. ¬ .- +.-. Active . - _¬
¸ Storage .-_¬ - . ¸...-.
Seth : Carry on, please.
.+.» .¸.¸¸.. .¸...¸ .
Nat : The computer does its work in active memory,
which is why it's called active. You can buy a
computer with enough active memory to do the
jobs you need. You'll see what I mean when
we talk about soItware.
+¸.¡-.. .,¸¬·.+ active memory ..
¬· . · . -. ._+.. active · ..¨,¸.. .
¸..-. ..·¬.- ¬·. .-·.. · .·.+-
active memory ¸ +¸.¡-.-. ·. ... . .-.
+¸.-.- .±. ..¬._+.. . .¸..-¬. +¸.-.
-.±·.·±-. ..-...·...
Teminology Review
1. active memory : where the computer keeps inIor-
mation and instruction while it is working with them.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
+¸.¡-.._ .-..¬.+¬·+.. ¸¸ _+...+.....
¬- ¬· . ·. .¸.¸ .. .- + ± ¸ .. . .±..... .¸,.
¸..._
e.g. My personal computer does not have a large
active memory.
2. color monitor : monitors or screens that display
inIormation in a variety oI diIIerent colors.
+¸... ¸...¸..... ¬.,...¸..¸.-. .-..¬.+ ¬·+ +
¸..... ... ¸-....¸. ,.+,....
eg. Color monitors present inIormation in a very pleas-
ing way.
3. monochrome monitors : monitors that allow you to
display inIormation in only two colors: the color oI the
characters and the background color.
.-. .¬.+ ¬·+ + ¬.,.. . . .,.. ¸.. .. ¸.....
...¸-....
¸...-.. ¬+,...·....¬¬.,.... .¸.+.¬.,..-
¸.. ._,
eg. Do you preIer working with a monochrome monitor
or a color monitor ?
  
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Getting Started (Part V)
¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸ ¬.¸.¸¸.. . ¸
Computer -...,.. .· ·.,. .··...·.+
¸+, ...-. ¸_.._....-,¸ ±¸....+ ¬.· +...
· .-. ._ ¬- + ¬.¸.. ..-.-,..+ ¸ ....· ·.¸. .
¸_ .._. - .-+ . .- + .,, _ .· ·..¸.. .-. ¬.
-. ¸... -.+.-. computer .. ¬.,..- memory ¸.-_¬ ,
¬._+.. ... ._ . - _¬ . . storage memory ¸. .· .. . . . . .
.-_¬, + hard disks ...,¸ ¬.,...¸ . ¸- .± ... ..... .
¸...-. Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ dialogue ¸ -.¸.· + .-.
Seth : What about storage memory ?
. .· .. .... . .-_¬ ± -. -.·
Nat : When you turn a computer oII, whatever is in
active memory disappears. So, beIore turning
oII a computer, you must store what you want
to save. You can store it on Iloppy disks which
you insert into the computer. You can purchase
diskettes with diIIerent storage capabilities, and
you get as many as you need.
..-.. +¸.¡-.+ .- · +-¬. -. · .¸..¸..
,. .¸.¸- . -_¬+ ...+...... .-.+.
+¸.¡-.+ ..-.. .. ..-.. save ·...- ¬,.
+ . . .±_ .,.. .. -..¬.¸¸ + ¸ .¡-.±..
±_ . . .±..- Iloopy disks .- . . ¬ +
.. .±_. . . .-. . .· ... .. .,_ ¬.¸..¸., -
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
Diskettes .-+ ..-.... .. ¸.. · ¬...·.+
,,...-.
Seth : So that's the answer Ior storage memory.
._+.. ¬ . . .· .. . . . . - _¬ ¬- +
¬.¸.. ..
Nat : It's one possible answer. But a better one might
be to buy a computer that has an internal hard
disk. These hard disks can hold much more than
a Iloppy can. You don't need to keep moving
them in and out oI the computer. Hard disks
make it easier to use a computer.
. ¸.. . . - ¬.¸.-. . .. .... . .
.+.. ..¸-. -. .+ ¬-... . Hard Disks .-
+ ¸ .¡-. -. · ... . ¸.. . . ,. .. ¬ hard disks
.-+ Iloopy + ..·... .-.±+. ¸.. ..·..
. . .-. .. -..¬.¸¸ + ¸ .¡-.± + ¬. . .
¬± - ., ¸·... + ± ¸ .. . .. .· ¬. .-. - . hard
disks .- . + ¸ .¡-.-. · .. . . - _¬ +
¬. .¸.¸. . .·.+...-.
Seth : Are computers with hard disks more expensive ?
. ¸ ,. ¸. ,.- + ¸ .¡-..- . .... _+ ..
.·..
Nat : Yes, but they represent a big savings in time
and eIIort. You will want to have Iloppy
diskettes as well, though.
.... _+ ..-. .... ¬ + ¸ .¡-..- .
¬. ¸ ¸ · . ¬.. ¬.-. _+ . .+ ...-. . ....
·_ . .. -..¬.¸¸ .- . .· . Iloopy diskettes .-
, ..·. ..
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Seth : Why ?
-.._+..·
Nat : Computers are usually reliable. But every so
oIten, something happens. II your computer
malIunctions, you could loose inIormation stored
in the hard disk. You should have a backup or
everything on the hard disk.
+ ¸ .¡-..- . ......¬..¸.. . _+_ . - .
¬..±..,.-. .... ._+..¬··. -..
-.,. ¸.. .+ -- .-. .. -.., ¸+ ¸.¡-. ¬. -
¬... ·..¸..- ± ., ..,. Hard Disk .. ...
±_.±..- .-..¬.+¬·+.- ...+±...
.-. Hard Disk ..¨..,- ¬,.,. - ..¬-+
..-.... Backup -. . ,..-.
Seth : By backup, I guess you mean a copy.
Backup ¬.¸¸ .¸..,. .+..-..+ ..-..±·
-.· +¸ .-. .- ..-.
Nat : I do. Now, I spoke oI speed oI the computers
as another Iactor. The speed oI a computer is
measured in megahertz(Mz). Some personal
computers have speeds oI 20 Mz, but Ior a
business your size, 6 or 8 Mz is plenty Iast
enough. Don't pay Ior more than you need.
- .-. ¬. ¬¸...¬.+ -. . ¬.¸¸ +¸.¡-.,¸
¬¸.¸.¸ .+ +¸.-. .¸...-.. +¸.¡-., ¸ ¬¸.¸
. ¸.+ .- ¸», ¸Mz,¸ - ..-..-. -.+ .
,_.. + ¸.¡-.¬.¸ ¸. . ¸¸., .-¸», ¬¸.¸. ¸.
,.-. .... ..-.. ... ...,.· ..¸.¬- +
..-..,¸ +¸ .¡-. ¬,. ¬...+.-. ¯ ¸. , .
. - ¸» ,. · .·.+- ¸.¸ ±¸ . , .¸.¸. .. -..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
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·¬.-.±+ . .....¸
Seth : I certainly agree with that.
+¸.-. ¬ + ¬..¬.. ..-.-.-.
Nat : Speed is aIIected by the kind oI microprocessor
chip that you have. You should have at least an
8088 or better still on 80286. Don't worry
about what the numbers mean. Just keep them
in mind. There's also an 80386, which is very
Iast, powerIul; and expensive, but you don't
need it.
¬¸.¸.¸.± -. .. -... ., - . +., ., ±+ ±. ¬.¸ .
¬...¬..¸.. ,.¬..· .¸.. ¬+¸..+.,.+ ...
-. .. -.... ¬¸_.±. .... ¸. , . . .+...
.¸- ..¸.¯ ·_. ,...-. ¬ ¸ .-.-
-.+ ± · .·± -. . - .. .¸ . - ±.. .- ±..
. ¬·¸¸.¸ - . . .¬.., ¸. . ..._+.- ..¸.¯ ± -.
·_. , .-. .... ..-.. ¬ .· ¬. -.
Seth : We haven't even talked about the soItware yet !
+¸.-.- .±.. .¬._+... ..¸..,...-..¸.
Nat : I know. So, we'll discuss that at our next
meeting.
+¸ .-.. .-. .-. +¸ .-.- ,¸ ·...
¬._ .¬..... ¬+ .± ...._+..-.
Terminology Review
1. backup : a copy on Iloppy disks oI whatever
inIormation is stored on either the computer's hard disk
or another Iloppy, can also be used as verb, oIten
written as two words: back up.
.-. .¬.+¬·++ +¸.¡-.,¸ .¸,. ¸., ¬¸...
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Iloopy . . -.· . . ..±_.±..±.. Iloopy disks ..¨+
copy -. . + backup · ..¨.-. backup + .+..· .
..·.. ¸.. back up _+..¬.¸¸·_. ¬..¸.¸...-.
2. Megahertz (Mz) : Measurement oI the speed oI
a computer based on measurement oI electrical
Irequency.
·...-¸ .. - ..-.. ..¨ ¬.¸.. _ +¸ .¡-.¬ ¬¸.¸ .¸.
+ - ..-.¸.. .¸. .¸.
3. storage memory : amount oI space Ior storing
inIormation on a hard disk or Iloppy disk.
Hard Disk ¸., Floopy Disk ..¨- . ..·..._ .-..
¬.+¬·+ ¬-+ .¸,.¬.,¬-+
e.g. The storage memory oI this computer is quite large.
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯,
SoItware Selection (Part I)
.±. . . ., .. . ¸.. . .±. . . ., .. . ¸.. . .±. . . ., .. . ¸.. . .±. . . ., .. . ¸.. . .±. . . ., .. . ¸.. .
+ ¸.¡-. ¬. ..-¬. hardware ¸ soItware .
¬.+ ¬.,..-. ¬..·.¬.. .,¸.. hardware ¸ .-.+
· ,..¸.¸...¸. ¬.-.¸...-.+.-. +¸.¡-.¬. ..,.. .
¬.,._+ .- SoItware Selection ¸.±... ., ...¸.. .,. ¸...
-. ¬. .+...¸...¸ ... Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ .¸..± .+ .-¸¸..
...-.
Dialogue
Seth : Good morning, Nat. I'm ready to hear your
advise about how to select soItware.
. ·. ¸ ¸+ .... ¸+¸±, .±. .. -.· .,...
,.· ± -.¸ .- .+ ¸. . .. -.., ¸¬_+ _¬ +
_+.... +¸.-. ¬.¸¸ ¬±... ..
Nat : Good morning, Seth. I've given your needs a
lot and I think I have some ideas that you'll
like. From our survey, I'd say your needs are
two areas: accounting and word processing.
. ·. ¸ ¸+ .. .. ±+ ¸± , .. -.., ¸ · ¬. .+.-
+ +¸ .-. ¬..._+ ..... ¸..¸. ¸...-. +¸.-. . .
..-.....+.. .-+.¬.¸¸,-.· ±.-.
+¸.-.,¸ ......··.. ¬, ..-..,¸ · ¬...
..,..+.¸...¸ .....,+¸...±- .,..¸...
... ¸..-.· .¸..,·. ..
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Seth : Accounting, I agree. That's keeping the records
oI my business, to show where the money
comes Irom and wheres it goes. But what's
word processing ?
..,. .+ . ¸.. .+ - .¸. +¸ .-. ..-.-
.-. ¬ . .. .- -. +·.¸. . -. +
...-. ± -. ¸... - ......,.·..¸., ¸ .--..
.-+ ±¸ ... .¸.. .. ¸.. -. .... Word Pro-
cessing + -.·
Nat : It's application soItware that you use to write
letters, reports, and memos. It's like a super
typewriter.
¬. ...- ¬.,. ....-¸ .-..-.,.. ...
¬..¸.¸- .±.. . ¬..¸.¸¸....¸..-. ¬ .
± .·+ . ..+ -..¸ ±. -.-.
Seth : Well, we do bills and letters, but I don't think
I'd want to spend the money that a computer
costs just Ior a super typewriter.
.+...¸. +¸.-.- . .. .-.... · ..- ¸ ...-
¸.¸·.,.-. .... ±.·+...+ -.·.
... -¸. .+.. - + ¸.¡-.-.· .+ . .. .
+¸.-.- ¬·, ·. ..· .±..-.
Nat : No. I think you'll want a word processing
program, especially Ior a newsletter.
.-.-. ..-..¬.¸¸ ¬±..¸.. .-..·.
.,.. ¬- + ... .., + ¸.. . ., ,. ¸¬. ¬.¸ , -. . +
¬· ,·...· +¸ .-. ±..-.
Seth : Well, can't I buy just one soItware program
that will do both word processing and my
accounts ?
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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.+...¸..· ....., + ¸...¸ +¸ .-. ,¸ ..,. . . . .
.· .+ ¸.¸· . ...- .±. . . ., ,. -. . + ..
+¸.-. .. ·.,. .- .·..
Nat : Yes, there are integrated soItware programs
that will perIorm diIIerent tasks, such as word
processing and accounting. The problem is that
such a program might do accounting very well
but word processing poorly (or) vice-versa. It's
also possible that the program wouldn't run
application very well.
,. . .-. ... .., +¸.. .¸ ..,. .+ . ¸...- ·
+ ¸...¸...¸..- ¬· . .- + .±.. , + ..... ¬. -
.,.-+ ¸, .±.. . ., ,. .- , .-. ¸..¸.
+.-. ¬ · ., ,. -. . . ..,. .+ . ¸.. .+
.+.. ..+.. . · . . . .... ... .., + ¸.. . +.-. . .
.· . . . - . .. - .¸,., ±+ .. . · . . .,.
..,..+ .¸... .· ... - . ., ,.. ¬....+
.+.. ..+.. . .· . . . - . ± -.·_ . ¸.. . . -.
Seth : So I should buy a seperate word processing
program ?
._ · ± ,. +¸ .-. ¬.¸¸ . .¸...... .., +
., ,.+ .. .. .·..
Nat : Yes.
. ¸.-.
Seth : I hope I won't have to buy a seperate soIt-
ware package Ior every diIIerent accounting
task.
+¸...¸...¸..- ..,..+.¸... ·. .¸.-..¬-+
. .¸....±. . . Package -. . .. · .,- .·
+¸.-. ...·.±...-.
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Nat : No. But beIore we look at speciIic programs,
we should answer some general questions about
soItware. For any program you buy, you need
to be sure that your system will meet the
soItware requirements.
. - - ..· .... - +- ¬. ¬.¸ .- +
+¸ .-. - ._+_ .. . . +¸ .-. - . .±. . . ¸ ± . -
..- .+- ....¸ ..¸ .+ .¸... .-. -.·
., ,. . .. .. .. -.., ¸ .¸. . .±. . . · ¬. .+
.- + ,, · . .. ± -. ..... · ¬. -. .¸.
Seth : The soItware has requirements ?
.±. . ... ·¬..+.- , · ·..
Nat : Yes, soItware requirements include the amount
oI active memory needed to be run them.
Remember we're talking about active memory?
, .-. .±...·¬. .+.- .. Active memory
...¬+ .±.. ,+. · ¬. -.± -. ... .
-. +¸ .-.- Active Memory ¬._+.. ..¸..
.¸-. .-,.·..
Seth : Yes.
-+ .
Nat : Memory is measured in bytes or characters. In
other words, one bytes equals one Character.
Anyway, your system must have enough active
memory to hold the soItware that you want to
use. Somewhere on the soItware package, you
will Iind the memory requirements, usually stated
in thousands oI bytes, such as 256 K. The 'K'
stands Ior about a thousand, so 256 K is
256,000 bytes.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
. - _¬ + bytes ¸. , characters ¸ - . .-..-.
-¸_.¬..¸.. one byte . one character ¸
_ ..-. -. · . ¸.. ¸.. ..-..¬. .¸.¸.. -
.±.. . + +.-.. · .·.+- active .-_¬
.¸. ..-.... ,,...¸. .±... package ..,-
-. .¸,.,.. . . - _¬ · ¬. .+ .- + .. -..
.-¸·. .. ......¬..¸.. 256 K + . byte +
.±.. ¬¸ .¸ ...¸..·, -. 'K' . -. .±..+
+ . ...¸.¸-. .-. 256 K ± -. 256,000 bytes
+ ±·-..
Terminology Review
1. accounting : Keeping the records oI a business
to show where the money comes Irom and where it
goes.
...- -..¸,.+ ..·.¸.. -. + ±+...-.±-.
¸... . .. ...,. · . .¸ .-. . , ¸ . - -. ....+ ± ¸ .. . .¸.. ..
¸.. .-. ..,. .+ . ¸.. .'· ¬- .+.+ . - ...±... . .
-.
2. bytes : measurement oI computer memory; one byte
is roughly equal to one character.
Byte -. .. ¬+,. ¸., ¬¸.-.·.+ + . ... ¸.¸.
-. +¸ .¡-. . -_¬+ -. .-.. ¸...-. One
byte . ¬_+. ... .¬..¸.. One character ¸ _..-.
3. integrated software : soItware that can perIorm
twoor more diIIerent tasks, such as word processing
and accounting.
Word Processing ¸ Accounting - · +¸...¸...¸..-
· ..¸. ¸ .¸ . ¸., ¸ .¸ .±+. ¸.. ¬. .¸.¸ · . .±... ..¬..
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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.,....±..- .±. . . ¸......¬..¸.. ...,....,¸ . ± ,¸
..,..»...... .,.±,¸ ., ,.... ....·, .-.,
4. K : abbreviation Ior one thousand, used to indicate
memory in bytes: Irom the Greek preIix "kilo"
meaning one thousand, as in kilometer or kilogram.
-. .±.. , ¸ ¬- .+.+..· . ¸...-. .- _¬+ Bytes
¸ ...¸.,... ¬..¸.¸.-. -..±..· ¬.... ,- ,
.,...· . Kilo . .±...-. +·.-. +· ,.- ,¸
..-. ¬-. ...
5. program : instructions Ior the computer or a series
oI such instructions; soItware; can also be used as a
verb.
.., .-. . ¸. , +¸.¡-.¬-+ ¸¸_+...... ¸...-.
.±. ..+ _+.. ¬.¸¸·_. ¬..¸.¸...-.
6. software requirements : hardware speciIications
such as memory, speed, and number and type oI disk
drives, required to run a particular soItware package.
.-_¬ ¬¸.¸.¸. Disk drives ,¸ ¸.-¸ ¬.¸.¬... .-
¬..±_ . . ¸ .¸¸.... ¸.. .-. ¬ .-. . .¸...
.±. .. Package -. . ·..±.. .¬-+ ·¬..-.
7. word processing : application soItware used to
write letters, reports, memos, etc.
..... ¬. ,....... .-. ... .._- .,....,¸ ¬. .
¸.¸- ¬. .. .±... ¸.. .-. ¸....., + ¸...,· · . ...
_+.-.
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,,
SoItware Selection (Part II)
.±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸
     Computer ¬. .¸.¸-¬. SoItware .-,¸ ¬.¸.+_
.·_ . ¬.,._+.·.-. SoItware .,... - ¬. · ¬. .
.- , .-. ¬·¬...-±.. Disk drives ,¸ ¬.¸ .+_
+·_. ¬.,..· .-. SoItware Selection ¸ .-.+ ·
Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ .± .....¸ .+ -. ¸.· +.-.
Dialogue
Seth : Are these other requirements ?
¬¸...·¬..+.-.,. , ..·..
Nat : Yes, some soItware requires color monitors.
You don't need such soItware, so that's not a
concern. But disk drives are.
.¸ .-. ¬.¸¸.±.. ..- . +.·. ...¸-..-
·¬..-. ..-..¬.¸¸ · .±... .¸. .·¬.
.- . .-. ¬ . . .± .· .- . .... . ¸. ,
, +¸-,.-+.-.
Seth : Disk drives ?
.¸.,,+¸- , -·..
Nat : Right. All computers have disk drives. We
talked about Iloppy disks and hard disks. The
drives are where the disks are, or where you
put them. The drives contains the equipment
that takes inIormation oII the disk and puts it
in active memory Ior you to work with and it
puts inIormation on the disk to save it.
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
- .-. + ¸ .¡-.¬..· .. . disk drives .- , _+
.-. +¸ .-. - .¸...¸-. Iloppy ¸ hard disks
.- ¬._+.. .. drives .- . disks .- -. . .
, .· ± -.¸ ¬ .- + .. -.. -. . . ±_ .·
± -... drives .-.. disk + .-. .¬.+
¬·++ ±-.·+ - .._.+,.. .,-.
¬ + ¬· . · . . .. -..¬- + active memory ±
±_ · + -. ¬ + .-. .¬.+ ¬·+ + save
· .. disk ..¨+ ±_...· +-.
Seth : And diIIerent soItware requires diIIerent disk
drives ?
¸ + ¸...¸...¸..- .±....-. + ¸...¸...¸..-
drives .- ·¬...·..
Nat : Computers can have one, two, three, or more
drives. It is becoming less common today Ior a
computer to have only one drive; two drives is
most common. These can be two Iloppy disk
drives, known as dual drives, or one Iloppy and
one hard disk. One Iloppy and one hard disk is
probably the most popular arrangement. Some
soItware programs require only one drive, but
most work better with two, and some require a
hard disk drive.
+ ¸ .¡-..- . . -. . . . . . .. ¸. , . . ...¸...-
drive .- , . . .-. +.¸..- . . + ¸ .¡-. -. · .
.. drive -..-_... ,-.±-. .-¸¸.. ,.
¬.-.¸_ .·..¸. drive .. .+.-. ¬...± .
.- ¸¸.. .¸+.. ¬ .- . dual drive · ..¨-
Iloppy disk drives . . . ¸.. . . .-. . . -
Iloppy -. . ¸ hard disk -. . ·_ . ¸.. . . .-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
Future Publishing House
Iloppy -. . ¸ hard disk -. . +.-. ..¨¸.¡·.
¬¸.. ± . . .¸ . ¸.. .+.. .¸.. .· . .. ¬.¸ ¸.±. . .
