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# 1 1 C.T. Pan C.T.

Pan 1 1
CI RCUI T
THEOREMS
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
2 2
The relationship f (x) between cause x and effect y The relationship f (x) between cause x and effect y
is linear if f is linear if f ( ( ) ) is both additive and homogeneous. is both additive and homogeneous.
If f(x If f(x
1 1
)=y )=y
1 1
, f(x , f(x
2 2
)=y )=y
2 2
then f(x then f(x
1 1
+x +x
2 2
)=y )=y
1 1
+y +y
2 2
definition of homogeneous property definition of homogeneous property
If f(x)=y and If f(x)=y and is a real number then f( is a real number then f( x)= x)= y y
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
( )
f g
x x
input input
y y
output output
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
n n Example 4.6.1 Example 4.6.1
Assume Assume I I
0 0
= 1 A = 1 A and use linearity to find the actual and use linearity to find the actual
value of value of I I
0 0
in the circuit in fig in the circuit in figure ure. .
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5 5 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 5 5
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
0 1 0
1
1 2 1 0
2
2 1 2 3
4 3 2
0 0
If 1A , then (3 5) 8V
2A , 3A
4
2 8 6 14V , 2A
7
5A 5A
1 5A , 3A 15A
S
S S
I V I
V
I I I I
V
V V I I
I I I I
I A I I I
+
+
+ +
+
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6 6 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 6 6
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
For a linear circuit N consisting of n inputs , namely For a linear circuit N consisting of n inputs , namely
u u
1 1
, u , u
2 2
, , , u , u
n n
, then the output y can be calculated , then the output y can be calculated
as the sum of its components as the sum of its components
y = y y = y
1 1
+ y + y
2 2
+ + + y + y
n n
where where
y y
i i
=f(u =f(u
i i
) , i=1,2, ) , i=1,2, ,n ,n
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7 7 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 7 7
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
Proof Proof Consider the nodal equation of the corresponding Consider the nodal equation of the corresponding
circuit for the basic case as an example circuit for the basic case as an example
( )
11 12 1 1 1
21 22 2 2 2
1 2

n s
n s
n n n nn ns
G G G I e
G G G e I
A
e G G G I
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
] ] ]
L
L
L L L
M M O M M
L
[ ] ( )
s
G e I B L L L L L L L L L L L L
Let G Let G
k k
= [ G = [ G
k1 k1
G G
k2 k2
G G
kn kn
] ]
T T
Then [G] = [ G Then [G] = [ G
1 1
G G
2 2
G G
n n
] ]
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
Let Let
det A = det A = 0 0
11 12 13 1 1
21 22 23 2 2
31 32 33 1 3
a a a x b
a a a x b
a a a x b
1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
] ] ]
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n n Cramer Cramer s Rule for solving Ax=b s Rule for solving Ax=b
Take n=3 as an example. Take n=3 as an example.
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
1 12 13
2 22 23
3 32 33
1
11 1 13
21 2 23
31 3 33
2
11 12 1
21 22 2
31 32 3
3
det
det
det
b a a
b a a
b a a
x
a b a
a b a
a b a
x
a a b
a a b
a a b
x

## C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 9 9

Then Then
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
Suppose that the kth nodal voltage Suppose that the kth nodal voltage e e
k k
is to be found. is to be found.
Then from Cramer Then from Cramer s rule one has s rule one has
[ ]
[ ]

1 1 s n
k
n
jk
js
j = 1
k k1 k2 kn
det G G I G
e =
det G
= I
where det G
e = e + e + + e

L L
@
L L
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11 11 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 11 11
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
1 1

1k
k1 s s
nk
kn ns ns
where
e I due to I only
e I due to I only
=
=
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12 12 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 12 12
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
n n Example 4.6.2 Example 4.6.2
2
? Find e
Nodal Equation Nodal Equation
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
e e
3 3
e e
2 2
e e
1 1

I I
3S 3S
I I
2S 2S
I I
1S 1S
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
e e
3 3
e e
2 2
e e
1 1
e e
3 3
e e
2 2
e e
1 1