., ,. .- . drive -. . .. · ¬. .-. ....
. . . ± ,. .-. . .+.. .-... ¸. ..-. ¬.¸ ¸+.-.
hard disk drive -. . .. · ¬. _+-.
Seth : Are there any other requirements ?
¬¸...· ¬.. -..-.,. ,.....·..
Nat : Yes, some programs might require special input
devices.
, .-. ¬.¸ ¸., ,..- + ¬± .¸.¸· . ±..- in-
put devices .- · ¬. . . .-.
Seth : What are they ?
¬.-+ -.·
Nat : The most common input device is the key-
board. The second most common one is mouse.
¸.. .- ¸.¸+ input device +.-. +.--..
-.¸...-¸.¸+-. .+.-. mouse ..
Seth : A mouse ?
_++-..+.. -·..
Nat : Not the animal. A computer mouse is a small
box that Iits in the palm oI your hand. It has
two or three buttons on it and a ball Iitted into
the bottom. You slide it around the desk on its
ball to move an arrow on the screen. You point
the arrow at the command you want and click
on the buttons. People who don't like to use a
keyboard Iind using a mouse easier.
- ,. .¸ -. .+.. . - .- . + ¸ .¡-. ...+ ¸. ,
± -. .. -.. ·+ .... .+. ¸. . . .. . - ..- ...
.·.-.. . . ..¨.. - .. ¸ . ¸. , ¸ ., ¸..
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
.¬.+ .¸.. . .-... -. . -. ±. ±..-. .+,.
..¨. . ...- + ., ¸·... .-... ¸ ., ¸,. . .+,. ..¨. .
.·.+¸ mouse + . ....· ,.-. .. -..
¬· , - command . . ...+ ¸ ¸ ¸...¸. . .· - +
. . ,.-. + .- - + ¬. .¸.¸. .. . .+ . .- .
mouse ¬. .¸.¸¸.. .¸ . . · . + . . , ... . . _+.-.
Seth : Should I get one ?
+¸.-. -.. ,...·..
Nat : I wouldn't recommand it. You and your wiIe
can type. And iI you did have a mouse, you'd
have to make sure your soItware programs
work with it. You also must make sure that the
soItware you buy will operate the printer you
have.
+¸ .-. ¬ + ¬_+..... . - -. ..-..¸
..-..,¸»¸.+ type , +. .-. ¸...-. ..-....
mouse -.. , .,. ..-..,¸ .±.. ..,,. .-+
¬¸ ¬·.¸.. . .. -.. .... ..+ ¸.¸· .,..
..-.... - .±... . ..-....,- .,.-.+
·..¸..±..,+. .... ..+ ¸.¸·.,·. ..
Seth : Is the printer another soItware requirement ?
.,.-.. .¸.+±..±. .. · ¬..+-..·..
Nat : Not really. But your soItware must be able to
operate the printer. II it can't, you won't be
able to print out what you want. So, your
soItware and hardware must be compatible.
The hardware must meet all the soItware re-
quirements, and the soItware must be able to
run the hardware, such as the printer.
¬. ¸ -+. . - .- . .... .. -.., ¸ .±. . .
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
. .,. -.+ · . .¸ ..±.. , + ... . ,.. ¬ ·
.· . . . ,. .. -.., ¸ .±. . . ¸ . ¸ ,. . .¸. -. . , ¸
¬¸...¬. - ¬. . .¸ ¬. .¸.¸. .,·. .. . . .
.±. . . · ¬. .+ ¬..· .+ ,, ..,.. ¸. ..-. .±. .
. . .,. -.· . . . + ¬· . · . ... . ,..
Terminology Review
1. compatible : able to be used with another part
oI the system or the soItware.
.¸.¸. ,.±. ..¬ ¬¸...¬.-¬..... ¬. .¸.¸. ....
e.g. (1) Do you know iI this word processing program
is compatible with our hardware ?
(2) You must always be sure that the various parts oI
your system are compatible.
2. disk drives : Parts oI a computer that take in-
Iormation oII the disk, put in it inIormation on the
disk to save it.
disk . .-..¬.+¬·+ + ± . ... + ¸ .¡-.¬ ¬.-
¬. . .... ¸.. ._ .. .+ .. ¬· . · . ,¸ ¬- + active
memory - .±_¸.. .. .+ save ·.,¸ disk ..¨-.
.-..¬.+ ¬·+ + ±..._
e.g. How many disk drives do you think we'll need ?
3. dual drives : a pair oI Iloppy disk drives (Floppy
disk drives ¬ ¬- -. . ¸...._,
e.g. Why are dual drives more convenient than just
one Iloppy drive ?
  
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸.,
SoItware Selection (Part III)
.±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸ .±. . . ., ... ¸.. . ¸
+ ¸.¡-..- ... ¬...- ¬. soItware .,....
. ¬· ¸¬.,._+.·.-. SoItware Selection ¸ .- .+ ¸. .
Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ .± .....¸ .+ -. ¸.· +.-.
Dialogue
Seth : Are there many word processing programs to
choose Irom ?
Word processing ¬.¬.¸.- .,... .,. ......
...... ,..·..
Nat : Very many, but only about ten are commonly
used, so you should select one oI those. I
strongly recommend that you buy either one oI
the two most popular word processing pro-
grams. They may be a little more powerIul
than you need, but as a rule it's best to buy
more power than less, because your needs may
expand. Also the two most popular programs
are user-Iriendly. You want all your soItware
programs to be user-Iriendly that is, easy to
learn and use.
. . ....... ±. .¸ ..·.+ + .. ¬. ...._+
.-. ._+.. ¬.- ±+ -.. + .,.....
-. ..¨¸.¡·.¬¸..±. word processing ., ,.
. . . ± + -. . + .. -.... . +¸ .-. ¬.·.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
Future Publishing House
¬¸+ .±.+. .-. ¬ .- . ..-.. ·¬.
-.±+ ...,_. .,. ..-. .... ._..¸.
¬.¸¸+ ..¸_.-.±+ .....-.+ ... +
¬.+.. .± ... -.._+.. · ± .-. .. -.., ¸
· ¬. .+ .- + - .. ¸. . · .. ¬ ..¨¸.¡·.
¬¸.. ± . ., ,. . . . .·_ . user-Iriendly .- ¸.. _+
.-. ¸. ..-. ..-..¬.¸¸ .. -.., ¸ .±. . .
., ,. ¬..·.+ user-Iriendly ¬.¸¸ ¬·, -.
.· user-Iriendly ±-.+ .··.¸.. ¬. .¸.¸.
· .+-.+ ±·-..
Seth : Accounting soItware is what I really need. My
wiIe and I spend too much time doing the
books. Did you say I could get one accounting
program that can do diIIerent things ?
..,. .+ . .±. . . +.-. +¸ .-. ¬. ¸ -+.
· ¬. .-. +¸ .-. »¸ .¸ +¸ .-. + ..¬ . .- ¸
¬. ¸ ¬.-. + ¸ .¸-. - . + ¸ ...¸ ...¸..-
+ .,..- + ¸.¸· ...- ..,. .+ . .,,. -..+
+¸.-. ,..-. · ..-.. .¸... .·..
Nat : Yes. Most accounting soItware packages are
seperated into modules. Each module will per-
Iorm one oI the accounting tasks, such as
payroll, inventory control, accounts receivable,
and accounts payable. OI course, the more
modules it has, and the more it will cost. Some
cost more than $ 1,000.
- .-. ..,. .+ . .±. . . ¬.... + . .¸...
¬.-¬.. ..-¬¸.. . ¸...±...-. ¬.- ¬. ..
-. . . . ·....,. . .. _ .± ¸ .. . .±... .
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
·+ . ,, . .. ..,. .¸ ..... ,- .. ..,. . .-
..,..+. ·. .¸.-..¸ .-±+ -.. + .±.., +
.·... -+..-. ...+¡..- .....·.·
.±. . . + .... _+ ..·.·.. ¬.¸ ¸± ,. ¬.., +¸
.¨·. ¸..., ±+ .+¸+.-.
Seth : That's a lot oI money.
¬ ..¬..._+. .·..
Nat : You can get less expensive ones. I think you'll
Iind one that is worth the price. You and your
wiIe must spend a lot oI time writing down
numbers, copying them, adding and substracting
them.
...¸_ .¸_ .. _+ .-.-. . .. -.. ,. . .-.
.... ¸ .¸ ¬_ -¸ - -. . + .. -...- ¸· . ..
.. -..¸ .. -... ¸ ... + ¸ .¬¸ ..- .,.¸.. .
¬ .- . - ¡.- + .¸.. . ... .¸.. .. - ¸.. ..- ¸
¬. ¸¬..._+. ¸.¸¸ ..¸,-..¸.
Seth : Yes, it's boring.
- .-. ¬ ¸....¸.,. .+....¸¸.
Nat : The computer will do that work Ior you. Also,
did you ever make a mistake while doing your
books ?
+¸.¡-.+ ..-..¬- + ¬¬·.+ · .· . ..
.. -.. ..¬ . .- .,..¸.¸ ¬. .. ¬¸.-. . · . .
.·..
Seth : OIten. And then I've spent hours trying to Iind
the error.
._+..¬± .· . ¸...-. +¸.-.. ¬...+
,.... _+¸....,.. ¸., ¸¬.¸,..... . ..-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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Nat : Computers don't make mistakes so that alone
makes them worth the money. OI course, GIGO
is always at work.
+ ¸ . ¡-..- . ¬. ...· . _ +- . ._ +..
.. -¸. .¸ ¬_ ...,-... -+. .-. GIGO .
¬.¸¬¸. ¬· .± ..,-.
Seth : GIGO ?
GIGO ±-. -.·
Nat : They are the initials oI the phrase. Garbage In,
Garbage Out, which means that iI you put
wrong inIormation into a computer to begin with,
you will get wrong inIormation out. II a com-
puter gives you inIormation that you know is
wrong, it's almost always because you've put
wrong inIormation into it. Computers never make
mistakes when they are working with numbers.
¬+ Garbage In, Garbage Out .+...,¸ ¬-
.+.+..· ..- ¸.. -. ¬. ... + + ¸.¡-.
.-. ¬· . · . . .-. .¬.+ ¬·+ ¬. ..+
±_ ,. ¬.+¬·+ ¬. .. ± + ·.-.. ,·. ..
-+.· + ¸.¡-.+...- .-..¬.+ ¬·+
....¸-. · .. -...,. ¬. +¸.¡-. ±+
.-. . ¬. + ¬·+ ¬. .. ±_ . · ..
+¸.¡-..-. +¸. ¬¸..-¸ ¬·. ·. .¸-
¬. -. .-.. ¬... .¸.¸·._+-.
Terminology Review
1. user-friendly : easy to learn and use
... .··.¸.. ¬..¸.¸,¸ ·.+ ...
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
2. accounts payable : record oI how much and Irom
whom a company is owed money Ior products and
services provided; an accounting task. ...,¸.. ..,. .
3. accounts receivable : ,,¸....,..
4. books : In business, all the Iinancial inIormation
about a company-payroll, inventory, accounts receivable,
etc.
......,.·..¸ .- . + .¬.. .- .+... -_..,.±. ,.
¬.+¬·+... ¬..· . ¸·......,.. .._ .± ¸.....
...,¸ ....,. . ,,¸ ....,..,
5. Garbage In, Garbage Out (GIGO) : Co mput e r
users saying which means that iI you put wrong or bad
inIormation into a computer, you will always get wrong
or bad inIormation out oI it.
6. inventory control : keeping records oI inven-
tory making sure that enough oI a product is available
at all times and keeping records oI what is bought or
made and what is sold (an accounting task)
¸.._...,..±-... ±¸... .¸...,
7. modules : Seperate parts oI one accounting soIt-
ware package that perIorm diIIerent tasks, such as inven-
tory control, payroll, and accounts payable; usually can be
bought one at a time and used seperately or in combination.
..,. .+ . .±. . . -. . ¬ . .¸...¬. - ¬. . .... ¸.. .- ._
+¸...¸...¸..... ·. .¸.-..¸ ...+ .±.. ,+ _+ ._,
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Service
.¸ .±.. . ...¸.. . .¸ .±.. . ...¸.. . .¸ .±.. . ...¸.. . .¸ .±.. . ...¸.. . .¸ .±.. . ...¸.. .
+¸.¡-. .,... ...-¬. .¸ .±... ¸Service,
-..·.+ ..... .·±-. .¸....,.-. ._.¸.±.. ...
+ ¸ .¡-.± ¸ .. . .. ¸ ¸.¸¸.. . .- ., .-. ¬. .+...¸...¸ .. .
Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ .±... ..¸.+ .-¸¸.....-.
Dialogue
Seth : Well, you helped us to do the needs analysis,
so we know what accounting tasks we want
the computer to do. Also, as you suggested, we
made projections about how we think our busi-
ness will grow in the next Iive years. So we'll
get a system large enough to handle the in-
crease. We just need to choose the hardware
and soItware now.
.+.. .¸. .· · ¬. . . ... .+ ¸.¸· . . .. -..
+¸ .-. - + + _ . -. .¸. ¬._+.. +¸.¡-.
¸.¸· . . +¸ .-. - · ¬. - ..,. .+ . · . .¸ .
-..¸ .- + . ·.,¸. .. -.. ¬_+ .... .· .
·... ... . -.+.·. . +¸ .-. - . .. ...,.
· . .¸. _+....·.. + +¸.-.- .- .±...·
-..± . +.+ . . .- ¸.¸· . . ¸. ..¸. .-. +¸ .-.
- ¬.¸¸ ¸.. ...- .-+ . + + .-.. _+ ._+ .
...... .¸.-.. ,,·.·. .. ¬..¸. . +¸ .-.
- .. ¬..±_¸ ¬...±_ ., .... ·¬.·.¸.
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Nat : You know your current needs as well as pro-
jected ones, so you know rather well what kind
oI computer and soItware you need. You have
a lot oI choices among the many brands. To
make the right choice, you must consider Iour
important Iactors: price, performance, ser-
vice and support.
-...+ ...+.±...· ..-..,¸ ·--.·.
· ¬. . .- + .. -... . .. .-. .. -.. · ¬. -.
-. · + ¸ . ¡-.¬. ¸ .¬...¸ .±. . . ± -.
.+.. ..+.. . .. .. ¬. - - ± . ..... ¬¸+
., ..,..- ¬..._+ . .. -... . , . .. . ¸ +¸ - ., .
.. . ¸.¸· . . ¬.,._+ .- ¬.+ ¸¸,.+ + .. -..-
.¸ ....,.. ¬ .- +.-. .... ¸ . . . ..±.. . . .
.¸ .±.. . ¸ ¬.±.+ ¬+ ¸.¸. .- . ¸.. .-.
Seth : Price is obviously the major Iactor to consider.
....¸.+.-. ¬.+¬.+¬.¸¸ .¸..... ...
±., ..·.-.
Nat : Sure, what you have to pay Ior the computer
system is important, but so are the other things.
A low price means nothing iI it buys a com-
puter that does not perIorm well. At the same
time, a high price does not necessarily mean
better perIormance, so you must also consider
the system's perIormance.
¬..¬.... + ¸.¡-..¸.¬-+ ..-.. -....
,.·± -. ¬.,._+..-. .... ¬¸...+ .
,..- , ....-. .+....+...¬·. .·.-
+¸.¡-.+ ... ,. ...¸_ .-. ¬.. ..., .-.
-. .¸-_.... . . .+.. ..¸ - . . ..±.. ,_+
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
Future Publishing House
..... .,. ..._+.-..·_. .·¬. .-. .-.
..-..¬.¸¸ .¸.,¸ ....±..,_+·_. .¸....
,..
Seth : What about service and support ?
.¸ .±.. . ¸ ¬.±.+ ¬+ ¸.¸. +.,. -. · , .

Nat : You want to buy your computer system Irom
someone who will provide service and support.
Many companies that sell computer systems
oIIer service contracts, you pay a Iixed monthly
or annual Iee, and the company will repair or
service your company whenever necessary.
.¸ .±.. . ¬.¸¸ ¬.±.+ ¬+ ..... -. .
-. ...+± . +¸.¡-..¸. + ..-.. .... . ..
+ ¸ . ¡-..¸. .- .,.. ..- + . ¬ . ... ..
.¸.±... ..-.-.+.- ..._+.-. ..-..
¬.¸¸ . ..·.¸ ._+. ¸. , . . .¸ ._+. ...,·. ..
¸..,. ..-..+.¬ ·¬.-¬.- .. ¸.. ±.. ¸.,
.¸.±...+ ¸.¸·. ...·...
Seth : Do I need to get a service contract ?
+¸ .-. ¬.¸¸ .¸ .±.. . ..-.- . + ,, .
·¬...·..
Nat : No. For your small system, I don't recommand
it. It you purchase Irom a reliable supplier, they
will service your system at a Iair price when it
needs it.
.·.-. .¸. ¬......¬- + ¬+ ......-.
..-..¬.¸¸ . _+_.-.,- .._........±.
.. . . ,. · ¬. - ¬.. . . - + .. -. -
....¸.¸ .¸.±.. . ....·. ..
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Seth : Are service and support the same thing ?
.¸.±...¸ ¬.±.+ ¬+.... + ¬--.·..
Nat : Well, support generally means the manuIacture
or developer is willing to upgrade your system.
Hardware and soItware are always changing,
so you want a system that can be up-graded.
Owner's oI a supported soItware program, Ior
example, can purchase, at a low price, any
new, improved soItware that is developed.
· .· ¬.±.+¬+ ¸.¸.± -. ..- .¬..¸..
.. .¸.+ ± -·..+ ¬±.¸.. . .-.......
, .¸¸.. .+ ± · .-. . ¸,.¸ .±.¸.,. .
¬.¸ ¬¸ . .¸ ... .· .¸- ¬- + .. - ..¬.¸¸
¬±. ¸. . . . - .¸. + ¬· , ... .±.. .., ,. +
¬.±.+ ¬+ ¸.¸ - . . , . .- . ¸...¬..¸..
- .-+. ¸¸. ¸.·.- ¬±. ¸.. ...- .±. . . -. .¸..¸ .
+ .... ¸.¸_ .¸_ .¸ .... . .-.
Seth : Where do we go to look Ior computer systems ?
+ ¸ .¡-..¸. .- + , ... . +¸ .-. - -. +
...,.·
Nat : You have Iour choices, you can go to a com-
pany that matches the soItware and hardware
and buy directly Irom them. These companies
are called systems vendors. You can also go to
companies that take existing hardware and soIt-
ware and change it to Ior your speciIic needs.
These are Value-Added Resellers, or VARs.
.. -... . ., ... .,..·.. , -. .. -..¬.¸¸
.±. . . ¸ . ¸ ,. · + .+ _ - + . ¬ -. . +
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
....,.+. .¸. . .-±. - +, +... . ..-.
¬+.¬.-+ systems vendors · ..¨.-.
·+ , . ¸ ,. ¸ .±.¸.,..- · . .±...¸- + . ¬
.- ± . ..¸. . .. -.., ¸ -+- · ¬. . .-¸ + + _ .
.¸ ... .· . . .-. ¬ .- + -¸ . .¸ . .
¸.¸ .,....... ¸Value - Added Resellers, ¸. ,
VARs · ..¨.-.
Seth : What should I do ?
+¸.-. -.·. .. ..·
Nat : For a small system, you can go to a computer
retail store in your area. Or you can buy retail
through a mail order company. Ordering equip-
ment through the mail works very well Ior
many people. You can usually get good prices.
The problem is that you don't always get local
services or support.
.¸. ¬......¬- + .. -... .. -..¸. .¸.+
+ ¸ .¡-. ·+ · .- .± . -. . + . ... . .-.
. . - ..- + . ¬. .· .. - + . ¬ . -. ±.
·+ · .. . . . .-. ..- + . -. ±. .._ .
+ , ...- . .. ¸.. .. · .... .¬- + ¬· ¸
.+.. .. ¸ .-. . .....¬..¸.. .. ..+.. .
,. . .-. ¸..¸.+.-. .. -..¬.¸¸ ..
- . . .¸ .±.. . ¸. , .±.+ + . ¬.¸ ¬¸. .,. .
¸.. ..
Seth : So I should buy Irom local computer retail
store ?
· ± ,. +¸ .-. ¬.¸¸ ¸._ - . . + ¸ .¡-.
·+·.,... .- .±.. .....·..
¯. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Nat : Try them Iirst. I have a list oI stores that we
can visit.
¬ .- + .±.¸ .± . _+ ¸... ._+_ . .. -.._+_ , .
.- .±...,.. +¸.-... , -.
Seth : Let's go.
..._+..
Terminology Review
1. mail order : buying something through, the mail.
..- + .-. ±. -.. -.,. .. .¸.. .
2. performance : a computer's ability to do work.
¬·. ·. ,¸ +¸.¡-.-. · .¬ ...,_
3. projections : predictions about how a company will
perIorm in the Iuture.
+. ¬-. .._ ¬¸.- -. ._. .±..,+._ ¬._+...
+.+. -..± .....
4. upgrade : add to (or) replace a computer
system with new technology.
¸_ .._...¸¬- +¸ .¡-..¸.-..+ ¬...± .¸... ¸.,
±.¸._ ¸...
5. value - added reseller (VAR) : a company that takes
existing hardware and soItware and changes it to Iit
your exact needs.
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¯
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸.,
Naming and Saving
. . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . . . .±_ .¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . . . .±_ .¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . . . .±_ .¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . . . .±_ .¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . . . .±_ .¸.. .
+ ¸ .¡-.+ ¬. .¸.¸- ¬. File ¬._ ...¸. . save
· . +. .. .±_.±....- ,.-. Business Documents
.-.¸.. ¸.. ¬¸... Document .-¸..¸.. ...±_.-¬. Dis-
kette + ¬. .¸.¸_+.· , .-. ¬.-. ¸...-.+.-. Floppy
diskettes .-. -_- .-..¬.+¬·++ ..,+..¨..