I I
3S 3S
I I
2S 2S
I I
1S 1S
I I
3S 3S
I I
2S 2S
I I
1S 1S
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13 13 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 13 13
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
By using Cramer By using Cramer s rule s rule
1 4 6 1 6
4 2 5
6 3 3 5 6
2
32 12 22
1 2 3
21 22 23
det

S
S
S
S S S
G G G I G
G I G
G I G G G
e
I I I
e e e
+ +
_

+ +
,

+ +

+ +
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14 14 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 14 14
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
Where e Where e
21 21
is due to I is due to I
1S 1S
only only I I
2S 2S
I I
3S 3S
0 0
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
e e
31 31
e e
21 21
e e
11 11

0 0
0 0
I I
1S 1S
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
e e
31 31
e e
21 21
e e
11 11
e e
31 31
e e
21 21
e e
11 11

0 0
0 0
I I
1S 1S
0 0
0 0
I I
1S 1S
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4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
e e
31 31
e e
21 21
e e
11 11

0 0
0 0
I I
1S 1S
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
G G
3 3
+G +G
5 5
+G +G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
5 5
G G
2 2
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
5 5
- -G G
4 4
- -G G
6 6
- -G G
4 4
G G
1 1
+G +G
4 4
+G +G
6 6
e e
31 31
e e
21 21
e e
11 11
e e
31 31
e e
21 21
e e
11 11

0 0
0 0
I I
1S 1S
0 0
0 0
I I
1S 1S
1 4 6 1 6
4 5
6 3 5 6
21
12
1 1
det 0
0
,
S
S S
G G G I G
G G
G G G G
e
I due to I only
+ +
_

+ +
,

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16 16 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 16 16
4.6 Superposition Theorem 4.6 Superposition Theorem
Similarly Similarly
2
1 3

0
S
S S
Duo to I only
I I
3
1 2

0
S
S S
Duo to I only
I I
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17 17 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 17 17
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
In high school, one finds the equivalent In high school, one finds the equivalent
resistance of a two terminal resistive circuit resistance of a two terminal resistive circuit
without sources. without sources.
Now, we will find the equivalent circuit for two Now, we will find the equivalent circuit for two
terminal resistive circuit with sources. terminal resistive circuit with sources.
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18 18 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 18 18
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
Thevenin Thevenin s theorem states that a linear two s theorem states that a linear two- -terminal terminal
circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit
consisting of a voltage source V consisting of a voltage source V
TH TH
in series with a in series with a
resistor R resistor R
TH TH
where V where V
TH TH
is the open circuit voltage at is the open circuit voltage at
the terminals and R the terminals and R
TH TH
is the input or equivalent is the input or equivalent
resistance at the terminals when the independent resistance at the terminals when the independent
sources are turned off . sources are turned off .
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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Linear
two-terminal
circuit
Connected
circuit
+
V
-
a
b
I
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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
Equivalent circuit: same voltage Equivalent circuit: same voltage- -current relation at the current relation at the
terminals. terminals.
V V
TH TH
= V = V
OC OC
: Open circuit voltage at a : Open circuit voltage at a- -b b
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V V
TH TH
= V = V
OC OC
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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R R
TH TH
= R = R
IN IN
: input resistance of the dead circuit : input resistance of the dead circuit
Turn off all independent sources Turn off all independent sources
R R
TH TH
= R = R
IN IN
CASE 1 CASE 1
If the network has no dependent sources: If the network has no dependent sources:
- - Turn off all independent source. Turn off all independent source.
- - R R
TH TH
: : input resistance of the network looking input resistance of the network looking
into a into a- -b b terminals terminals
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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CASE 2 CASE 2
If the network has dependent sources If the network has dependent sources
- -Turn off all independent sources. Turn off all independent sources.
- -Apply a voltage source V Apply a voltage source V
O O
at a at a- -b b
O
TH
O
V
R =
I
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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- -Alternatively, apply a current source I Alternatively, apply a current source I
O O
at a at a- -b b
If R If R
TH TH
< 0, the circuit is supplying power. < 0, the circuit is supplying power.
O
TH
O
V
R =
I
Simplified circuit Simplified circuit
Voltage divider Voltage divider
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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TH
L
TH L
L
L L L TH
TH L
V
I =
R +R
R
V = R I = V
R +R
Proof : Consider the following linear two terminal circuit Proof : Consider the following linear two terminal circuit
consisting of n+1 nodes and choose terminal b as consisting of n+1 nodes and choose terminal b as
datum node and terminal a as node n . datum node and terminal a as node n .
L
1 1
1 1 1
2 2
1
s
n
s
n n n
n n s
I V
G G
V I
G G
V I
_ _
_

,
, ,
K
M O M
M M
L
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Then nodal voltage V Then nodal voltage V
n n
when a when a- -b terminals are open b terminals are open
can be found by using Cramer can be found by using Cramer s rule . s rule .
( )
1
1
A
n
n kn ks
k
V I

L L L
is the determinant of [G] matrix is the determinant of [G] matrix
Now connect an external resistance R Now connect an external resistance R
o o
to a to a- -b terminals . b terminals .
The new nodal voltages will be changed to e The new nodal voltages will be changed to e
1 1
, e , e
2 2
, , , e , e
n n
respectively . respectively .
is the corresponding cofactor of G is the corresponding cofactor of G
kn kn ku

## 4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem

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( )
1 11
1 1
2
2 2
1
0
0
. . . . . . . . . B
1
n
s
n
s
n nn
n ns
o
G G
I e
G
e I
G G
e I
R
+ _
_ _

+

+
, ,

,
K
M
M M
M M
L
Nodal equation Nodal equation
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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[ ]
1 11 11
2 21
1 1
0 0
0 0
det det det
1 1

1

n
n
n nn n
o o
nn
o
G G G
G G
G
G G G
R R
R
+ _ _

+

+

+

, ,
+
K K
M
M M M M
L L
Note that Note that
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Hence , e Hence , e
n n
can be obtained as follows . can be obtained as follows .
11 1
1 1 1
det
1

1 1 1
1
s
n n
kn ks kn ks
n ns k k o
n n
nn
o TH
nn nn
o o o
G I
I I
G I R
e V
R R
R R R

_

+
+ + +

K
M O M
L
where where
TH
R
nn

@
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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TH
n
o
In other words , the linear circuit looking into terminals a-b can
be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage
source V
TH
in series with an equivalent resistance R
TH
, where
V
TH
is the open circuit voltage V
n
and .
nn
TH
R

## 4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem

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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
Example 4.7.1 Example 4.7.1
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1
4

1
6

1
2

## 4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem

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1
2
1
1
2
5 2 2 4 2
2 2 6 2
2 2
2 4 2 2 5
2 2 2 6 0
8 2
d e t 6 4 8 5 6
4 8
x
x
x
V V
V V
V V
V
V
+ _ _ _

+
, , ,

+ + _ _ _

+
, , ,

,
Example 4.7.1 (cont.) Example 4.7.1 (cont.)
Find open circuit voltage V Find open circuit voltage V
2 2
2
22
8 5
det
4 0 20 5
56 56 14
8 1

56 7
TH
TH
V V V
R
_

## 4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem

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Example 4.7.1 (cont.) Example 4.7.1 (cont.)
a
b
5
14
V
1
7

Ans. Ans.
10 20
10
By voltage divider principle : By voltage divider principle :
open circuit voltage V open circuit voltage V
TH TH
=10V =10V
Let independent source be zero Let independent source be zero
Example 4.7.2 Example 4.7.2
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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10 20
a
b
10
R
TH
=5+20=25
n n Find the Thevenin Find the Thevenin s s equivalent circuit of the circuit equivalent circuit of the circuit
shown below, to the left of the terminals a shown below, to the left of the terminals a- -b. Then b. Then
find the current through find the current through R R
L L
= = 6, 6, 16, 16, and 36 and 36 . .
Example 4.7.3 Example 4.7.3
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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TH
TH
R : 32V voltage source short
2A current source open
4 12
R = 4 12 +1= 1 4
16