...-.±+ .. .+.... ¸.-. ¬. -.¸...-.+.-. . .
¬._ ...¸.. .. . . . .±_ .¸.. . ¸Naming and Saving,. ¸.. .-.
Dialogue
Nat : BeIore we talk more about spreadsheets, I
think we should talk about some housekeeping
tasks today.
Spreadsheets .-¬._+... +¸.-.- ..¸....
+.¸ ¬ . - . .± ¸ .. . .. ¬· . ¬.¸ ¸+ .¸..±
.. -.· +¸.-. ±.-.
Seth : What do you mean ? Cleaning the equipment ?
.. - .. -.+ ± · -.· .. _ .+ , ...-
.¸,...,.· .-.+ .¸..-.·..
Nat : Some computer operators use the term house-
keeping when they talk about naming and sav-
ing documents. It means Iiling. This is impor-
tant Ior Iull, eIIective use oI computers, what-
ever you're doing Iinancial analysis with spread-
sheets, word processing and accounting.
¯¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
-.¸¸+ ¸.¡-. .¬...,-..-. ...-+ ¬._
...¸. . .., +..-...- save ·.- ¬. house-
keeping ± - ¬..¨¬..¨+ ¬. .¸.¸_+ .-.
¬ , ¸ ± · .+ + Filing . ¸.. .-. Spreasheets
... .., + ¸ .. .¸ ..,. .+ . ¸ .. ..- ., -
.. .,.._+..,.± . ,. . ... . .- .. -.. ¸.¸· .
.¸- ¬. ¸ - . . ¸ ._ . ¸ . .± .,.+ ¬+ ¸ ., -
+¸.¡-..- ¬..¸.¸¸.... ¬.,._+..-.
Seth : Why is that ?
¬+ -.._+..·
Nat : People in business realize that computers help
them to do many things easily, quickly, and
accurately. But another great beneIit oI com-
puters in business is that they streamline Iiling
and record keeping so you save space, time
and money.
......,.· ..¸..., - ·.-. ¸.¸·..,......
¬- + · . + . . ·. ¸.¸ . .¸ - +. . . - +
+ ¸ .¡-..- + ¬+ ¬_ ...-.+ . , ¸..·_
..-...+_+-. .... ......,.·..¸...
+¸.¡-..-, ¸ .¸.+±. _+....- ¬+¸ .¬.¸ ..
+.-. + ¸ .¡-..- . . . ..±.. ,_ ¸._ . . Filing
¸.¸·. _+¸.. .--...- ± ¸...._+-. ._+..
..-..¬.¸¸ .¸,. ¬. ¸¸ ..._+..+ ..-...
Seth : In what ways ?
-.·¸_ .·...-¸·
Nat : Think about it. You always want to save copies
oI all business documents, right ?
¬+ .¸...._+_. ......,.· ..¸. ¬.±.+
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¯¸
Future Publishing House
¬±..¬..· ., ¸ .+. . .- + .. -.. ¬¸. save
· ... -. - -..¸.
Seth : Sure. I have to keep tax records Ior the
government.
¬..¬. ... + ¸ .-. ¬.¸¸ ¬. .,¬- +
¬.¸¬..--...- ± ¸....,..
Nat : Right. In an earlier meeting, I told you oI the
need to save material on diskettes.
.+.. .¸. ......+-_ .+ ¬._ .¬.... . diskettes
..¨. . ¬.+¬·+ .- save · .. · ¬.-.
±-. +¸.-. .¸... -..¸.
Seth : Yes, when you were explaining the diIIerence
between active and storage memory.
.¸.-. active ¸ storage .- _¬ ¬_+..
+.¸....+ ..-.., ..¸..¸. - ¸.+..
Nat : OK. You can consider that when you save
material on a diskette, you are Iiling it.
¬ .+ Iiling ¸.¸· . ±..- diskette ..¨. ¬.±.+
¬±...- + save · . - ¬. .. ..¸ ..... . .-.
Seth : Well, I'll still have to make a hard copy to
actually Iile in the Iile cabinet.
.+.. .¸. ++ - ¸+ . ., - Iile + ¬. ¸ -+. hard
copy ¸.¸·.,.·...
Nat : Why ?
-.._+..·
Seth : Look at all those Iile cabinets over there I've
got thousands oI records in all those drawers.
¬. ., - .+++-¸+.-¬..·.+ _+_·+
.... ¬ drawer ¬..· ...,- .--.. .±..
........ . +¸ .-. ,¸...¸.
¯¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Nat : Once you have stored or saved something on a
diskette, you will always have it to call up
when you need it. What you do is make copies
oI everything on your hard disk that you would
normally Iile. Then you Iile the diskette, and
perhaps make an extra copy oI that diskette.
diskette ..¨.. -.. -. ,.+ ...±_ . ¸., save
· . -.¸ .. -..· ¬. - ¬. .. -.. ¬ + ¸.¸. .,
· . .. -.· . ,.· ± .-. . . ¸ ¬..¸.. File
¸.¸· . .. hard disk ..¨.., - ¬,.¬..· ., ¸
.+...- ¸.¸·.±..,.. ¸. ..-. diskette ..
. .¸.._ ...¸.. diskette ,¸ ¬..+..-.. ¸.¸·.
.+.. . ¸.¸·. ,·. ..
Seth : And just Iile the diskette ?
¸...-. Diskette + ..¬._ ..., . ·..
Nat : That's right. It's a lot Iaster than making hard
copies Ior the Iiles and you will save a lot oI
space. One or two small diskettes that you
could put in your pockets will store as many
records as a whole Iile drawer. When you
need the material, put the diskette into the
computer and print it out.
. ¸ -... ¬ . . . .-¬- + hard copies
¸.¸·.-.±+ . .¸.¸±¸¸.. .¸,.. ..+ ¸.-. -.
.. ¬- +..-± .. ..±_ ..- diskette -..
¸., .. .. Iile drawer -. .· . ¬.¸¸ .- -..
.....+ ±¸... .·... ¬._+.. .¬,.-. . +
.. -.. · ¬. - ¬. diskette + + ¸ .¡-.± ±_ ¸. .
print out · .· +..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¯¸
Future Publishing House
Terminology Review
1. document : General term meaning the
letters, articles, reports and memos that you create
with a computer, usually associated with word processor.
+ ¸ .¡-.¸ ...¸ - .- ...- .±......- ¬. ,. . ...-
.- . - .- , ¸ ..- .¬..¨¬..¨ ¸......¬..¸.. ...
..,+¸ .-.+¸. . ·.,-.,
2. File (n) : every individual document or
worksheet that you create and save is known as a Iile.
It can be as well as one word or sentences or as long
as a book. ¸+¸.¡-.. ... ,
3. filename (n) : everything that you create and
save must be given a Iilename that the computer can
store it and Iind it. ¸+¸.¡-.. .. .¬._,
  
¯¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸, ¬.¸ . ¸, ¬.¸ . ¸, ¬.¸ . ¸, ¬.¸ . ¸,
Spreadsheet : The Layout
».... .. .¸,..±..¸.. . ».... .. .¸,..±..¸.. . ».... .. .¸,..±..¸.. . ».... .. .¸,..±..¸.. . ».... .. .¸,..±..¸.. .
Computer ¸ .- .+ · .¸.._+,. spreadsheet programs
.-.·_ . ...¸.. ¬.,._+.·.-. spreadsheet .-.
¸ .- .-+ direction .. .¸.¸ ... ¸.,.-. ¬±+ ¸ .¬.+ +
+¸...¸...¸..- terms .-+ ... ¸..· ,.-. .-.-..+.
-. .+. ¸side to side,+.-. ¬.¸¸time, + ... ¸..-.
¬. .+...¸...¸ .. . computer spreadsheet programs ¸
.- .+· Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ .¸..± .± .....¸ .. ¸.. .-.
Dialogue
Seth : Hello; Nat, I have a Iew oI my spreadsheets
to show you what I want to do with my
computer.
· ¸+¸±,., -.. +¸.¡-.¸ ¸.¸·...-
spreadsheets ¬.¸¸ ...+ ¸..,., -.
Nat : All right. An electronic spreadsheet on a com-
puter is set up the same way as a manual one.
It is divided into rows and columns. The rows
run horizontally and the columns vertically.
Together they make boxes known as cells.
- .-. + ¸ . ¡-...¨+ ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸.
spreadsheet -. . + , ., .·+ . . .+ . .· .
· .· ,.-. ¬.- + row ¸ columns ± ¸..
. ¸...±...-. rows .- + .,¸.. _ ¸¬·..
· + ,,_+¸.. columns .-+ .±..·+.. ,_+
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¯,
Future Publishing House
.-. ¬ .- ¬--+ .._.¸. . cell · ·.
...- boxes .-+ ¸.¸·._+-.
Seth : I see that each column has a letter above it,
and each row has a number.
.+.·-. . . , ¸ ¬..¨.. ..,¸.. ¬-¸ .-.....
¸.--. . .,-. +¸ .-...-.
Nat : Yes, The letter oI the column oI a cell and the
number oI the row together are known as the
cell address. It is what you use to identiIy
cells. The cell made by column B and row 8,
Ior example, is called B8. There can only be
one box, or cell, Ior each such address.
-.-. cell -.. , ¸ .+.· . .., - ...
¬-¸ .¸ .- ¸ ¸¬- ... .¸. . cell address ·
·. ....-. ¸...¸.,,. rwo 8 ¸ column B
- + ¸.¸· .±..- ±¸·,+ B 8 · ..¨.-.
Address -...¬-+ box -. . ¸., ± ·-..
,...-.
Seth : How do you reIer to groups oI cells ?
± ·¬. ..- + ..-.. -.·,_¸¸...·
Nat : A group oI cells in the shape oI a rectangle is
called a range. You would use the address oI
the cell in the upper leIt corner oI the range
and the address oI the cell in its lower right
corner : The range Irom the Iourth row in
column C (cell C4) to the tenth row in column
D (D10) would be written "C4. D10". The pe-
riod Seperates the two addresses.
.±.. .¸.- . .¬.¸, ± ·¬.. -.. + range
· ..¨-. Range ,¸±. . . . -. -+.±.. ,
¯. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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± ·, ¸ address + .. -..¬. .¸.¸,·. .. ¸...-.
.¬.+ .¸.. . . _.-+ .±.. , ± · , ¸ address
+ ·_ . ¬. .¸.¸,· . .. .+.· C, .-- ¬-¸.
¸Cell C4,. .+. · D , ..¬-¸ . ¸D
10,. ...- range + "C4 - D10" · .,.,· . ..
¬. ¸+.·. address ... + . ¸...±..-.
Seth : Do I use the columns and rows in the same
way that I would with my old manual spread-
sheet ?
+ ¸ .-. , ¸·+ ¸ .,.± - spreadsheet · .
.+. ·.-¸ ¬-¸ ..-+ ¬. .¸.¸,.·..
Nat : Yes, columns and rows can represent whatever
you choose. We'll set up this worksheet with a
month in each column and a diIIerent expense
in each row-supplies, advertising, taxes, etc.
The totals will go at the bottom oI each
column, and iI wanted, at the end oI each row.
All we need to do is to put the correct
Iormulas in the right places.
.¸.-. .+.·¸ , .· .-. ..-.. -..,...
.· ±-.¬..¨ +....¸.¸.-. +¸ .-.-.
.+. ·-...+ -.·¸ ¬·.. ..., ++ .-.
.... ,.-. .._........... ._+.¸... ¬.¸
¬. .- + ¸..¸...¸..- .,-.-+ ¬-¸ .-.. .. .
...¸. .±.. ,+,.-. ...... +.-. .+. ·
-. . ., ¸ .¬.+ .¸.. . ... ¸..-. · ¬.,. ¬-¸ .
¸row, -..., ¸ ¬± ... ...¸.,.-. +¸.-.-
¸.¸·.. · ¬.-. ¬..·.+.-. .¸+¸ - .¸,.. .
.¸+¸- ...¸.¡·..-+ ±... ..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¯¸
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Seth : By Iormula, do you mean a mathematical
expression, such as addition, substraction, or di-
vision ?
¬....¬.- ¸. , ¬...- · ...¸_ .¸ ... ¸..+
...¸.¡·.· ..-..± · -.·..
Nat : That's right.
. ¸.-.
Seth : OK. I see the basic layout. Now I put in the
amounts Ior each cell and then add them up to
get my total expenses Ior the month.
¬ .+ ¬.¸.. layout + +¸ .-. . ¸. ¬. +¸ .-.
±·-...¬-+ ¬.,¬-+.- ±_·+..
¸...-. ¬ ·¬-+ +¸ .-., ¸ ..... . +¸+
., - .- ,, . ¬ .- ... .±_ · + ..
Nat : You don't need to add them up. The computer
does that as you enter the amount oI each
expense Ior the month. I'll enter the dollar
amounts that you have spent so Iar this month
in the right cells Ior telephone, postage, and
other expenses. Now, there are the totals.
¬.- ..-.. ....±_. .·.-. + ¸.¡-.
+.¸¸. . ¬ ·¬- + + ¸ +., - -. . . ¬- +
..-.. enter · .- ¬.,¬-++ ¸.¸· ....-.
-.·.¸. ....¸ ¬¸...., -.-¬-+ _.-+
cells ..,- ..·¬± .. -..... - .¨·. ¬.,
¬- + + + ¸ .-. enter · . .. .- ¸·..
.. .......¬ ,¸.
,. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Terminology Review
1. address : the letter oI column and the number oI
the row where a cell is located.
± · -. . -_ , - .¸,.. ., - column , ¸..¸ row , ¸¸ .-
2. cells : name Ior the square boxes Iormed by the
horizontal and vertical lines oI worksheet into which
you enter alphanumeric data.
¬+ ,..¸ · + ¬¸ .¬.+ ¬·+ .. enter · . -
worksheet ,¸ ¬·..·+¸ .±..·+.¸..-¸ .¸._.±..
... .·..±.. boxes .-¬-+ ¬._
3. columns : cells on a spreadsheet are created by
vertical and horizontal lines: vertically, the cells Irom
columns, which are always indicated by letters.
spreadsheet ..¨, cell + ..·+ ¸ ¬·..·+.¸ ....¸
.¸-.±..-. ±·.-+ .+. ·.-+ .¸._ .±..-.
.+. ·.-+ ¬.¸¬¸. letter .-¸ ...¸.-.
4. enter : to post (keyboard) or put inIormation
(data, Iormulas, Iunctions) into a spreadsheet.
spreadsheet . ¸¬.+¬·+ ...¸.¡·. ¬.-¬. .., .-
¬.+ ¬·+ .- + + .-- ..¨, ..· .¸.. , + ±_ ¸.. .
¸...-.
5. formulas : instructions that tell the spreadsheet soIt-
ware to add, substract, multiply, or divide.
spreadsheet .±. . .. ... .,¸ .- ,¸ .¸..+,¸ ¸. ,
...,¸ .¸..... ¸¸ _+... ...
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ,
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¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Giving the Filename
. . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. . . . ¬._ ...¸.. .
+ ¸ .¡-.+ ¬. .¸.¸- ¬. . . - type , + ±..-
records .-+ computer ± save · .- ¬. Iilename ...¸. .
...±_ . _+.-. . File ,...-¬. · .+¬±..¸.
.-. ¬. Filename ...¸.. .¸ .-.+· Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸
.±.....¸.+ -.¸.· +,.-.
Dialogue
Seth : How do I locate all the documents on the
diskette ?
. --... -,.¬..· .+ .++ ¸± ,..¨. . +¸ .-.
-.·.¸,..±..,.·
Nat : Good question. But, actually, keeping your records
on a computer is a lot easier than Iiling paper
copies. You need to learn just a Iew basic rules,
and then you can Iile easily. More importantly
you'll always Iind what you have Iiled.
.+...·+- ....¸..-. .... ¬. ¸-+.
.¸..,,. .. -.., ¸ . - -. ..- + + ¸ .¡-.. .
± ¸.. . .¸.... .-¡. .- ¸...±+ ¬..._+ . ..
· . + ...-. .. -..¬.¸¸ ¬.¸.. ._ ..¸ .
¬¸_....·.+.-. .··.. ·-... .-.
+. .. -.. ·.·. -+ . .¸.¸·.. .-... . ¸..
¬.,._+.-.+ ..-.. .. ·. ±.. -..-+ ¬.¸
¬¸. ,.. .·...
,¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Seth : Losing papers because oI misIiling happens all
the time. So a computer will help to prevent
this ?
-.. ¸· . . ..- · ....¸-.._+.. .+¡.- ± ., .
.¸-... ._ · ± ,. + ¸ .¡-.-. · .. ¬+
+.+.. +_ .....¸.
Nat : Yes, but you must remember that the names
you give your Iiles or documents are very
important. By the way, in computer language, a
Iile is one document. It can be as short as one
sentence or as long as several hundred pages.
- .-. .... .. -... ..- ¸., ¬.±.+
¬±...-+ ..-.....±..- ¬._ .-+ ..-..
.-,. ..¸..¬.,._+.-..¸. ¸ .+.....
+¸.¡-. -....+.... . .±-. . --...- ,.
-. . .. ¬ . . . .+-. ._+.. .· - ..
-.. -. ¸., ...+. . ,..........· ,_ ..
,_. . -.
Seth : Oh, so a Iile doesn't mean a Iile cabinet or a
Iolder Iull oI documents ?
¬. ± . .-. .. . .++-¸+ ¸., . --..
.-,..- ¬¸._ .- .. --..· .±·-...
Nat : No, not on computers. The important thing is
giving the Iile or document a name when you
save it. Most soItware programs use the term
'Iilename' to indicate this name. The computer
Iiles and Iinds everything according to the Iilename
that you gave it. And there are a couple oI
simple naming rules that you should know.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ,¸
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. - .- . + ¸ . ¡ -...¨. . . - .- .
¬.,._+ .- ¬,.+ .. -.. save · .- ¬. . .
¸. , .- -. . + ¬._...¸.. ... .±...., ,.
¬....+.-. ¬._+ ... ¸.. Iilename ± -
.+..· .+ ¬. . ¸.¸_+-. + ¸.¡-.+ .. -..
...±..- Iilename ¬, ¬,.,.-..+ ..¸.¸·.¸..
,... . .-... ¸...-. ..-..... - , ....-
. . ¬._ ...¸ .. . ._ .. ¸ ..- . . . ¸ ..·.+
, ...-.
Seth : Do these naming rules apply to Iile names in
all soItware programs ?
.±. . . ., ,. .- ¬..· .. . ¬._ ...-
._ ..¸ ..- + Filename .-.. . ..·..
Nat : Yes, most oI the time.
-.-. ¬. ¸ ¬...±...
Seth : What are they ?
¬.-+ -..-·
Nat : The two basic ones are (1) never use more
than eight characters in a Iilename, and (2)
never use spaces in a Iilename.
¬.¸.. . . . +.-. ¸ .- -. ¬.+ + . . ¬._
-.. .. -..-.. ..·.¸.,· .±+ . ¬. ..¸.¸-.
¸...-. ¸.- . .¬.++ . .¬._-.. . . .¸,.
· -.-+ -..-.. .±..-.
Seth : Can I use letters, numbers, and symbols in the
Iilename that I give my document ?
...- ¸ .- .- ¸ ..+ -.- + +¸ .-. , ¸
¬.±.+¬±... . +¸.-....±..- .. ¬._..
¬. .¸.¸. ..·..
,¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Nat : In general, yes. Every program will let you use
letters: most will allow numbers in a Iilename,
but not at the beginning, so avoid that. Most
programs will allow some symbols also, but no
program will allow all symbols. Avoid using
symbols in Iilenames until you know what will
be accepted by the programs that you use
most.
..-.¬..¸.. ¬..¸.¸...-. .,,.-..+
.. -.. ¬. .¸.¸- ...- + . . ¸.¸. .. ¬.... +
. . ¬._ -. . . . ¸ .- .- . . ¸.¸.· . .. ....
¬.. . .. ..-. . - - ..¸. ._+.. ¬ +
.,.. ,... .,,. ¬.... + ..+- ¬.¸¸ + ·_.
.. ¸.¸... .... ., ,. + ..+ - ¬..·.+
.. ¸.¸.. . - -. .. -.. ¬...± . ¬. . ¸.¸-
., ,. .-+ ·+... ± -. ..-...- - . .¬..
. . ¬._ .- . . ..+ -.- ¬. . ¸ .¸ -.+
.,..,...
Seth : When we were looking at spreadsheets, we were
keeping track oI monthly expenses and projecting
cash Ilow. Now should I give that document a
Iilename? What would be a good one ?
spreadsheet .-+ +¸.-.- _+_ - ¬. ·.¸
+ ¸+.,-.- ¸ .,.± ±..- .. ._+.. .±. .. +
+¸.-. - ± ¸..... .-... ¬. +¸.-. ¬
.--..+ .. ¬._-.. .......·.. ¬._
.+.. ..+.. . -..+ -.¸.. .·
Nat : You must give everything that you save on the
system a Iilename. A good Iilename is one that
helps you to remember what is in the Iile.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ,¸
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.¸...¨.. ..-.. save · .- ¬,.,.- ..+ ..
¬._ ...,.. .. ¬._.+...-... .. ±. .
-.,.·±-. .- ,... ..-..+ +_-¬,.
-....
Terminology Review
1. characters (n) : General term Ior all letters and
numbers used in writing (handwriting, typing, printing)
.,..... . . ¬. .¸.¸- .....¸ ¸.- ... ¬..· .¬-+
..-. ¬..¨¬..¨ .,.....- . ·+.,.¸ .,....¸...
Type , +¸...¸ .. .¸...- ¬+¸... .-.
2. file (v) : (save) on computers, the act oI
saving your work on a Iloppy or hard disk (similar to
Iiling copies in a Iile cabinet)
+¸.¡-....- . Iloppy ¸. , hard disk -. .. ·..±..
±...+ save ¸.¸· . ¸.. . ¸File cabinet - . copies ...+
Iile ¸.¸· . ¸.. .¸ - _ -. ,
3. naming : process oI giving a document (or)
worksheet a Iilename.
Document ¸., worksheet + . .¬._...¸... ·..¸..¸
  
,¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Disk Operating System and Lotus
. ¸. ,¬. .. · . .±.. . .¸. . . . ¸. ,¬. .. · . .±.. . .¸. . . . ¸. ,¬. .. · . .±.. . .¸. . . . ¸. ,¬. .. · . .±.. . .¸. . . . ¸. ,¬. .. · . .±.. . .¸. . .
· .-. . .±. . . · .-. . .±. . . · .-. . .±. . . · .-. . .±. . . · .-. . .±. . .
+ ¸ .¡-. ¬. .¸.¸- ¬. Iilename ...-- . ¬.,._+ ..
-. ¬ · Iilename ...- ¬. ¬.,._+ . - Disk Operating
System (DOS) ¸ ..¨¸.¡·.¬¸.. ± . spreadsheet program
-. .¸..- lotus - ¬._+.. .+ Seth ¸ Nat - ,¸ .±....
.¸..±.¸ .¬¸.. -.¸.±...-.
Dialogue
Seth : How do I see the list oI Iilename ?
.. ¬._.-,¸ ..,..+ +¸ .-. -. ·_+_,

Nat : It's easy. To manage your Iiles, you will use a
Iew oI the commands in the Disk Operating
System (DOS).
¬ · . .-. .. -.., ¸ . . .- + .. .¸ . . .¸. ,
.±.., + ..¸. ¸DOS,.. Command ¬¸_...+
¬. .¸.¸,· ...
Seth : What is the disk operating system ?
Disk operating system ±-. -.·
Nat : It is soItware that interacts with the soItware
program you are using and the computer. When
you Iirst turn on a computer, you activate DOS
that all micro computers must have. At this
point, you can see a list oI your Iiles.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ,,
Future Publishing House
¬ . .. -..¬. .¸.¸ .¸- .±. . . ¬. ¬.¸ ¸
+¸.¡-.-+ ¬¸.¸¬·¸ ¬+¸..+.,.+.¸-
.±... ¸...-. +¸.¡-.+ ...·+-¬.
.+., + ¸ .¡-. ¬..· ...,,.. DOS + ..-..
·..±..,-..· .¸,... ..-..,¸ ....,..
-. .+ .- ¸. .-.
Seth : How ?
-.· .-¸..-.·
Nat : Computers store Iiles in directories. To see a
list oI Iiles in a directory, you need only type
the DOS command DIR, which is an abbrevia-
tion oI Directory. You indicate what directory
you want to see. The computer will list all the
Iilenames in that directory.
+ ¸ .¡-..- . directory .... . . . .- + ± ¸ .. . .
±.._+-. ....,..-.. + directory ¸·..¸¸ ,
-.. . ._+_ . DOS Command DIR + Type , +
... · ¬.-. DIR ±-. Directory ,¸ ¬-
.+.+..· .¸.. -. ..-.._+_..- Directory
+ ... ¸.,.. +¸.¡-.+ ¬ directory ..,-
.. ¬._¬..· .+ ..,.....¸.·. ..
Seth : So, iI I have given them good Iilenames, I
should know what is in each Iile listed.
._· ± ,. . . ¬._ .+.. ..+....- ...¸..,.
..,. .. . .±..- . . -. . . . -.· ± -. +¸ .-.
.....
Nat : Yes, but there is another way I can increase
the useIulness oI Iilenames. You can add an
extension oI three characters seperated Irom
the Iilename with a period.
,. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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- .-. .... . . ¬._ .- ¬. .... +
¸.. -. . .- ¬¸...¸_ .·. . , .-. .. -.. ¬.¸¸
¬.¸+.· -... .. ¬._. .±-. .- ..·.
¸¸,· .. - ..¸. -.. + ¸._ .+ ...-.
Seth : How does that work ?
¬ -.· ¬· .· . .·
Nat : Many programs will automatically add the Iile
name extension. For example, lotus, which is
the name oI one oI the most popular spread-
sheet programs, adds the Iilename extension
"WKI" to all Iiles created with it. WKI stands
Ior worksheet. So the Iile you just named would
be listed as "CSHELW.WKI" in the directory,
Many word processing programs automatically
add the extension "DOC". So you know this is
a written Document and not a worksheet.
., ,. .... .. ¬· ¬.·.+ ¸.._ - .. ¸. +
±. ... .±_ _+-. ¸...¬..¸.. ..¨¸.¡·.
¬¸..±. spreadsheet ., ,..-± + ¬._ -..
¸..- Lotus . ¸..+.¸-.±..- ..¬..·.. .
. . ¬._ - ¸.. - WKI + ... .±_ ...-.
WKI . Worksheet + +....¸.¸-. ._+..
.. - .. ¬._ ...- . . . Directory ± . .
"CSHFLW.WKI" · ..,. . ..¨· . .. .... ....
.....,+ .,,. .-. ¬...·. DOC + ¬·
¬.·.+±_ _+-. ._+.. . Worksheet
. - - . .,.±..- Document · ± -. . -...
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ,¸
Future Publishing House
Seth : Could I add an extension ?
+¸.-..+. ¬.±.±_. ...·..
Nat : Yes, Most word processing programs allow you
to create any extension you want, as long as it
is limited to three characters.
±_...-. ... .., +.,,.¬..... .. .
..· . ¸ · . ¬+¸ ¬.- , · ¸._ . + - .. ¸.. -.+
.¸-.. . ..-..+...-.
Seth : You can change extensions ?
Extensions .-+ ..-.. .¸....·. ..·..
Nat : Sure, Iilenames also, anytime. When you call up
a directory listing, you can have the computer list
just those Iiles with the extension "LTR".
¬..¬.... . .¬._ .- ·_. -. ¬. ¸ .±
.¸... .· . . .-. Directory ..,. .-. . +
..¨_+_-¬. Extension "LTR" ., ....,...
+¸.¡-...,..+ ..,,. ..-.
Terminology Review
1. directory : name that is given to a group oI Iiles in
a computer. You can have more than one directory on
a disk.
+ ¸ .¡-.-. · .. ., - . . ¬ . . + ...- ¬._ Disk -. . . .
Directory -. .±+ .¸.. ,. .-.
2. Disk Operation System (DOS) : The soItware that
interacts between the computer and other soItware
programs, such as spreadsheets and word-processing in
microcomputers. DOS is one oI the most commonly
used programs.
.. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
. + ., +¸ .¡-...., spreadsheet .- ¸ ... .., + ¸...
+ . ... ¬¸....±. ..., ,. ...¸ + ¸.¡-.¬_+.. ¬¸.¸
¬· ¸ ¬+¸..+ .,.+.¸- .±.. .¸...-. DOS .
¬. . ¬...±. ., ,..- ±+ -.. ¸...-.
3. Extension : three-characters addition
Iilename, seperated Irom the Iilename by a period.
¬.¸ +.·-.... .. ¬._. . ±-¸._.+- ..·. ¸·.
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Spreadsheets and Operating Modes
(Part I)
»...+ + .... . ¬. .. . ... ¬._+.. . »...+ + .... . ¬. .. . ... ¬._+.. . »...+ + .... . ¬. .. . ... ¬._+.. . »...+ + .... . ¬. .. . ... ¬._+.. . »...+ + .... . ¬. .. . ... ¬._+.. .
+ ¸ .¡-.¬. .¸.¸- ¬. spreadsheet ¬- + operating
modes .... ., .-. Spreadsheet .. mode ,¸ ¬.,...+
. . · .-. ¬. -. ¸... -.+.-. spreadsheets . . ¬.,..-
operating mode .- ¸ .- .+ · Nat ¸ Seth - , ¸
.¸...+...- . ¸...-.
Dialogue
Nat : I showed you how an electronic spreadsheet
can easily keep records oI business expenses
by doing all the repetitious calculations - adding,
substracting, multiplying-automatically, quickly, and
accurately.
....¸... . -¸.. . .¸..+¸....-+ ¬·¬.·.+
·. ·. ¸.¸ ¸.¸ - - ++ ·. .... . - ±. .±. .
- +.+ ..- ¬..·. ¸.¸·.¸...¸.. ¬ ·+±, ¸.¸.
spreadsheet + . .. ...,.· . .¸ . + ¸ + ., -
.- -...-+ -. · · .·. -+ ±¸ .. .....
.. -.± -.+ ...+ ¸.. -..¸.
Seth : Yes, It's much better than using a ledger sheet
and constantly doing all that recalculating, eras-
ing, and changing.
-+ ¬+ ·. ...,+ ..-.±+ . .+...
.¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
.¸.-. ¸...-. ¬+ ¸.¸·_ - +.+ ¸...
.+¸.. .¸ .¸....·¸...¬..·.+ ¬.¸¬¸. ·....
.¸-. .·
Nat : This is very useIul when you are preparing a
budget and need to Iind out how much to price
a product or service in order to make a proIit.
-- + -. . + ¸.. ±. - ¬. . ¬· ¸ . ¬. .
.. .-. ¬¸.- ¬. ¸ .,, . ± - + ¸ .. _ .¸. ,
.¸ .±.. . · . .¸ .+ .... ¸ .-. .·.+ ......
.- . - .. ± -. . .. .. · ¬. - ¬.. .·_ .
¬·¸ ¬. ....-.
Seth : I do that all the time now. I have to keep
redoing my Iigures.
¬. -.. ¸ · . +¸ .-. ¸.¸· ..¸.-. +¸.-. , ¸
+¸ .¬¸..- + ¸.¸·_ ¸.¸· .. ± ¸ ... . ,...
Nat : Exactly, You decide to change $ 4 Ior some
plants. You estimate the number you will sell
and the cost Ior raising them. II you realize
that your proIits - your bottom line - are too low,
you change the price or the sales estimate.
¬-¬+.. ¬..¬.¸ ¸+ ¸ .¨·.¸ -¸. ....
.. -..± .¸.- ±..-. .. - ...,.. ... ¬.,
¬- + ¸ ¬ ¬.. .- . + .¸ .,- ¬- + + ¸ +
.,- .- + .. -.. .¸. ¸._+_ -. .. -.., ¸ ¬+¸ .
¬¸.- . ..¸_.-.· ..-...+,. ..-..
¬.¸¸ ....¸.+ .¸....· . .-. ..- .¸ . ¸ .
¬.,...+ .¸... .· ..-.
Seth : Then I recalculate everything. Now the computer
will do this.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .¸
Future Publishing House
¬ .¸.+ ¬,.,.- . .+ +¸ .-. ¸.¸ - + _+_ -.
¬. .-. ¬ + + ¸ .¡-.+ · . .-. .. .·
Nat : Yes. II you change the selling price to $ 4.50,
the computer will then change the gross sales
and net proIit amounts. II you change the
estimated number oI sales, the same thing will
happen.
. ¸.-. .,.. .....¸ .+ ¸¸. .¨·. ..-..
.¸... .,. + ¸ .¡-.+ ¬...-. ¬.,.. .¸ ¬...-.
¬¸.- ...¬+ .¸... .· . .. .¸ . ¸ . ±..-
¬.,.. ....¬+ .. - ...¸ ... .,. ¬·..-
¸...+. ..
Seth : You mean I can keep changing Iigures and
asking, "What iI I price the plants at X dollars
or Y dollars ?
+¸.¬¸..-+ .¸....·¸.. ¬...-+ X .¨·.
..- Y .¨·. ....¸ ..-. -,. -.¸...·
± -. ¬¸.....¸-.· ± · -.·..
Nat : Yes, the computer quickly changes all the other
Iigures, so you can Iind out what bottom line
will be.
- .-. ¬¸ ... + ¸ . ¬¸ . .- ¬.. · . +
+¸.¡-.+ ¬·.¬¸.¸ .¸....··+-. ¬
._+.. ¬¸.-¸. ,¬, . -.¸...· ± -. .. -.. . ...
..-...
Seth : Let's begin to put my budget Ior the next Iiscal
year in the spreadsheet.
Spreadsheet . . ·... -_..,.. . ¬- +
+¸.-. ,¸ --++ .-.±_ .. ._+.
Nat : Right, We'll look at some oI the basics that
.¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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you'll need to know to use the spreadsheet. We
have already talked about the rows, columns,
cells and cell addresses. You need to know that
spreadsheets operate in three diIIerent modes.
- ¸. Spreadsheet + ¬. .¸.¸. +¸ .-. - . , .
·¬... ¬.¸..¬.¸¸+ _+__+.. row .-
colunm .- cell .- cell ·....-¬._+.. .
+¸ .-. - .¸... _+¸. .¸. Spreadsheet .- .
+ ¸...¸...¸..- mode ¸ .¸ .¸ .±.. , + -.+ .. -..
. . ·.-.
Seth : What are they ?
¬.-+ -.·
Nat : They are the ready mode, the entry mode, and
the command mode.
¬ .- +.-. ready mode, entry mode ¸
command mode .- ¸...-.
Seth : I think I can guess what each is, but to be
sure, you'd better explain them.
-. ... -.·±-. +¸.-. .- ._+_. .-.
±.-. .... .....¬.. ..-.. , ..¸.-.+
..+.....
Terminology Review
1. bottom line : bottom line on a spreadsheet
(or worksheet) which usually shows net proIit or
loss.
spreadsheet ¸. , worksheet ..¨. bottom line .
¬...-. ¬¸.- ¸. , ¬, .+ ......¬..¸.. ¸..-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .¸
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2. gross sales : bookkeeping term Ior the total
amount oI sales made (usually stated in terms oI
dollars) beIore any expenses are substracted.
+¸+.,-¬.¸ ¸+ ....-.. ¸......¬..¸.. .¨·.¸..
¸..·, ..., .. .... ¬.,.. ....¬ ¸bookkeeping ¬..¨
¬..¨ ¸...-. ,
3. net profit : Bookkeeping term Ior the
amount oI money Irom sales remaining aIter all expenses,
but beIore taxes have been paid.
¬.¸¬..- ....... . + ¸ +., -¬..·. - +¸...¸.+
+¸ , - ¬.,.... .....¬ ¸¬...-. ¬¸.-, ¸Bookkeep-
ing ¬..¨¬..¨ ¸...-.,
  
.¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Spreadsheets and Operating Modes
(Part II)
»...+ + .... . ¬. ... ... ¬._+.. . ¸ »...+ + .... . ¬. ... ... ¬._+.. . ¸ »...+ + .... . ¬. ... ... ¬._+.. . ¸ »...+ + .... . ¬. ... ... ¬._+.. . ¸ »...+ + .... . ¬. ... ... ¬._+.. . ¸
+ ¸ .¡-.+ ¬. .¸.¸- ¬. spreadsheet , ¸ ¬.¸ .
+_. ¬· ¸ . +. ¸.¸ · .-. ¬. -. ¸... -.+.-.
Spreadsheet . . ¬.,..- operating modes .-, ¸ ¬.¸ .+_.
¸.. .-. Nat ¸ Seth - ,¸ .±.....¸ .+ -.¸.·+ .-.
Dialogue
Nat : Let's put a spreadsheet up on our screen. See
the box in the upper right corner ?
.. ., ¸ .+,. ..¨. . spreadsheet + -. _+_ ,.¬..
_.-+ .±.. ¬±+ ¸... . ..- ..·.+ .- ¸·..
Seth : Yes. It says "READY".
.-¸.-. "READY" · ¸..¸-.
Nat : Right. That box is the mode indicator. It will
tell you what operating mode you are in. When
you Iirst start a spreadsheet program, you are
in the Ready mode.
.+.. .¸. ¬ ..- .+.-. mode indicator . .. .
-. operating mode . . .,.+ .¸· ± -. ¬ +
.¸ ..· . .. Spreadsheet ., ,. + .. .
.-.- ¬. .... ready mode .. , .¸-.
Seth : It's ready and waiting Ior me to do something
with it, right ?
¬ . -. . -.,.¸.¸·.. ¬±. .. ¸.. .¸¸.. - +
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .,
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.....¸-. - -..¸.
Nat : Yes. When you Iirst start it up and when you
Iinish another operator, it goes into the Ready
mode. In this mode, you can move the cursor
to a cell into which you will be entering data.
- .-. .. . ¬ + .·.-¬.¸ .¸.+ ±.
.¬...,.,. .¸....-¬. ¬ + Ready mode +
...-. mode .. ..... cursor + ±·
-..±. .,¸·....-. ¬±·±.. ....
¬.+¬·++ .. .,· ...
Seth : I now want to get into the Entry mode. How
do I do that ?
+¸ .-. ¬. Entry ± + . .... -. ¬ -. ·
·.,.·
Nat : It's easy. You just begin to type in what you
want. But there are two basic types oI entries
that you can make, known as values and
labels. The mode indicator will say 'VALUE' or
'LABEL' when you are in the Entry mode.
¬ ¬· ..·.. .. . ¬· ,-.+ Type ,+¸..
.· + ,. .... values ¸ labels · ·. ...-
...·. . .- ¬.¸.. entries ...¸., -. mode
indicator + .. . Entry mode .. , - ¬. VALUE
¸. , LABEL + ..¨·. ..
Seth : I guess value would be numbers and labels
words ?
values + ¸.-.-¸..¸. . labels + .+..· ..-
¸..·. ..· . ±.-. -.·..
Nat : Right. II you are in the Ready mode and press
a letter key, the letter will appear in the active
.. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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cell. It is the cell that your pointer or cursor in
on. Press a letter.
.¬. .... Right mode ,¸. . letter key +
. . · + ,. letter . Active cell . . ..¨·.· . ..
Active cell ± -. .. ., ¸ pointer ¸. , cursor , .¸-
cell .¸.. -. Letter -. ·.+ . . · +.
Seth : Look, what you called the mode indicator
changed Irom "READY" to "LABEL". The
letter appears above the worksheet.
_+_ · + .. .. .. . ..¨±..- mode indicator .
"READY" . "LABEL" . .¸... .. -. .¸. letter
+ worksheet ¬..¨.. ..¨·.-.
Nat : Right. You are in the Entry mode Ior labels.
You can enter words now. They will go into the
active cell when you press Return. Even iI you
press a number, the computer would consider it
as just part oI the label. You cannot move the
pointer or cursor to another cell. So you acti-
vate the label Entry mode by pressing a letter.
.+.. .¸. label .- ¬- + Entry mode ± . . , .¸¸.
... ¬. word .- + enter .· .· ,¸. ... Re-
turn + press · .- ¬. word .-. Active
cell ± + . ..· . .. ¸ .- -. . + .. .
. . ,. .-.. . + ¸ . ¡-.+ ¬ + label , ¸
¬.- ¬. ..¬.¸¸ . ±·... .. .¬.¸¸ pointer
¸., cursor + .¸.+±. ±·-. . .+ ..,¸. .-.
._+.. letter + press · .¸... ¬..¸.. label
entry mode + active ¸...¬.. ·. · ,-.
Seth : So how do I get out oI this mode ?
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .¸
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·± ,. mode +.¸ . -.·±+ ,.·
Nat : When you Iinish entering your label, you press
the Return key. This will take you back to the
Ready mode Irom any other mode.
...,¸ label enter ·.-. ¸....- ¬. Return key
+ press · . . ¬ + ¬¸... mode -. . . . Ready
mode + ...± ¸.¸..¨. ..·. ..
Seth : I did, and I see that the mode indicator says
"READY" again. Now, I think I can guess how
to get into the value Entry mode. Just press a
number. I'll do it. Right! The mode indicator
changed to "VALUE".
+¸ .-.·. ¸..¸. +¸ .-. ¸.. -.+ mode indica-
tor + "READY" · ±. ¸. . ¸..¸-. ¬. +¸ .-.
.- .. -.+ value Entry mode + -. ·
.,.+ .¬.. . ...· ± -... ¸ .- -. . +
+¸.-. press · .· + .. .¸ -..¸. mode
indicator + value + .¸..... ..¸.
Nat : Very good. That is one way to get into the
value Entry mode. But there are three types oI
values that you can enter. II you press a
number-Iirst, you are in the numeric value
Entry mode.
. . .+.. .-.. . value Entry mode + .,.+
. ¸_ .·. .-. . . .... .. . enter · . . . - value
+ ¸ .¸ . , -. .¸. ¸ .- + .. . .±.¸ .± . . . · + ,.
.. .. numeric value Entry + .,.+...¸.
Seth : What are the other two value Entry modes?
.¸.+ ±. value Entry mode ...¸.+ -..-·
Nat : Remember we talked about Iormulas and Iunc-
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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tions, which are a shorthand way oI writing
Iormulas ?
... ¸.¡·..-¸ ...¸.¡·..-+ ¬-.+.+.,.-
Iunction .-+ - .± ..... -. .. ..-,·..
Seth : Yes. Are those the other value Entry modes ?
.¬. ¬ .-+ ¬¸... value Entry mode .-
. --.·..
Nat : Yes, to activate the Iormula mode, you enter a
leIt parenthesis Iirst or a math symbol. Then
you can put in a Iormula.
- -. .· Iormula mode + active ¸.. .
-.-+ parenthesis ¸., math ¬.-¬...+
.±.±. enter · .. ¸...-. Iormula ±.. ...
±_ . . ¸.
Seth : The total will change whenever I change any
oI the numbers in the cells?
± · . ., - ¸ .- -. . . .¸... .· - ¬.- . .
.. ....+ .¸....·.....·..
Nat : Yes. And when you have Iinished entering the
Iormula that you want in the active cell, you
push the Return key and you are back in the
Ready mode.