+ P
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Example 4.7.3 (cont.) Example 4.7.3 (cont.)
R
TH
V
TH
V
TH
analysis analysis Mesh Mesh
: :
TH TH V V
+ + + +
A A 2 2 , , 0 0 ) ) ( ( 12 12 4 4 32 32
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
i i i i i i i i
A A 5 5 . . 0 0
1 1

i i
V V 30 30 ) ) 0 0 . . 2 2 5 5 . . 0 0 ( ( 12 12 ) ) ( ( 12 12
2 2 1 1 TH TH
+ +
i i i i V V
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Example 4.7.3 (cont.) Example 4.7.3 (cont.)
: : get get To To
L L
i i
L L L L
L L
R R R R R R
V V
i i
+ +

+ +

4 4
30 30
TH TH
TH TH
6 6
L L
R R A A 3 3 10 10 / / 30 30
L L
I I
16 16
L L
R R
A A 5 5 . . 1 1 20 20 / / 30 30
L L
I I
36 36
L L
R R A A 75 75 . . 0 0 40 40 / / 30 30
L L
I I

4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Example 4.7.3 (cont.) Example 4.7.3 (cont.)
Find the Thevenin Find the Thevenin s s equivalent of the equivalent of the following following
circuit circuit with terminals a with terminals a- -b. b.
40 40
Example 4.7.4 Example 4.7.4
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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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(independent + dependent source case) (independent + dependent source case)
To find R To find R
TH TH
from Fig.(a) from Fig.(a)
independent source independent source 0 0
dependent source dependent source unchanged unchanged
Apply Apply
41 41
1
1 ,
o
o TH
o o
v
v V R
i i

Example 4.7.4 (cont.) Example 4.7.4 (cont.)
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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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For loop 1 , For loop 1 ,
2 1 2
4
x
i v i i
42 42
But But
1 2 1 2
-2 2( ) 0 =
x x
v i i or v i i +
1 2
3 i i
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4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
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Example 4.7.4 (cont.) Example 4.7.4 (cont.)
43 43
2 2 1 2 3
3 2 3
Loop 2 and 3:
4 2( ) 6( ) 0
6( ) 2 1 0
i i i i i
i i i
+ +
+ +
Solving these equations gives Solving these equations gives
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Example 4.7.4 (cont.) Example 4.7.4 (cont.)
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
3
3
1

6
1
But
6
1
6
o
TH
o
i A
i i A
V
R
i

5
1

i
+
0 ) ( 2 2
2 3
i i v
x
2 3
i i v
x

44 44 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 44 44
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
Example 4.7.4 (cont.) Example 4.7.4 (cont.)
+ +
0 6 ) ( 2 ) ( 4
2
3
2 1 2
i i i i i 0 2 4 12
3 1 2

i i i
To find V To find V
TH TH
from Fig.(b) from Fig.(b)
Mesh analysis Mesh analysis
v v i i i i ) ) ( ( 4 4 But But
x x 2 2 1 1
. . 3 3 / / 10 10
2 2

i i
V V 20 20 6 6
2 2
TH TH

i i v v V V
oc oc

C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 45 45 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 45 45
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
Example 4.7.4 (cont.) Example 4.7.4 (cont.)
Determine the Thevenin Determine the Thevenin s s
equivalent circuit : equivalent circuit :
Solution Solution: :
(dependent source only) (dependent source only)
Example 4.7.5 Example 4.7.5
46 46
0 ,
o
TH TH
o
v
V R
i

4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
46 46 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
2
4
o
o x x
v
i i i + +
Nodal analysis Nodal analysis
47 47
Thus Thus
But But
4
o
TH
o
v
R
i