-.-. Active cell ± . . ..-..¬· , -
...¸.¡·. enter ·.-. ¸... .. ..- ¬. Returen
key + . . · + ,. Ready mode ± ¸.¸ .,.+ . ..¸.
Terminology Review
1. active cell : ¬ ·+ ±.,.¸. spreadsheet ..¨,
cell .. .± ·. . ¬.+¬·+ ¸ labels . . - values
.-, .. ·.· ...
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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2. Cursor (pointer) : ..,¸ entry ..¨·... .¸,.+ ¸.-
screen ..¨+ ¬. - ¬... + ¸ .¡-. ¬. ¬.¸ .- .
.+,... ¬·. ·. .¸- .¸,.+ ...¸.. cursor + ¬..¸.¸
_+-.
3. Entry mode : Spreadsheet ,¸ ·..¸ . .±.. , + -
mode ¸¸, .¸ .± + -. . mode . . .. ¬.¸¸ .+..· ..-
labels ¸. , values ¸¸ .- ... ... ¸.¡·.... ¬. - ¬. . ....,
-. . . - -. . active cell ± . .. . . -.
4. mode indicator : Operating mode .- ..·..¸-.
+¸.- spreadsheet ., ,. .... ... .+,. ,¸ _.-+.±..
..¨. .±.. .¸. .¬.¸ ..- .
5. Ready mode : ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. spreadsheet ¬. ...
¬- + operating mode ... ¬¸+ -. .
6. Return Key : + ¸ .¡-. + .- - ¬..· ...¨. . . . .
¬. .¸.¸- key
  
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¯,
Spreadsheets and Command Modes
»...+ + .... . ¬. ¸ .... ... »...+ + .... . ¬. ¸ .... ... »...+ + .... . ¬. ¸ .... ... »...+ + .... . ¬. ¸ .... ... »...+ + .... . ¬. ¸ .... ...
+¸.¡-... spreadsheet + ¬..¸.¸-¬. Operating
mode ¬..._+., - ¬¸+ command mode .· ¬.,..-
-..¸,... , .¸.-. command ¸.- .+· Seth ¸ Nat
- ,¸ .± .....¸ .+ -. ¸.· +.-.
Dialogue
Seth : How do I enter Iunction ?
Function .- + +¸ .-. -.· enter ·.,.·
Nat : You press the "¸" symbol Iirst and then the
Iunction. The Iunction Ior addition is SUM, as
you know. So to enter the Iunction Ior the
Iormula mentioned previously, you would type
"¸ SUM (B1 - B5)". By the way, that symbol is
called the "at" symbol.
¸ ..+ -+ .. -.. .±.± .. . ¸. ..¸.+ Iunction
+ . .. ..-... -¬-.. ....¸.. . Iunction +
SUM ¸...-. ._+.. ¬,.-¸.+ ...¸.. -
... ¸.¡·.¬- + Iunction + enter · . . "¸ SUM
(B1 - B5)" + type , +,·. .. ¸ .+.....
¬..+-+ 'at' ..+-· ..¨-.
Seth : Yes, It stands Ior the word "at". OK, that
takes care oI the Entry mode with label and
value, which can be numeric, Iormula, or
Iunction. And I know about the Ready mode.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
You spoke oI another mode, the command
mode, I think.
- .-. ¬ at .+..·.+ + . ...¸.¸-.
OK . label ¸ value .,- Entry mode +
-..¸ . -. ¬ . + ¸ .¬¸ .¸.. . . -.
...¸.¡·.¸.. ..-. ¸..-, Iunction ¸... .
-. ¸...-. Ready mode ¬._+...+ . .¸.
..-... .¸.+±. mode -..¸..- command
mode + .¸..±.¸-.· . ±.-.
Nat : Right. To get into the command mode, you
press the Diagonal key (1). Try it.
.+...¸. Command mode ,, ... Diagonal key
(1) + press ·._+_ .
Seth : Oh, a series oI words appeared at the top oI
the worksheet. And the mode indicators says
"MENU". I expected it to say "COMMAND".
¬. .+..·..., .. worksheet ,¸±... ..¨·.
-. mode indicator + "MENU" · ¸.-.
¬+ "COMMAND" · ..¨. +¸.-. ... ·.
±..-.
Nat : When you are in the command mode, the mode
indicator says "MENU" because that is the name
Ior the list oI words you see at the top oI the
worksheet. The words listed are commands that
you can perIorm. The Iirst menu you see is the
main menu. You select the command you want
by pressing the Iirst letter oI the word. For Iile,
you would press "F".
..-... command mode + ¸.¸·. .¸.¸ mode
indicator . MENU + ¸.-. -.._+.. ·
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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±.-. ¬ . worksheet ,¸± ... ..-..¸..-
.+..· ...,..¬-+ ¬._.¸.. .-. .+..·.
..,. ..- . .. -..· . .±.. . . - command .- .
¸...-. .±.± . ..-..¸..- menu + main
menu .¸.. -. .+..·.,¸ .±..+..·.+ . .
· + ¸...¸.. ..-..¬·,- command + .,...
. File ¬-+±,. ..-... F + . .,· . ..
Seth : The original menu was replaced by another menu.
. · menu + .¸.+±. menu ¸ ¬...± .·
,.-.
Nat : Right, This is a submenu. You have nine com-
mands in the main menu. Nearly all oI them
have submenus.
. ¸.-. ¬. submenu .. main menu . .
command ¸¸,. , -. ¬..· .¸ .... . submenu .-
,-.
Seth : Some oI the commands seem obvious, such as
Quit or Print Others are not so clear.
¬.¸ ¸ command .-+ ...±., ...,-. Quit
¸. , print · ..¸ ... ¬¸... command .- +.-.
..¸.. .¸.-...·- .
Nat : Well, you will learn them all soon, the worksheet
command, Ior example, lets you change the
appearance oI your worksheet.
.+...¸. ._+.. ¬ ¬..· .+ .. -.. .· ·.,
·... ¸...¬..¸.. worksheet command .
worksheet ,¸ ¬.. ¬¸.. + .¸....·.. -.
Seth : In What way ?
-.·¸_.·...·.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
Nat : In many ways. Most oIten you will want to
change the size oI the cells. You can change
the depth and the width to make them just
about any size you want. This is helpIul iI you
are working with very large numbers or iI you
want to put a long message in one cell.
¸_ .·. ..... . , .-. .. -..¬.¸¸ _+ . .¸
..... cell .- ,¸ ¬,.¬...+ .¸... .·,. ..
¬· , ,. ¬, . ¬... ¬- + ¬± ¸ ¬¸ +
.¸ ... .· . . -. .. - ... ¬· ¸ _ + ....-
¸ .- .- ¸ ¬· . · . ,. ¬ + + _ ... cell
-. . . . , _ ·..- message ±_ .. ,. ·_ .
¬ + + _. ..
Seth : I can put message in a cell ?
± ·-. ... message .- +¸.-. ±_ . ..
.·..
Nat : Sure, when you are in the label Entry mode.
Most oI the time you will be entering only a
label, but you can enter a message as long as
you want in a cell.
¬..¬.... label Entry mode .. ..-.. , -
¬... ¬.¸.-..-. ........ ..-... label
-. . .... enter ·..¸. .. .... ± ·-. . . .
_+¸+ ..·.+ _+._+. message -..+ enter
· .. . -.
Seth : I can see that I will be getting a lot oI use out
oI these spreadsheets.
¬ spreadsheet .- ¸ + ¸ .-. ¬. .._ + .
¬. .¸.¸,· ...± -. +¸.-. ... -.
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Terminology Review
1. command mode : ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. spreadsheet
¬.... ¬-+ .¬...,.-.. mode ... ¬¸+ -..
2. Diagonal (1) : _..++ ..¸- short slanted
line
3. main menu : Command ...,¸ .±. ..,..
¸., Spreadsheet .. ...±..- choice .-,¸ .±.± .
..,. .
4. submenu : Main menu . item -. .¸.+
.,... ¸...¸.+ spreadsheet .,,.± -. ...±.....
.,....,.... ¸. , command ..,..
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,, ¬.¸ . ¸,,
Business Graphs (Part I)
. .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ...
+¸.¡-. ,....¸. . ... ...,.¬.,. ....- ¬-+
¬· ¸ ¬. ... .-. + . ¬ , ¸ logo » . ..- Letter Head .-
...,.._+..,.¬.+¬·+.-+ -.¸.-¬. + ¸.¡-.,...
+ ¬. .¸.¸_+.-. ¬. -. ¸... -.+.-. .-. .¬.+
¬·+ ¸InIormation,.-+ ... ...,.·..¸.±.,. ,.....
¸Business Graphs,.,.± -.¸.¸...¸.-.+· Hiro ¸ Evita
-,¸ .±.....¸..±.¸_+.... ¸.. .-.
Dialogue
Hiro : Ms. Evita Gomez ? I understand that you want
to know how computer graphics can help your
company.
..¬ - -. ..+ ¸» ,·.. + ¸ .¡-.,. .. .- .
.. -..,¸ + . ¬+ -. · +_. . .· · ..-..
...-. ± -. +¸.-. ¸..·_ .-.
Evita : Yes, Mr. Yamasaki. We have heard a lot about
graphics. The company president asked me to
see iI they are something we can use. We use
computers now oI course, Ior word and data
processing.
- .-. .. -.....±.+ +¸ .- . ,. ..
¸ .-.+· ¬..._+ . _+... ¸...¸. ¬ .-+
+¸.- -. . -.,. ¬. .¸.¸. . .·.. ± -. _+_ .
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
+.¬¸+¸+ +¸.+ .¸....-. -+. .-.
+¸.-. .....,+¸.. . ¬.+ ¬·+.- ,+.
¬-+ + ¸.¡-..-+ ¬..¸.¸_+.-.
Hiro : Graphics is simply inIormation in the Iorm oI
pictures or images. There are many ways in
which businesses can use graphics.
,....-. ,. ..- ¸. , ., ..- ..¬.¸¸,-
, ., ..-. .¬.+¬·+ .-.. . .. ...,.·. .¸ .
.-+ ,....-+ ¬..¸.¸..- ¸_.·.......
, .-.
Evita : Could you give me some examples ?
¸...¬.¸¸+ +¸.+ .¸..¸.. ...·..
Hiro : Sure. A business could use computer graphics
to create a company logo. Also, your company
letterhead is a Iorm oI graphics. Its appearance
tells people something about your company. You
can use a computer to change it in whatever
way you wish.
.¸... . -... . .. ...,.· . .¸ .-. . . + . ¬
-± . ¬.-¬...-.. .¸- .. +¸ .¡-.,...
.- + ¬. .¸.¸...-. ¸...-. ..-..+. ¬ ,¸
... .........· ,. .. » . ., ¸ . .-. . ..
¬,¸ ¬.. ¬¸..+ .. -..+.¬¬._+... -..
-. ,.+ · .- ¬.. .¸..¸..-. .. -..¬.¸¸
¬· , - ¸_ .¸ ¬ + .¸... .· . + ¸ .¡-.+
¬. .¸.¸...-.
Evita : But would it be worth the expense to buy a
computer graphics system only Ior these things.
.... ¬+ ..-¬-+ + ¸ .¡-.,... .¸.
-. . .. ± +, ¸·..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
Hiro : II your company publishes a lot oI reports
graphics would be very helpIul. Graphics would
also help you to create blueprints oI engineering
or mechanical designs.
..-..,¸ +. ¬ . ¬.,.... ¬..._+. ±-..,.
,....-. ¬·¸¬....·... ¬..¸..
.. .- ¸., .+.. ..±.,. »...- .¸-..·_.
,... .-+ +_.·...
Evita : Well, we don't do any oI those things.
- ., ¸ ¬ .- -.-. . . +¸.- .· . . _+- .
Hiro : You could use graphics to create and up date
your company organizational chart, which is a
graphic or visual view oI how your company is
organized.
.. -..¬.¸¸ .. -..+. ¬. ¸._ ..»...+ .¸ -.. ¸
.¸.+±.¬.¸.¬.¸ ,,. ,. ...-+ ¬..¸.¸..
-. ».... .. -..+.¬+ -.· .._ .±..
-.±-. ¸.- ,...» .. ¸. , .+.¸ ¸....-
¸..+... ¸...-.
Evita : We would update our organizational chart only
when changes made it necessary.
.¸....· . ¸.¸· . . · ¬. - ¬.... +¸ .- ,¸
. ¸._.. »...+ .¸.+ ± .¬.¸.¬.¸,.¬.. ·. ,
.... .¸.
Hiro : Does your company hold many meetings ? For
example, do you have sales meeting at which a
lot oI statistical inIormation on sales and proIit
is given ?
..-..,¸+ .¬+ ¬._.¬......... ¸.¸·..·..
¸...¬..¸.. ¬.,...¸¬¸.-¬. ¸ .+ ... ¸.- +¸.
.. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬¸.±. ,. .-..¬.+¬·+ ¬...¬¸....,-
¬.,... ¬._.¬....- , .·..
Evita : Yes, our sales staII meets every three months.
And we have annual budget reviews with all
divisions. A lot oI Iinancial inIormation must be
exchanged at these meetings. And there are
monthly production meetings when we review
quality, costs, and timelines.
,.-. +¸.-, ¸ ¬.,....¸±...-. ¸ ·
-. _+ . .- ¸± _+.-. ¸. ..-. ¸.¸¬..· .¸
. ..¸ --+......-· ¸.¸·..-. ¬
¬._ .¬....- . . .. ._+.± . ,. .-. .¬.+
¬·+ ¬.¸..+¬¸...+ .·._+.-. ¸...-.
+¸.- . ¬,_¬... +¸+.,-.-¸ ¬.¸
+..- ....-¬. ·.¸+¸±-·.. ¬._.
¬....- ¸.¸·. _+.-.
Hiro : Graphics are a way to present inIormation -
particularly numbers eIIectively and in a way
that can be easily understood. Business presen-
tation graphics is one oI the major uses oI
computer graphics.
,....-. ¬±..¸.. ¸ .-.-+ ±±.,.+
.,.+ -. ¸.- .-. .¬.+ ¬·+ + ... ¸.-
¸_.·.. -.. .. ¸_.·. .+.-. · .·. -+
¸..·_. .-... ......,.· ..¸.±. ,. -.¸.-
,... +.-. +¸ .¡-.,... .- ¬.+ ¬. .¸.¸.
.-± + -. ...
Evita : What do you mean by business presentation
graphics ?
......,.·..¸.±.,. -.¸.- ,....- ±-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .
Future Publishing House
,.-.+ ±·-.·
Hiro : These are graphics created by the computer to
communicate the kind oI inIormation usually
given at business meetings. Most computer to-
day can use color, and with color you can
create very good-looking easy-to-read graphics.
......,.±.,. ¬._ .¬....- . . ......¬..¸..
....·,- .-. .¬.+¬·+.¸.+ ±+ ...
,....-+ +¸.¡-.¸ .¸-._+-. ..¸..-
+ ¸ . ¡-. ¬.... . ¬.,.. + ¬. .¸.¸ -.
¬.,.. ¸ ¬· ¸ _+_ .+.. .¸. . .- . · . + -
,....-+ .¸ -....-.
Terminology Review
1. Business presentation graphics : . . . .. .,. ± . ,.
¬._ .¬...... ¸¬.,... +¸+., - .. .., . . ....·
, - .-. .¬. + ¬·+ ¬. ¸ .¬...+ ±+ . . .
+¸.¡-.+.¸-.- ,... ». ....
2. data processing : + ¸ .¡-...¨, ¬.+ ¬·+ ¸. ,
.-. .¬.+ ¬·+ + . . .±_ .¸.. . ¬.¸ .¬... . ¸...
.¸... .· ¸.. .. . . . .. ¸ ¸.. . ¬. .¸.¸.¸+ + ¸ .¡-. . . .¸ .¬¸+
-. . .¸.+ + ¸ .¡-.+.-. ... .., + ¬- + ¬. .¸.¸.-.
3. graphics : ,. ... -..... · . .... »......¬ . . +
... ¸.- .-. .¬.+ ¬·+ ...+ .+ . ¸.. ¸.. ,- -. ¸.¸.. .
4. organizational chart : ¬._¸ ,.±..- + box .- ¸
±+±..¸...¸.. ¬.¸¬._.-. .,¸ ¬..±.. .-¸ ¬·.
.....-, ¸ ±+...+ ...¸.±..- ,... ». ...
  
.¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸., ¬.¸ . ¸.,
Business Graphs (Part II)
. .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... ¸ . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... ¸ . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... ¸ . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... ¸ . .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ,. . ... ¸
. .. ...,.· . .¸ .± . ,. ¬._ .¬....- . . .-. .
¬.+ ¬·+ .- + + ¸ .¬¸ ..- ¸ ... ¸._+.· , .-.
¬._.¬....-. . ±+ ...,. - .-+.¬- + + ¸ .¡-.
,....- + ¬..¸.¸.-. .+¸.. ¬.±.+¬+ .._..-
¸visual aids,.- + ¬. .¸.¸_+.· , .-. ¬ .- ¸ .- .+ ·
Evita ¸ Hiro - ,¸ .±.....¸.+ -.¸.·+.-.
Dialogue
Evita : Well, at all our meetings we must give inIorma-
tion in numbers and oIten show the relationship
oI these numbers: total sales this year com-
pared to last year, sales in one area compared
to another, production costs, and so on. We use
visual aids whenever possible.
.+.. .¸. +¸ .- , ¸ ¬._ .¬....- ¬..· .. .
+¸.-. .-. .¬.+¬·+.- + ¸.- ¸+¸.
¬¸ .,.-¸ ..._+,¸. . -. .-. , .. ¬ + ¸ .
¬¸ ..-, ¸ ±+...+ ¸.,.-. .. . .....
¬.,.. .+ ¸. .. - . . +¸ . . .. ¸ -..¸ . .¸,.
¸.,..,-. .. ¬.,..+ .¸.+-..¸,.¸ . ...¸
-..¸ . ± - · . . + ¸ +., - .- .._ ¸.. ..
¸.. . . - ¬.- . .. . +¸ .- . .+ . ¸ ¬+
.._ ..- ¬. .¸.¸_+-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .¸
Future Publishing House
Hiro : By visual aids, do you mean slides, photos,
movies, transparencies and that kind oI things?
.+ . ¸ ¸.. . . - ¬+ ¬_ .._ ..- ± -. ..-..± ·
-.+ ±·+.- ..- ..- , . ,. ».-+...-
¬,..-¸.-+ ± .....+¸.. ¸.. ,-..¸ ..-·..
Evita : Yes, we use these aids when we can aIIord it
and have the time. Having slides prepared
costs a lot oI money and takes a lot oI time.
- .-. +¸ .- -- . . ¸. . ¬. ¸ , - ¬.
¬+ .._ ..- + ¬. .¸.¸_+.-. ±· +.-
¸..±.,-.. .. +¸ ._+.+...¸. . ¬.¸.-. .-.
...,.-.
Hiro : I think you can use computer graphics to
improve your communication at meetings. With
computers, you can create slides easily and
cheaply. We'll talk more about that later. But
good graphics can save time at meetings be-
cause they allow you to show a great amount
oI inIormation in a way that people can under-
stand easily and quickly.
¬._.¬....-.. ..-..,¸ ±+...,. -.-+.
+ ¸.¡-.,....- ¬..¸.¸..-.· ±..-.
+ ¸ .¡-..- ¸ ±· + .- + · . ·. -+ ¸
.. ..+ .+ .... .¸ - .. . -... + . +
.¸.+ .-. +¸ .-. - .¸.._+.. .¸. ....
,. .. .+.. ..- . ¬._ .¬....- . . ¬. ¸ +
.+ ..... . -. -.._ +.. · ± .-.
¬ .- . · .- ·.·. -+ ¸ ¸.¸ ¸.¸ ±¸ ±¸
¸..·_ . . - ¸_ .·. .¸ .-. .¬. + ¬·+
¬.¸..+¬¸...+ ¸.. .... . -. .·
.¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Evita : Exactly how ?
-.·......· ± -. -- ++ .¸...¸.
Hiro : With a computer graphics program, anyone with
a little training can create graphs and charts.
+ ¸ . ¡-.,. .. ., ,. ¸ .. -¸ .¬¸_ ...
-+±..- ·-....+. ,....-¸ »....-
+ .¸-.. .·.
Evita : Wouldn't you need to know design, or at least
how to change numbers into graphics ?
, . ¬.¸¸ » . ..- . . .· - .·.. . . -
+ ¸.¬¸ ..- + ,. . .- ¬¸.. -.· .¸... .·
,.· ± -. ¬¸_.±. .±... .·¬.-.·..
Hiro : No. That's the value oI computers. They do all
the work. For example, suppose that your sales
manager wanted to create a bar graph compar-
ing annual sales Ior the past Iive years as well
as projected sales Ior the next ten years.
.· ¬. .- . . + ¸ .¡-..- , ¸ -¸ . ...
. - . ¬· .¬..· .· . _+-. ¸....¸..,,.
..-..,¸ ¬.,....¸ .¸.+ · ¸.- .... + ...¸
¬.,...¸ ·... ±. . . ¬- . . ..¸±..- ¬.,...
+ . ...¸¸.- -..,... -. . .¸- ... -..¸ ...
Evita : Well, iI the graph were not too complicated, his
secretarial assistant might be able to do it.
.+...¸..· ,...-. .,..±...±,. .,¸
¬- . ..,.. ¡.·+ .±.+ + .- · . . . -... .¸.
Hiro : With a computer, he or his assistant could do it
easily, no matter how complicated the numbers
were. All they need to do is put the numbers
in.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .¸
Future Publishing House
+¸.¡-.-.·.¸ . .. - .·+.±.+.
¬ + · . ·. -+ · .. ..-. + ¸ .¬¸. .-
-..·.+,. .±..... + .., .-. .-·..
· ¬. -.¬..· .+ + ¸ .¬¸ ..- + ¸ .¡-.±
±_......
Evita : The numbers we would be using are already
stored in the computer because they are in the
weekly, monthly and other reports Irom sales
people and department heads.
+¸.- ¬. .¸.¸.¸,.. +¸.¬¸ ..-+ + ¸ .¡-.
± . . ¬±. .. . . .±..¸. ..¸. -.._+.. · ± .-.
¬ ¬¸ ..- + ¬.,.. ..¸ ±. ..- ¸ ¸.¸¬_+ .
¬+ .-±. ,,- ¬.- .¸ ·.¸¸ ¬¸...¬.,..
...- ¸..·..
Hiro : Now you are really beginning to understand the
power oI a computer. The computer could pick
up the required numbers Irom these reports
and then do the necessary work to create a
bar graph, Ior example, based on the numbers.
¬.± ,. ..-..¬.¸¸ +¸.¡-.,¸ .. .¬..+ ¬.¸
-+. .-.¸..·_·.¸..¸. +¸.¡-.. ¬.
,.....- . · ¬.- +¸ .¬¸..- + .·+. .¸..
¸...¬..¸.. + ¸.¬¸..- + ¬.¸.. - -..,..
-. . .¸- .. · ¬.- ¬·..- · ... -...
.¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Terminology Review
1. bar graph : .¸ .¸.¸.-...- ¸., .±... ¸ ¸¬...±.
+.-. .±..·+, -...- ¸ ¸.¸·. ±..- ,.. -..
.-,¸ ¬,_ ¬·..+ - +- -¸ ...- ¸+¸ .¬¸..-,¸
±+.. .¸-.
2. graph : · .·.-+ ¸..·_. .- ,... . .-
¸.. -. ,.. .- . + ¸...¸...¸..- -¸ ...- + ... ¸..
.¸ .· ...- -...- ¸ .+. ...- ¬..¸.¸¸.. .¸ +¸.¬¸.
±.,. ¬.+ ¬·+ .-+ ...¸..-.
3. slides : ¬,..- ¸.- + ...+ ¸. .¸.. ,- .·.
..¨.. +..,.¸ ..- ., +·+- ,... .¸.. .-. .
· ¬... ·.·. -+ _+_,. .. _+ ....- .+,. ..¨. .
¸... .. . ¸.. .-. ¸slides + -. .-., transparen-
cies · ..¨.-.,
4. visual aids : slides ¸. , transparencies .- · ¸... . ,¸
.¸ - .. . - ,. .. ¬.¸ .¬... ¬..· .¬- + ..- .
¬..¨¬..¨ ¸...-.
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Graphics-producing Equipment
,. .. ± - · . .,. + , .. ,. .. ± - · . .,. + , .. ,. .. ± - · . .,. + , .. ,. .. ± - · . .,. + , .. ,. .. ± - · . .,. + , ..
+¸.¡-.,... + .±..,+-¬. ¬ ,...+ ±+
, .¬.. .±.. , + - .._ .+ , ...- +·_ . ¬.,..-.
+¸.¡-.,¸ output .. Display ¸ hard copy . ·¸.. ¬.,.
_+.·.-. ¸...-. graphics card .-¬._+... .±...
·¬..-. Hard copy ¸ soIt copy - ,¸ + .¸....++
..· ¬.,._+.¸.¸.-. ¬. -.¸...-.+.-. graphics
producing equipment .- ¸ .-.+· Evita ¸ Hiro - ,¸
.±... ..¸.. ¸.. .-.
Dialogue
Evita : Sometimes I think computers are just too
complicated.
-. .-. , . . + ¸ .¡-..- . ¬· ¸ . , . .± .
· -.· +¸. ±. .-.
Hiro : I can understand why you Ieel that way. But
once you have mastered a Iew basic ideas,
they are not so hard. To get the right computer
graphics program Ior your needs you should be
aware oI the diIIerence between display and
hard copy.
¬· ..-.. -.._+.. . ...,.·± -. +¸.-.
¸..·_ . . .-. .... .. -... ¬.¸..
¬. .. ¬¸_...+ +. .+... ..±...,. ¬
.. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
.-+ ..+· .- . ..-..· ¬.. ¬- + .¸+¸-
+¸.¡-.,. ...,,. + ,,. ..-.. ¬.¸¸ dis-
play ¸ hard copy ¬_ +.. + .¸ ... . +
.±.... .-.
Evita : I suppose by hard copy that you mean the
printout or the graphic or slide iI I use the
computer to create a slide.
-+. · +¸ .. + ¸ .¡-.+ slide -. . .¸- ..
¬. .¸.¸,. , .± · - hard copy + printout ¸.,
,... ¸. , slide ¸..-. · +¸.±. -.
Hiro : That's right. Display reIers to what you see on
the screen. You could call it soIt copy. Both the
hard copy and soIt copy are Iorms oI output
on a computer.
¬ .¸.-. Display + .+,...¨. . ..-..
-.¸.. .· ± -.+ ,_ ¸ ¸ .-. .. -..¬.¸¸
¬+ .±...+. . · ..¨..-. .· hard copy
¸ soIt copy .. ..· .. +¸.¡-...¨+ output
. ..- . ¸...-.
Evita : I'm not sure I understand what the diIIerence
is. What I see on the screen is what I will
print out. I mean the content and appearance
oI the display should be the same as the hard
copy.
-.+ .¸ ...· · ± -. + ¸ . ¸..·_ -. ·
.....- . .+,. ..¨.. +¸. -.¸.. .· ±-.
+¸. -.+ print out ·..·± -... display
,¸.... ¸ ¬..¬¸.. . hard copy ¸ ¬- -.
¸.....-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... .¸
Future Publishing House
Hiro : Yes, most oI the time, but not always. Some-
times you cannot see on the screen what you
will get on the printer. Sometimes you cannot
get on the printer what you see on the screen.
.¸ .-. ¬. ¸ ¬..... ..-. ¬- - .. ....
¬¸. .-. . - - ..¸. -. .-. , .,. -.. . .. -..
,-.+ .+,.. . .¸.. . .- . -..-.,.-.
.+,...¨.. .. -..¸.. ,-.+ .,. -... .,..-.
Evita : Please explain that.
.+.» .¸.¸¸.. ¬+ , ..¸.....
Hiro : First, let me explain about not seeing on the
screen what you will get on the printer. Many
word processing programs allow you to Iormat
characters, such as bold Iace, italics, and un-
derline, which are a Iorm oI graphics. It you
have a monitor that cannot show graphics, you
also will not see character Iormats even though
your printer might be able to print them.
.±.¸ .± . .,. -...¨. . .. - ..,.. .+
.+,...¨.. .¸..,-.+ ,..¸..,.. ... .., +
., ,. ¬..... Iormat ..· ..-+ ..¸.¸-.
..· ..- + ..· .¸+ ..· ..... .¸ .¸ ....
¸.. ..- ¸.. ¸. . ¬ .- . ,. .. , ¸ . . -. .¸ .
¸.. .-. ,. .. .- + .¸.- ... ¸ -.-. · .
.. - ... ., ,. .,. -.+ .,. · . . . -..-..
character Iormat .-+ ..-..¸.. ,.. .-- .
Evita : Isn't it better to be able to see what will be
printed out ?
-.+ print out ·..·± -. ¸.. ..,. ...+...
-.·..
. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
Hiro : Absolutely. So check when buying a monitor to
see whether it can operate in a graphics mode-
that will accept a graphics card.
·... ¸.-. .-. ...¸ -.-. · . .. - ¬.
¬ ,....¸,±.. .±.. ,+·,.·.. ±-.
...±._+_ , . ,. ... ¸,+ ,. ..+.- +
·+.·...
Evita : What's a graphics card ?
,...¸. ,++ -.·
Hiro : It's a plastic card that can be used in your
computer. When you attach equipment to your
computer, oIten you must install a card to run
it. You should be aware that there are diI-
Ierent cards Ior monitor.
¬ .. -.., ¸ +¸ .¡-.. . ¬..¸.¸. .- .·-.-.
+¸.... .. _ .+, ..+ + ¸ .¡-.. . - .+ - ¬.
+¸...-..+ ¬·.·.. ._+..¬ -.±..·
,-. ...¸-..-¬- + + ¸...¸...¸..- +¸...
.-,-. .±....-.
Evita : And I should get a graphic card ?
,... +-..+ +¸. . ±......·..
Hiro : Yes, it you want your monitor to display graphics.
. ±.... .-. .. -..... ¸ -.+ ,. .. ¸..
±.,,...
Evita : OK. But we've been talking about what I see
or don't see on the monitor. You also said that
I can't be sure that what I do see on the
monitor is what will be printed out. What did
you mean by that ?
¬ .+ .... ... ¸ -...¨. . -.¸.. -.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·...
Future Publishing House
-..¸.. - .± -.. +¸ .- .¸..± .¸_+-.
,. .¸.....-.+ ...¸ -...¨ -.¸..-. ±-.
.....- .±-. -.+ print out · ..· ·
¬ ,.-.+ ±·-.·
Hiro : The simplest way to understand it is to think
about having a colour monitor on which you
can show graphics, or text, in diIIerent colors.
¬ + ¸..·_ . ¬, ... .± .¸_ .·..+ .,.. .
...¸-. -.· ., . .¸ ...... ¬...¸-...¨. .
..-.. ,....- ......-+ .,... ¸...-.
Evita : I think I understand what you're saying. We
have colour monitors, but our printers do not
print color.
,. .¸...¸-.+ +¸. ¸..·_-. · ±..-.
+¸.-. .,... ...¸-..- ,.... +¸ .- , ¸
.,.-..- . ¬.,..+ print .·._+-.
Hiro : Exactly. Your display and hard copy are diIIer-
ent. Your monitor can show color, but printer
cannot print color. Another example is iI your
computer system has graphics capabilities, you
will see the characters displayed as italics on
your monitor. Your hard copy shows these
Iormats depend on the capabilities oI your
printer.
¬- ¬+.. .. -..,¸ display ¸ hard copy .
+¸...¸...¸...-. .. -..,¸ ...¸ -.+ ¬.,..+
¸.-. .... .,. -.+ .,... .,..· . -.
.¸.+ ¸...-. . + .. -.., ¸+ ¸ .¡-. .¸. . .
,... ....±......-,,. ..-..,¸...¸-...
..· ......¬.¸¸ ¸..- ..·..-+ .-¸·. ..
¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
..-..,¸ hard copy + .. -..,¸.,. -.¸ . . ..±..
.. ..-..¨ .-_- ¬ Iormat .-+ ¸.-.
Terminology Review
1. bold face : + ¸.¡-.¸ .,. ·. - ¬. . .¸+¸.. ±...
..· .... ..·...¸.¸·.¸.. . ¬.¸.¬...
2. character formats : + ¸ .¡-. .,. · . ,.. . Bold
Iace, italics, underline .- + ¸...... .,.-...·....
¸.¸· .¸_ .+ ,_ ¸ ¸ .- ..-.¬..¨¬..¨ ¸..· .. .
.¸....¸...,
3. display : ...¸-..+,. ..¨ ¸..,- ¸.++
4. format : ... .¸..¸.. .¸ .¸,.¸...¸... ¬.¬.. . . .
..· .,¸ .. ¸., ¬..¬¸..
5. graphics card : -. .-., board · ..¨_+-.
+ ¸ .¡-.± . ±_ . . .· ,. . ¸. . . + ., ., ±+ ±.
.. ¸.,., - .....- .·-.-. ¸...
6. hard copy : ,. ...±. ,. output ,¸ ¬..¨¬..¨
+¸.¡-..,.-.+ print out ± -·+- .+¡.-¡.-+
,_¸ ¸.,¸ ......¬..¸.. ¬. .¸.¸-.
7. italics : + ¸ .¡-.. . . ¸.. .. . . .- ..· ..... .
¸..¸. . ..· ... ±-¸...-..¸. ¸.. .-.
8. soft copy : ¬.+¬·+¬-+ ¬..¨¬..¨
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸., ¬.¸ . ¸¸., ¬.¸ . ¸¸., ¬.¸ . ¸¸., ¬.¸ . ¸¸.,
Kinds oI SoItware (Part I)
.±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬......
+¸.¡-. ¬. .¸.¸.¸ .¸- ¸.. ¬.,._+.-.+ soItware
¸.. .-. +.¸ ¬. .¸.¸.¸- soItware ¬.¸ .¬....- +
+ ¸ .¡-.¬. .¸.¸. .- . ±.... .-. ._ ¬± . . database
. .._+_ - + -. . · ¸_ .·. ..¸ .. ¬. .¸.¸. . .-. .-. .
¬.+¬·+ . .·..,..¸,.-. . .. ¬. -. ¸...-.+.-.
Kinds oI soItware ¸ .- .+ · Kako ¸ Joan - , ¸ .± ... ..¸ ..
¸.. .-.
Dialogue
Kako : Good morning, Mr. Perez. I'm Kako Kumekawa.
You have some questions about soItware Ior
your business ?
.·.¸¸+.... ..-..,+¸», +¸.-.+.-.
+.+ +. +... .. -.., ¸ ......,.·..¸ . ¬-+
.±. . .¸.- .+· ....,.....¸.-.¸ ¸ , -.±
Joan : Good morning, Mr. Kumekawa, Yes. There are
so many diIIerent kinds oI soItware available.
When I go into a computer store, I become
very conIused. Even aIter I've done a survey
oI my needs. I'm not sure what soItware I
really should buy.
. ·.¸ ¸+ .. .. ..-.++ +.. - + ¬· .
-+ ,, . .- .±. .. ¬.¸ .¬... ..... , _+.-.
+¸ .-. + ¸ .¡-..- .± . _+ .-. ± . + ...-¬.
¬·¸ . , ..± .. ... -.-. +¸ .-. · ¬. .-
¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬- + .· ·.. ... .. ¸.¸ ¸. .-..-.. -. ·
.±. ..+ +¸.-. .. .. .·± -. ¬..¬..
..¸... ..-.
Kako : That's understandable. There are many diIIerent
kinds oI soItware and many diIIerent brands oI
each kind. Many soItware programs, de-
signed to do one kind oI Iunction primarily, can
also perIorm other Iunctions as well.
. ¸..·_ .. .,... + ¸...¸...¸..- .±...
¬.¸ .¬....... ., ¸. . ¬.¸ .¬...-. . . . . + ¸...
¸...¸..- ¬. - - ± . .- , _+.-. ¬. +¬..¸..
· ..¸.-..+ ¸.¸· .. » ...¸-.±..- .±...
., ,. ...... ¬¸...·..¸....+ ·_. ¸.¸·. ...
...-.
Joan : What do you mean ?
..-.. -.+ ± · -.·
Kako : The popular spreadsheet soItware program, Lotus
1-2-3, not only does spreadsheeting but also
some data processing and graphics. That's why
it was named 1-2-3. Spreadsheet programs also
have some word processing capabilities. Origi-
nally a soItware program would perIorm only
one purpose. Now many programs are being
integrated.
..¨¸.¡·.¸.. - spreadsheet .±. . . ¬. ¬.¸ Lotus
1-2-3 - . spreadsheet + ¸.¸·....,. .+-
¬.¸¸¬.+¬·+ processing ¸ ,...- + ¸.¸· .
..._+.-. ¬._+.. 1-2-3 · ¬._...,¸...
.. Spreadsheet .,,..-.. ¬.¸¸... .., +
. . ..±.. . . . .- , _+.-. . ·...¸¬..¸..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
Future Publishing House
.±... ., ,.. ,_ ,..+-.. ¬.,.+ ..
.±.. ,+ ·. .. ¬...-. ..-. ., ,..... .+
-. ._.-.· .-_.,.¬.. ...... ±...-.
Joan : So perhaps I will Iind one soItware program
able to perIorm all the tasks that I need.
.-. .±. . .., ,. -. . . +¸ .-. · ¬. -
¬· . ¬..· .+ .±.. , + . . -.+ + ¸ .-.
.-¸.+....-¸..-...
Kako : Probably not. A soItware program designed to
do spreadsheeting will have only a very basic
word processing capability. II you need to do a
lot oI word processing, you really should get a
soItware program designed Ior that.
¸.. . ..¸. ., ·.- . Spreadsheeting ¸.¸· . .
» . .¸.¸· . ±..- .±. ..., ,. -. . . ¬· ¸
¬.¸..+- .....,+....±..,_+. ,,.· .
.. .. -..¬.¸¸ ... .., + ¬.¸..+ ¬¸... ¸.¸·. .
· ¬. ,. ¬ ¬- + » . .¸.¸· . ±..- .±. . .
., ,. -. .+ ¬.¸-+. ,, .. -.
Joan : How many diIIerent kinds oI programs are
there that a person in business might be
interested in ?
... ...,.·..¸ .+ . ¸·-.¸.+ .-.. .... .-
+ ¸...¸...¸..- ., ,. ¬. ¸ .¬... -. .·.+
,.·
Kako : Well, I think you could identiIy eight major
categories oI soItware programs.
¬. .¬. ++ - .±. . . ¬. ¬.¸ ¸.,. ¸ .+
..-.....¸.. .-.· +¸.-.±..-.
Joan : Eight ! Will I need all oI them ?
¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
,. .¸. - ·.. .- ¬..· .+ +¸ .-. · ¬.
.·..
Kako : No. But you probably will need two or three.
Integrated soItware such as Lotus 1-2-3, can
adequately IulIill your graphs and data processing
needs iI your needs are not too great.
.· ¬..-. .... .. -..¬.¸¸ ...¸. ¸. ,
. ..¸. ·¬..+... · ¬.·. .. ..-..,¸ ·¬.
.-. . ._+._+ ........,,. Lotus 1-2-3 · In-
tegrated .±.. . . ..-..,¸,.. .-¸ ¬.+
¬·+ processing · ¬. .- + · · .·.+ .·.+
¸._......-.
Joan : What are the eight categories you mentioned ?
..-.. ...¸.- ¬.¸.¬...¸.,.¸.+ -.·
Kako : Word processing and spreadsheeting are two.
They are the most oIten used in businesses.
Then there is data processing, or database
soItware. Data processing is storing retrieving
and using inIormation. A database is a large
store oI inIormation. A book could be consid-
ered a database.
.±....¸.+.-. word processing ¸ spread-
sheeting . ¬.-+ ......,.·..¸ .¬..... .
._+..¬ ¬..¸.¸.· ,.-. ¸...-. data pro-
cessing ..- database .±.. .± -.·_.
, ...-. data processing + ¬.+¬·+.-
...±_.-. ¸.¸·_,.-. ¸...-. ¬.+
¬·+.- + ¬. .¸.¸-. database ± -. .-..
¬.+ ¬·+ , ¸ _+ ....- . .· .. . .. ..¬ .
-. ¬. + database ¬.¸¸ .±.. .-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ,
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Joan : Let's see. Word processing, spreadsheeting,
database soItware. That's three. What are the
other Iive ?
+ _+_ Word processing, spreadsheeting ¸
database .±. . . ± ¸. . ¸¸,.¸ ., . ..¸. +¸ - ...¸ .+
-.·
  
. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸,
Kinds oI SoItware (Part II)
.±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... ¸ .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... ¸ .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... ¸ .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... ¸ .±. . . ¬.¸ .¬...... ¸
+¸.¡-..±....- .··.-¬. .±. ..¬.¸.¬...
++¸...¸..... · ¬..-. ¬.-.¸...-.+ .±....-. .
¬.,..- Desktop publishing soItware, Project management
soItware ¸ communications soItware .- ¬._+.. ..
¸.. .-. Kako ¸ Joan - , ¸ .± ... ..¸ .+ .· ·.
_+__+..
Dialogue
Kako : Desktop publishing soItware has become very
popular.
Desktop publishing soItware + ¬·¸ ..¨¸.¡·.
¸..·..-..¸.
Joan : I don't plan to do any publishing. Is it the same
as word processing ?
± - ...,. -. . -. ,.· . . .-. +¸ .-. .,_ , .
±...- . ¬ + word processing ¸ ¬- - . ·..
Kako : No, it's diIIerent Irom word processing. Desktop
publishing soItware allows you to take documents
created with word processing or other programs
and to print them out in attractive ways.
.- .- . ¬ + word processing ¸ + .¸....-.
Desktop publishing soItware + word process-
ing ¸. , ¬¸...., ,. .- ¸ .¸-.±..- .., +
..-. . ¬.±.+ ¬±...- ,, . . . ¸ .¸ ±..¸ . .
± .±... ,- ¸_.·. ..-¸ ¬.-+ print out
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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¸.¸·....±...-.
Joan : Please explain that.
.+.» .¸.¸¸.. ¬ ,..¸..¸ .
Kako : Well, think oI a newspaper, a magazine, or a
book. They all use diIIerent kinds oI type in
diIIerent sizes. They also use graphics, photo-
graphs, and other art. Desktop publishing soIt-
ware has the capability oI letting you use
diIIerent kinds oI type and art in your docu-
ment to make it attractive. Most word process-
ing programs, Ior example, do not let you put
art into a document. Desktop publishing will
take the document that you created with word
processing and let you add the graphics.
.+.. ..¸. .-....-. .... .». .-. ¬. ¸. ,
..¬ .-. ¬ .+ .-._+_·+. ¬ .- ¬..·.
. ¬,. ¬... ¬.¸..¸.¸ + ¸...¸...¸..- ¬.¸ .
¬....- + ¬..¸.¸_+-. ¬.-+ ,....-
..-. .-¸ ¬¸...¬. ._..-+ ·_. ¬. .¸.¸_+
-. Desktop publishing soItware + ..-.., ¸
.., +..-.... ±.±.. .,,... + ¸...¸...¸..-
. . ¬.¸ ..¸ .¸ ¬. ._.+ . .. . ,.¬.. .... . .
.....,.-. ¸....¸..,,. word processing
., ,. ¬..... .. -.., ¸ .., +..-... . ¬.._.