0
2 2

4 2 4 4
4
o o
x
o o o o
o x
o o
v v
i
v v v v
i i
or v i

+ +

C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.7 Thevenin 4.7 Thevenin s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 47 47
Example 4.7.5 (cont.) Example 4.7.5 (cont.)
: Supplying Power ! : Supplying Power !
n n Norton Norton s theorem s theorem states that a linear two-terminal
circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit
consisting of a current source I
N
in parallel with a
resistor R
N
where I
N
is the short-circuit current
through the terminals and R
N
is the input or
equivalent resistance at the terminals when the
independent sources are turned off.
48 48 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 48 48
49 49 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 49 49
Linear
two-terminal
circuit
a
b
(a)
Proof Proof
By using Mesh Analysis as an example By using Mesh Analysis as an example
Assume the linear two terminal circuit is Assume the linear two terminal circuit is
a planar circuit and there are n meshes a planar circuit and there are n meshes
when a b terminals are short circuited. when a b terminals are short circuited.
50 50 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 50 50
[ ]
1 1 11 1
2 2
1
1
1

1

=det

S n
S
n nn n ns
n
n kn ks
k
ik
kn
Mesh equation for case as an example
V I R R
I V
R R I V
Hence the short circuit cuurent
I V
where R

_ _ _

, , ,

M M
O
M M M M
L L

kn
is the cofactor of R
51 51 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 51 51
Now connect an external resistance R Now connect an external resistance R
o o
to a , b to a , b
terminals , then all the mesh currents will be terminals , then all the mesh currents will be
changed to J changed to J
1 1
, J , J
2 2
, , J J
n n
respectively. respectively.
1 1 11 1
2 2 2
1
11 1 11
2
1 1
0
0

0 0
0
det det

S n
n S
n n nn o ns
n
n
n o n nn o
V J R R
R J V
J R R R V
Note that
R R R
R
R R R R R
+ _ _ _

+

+
, , ,
+ _ _

+

+

+
, ,
M
O
M M M M
L L
K
M M M
O O
M M M M
L L L

o nn
R +
52 52 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 52 52
11 1
1 1
1
det
1

1
s
n
kn ks
n ns k
n
o nn o nn
n
kn ks
k
nn
o
R V
V
R V
J
R R
V
R

,

+ +

M O M
L
Hence, one has Hence, one has
53 53
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 53 53

1

n
nn
o
N
n
o N
I
R
R
I
R R

+
54 54
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 54 54
,
N N n
nn
where R I I

Example 4.8.1 By using the above formula Example 4.8.1 By using the above formula
4
3
3
3
Find the short circuit current I Find the short circuit current I
3 3
3+3 3+3 - -3 3 - -3 3
- -3 3 3+3+4 3+3+4 - -3 3
- -3 3 - -3 3 3+3 3+3
I I
3 3
I I
2 2
I I
1 1

0 0
0 0
10V 10V
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4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 55 55
3+3 3+3 - -3 3 - -3 3
- -3 3 3+3+4 3+3+4 - -3 3
- -3 3 - -3 3 3+3 3+3
I I
3 3
I I
2 2
I I
1 1

0 0
0 0
10V 10V
[ ]
( )
3
33
det 360 27 27 27 90 54 54 108
6 3 10
1 10 390 65
det 3 10 0 39
108 108 108 18
3 3 0
108 36
60 9 17
ik
N
N
R
I A I
R

_

,

56 56 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
Example 4.8.1 (cont.) Example 4.8.1 (cont.)
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 56 56
Example 4.8.2 Example 4.8.2
Find the Norton equivalent circuit of Find the Norton equivalent circuit of the the following following circuit circuit
57 57
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 57 57
5|| (8 4 8)
20 5
5|| 20 4
25
N
R + +

58 58 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
Example 4.8.2 (cont.) Example 4.8.2 (cont.)
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 58 58
To find R To find R
N N
from Fig.(a) from Fig.(a)
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4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 59 59
Example 4.8.2 (cont.) Example 4.8.2 (cont.)
To find I To find I
N N
from Fig.(b) from Fig.(b)
short short- -circuit terminal a and b circuit terminal a and b
Mesh Analysis: Mesh Analysis:
i i
1 1
= 2A = 2A
20i 20i
2 2
- - 4i 4i
1 1
12 = 0 12 = 0
i i
2 2
= 1A = I = 1A = I
N N
2A
4
8
8
5
12V
i
SC
=I
N
a
b
(b)
i
1
i 2
TH
N N
TH
V
Alternative method for I : I =
R
voltage voltage circuit circuit open open : :
TH TH
V V b b a a and and terminals terminals across across
: : analysis analysis Mesh Mesh
60 60 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
3 4 3
4
4
2 , 25 4 12 0
0.8
5 4
oc TH
i A i i
i A
v V i V