±_ . . .¸.¸.- . Desktop publishing +.-. word
processing ¸ .¸ - .±..- .., +..-..+ ,, ..¸. .
,... . ±_ .. ... ...±...-.
Joan : That's interesting, but as I said, I'm not plan-
ning to publish anything.
¬ . -.. ....,.. .¸. .... +¸ .-. .¸... -
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬- .. +¸.-.. -..-.,.± -... .,_, .
±...- .
Kako : I agree it is not a high priority Ior you right
now. You do send letters and Ilyers to customers
seeking business.
¬..¸. . . .. -..¬- + . . ¸. . ¬. +.+
·-.± -. +¸ .-. ..-.-.-. ..-..+
......,.·..¸ . , ....¸- ...+._ .-± ...-
¸ ·++.........- ..¸-..
Joan : What other soItware programs are there ?
¬¸....±. ..., ,..- -., ...·
Kako : Another category oI soItware program is called
project management soItware.
.±. ..., ,. .¸.+¬.¸ .¬...+.-. .,+ ..
.¸. ..±.. .· ..¨.-.
Joan : What does project management do ?
., + ...¸.. + -.·. .·
Kako : With this soItware, you can keep records oI
the progress oI a project that requires a lot oI
work Irom diIIerent people over a period oI
time. It sets up schedules and helps you to
meet deadlines.
.±... ¸ .,+-.., ¸ -.-+.. --...-+
± ¸ .. . .. . .-. ., + + ¬. ¸ +.·-. . . . ·
¬.¸ ..¸ .± . ¬· . ¬...¬¸... · ¬. .-. ¬ +
¬. ¬.¸ .- .. - ...¸. . · . .¸ .¸. .. .,¸ .- . - ±..-
.¸.+ ± .¬. ¸ . . ¬. ¸ . ¸. .. .. ¬.±.+ ¬+ ¸.¸.-.
Joan : It doesn't sound like something I need.
¬ + +¸ .-. · ¬. - -. . -. ,..¸ . ¬..±.. .,.
.-...-..¸.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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Kako : I agree. Project management is good Ior people
in the construction business or people who
have production processes using many workers
that must be monitored.
+¸ .-. ..-.- .-. ., + . . .¸ . . .
.±.+ · . .,. · . .¸ .. ., - · .- ¬- + .+.. .·
.-. . . - .... _+_ .. .±.,.. ¬· . ....
.... . ¬. .¸.¸.¸- + ¸ ± - · . . · . .¸ ..¸ .- . . , -
· .- ¬- + ·_ . .+.. ..-.
Joan : That's Iive categories. What are the other
three ?
¬± ,. ¬.¸ .¬...¸¸,. ,...¸. -¸.... ..¸ .+
-..- ·
Kako : Communications soItware makes up another gen-
eral category. This soItware allows you to con-
nect with and exchange inIormation with other
computers, usually over the telephone lines.
±+ . . .,..±. . . + .¸.+ ±. ..- . ¬.¸ .
¬...¬.¸¸ ¸.¸·. ±...-. .±.. .+ ..-..+
.-. .¬. + ¬·+ + ¬¸ ...+ ¸ . ¡-. .- ¸
±+ ... ¸ .·. . . .¸.¸±...-. ......
¬..¸.. -. ·. ¸.·...-..¨. ...
Joan : I can talk over telephone lines with my
computer ?
+¸.-. ¬.¸¸ +¸ .-.,¸ +¸ .¡-.¸ -.· .¸.
·...-+ .¸... ...·..
Kako : Not really talk, but you can send inIormation
Irom one computer to another through telephone
lines. You need another piece oI equipment
called a modern to do this.
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬.¸-+. ..¸... ..-. .... -.· . ¸ .
· . ..- + -. ±. .-. . ¬. + ¬·+ +
+¸.¡-.-... .¸.+-... ..... ..-.
Joan : That is quite interesting. May be I'll get more
inIormation about that soItware later on.
¬ .. .-......,..+.. .-. ._+.... . ¬
.±. . . ¬._+.. . .-. .¬.+ ¬·+ . . ¸. . +¸ .-.
,, . .·. ..
Terminology Review
1. communication software : ....¸Modern,¸ ¬±.
¬. .¸.¸¸. . -.· . ¸.· . ..- ..¨.. .-..¬.+¬·+
.... ¸.. ·+.,¸ ... ¸.+¸.¡-. -.·.¬-+ · ¬.
... .±... ¸±+ . ..,..±.. .,
2. desktop publishing software: .-. . ± . ,.... ..
. ». .... .._- , + . ....¬. ¬.._. ¸,... ...,. .
.. ¬.¸..¸.+ ....... .¸.¸... .±. ..., ,.
3. graphics software : ¬.._... ,. .. » . .... .¸ - .
,¸ »..¸.¸·. ±..... .±... .,,....¬-+ ..-.
¬..¨¬..¨ ¸,... .±.. .,
4. modern : -.·.¸.· .......¨.. ¬.+¬·+ ·+ .
.... ,¸ ..+¸.¡-.+ ..¸.¸±..... +, ..
5. Project management software : +¸...¸...¸...¸...
.¬...,.,. .¬±. ... ¸., ¬±. .... .. . ·..... ...
.- .+ .¸... , ..± .._ + ¸ ± - · . . · ..¸ ..¸ ...- .
.¸.¸.... ..,..±¸.....--..±..,¸ +_.,. » ..
¸.¸·.±..... .±... ¸.,+ ...¸ ...±...,
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸,
Graphics and Utilities SoItware
,. .. . . ¬. ...±. . . ... ,. .. . . ¬. ...±. . . ... ,. .. . . ¬. ...±. . . ... ,. .. . . ¬. ...±. . . ... ,. .. . . ¬. ...±. . . ...
+ ¸ . ¡-.¬. .¸.¸ . .- . .±. . . ¸ .- .+ ·
- .- ¬¸_ ... ,±... ·.-. +¸.¡-... ¬. .¸.¸-
.±... .- ¬¸+ ¬. -.¸...-.+.-. graphics soItware ¸
Utilities soItware ¬._+.. .. ¸...-. .+...¸...¸...
Kako ¸ Joan - ,¸ .±.....¸.+ .-¸¸... ..-.
Dialogue
Kako : The seventh general category is graphics soIt-
ware, which more and more business are us-
ing. These programs allow you to create charts
and graphs to show numbers in an easy-to-
understand way.
. ¸. . .¸ ..+ ..- . + - ¬. ¸ .¬...+.-.
,. .. .±. .. ¸...-. . ......,.·..¸ .. .
............ ¬..¸.¸.¸.¸. ., ,..- + »...
.- ¸ ,. . .- + ¬· . -+ ¸..·_ . . -
¸_ .·. .¸ ¸... .¸-... ¸.¸±...-.
Joan : That's something I might use.
¬+ +¸ .-. ¬..¸.¸. .- -..-.,....
Kako : For your purpose, the graphics capability oI a
spreadsheet program would be enough. You would
not need to buy graphics soItware as well.
.. -.., ¸ ,_ , . .+ .- ¬- + spreadsheet ., ,. , ¸
,. .. . . ..±.. . . . . · .·.+ .· . ..
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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.. -..¬.¸¸ ,. .. .±. . . .. . · ¬. · . . .
.--.
Joan : Good. What's the Iinal category you reIerred to ?
.+...¸. ..-..,_¸¸.- .¸.+± .¬.¸.¬...+
-.·
Kako : It's not actually a business application program,
but it's very useIul Ior anyone using micro-
computers. I call it the utilities soItware cat-
egory.
¬ +.-. ¬. ¸ -+. .-. . .. ...,.· . .¸ .
¬. .. ., ,.-.. . -.-. .... ¬+
.+., + ¸.¡-..- ¬..¸.¸.¸- -.¸.-....+
¬-+ ¬·¸. ¬.....-. +¸.-. +.-.
¬+ Utilities .±. ..¬.¸.¬...· ..¨.-.
Joan : What does it do ?
¬+ -.·..·
Kako : It helps you to use your other soItware more
eIIectively - to manage all the Iiles and data in
your system.
¬+ ..-..,¸ ¬¸....±.. ..- + . .±.,.+. .
¬. .¸ .¸ . .. - ..+ + _ -. .· .. - .., ¸
.¸. . ., - . . .- ¸ ¬.+ ¬·+ .- ¬..· .+
...±.., +......
Joan : How ?
-.· ....·.
Kako : Everything you create with a computer is kept
in Iiles and directories. Eventually, they hold
many diIIerent letters, memos, charts, and so
on. A utilities soItware program can help you
to manage all these Iiles and directories and
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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help you to Iind things in them easily.
+ ¸ .¡-.¸ .. -...¸ - .- ¬,.,.- . .+ . . .- ¸ di-
rectories .- . . . . .±...-. .¸.+ ± . ..-.
¬ .- . + ¸...¸...¸..- ...- memo .- »...
.- .... .+ + . - . .±.. , + ...-. Utilities
.±. . . ., ,. . ¬ . . .- ¸ directories ¬..· .+
. . .±.. , + . ¬+ ¬_ .... . ¸. . ¬ .- +
· . ·. -+ , ... . ·_ . + _ .... . -.
Joan : Give me an example.
¸...-. . +¸.-.+ ....
Kako : You can Iile your letters to customers by their
name or date. But one day, you want quickly to
Iind one letter in which you mentioned some
special inIormation. You can not recall the name
oI the customer or the date. You have two or
three hundred letters, and it will take you a great
deal oI time. With utilities, you can search all the
letters on a disk Ior one or two words.
.. -..¬.¸¸ ...+ ._ .- ± . - ...- . . . - , ¸
¸.._ ¸. , ,+ . ¸ . . . . . . .-. .... -. .¸
. . .. -..... ¸.- ¬± ..-. . ¬.+ ¬·+ ¬.¸ ¸. .
..-. .... + .. -.. ¸.¸ ¸.¸ , ... -. ...+ ._
¬._ ¸. . - , ,+ . + .. -.. .. - . . . - . .. -..
. . ... . ,. ¸. , . .,. , ¸. . ¬ ...- + .. -..+
¬. ¸ ¬.-. + ¸ ..· . .. Utilities + ¬. .¸.¸,.
.. -... .+..· .-. · . ¸. , . . · .¬- + . ¸. ,
..¨. . ..¬..· .+ , ... . . -.
Joan : And the computer would do this ?
¸...-. +¸ .¡-.+ + ·.·.. .·..
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Kako : A good utility program would do it very quickly
and list all the Iiles or letters. You would have
what you needed in seconds.
.+.. ..¸ - Utility ., ,. . ¬+ ¬·¸¸.¸¸.¸
±¸ ±¸ ¸.¸·. ...·... ¸...-. .+..·. .-
.- ¸- ...- ¸. , . . .- ¬..· .+ .+ ¸ . . . ¬- . .
..,..¸.¸·.. .-.
Joan : That's very good.
¬ ...+...-...¸.
Kako : That's not all. Utility programs can also help
you to organize Iiles on a disk to use the space
most eIIectively. They can help to identiIy and
avoid potential problems, too.
¬ ¬..· . . - ....- . Utility ¸¬. ..,
., ,..- . .¸,.+ ¬...±. ±.,.+ .. ¬..
¸.¸. .¸. ,..¨+ . . .-+ .._.. .. -..+ +_. .
-. .-. ¬·..¬·., - ¸..¸..-+ ·_.
.,..,... ¸ .¸....-. -. +_.. .-.
Joan : You've told me a lot about soItware and it's
helpIul to be able to think oI it in eight general
categories. Let's see iI I can recall them all:
word processing, spread-sheeting, database pro-
cessing, desktop publishing, project management,
communications, graphics, and utilities.
.. -.. +¸ .-. + .±. . . ¬._+.. . ¬..._+ .
.¸...-..¸. ¸. ..-. ..- .+- ¬.¸ .¬...
¸.,. ¸ .+ .- ..-.. . . ¬ + ¬+ ¬_ ...
-..· ¬¬..·.+ +¸.-..-.. ..·..·
_+_ ,.¬.. ... .., +¸.¸· . ¸.. . Spreadsheet
¸.¸· . ¸.. . database ¸.¸· . ¸.. . desktop publishing,
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
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.,+...¸.. ±+ ...,. ,...¸ Utilities
.-..
Kako : Excellent. And you will not need them all.
Every business should have some utilities soIt-
ware. Word processing and spreadsheeting are
the most common soItware, as you know. To-
day, with either oI these, you can get some
database processing and graphics. So those
threeword processing, spreadsheeting, and a
utilities program might be all you'll ever need.
. . .+.. .-.. .. -..¬.¸¸ ¬ .- ¬..· .
· ¬. . . . - . ..¸. . .. ...,.· . .¸ .- . .. . utilities
.±.. .¬.¸¸ ,..-. ..-...-¬-.. word
processing ¸ spreadsheeting -. ¸...-¸.¸+
¬¸..±. .±.... ¸.. .-. +.¸¬.¸ .. ¬
.- ± + -. . . database processing ¸ ,. .. .-
.. -.. ,. . -. ¬ ._+.. . .. ¸.. - word pro-
cessing, spreadsheeting ¸ utilities ., ,. .- .
..-.. ¬¸.-. .· ¬... .±. ..¬..· . ¸.. ...
-.
Terminology Review
Utilities software : .. , ¸ + ¸ .¡-..¸. + . . .,_ ¸._ .. .
.±.., +. ¬+¬_.... ». .¸.¸· .±..- .±.. .
  
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸,
Point oI Sales Computing
¬.,.. ..+.. -. - + .+ . ¬.,.. ..+.. -. - + .+ . ¬.,.. ..+.. -. - + .+ . ¬.,.. ..+.. -. - + .+ . ¬.,.. ..+.. -. - + .+ .
. . . -+.. . · ¸ . - . . ¬¸_ ... ¬.-.¬- . .
+ . - .. .. ,...¸.¬-+ ·. +¬±..¸...-+ .±.+ .
.....- ...±. ... .-.±....¸ ±....++.- .. - ....
...¸...·...-. ±....++¸ .-.±..-.. ¸.¸±¸-
........¸..¸.+ ..- ... . ...--...+ ...+ ¬. .¸.¸
.¸.,..._+.-. ¬·¬.·.+ ¬.¸.¬....-¸.. +¸.¡-.
¬..¸.¸ .. ··..+. ¬.,._+.- ¬.¸.+_.. ... ·.
.-. ._+.. Point oI Sales Computing .·_ . + ¸ .¡-.
¬. .¸.¸..- .±....- ¬.¸ .+_-.. ¸..·..-.
Dialogue
._.+...¸...¸ ... Mr. Fontaine Rene ¸ Clark Maura
-,¸ .±.....¸..±.¸.+ -.¸.±...-.
Maura : As you know, Mr. Fontaine, my company owns
a large chain oI department stores. We are
looking Ior ways to reduce paperwork and
staII costs. At the same time, we want to
improve accuracy and eIIiciency.
,..-¬-... ..-.....-¸ . +¸.+ .¬.
.- .± . _+. ¬.-. ...... . . ± .-. +¸ .- .
.., + ..-. .¬· . ¸ .¸ ±. .+ ¸ + ., - .-
.·... ¸_.·. ..- ,... .¸_+-. -. .¸ ±
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
. .. +¸.- . - +. ¸ +¸ . ¸ . ...±.. ,_ ¸._ ..
- + ¸.. -....-.
Rene : As I understand it, Mrs. Clark, you have many
stores around the country, and each store has
several cashier stations where people pay Ior
their purchases.
. . .¬.¸¬¸..... ..-.... .- .±.¬...¬¸...,-.
+¸ .-. ¸..·_ .-. ... +·. ¸. , ¸. ..-.
.- .±. -. .± .. ·.- ....¬-+ .. .....
,- ......¸,...... , _+-..¸.
Maura : Yes. And our turnover is enormous. Our busi-
ness depends on our ability to sell many, many
items with a small markup.
- .-. + ¸ .- , ¸ ¬. - ¬. . .+·_ .
_+.......¸...·.-. +¸.-·..¸.+ ¬¸.-
¸¸-. ¸.. ¬.¸.¬......... .,.. ... +¸ .-,¸
...,_ ..¨. . .-_.-.
Rene : Then you have a large inventory that must be
closely watched so that Iast selling items can
be quickly replaced ?
·±,. ..-..¬.¸¸ ¬¸.+._+._+.,- ¬...
. - ..,. . ¸.. -. .,_+ . , ,.. . .. ¸.¸ ¸.¸
.,.. .. .¸- ¬. ¸ .¬....- + ¸.¸ ¸.¸ ¬...± .
. ....¸.
Maura : Yes. We are overloaded with paperwork at
every cashier station in every store, the clark
has to make out sales slips in many copies.
One copy goes to the customer, one stays with
the store, one goes to billing iI it is a charge,
one goes to inventory and one goes to
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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accounting. Then all those diIIerent oIIice have
their own needs Ior more copies. It all takes a
great deal oI time and, with so many people
handling so many diIIerent pieces oI paper,
there are many errors.
. ¸ .-. +¸.- . .., + ..-. .¬· . .- ¸
.. . .¸ ±...¸,-. .- .± . -.. . + .. . . .
.+..-. -..... ...,.. .+.......¬-+
¬.,....·..., +.- ¸._ . . ..,.....¸,-.
.+..-.....+ ...± ...-. -.....+
.-.. .±..-. ....... ....¸...,. -.....
+ +.. .. .-.. .. ·. -. .... + ¬....-
..,..¸..-..,± . ..-. -.....+ ....,..
¸.¸+ ...-. ¬ .¸.+.. + ¸...- , ..¸..-. .
. - + . . . · ¬. . ¬- + .+. . . .. . .
±.._ +-. .- ¬..· .. ¬. ¸ ¬.-. .
.-. · ¬.-.......+ +¸...¸...¸..- .., +
..-. ......¸ ·..¸,.-. ¬... ¸...-.
Rene : I understand. I have worked with other
companies with similar problems.
+¸.-. ¸..·_ .-. ·¬·..- ¸..¸..-
+ ¬¸...+.¬.-.. .¸.,..·.+. ....-.
Maura : We're never really certain what our inventory
is. It is almost impossible to make sure that we
have a large enough supply oI each item. As a
result, we oIten overstock many items.
+ ¸ .- , ¸ ¬.... - ..,. ..- -. .-. .
¬.¸-+. ........-. ¬.¸.¬...-...,¸
_+ ....- · .·.+ - .... . .. + .....¬..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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· .. .¸.. ...-. ¬¬- +._+.. +¸.-.
.._ .¬.¸ .¬... .....+ ._+..¬- .± ¬. -¸
±... .·,_+-.
Rene : Well, it sounds like you need POS Computing.
.+...¸. ..-..¬.¸¸ POS Computing .¸. .-.
· ¬. .¸¸.
Maura : POS ? What do you mean ?
POS -·.. ,. -.+ ± ·-.·
Rene : POS stands Ior Point OI Sales. What I mean
is that you begin entering and manipulating data
on a computer at the point oI sales.
POS ± -. Point OI Sales + ±· .-.
± · -.+ .. -..¬.¸¸ Point OI Sales . .
¬....,.....¸.. +..+. . . + .- .· ,.-.
Maura : It will be too expensive to have a computer at
every cashier's station or check out counter.
Also, we would have to keep training new
staII.
¬+ .... ..¸,.- .. ¸. , ..,.....±. .,.. ..
- .+..-.- .... + ¸.¡-.-. ·., . ....._+.
· . .. ¸. ..-. .¸±.... .- + +¸ .- .. -¸ .
.- ±+...,·. ..
Rene : It's not expensive, really. It is cheaper than
handling all the paper you are now processing.
The computer would be very similar to cash
registers but with a Iew more keys. Or you
could be using scanners.
¬ + . . ¸. ....._+ .· .- . ¬ + .. -..- ¬.
· . .¸- .., + ..-. .¬..· . + . - . ± ¸ .. . . .¸,
-.±+ . ¸. .....+ ...-. + ¸ .¡-..
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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.. . . . . - -. ..+ .- ¸ ¬· ¸ - .-. ....
. . . Key ¸_ .¸_ .. , -. . . - .. -..-
¬.¸¸ scanner .- + ¬. .¸.¸. . -.
Maura : What's a scanner ?
Scanner ±-. -.·
Terminology Review
1. Cash register : ·+ · ¬.,.. . ± . . .. - .
. .¸ ....,.. .. . . .. ±_ . . .,¸ ¬. .¸ .¸ ..... _ .
¬.,.. .¬..· .¬- + ±+ ·+ . - -. .-. ± ¸ .. . .¸. .
·+. ,,..... + . ±¸ ....,¸ ¬..¸.¸._
2. Point Of Sales (POS): .,.. .. . ¸.¸ · . ....¸,.- .
¬.- .-.... + ¸.¡-..¬...,.,..... + ...¸.._
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸,
Scanner and Bar Code
.+. ¸.. . -..+ .+. ¸.. . -..+ .+. ¸.. . -..+ .+. ¸.. . -..+ .+. ¸.. . -..+
¬. -.¸...-.+.-. + ¸ .¡-.¬. .¸.¸..- . .. -
scanner ¸ bar code .-,¸ ¬.,... .- . ¸...-. Reve ¸
Maura -,¸ .± .....¸ ... ¸ -. ¸.±...-.
Dialogue
Rene : A scanner is a kind oI computer. What it does
is 'read' - that is scan - words, numbers, and
symbols and then enter them into the system.
Scanner ± -. + ¸ .¡-.¬.¸ .¬...-. . ..
¬+ -.· ..·±.-. .--... ¬ scan
.. .+..· ..- ¸.-.-¸ ..+ -.- ¸. ..-.
¬.-+ .¸.±....-...
Maura : A machine reads ?
.+ + .---··..
Rene : Well, it is really more like a duplicating
machine. Instead oI making another copy, the
scanner translates the marks into the digital
signals that a computer understands.
¬.. ¬. . -¡+ ..+ ¸ -+. + . --.
.¸.+ ±. . - ¡+ ... ¬... .+. ¸.¬. - ¬...
.-+ +¸ .¡-.+ ¸..·_ - ..-. ..+-
.-± . -...¸.¸...-.
Maura : Really, it all sounds too technical Ior our
cashiers and checkout clerks to work with.
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬.¸. ¬ + +¸.- ,¸ ..+ ..- ¸ ¬·.·.
.. ...,..- .. .±.. ¬- + . ¸. .¸_ .._.±¸ -.
Rene : Using these machines is not diIIicult at all. No
more diIIicult than using a duplicating machine.
There are all kinds oI scanners. Some scan
and enter letters or other documents. You would
use ones that read bar codes.
.+ .- ¬. .¸.¸¸.. .. · ....+ . · .- . . - ¡+ .
.+ ¬. .¸.¸-.±+ . ..+ · .- . .+. ¸. ¬.¸ .
¬...¬.¸ ..¸ ., -. ¬.¸ ¸+ scan ¸.¸· . ¸. . ..¸ ¬¸...
¬.±.+ ¬±...- + . . ....-. .. -..¬.¸¸ bar
codes .- - .+. ¸.-. . ·_ . ¬. .¸.¸,· . ..
Maura : What are bar codes ?
Bar codes ±-. -.·
Rene : You have probably seen them on scans and
packages at the grocery store. They look like a
series oI small black bars in a white panel.
..-..¬.¸¸ +¸. ± ... +. -..-¸ .._.±. .-
¸.. .+.. . ¸.. . · . .. ¬¸.¡.,.. panel . .
¬¸+ .,.. -...., ..- ¸ ¬.-+ ±.--.
Maura : Oh, yes. And the checkout clerks pass them
over a slot in the counter.
¬ . - ., ¸ ¸. ..-. ¬± + .. .±.. - ...,..- +
¬.- .+..-.±, slot ±. ¸.-...·+-.
Rene : Under that slot is a scanner. It reads each bar
code, which contains the price and possibly
other inIormation, such as a stock number.
¬ slot + .+. ¸... .+ -..+ - -. . . + .-
...-. ¬ ± . . .... ¸ ..-. ¸. ..-. ..-. ¸ .-
· ¸.. . . .¸. ¬¸....-. .¬.+ ¬·+ ·_ . ., -.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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Maura : And that inIormation is entered into the computer?
¸. ..-. ¬ .-. .¬.+ ¬·++ + ¸ .¡-.±
..·..·..
Rene : Automatically. A clerk could also enter it into the
system by using a computerized cash register.
¬· ¬.·.+ .. ·.-.. + ¸ .¡-. ¬. .¸.¸
......- -.. ¬. .¸.¸¸...¸.. ...,.+ .¸.± .
¬+ ..·..¬.. ·...... -.
Maura : So, what is the advantage Ior the store ?
._·±,. .-.± . ¬-+ ¬.....++ -.·
Rene : There is a big advantage. The inIormation will
automatically go to all the other necessary
departments that need to know about the sales,
billing, accounting, inventory. Each department
will have its own computer work stations.
¬.. _+....- ¬.....+ ,-. .-. .¬.+
¬·+ + · ¬. - ¬¸...¸.¸.- ¬..· .+ ¬·
¬.·.+ . ..· . .. ¬ ¸.¸.- + ¬.,.. .
- ·¸.¸·.¸... ....,.. .._.. .·.. ± ¸....
¸.. .¬._+....- + . . · ¬. .-. ¸.¸-.... .
+ . ..+¸.¡-. ¬·. ..¸..- , ·. ..
Maura : It will eliminate a lot oI paperwork.
¬ + .., + ..-. .¬· . ¬.-. . ... ..+
.+......·...
Rene : DeIinitely. And the inIormation will be much
more accurate, especially when using a scan-
ner. Furthermore, many other tasks will be
done automatically. The computer will update
your inventory list oI stock.
¬- ¬+.. ¸...-. .+.¸.+ ¬..¸.¸.¸- ¬.
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬±..¸.. .-..¬.+¬·+.-. . ¸.. -+
.· . .. ±. ¸. ..¸..,,. ¬¸...¬· . ¬.-.
....... ¬· ¬.·.+ ¸.¸·.¸. .. .. .·. ..
+¸.¡-.+ .. ..-.,¸ .._ .. .· .. ±¸ .. ...
..,..+ ..-..¬.. ¸.¸·. ...·...
Maura : That's wonderIul.
¬ ¬_..,...¸.
Rene : That's not all. In accounting, it will help you to
keep better track oI your cash Ilow. In billing
Ior example, it will check customer accounts
limits and do not have overdue payments.
¬ ¬..·..-....- . ....,..¸.¸·. ¸.... .
¬ + .. -.., ¸ .. ._+...±. .. + . . .+.. .. ¸ ...
±¸.... +_...·... - ·..,..¸.¸·. ¸.... .
¸...¸.,,. ¬ + ...+ ._ .. ..,. . ¬+¸
¬.-.- + .. .±.· ... ........ ¬.¸ · ¸.
.- .¸.....-.-..·
Terminology Review
1. Bar code : -..+ - + ¸ .. _ ...¨- .
, +. .±..... ¬¸.¡.,.. panel , ¬¸+.,.. -.....
¸+ ¸ .¡-..¸. . . .- . .+.¸.¬- + ....¸ .¸ ¬¸...
¬.+¬·+... ...-. ,
2. scanner : .+.¸. hard copy +.- ...
+ ,.. ...+ ..-. ., .. .¸....·¸. . +¸ .¡-.+
. ..±_.¸.. ¬. .¸.¸-.
  
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
Future Publishing House
¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¸,
Electronic Communications ( Part I )
¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,.
+.¸..- . . ICT · ..¨- InIormation Communication
Technology - .-+ ·.- ¬-+ ¬·+±,¸.¸. ±+ . . .,.
¸Electronic Communications,.¸. -.-+·.¸. ¸...-.
¬·+±,¸.¸. .._.±¸..-·_. ..¨..+ ·.¸. ¸...-.
¬. .+...¸...¸.. . Maura ¸ Rene - , ¸ .±... ..¸ .+ -.¸.·
.-.
Dialogue
Maura : Rene, with point oI sales computing, we have
made our operations much Iaster. Computers
send inIormation on sales right Irom the cash
registers in our many stores to our central
accounting oIIice and warehouses.
,¸ Point oI sales - +.+¸...¸¬- +¸ .-,¸
.¬...,.,...-+ . . ¸.¸±¸ .. ·. .±... ¸..¸.
+¸ .- , ¸ .- .± . .- , cash registers . ¬.,...
.-.. ¬.+ ¬·+.- + +¸ .- , ¸ - ..,. ., .¸
. .· .. ,.-+ .....-.
Rene : Well, Maura. I'm glad my computer company
was able to help.
.+.. ..¸. ..,,. +¸.-.,¸ +¸.¡-.+ .¬+
+ _. .,· .. ..¸..+. .-.
Maura : You did a lot. We've reduced our paperwork
load and our mailing costs. Too bad we can't
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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send people through computers. We'd reduce
our travel and telephone costs and really in-
crease proIits and eIIiciency. And, oI course,
we're still mailing a lot oI letters, memos, and
reports back and Iorth among all our stores.
, . ¬..._+ .· . . -.. +¸ .- . +¸ .- , ¸
.., + ..-. . .¸ ± . .¸ . .¸ ... .., - .- + .·. .
¸..¸. +¸ .¡-..-+-.±. ·.-± .. ..-.
. ._ -.. +¸.- ,¸ ., .. ..·..¸ -.·.¸.
.,-.-+ .·. .,.. ¬+¸ .¬¸.-¸ ....±..
,_ .- ¬. ¸ -+. ¸.. -+ ·.. .. -+. .-.
+¸ .- . .- .± . ¬..· .+ ...- memo .-
¬. ,. . ...- ¬.¸..+ ¬¸...+ ..¸ .... .¸- ¸ ...
Rene : May be I can help you with this, too. You can
use computers Ior distribution and communica-
tions.
+ . . .·_ . +¸ .-. .. -..+ + _ . . . ..
¸.¸¸.¡..,.....,.¸ ±+...,.¬- + + ¸.¡-.
.-+ .. -.. ¬..¸.¸.. .-.
Maura : Once you've printed out copies oI reports or
letters, don't you just mail them ?
¬. ,. . .. ¸. , ... - ¡.- + print out , . · . ¸. .-.¸
¬.- + ...· + -. . --.·..
Rene : Yes. Using the postal service is still how most
businesses distribute inIormation. But even iI
you're using regular mail service, computers
can help. II you need to send a report oI
several hundred pages, you could send it on a
diskette. One Iive-and-a-quarter-inch diskette can
hold two or three hundred pages.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
. ¸ .-. . .. ...,.· . .¸ .¬. ... . .-. .
¬.+ ¬·+ ¸.¸ ¸.¡.. ... · . .¸.+ ¬. .¸.¸.¸
±. .... . .¸... · ..¸.+ ..-.. ¬. .¸.¸,.
.-.. . + ¸.¡-..-+ + _. ..-. ...+. .
,......... .., - ¬.,....-. .... + ..-..
.. ·¬.,. diskette ¸ .. ..-. .. .·....
-.. ..·+ ., - diskette -. . . ...+ . . ..,.
¸., ..,.+ . ..±_.......-.
Maura : So it would be lighter and cheaper to send ?
._· ± ,. ¬ . .. ..¸. . ...·_ . .+..
·...
Rene : Yes. All your stores and oIIices have comput-
ers, so you can use telecommunications.
- .-. .. -.., ¸ .- .± . .- ¸ , ..¸ ..-
¬..· .. . + ¸ .¡-..- , ,. .. -... -. ·
+ ¸¸.¡¸.+.,..+ ¬. .¸.¸. ..-.
Maura : What does telecommunications mean?
-.·+ ¸¸.¡¸.+.,..+ -.+±·-.·
Rene : It's a general tern that reIers to any Iorm oI
communication using electricity. Talking over
the telephone is one kind oI telecommunica-
tions. Using a telegraph, radio, or a computer
are other examples.
¬ + · . .. ..- ¬. . + ¬. . ¸ .¸ .¸-
±+ . . .,.. . -. . + + . ...¸.¸- ..- .
¬..¨¬..¨ -. . . -. · . ¸ .. -. ·
+ ¸ ¸.¡¸ .+., . ., ¸ . . -. .¸ .. ._+.¸¸ . ., .
¸. , + ¸ .¡-. ¬. .¸.¸¸.. ..- . ¬¸...¸...
.- .
¸. .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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Maura : OI course, we use telemarketting oIten.
-+. .-. +¸ .- . -. · ...++ -. .+
._+..¬ ¬..¸.¸_+-..¸.
Rene : Right, selling over the telephone. The salesper-
son calls people and tries to sell a product or
service. Sometimes it's a computer and not a
real person making the call. When this hap-
pens, it's actually a computer and a recording
device working together. The computer selects
the number and does the dialing; then it starts
the recording when a person answers the phone.
. ¸.-. -.·. ¸.¸ .,....-..· ¬.,...
.¸±...-+ ·.-+ .¸.±+ ¸.. ±- +¸ .._.
¸., .¸.±.. . .,..... _+¸...._+-. -..
-., ¬. + ¸.¡-.-.·.¸.. ¸.. ·.......
-....++ .¸...¨-. .-- . ¬. +¸.¡
-.¸ ,.+...+,..- ¬--+ ¬·.·. _+
-.. +¸.¡-.+ ¸ .-+ .,.¸..·_-. ¸..
.-. ·-....++ .¸ .¸.¸.¸.± - ¬. ,.+...
.·.-.
Maura : I think they are very useIul.
. - ¬· ¸. ¬.... -.· +¸.±.-.
Rene : Talking over the telephone is a Iorm oI voice
or audio communication. But it is sometimes
used to seperate this kind oI communication
Irom data communication, which reIers speciIi-
cally to using computers to send inIormation.
Your POS computers do data communication.
. ¸ .¸ .+...¸..± ¸.. .. ¬. . . ¸. , .¬. .
±+ ...,... .... ¬. -. .-. ,.-.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸
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¬.+¬·+ ±+...,.. ±+...,. ¬.¸.
¬...+ . ¸ .... ¬. .¸ .¸ -. ¬. + ¬·+
±+ . . .,.. .-. .¬. + ¬·+ .... .
+¸.¡-..- ¬- ¬+ ¬. .¸.¸,¸ ,_¸¸..-.
.. -.., ¸ POS + ¸ .¡-..- . ¬.+ ¬·+
±+...,.+ ¸.¸·. _+.-.
Terminology Review
1. audio communication : ¬. ¸.. ¸.¸· . ... ±+ . . .,.
¸.¬..±+...,.,
2. data communication : + ¸ .¡-....¬_+.. ±+ . . .,.
¸¬.+ ¬·+ ±+...,.,
3. telecommunications : · . .. ..- + ¬. .¸ .¸ ...
±+...,.. . ¸-.·+¸¸.¡¸.+.,...,
4. telemarketting : .¸.¸...¸..± .,.. . ..¸...
  
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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¬.¸ . ¸¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¯, ¬.¸ . ¸¸¯,
Electronic Communications ( Part II )
¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¸ ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¸ ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¸ ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¸ ¬ ·+ ±, ¸ .¸. ±+ . . .,. ¸
+¸.¡-. ¬..¸.¸..-. ¬·+ ±,¸ .¸. ±+..
.,., ¸ ·. .¸ ..-...- + . ,¸..·_ ±... ¬.,._+ ..-.
._·..¸ ..-...-+ Maura ¸ Rene - ,¸ .±... ..¸.+
-. ¸.· +.-.
Dialogue
Maura : How do computers send inIormation Irom one
location to another ?
+¸.¡-..-. -_.¸,.-. .+ .¸.+-..+
-.· .-. .. _+..·
Rene : They use regular telephone lines usually, using
a modem, which is a device that allows com-
puters to send date over telephone lines. In
addition to modem, you need communications
soItware. It has all the necessary commands
and Iunctions to allow two computers to ex-
change data by using modems.
. - . ......¬..¸.. ..¸ -.· .¸.·...-+
modem . .¸. . ¬. .¸.¸_+.-. Modem .
-. · . ¸ .· . ..- ..¨ ¬. + ¬·+ .... .
+ ¸ . ¡-..- + . . ¸ .¸ ±..- + , ..-. . ¸ .
¸.. .-. Modem ¬¸.. ±+ . . .,..±.. .
· ¬. -. Modems .- ¬. .¸.¸ ¸.. .¬..¸..
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
Future Publishing House
¬.+¬·+ .- .·.. +¸.¡-.. .·.+ . .¸.¸.
· ¬.- command .-¸ ¬. -¬.. ..- ¬..·.
. .. , .-.
Maura : Does someone need to be at the keyboards as
the computers send and receive inIormation
with modems ?
+ ¸ .¡-..- . Modem .- ¸ .-. .¬.+
¬·+ .- .... ¸.. ·+. - ¬. -. . -. ¸..
+ .--.-.. , . ·¬...·..
Rene : No. Operators can be at the keyboards ex-
changing inIormation, or the computer can be
programmed to send and receive inIormation
whether someone is at the keyboard or not.
Electronic mail is a service that many oIIices
use so that people don't need to be at the
computers when messages arrive.
.· ¬. .- . .¬. ..,-..-. +.- - .-. .
¬.+ ¬·+ .· . - .¸,.. . , . . .-. .
. - -. . -. ...+ + + .- - . . , , ., ,
.-. .¬.+ ¬·+ .... ·+ . . + ¸ .¡-.+
., ,.¸.¸·.. ..-. Electronic mail ¸¬....·,
. ,......+ ¬. .¸.¸- .¸ .±...·..¸ . -..
.. . .. .-. .¬.+¬·+.- .,.+·.-
¬. +¸.¡-.. . ,. .· ¬.- .
Maura : I can send mail through the computer.
+¸.¡-.. -.±. ...- + +¸ .. .. .-.
Rene : Yes. Electronic mail, which is also called E-mail
Ior short, is a service that helps you to send
messages quickly to anyone with a computer.
-+ ¬·+±,¸.¸. ...· + ¬ ....·· ¬-
¸¸ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
Future Publishing House
.+.+ ..¨_+.-. ¬ ....·. + ¸ .¡-.¸ -..
-. ¸.± ·.¸.¸.. .-.... +_ - .¸ .±...
·..¸.-.. ¸.. .-.
Maura : Please explain about E-mail.
¬....·¬._+... .+.».¸.¸¸.. ,..¸..¸.
Rene : Suppose that your main oIIice has to send new
prices to its sales people around the country.
It's important that the new prices get to all the
sale people that day, but many are busy with
customers, not sitting in oIIices waiting Ior
messages. Your company buys an E-mail service
and send the new price inIormation through its
computers to the E-mail service. The memos
are stored by other computers there, when they
have a chance during the day, the sales people
turn on their computers and check the E-mail
service. It's Iaster than regular mail and cheaper
than overnight mail. It's certainly easier than
calling all the sales people on the telephone.
.. -..,¸, ..¸. . . . . .¬. .., - ¬.,.. ......-±
....¸....- .. , -.±.. ¬.¸.. ¬.,...
....¬..·. ....¸ ....- ,, . ¬.,._+.-.
.... ¬....+ ...+._ .-¸ ¬· .....¸_+
-. .-. ..- ...... , ..¸..-.. ± ...¸_+
- . .. -..+ . ¬ + ¬ ....· ±..-. + .. ¸. .
.... ¸. .-..¬.+¬·++ ¬....·±..-..
+¸ .¡-..-. -.±. .... _+-. memo .-+
¬¸...+¸.¡-..- + ¬ .. ...±_ .±..-.
¬ .¸ ¬.-.¬- . .. . . - ¬. ¸ ,- ¬.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸¸
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¬.,........-. +¸.¡-..-+ ..·+_+¸..
¬....·±..-.+ ...±. _+_, _+-. ¬.
. . ¸ ... -.±+ .._¸.¸ ¸. . overnight ... -.±+
.... .+ ..-. -. · . ¸ .¸ ¬.,.. .....
¬..· .+ .¸ ...¨-.±+. ¸.. ·.+-.
Maura : It's very interesting.
¬ ¬· ¸.-......,. .+.. ......¸.
Rene : Communication with computers can help you.
You can send your message, and the computer
will store it until the person has a chance to
get it. Another way to use computer is with
teleconIerencing.
+ ¸.¡-..-¸ ±+...,.. .. -..+ +_ ..
.-. .. -... .-. ..- .... . . ¸. . + ¸ .¡-.+
¬ · .- . ¬. ¸ ,- ¬± . . .±_ .±..·. ..
+ ¸ .¡-..- + ¬. .¸.¸. .¸.+ ±. ¸_ .·. .
+.-. -. ·+¸.,. ¸_ .. ¸...-.
Maura : Is that the same as making a conIerence call
which allows several people to be on the phone
at the same time ?
¬. -..¸-_ ... ·¬.¸..+¬¸... .¸ ...¨
-.+ . . ¸.¸±..- + ¸ .,. . ¸ ...¨±.¸.¸·.-.¸
.--.·..
Rene : Same thing but computers can be used with
teleconIerencing so that you can talk and also
send data. Some oIIicers even add TV screens
so that people can see each other. This is
called video conIerence.
¬- - .. .... + ¸ .¡-..- + -. ·
+¸.,.¸_.¸ ¬- ¬..¸.¸..-. ... ..-..
¸¯ .... .... ¸.. . ¸. ¸.+ . -+ . · ,
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. .+...¸... . ¸. . ¬.+¬·++ ·_. . . . -.
¬.¸ ¸, ..- . . - - .+,. .±_ ±...-. · .-
-. ¸.¸ -.¸ . ¸... .-. + - . + ¸ .,. ¸.¸· .
-.· ..¨_+-.
Maura : Can the work stations within an oIIice commu-
nicate with each other ? I mean, could my
secretary, or I, send inIormation to another
secretary or the general manager in the same
oIIice ?
, .± .. ¬·..¸,..- -.¸ .¸-. ¸. ±+.. ..
.·.. +¸. ± · -.+ +¸ ., ¸ ¬- . ..,..¡. ¸. ,
+¸.+ -.,.-_..., - ¬¸...¬-...,..¡. ¸.,
¬.± .± .¸ .¸.± .-. .¬.+ ¬·+ . . .
..·..
Rene : Good question. It depends on the system. The
work stations have to be wired to each other so
that they can 'talk to each other'. A common
name Ior this is networking. It is oIten done
because it is easy and eIIicient Ior workers in
large companies to exchange inIormation elec-
tronically. It can save paper work and time.
.+...- ....¸... ¬+ .¸.¬..¨ .-_.
-. ¬· . .¸,..- + -. ¸ .¸ -. ¸ . ... . - ±+
±..-. . .. -. ¸ .+ -. ¸ . .¸... . _+-. +
+¸.+ ¸.¸· .¸...· ..¨.¸_+.-. + ._+.
.¬ ¬. .¸.¸.-. -.._+.. · ± .-. .
.-..¬.+ ¬·+ .-+ ¬·+±, ¸.¸.¸_ .¸
.· . . + . ¬ _+ ..- . ., - ¬· . .....- ¬- +
· . + ¸. . . . ..±.. ,_ .+.. .· .. ¬ . .., +
..-. .¬· . ¸ ¬. ¸ + .+ ..... . -.
+¸ .¡-. . .. . -..¬-+¬·... ¸,
Future Publishing House
Maura : Computers certainly have many uses Ior people
in business.
+¸.¡-..-. ......,.·..¸.+ ·.-¬-+
. ..,.¬...¬¸... , .¸-.+.-. ¬..¬...
  

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