4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 60 60
Example 4.8.2 (cont.) Example 4.8.2 (cont.)
2A
4
8
8
5
12V
VTH=v SC
a
b
(b)
i 3
i 4
, ,
Hence Hence
A A 1 1 4 4 / / 4 4

TH TH
TH TH
N N
R R
V V
I I
61 61 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 61 61
Example 4.8.2 (cont.) Example 4.8.2 (cont.)
n n Using Norton Using Norton s s theorem, find theorem, find R R
N N
and and I I
N N
of the of the
following following circuit. circuit.
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4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 62 62
Example 4.8.3 Example 4.8.3
Hence Hence , ,
63 63 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
1
0.2
5 5
o
o
v
i A
1
5
0.2
o
N
o
v
R
i

4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 63 63
Example 4.8.3 (cont.) Example 4.8.3 (cont.)
To find R To find R
N N
from Fig.(a) from Fig.(a)
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4.8 Norton 4.8 Norton s Theorem s Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 64 64
Example 4.8.3 (cont.) Example 4.8.3 (cont.)
To find I To find I
N N
from Fig.(b) from Fig.(b)
10
2.5
4
10
2
5
10
= 2(2.5) 7
5
7
x
N x
N
i A
V
I i
A
I A

+

+

N v V
s
a
b
i
R
65 65 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 65 65
4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
The current through resistor R can be obtained The current through resistor R can be obtained
as follows : as follows :
S S
S
V v V v v
i I
R R R R

@
66 66 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 66 66
4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
From KCL, one can obtain the following From KCL, one can obtain the following
equivalent circuit equivalent circuit

S
S
V
where I
R
@
67 67 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 67 67
4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
The voltage across resistor R can be obtained as The voltage across resistor R can be obtained as
follows : follows :
( )
S S S
v I i R I R iR V iR @
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4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
From KVL, one can obtain the following From KVL, one can obtain the following
equivalent circuit equivalent circuit

S S
where V R I @
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4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
Example 4.9.1 Example 4.9.1
3
a
b
10A
30V
a
b
3
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4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
Example 4.9.2 Example 4.9.2
n n Find the Thevenin Find the Thevenin s equivalent s equivalent
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4.9 Source Transformation 4.9 Source Transformation
Example 4.9.2 (cont.) Example 4.9.2 (cont.)
4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
n n Problem : Given a linear resistive circuit N Problem : Given a linear resistive circuit N
shown as above, find the value of shown as above, find the value of
R R
L L
that permits maximum power that permits maximum power
delivery to R delivery to R
L . L .
72 72 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
a
b
R
L
73 73 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
Solution : First, replace N with its Thevenin Solution : First, replace N with its Thevenin
equivalent circuit. equivalent circuit.
+
-
R
TH a
R
L
b
V
TH
i
4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
74 74 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
2 2
2
2
L TH max
( )
0 ,
R =R ( )
2 4
TH
L
TH L
L
TH TH
L
L L
V
p i R R
R R
dp
Let
dR
V V
Then and P R
R R

+

4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
75 75 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
(a) Find R
L
that results in maximum power transferred to R
L
.
(b) Find the corresponding maximum power delivered to R
L
,
namely P
max
.
(c) Find the corresponding power delivered by the 360V
source, namely P
s
and P
max
/P
s
in percentage.
4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
n Example 4.10.1
76 76 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
( )
2
m a x
1 5 0
: ( ) 3 6 0 3 0 0
1 8 0
1 5 0 3 0
2 5
1 8 0
3 0 0
( ) 2 5 9 0 0
5 0
T H
T H
S o l u t i o n a V V
R
b P W

4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
77 77 C.T. Pan C.T. Pan
( )
( )
:

a b
s
s s
m a x
s
300
Sol uti on (c) V = 25 = 150V
50
- 360 - 150
i = = -7A
30
P = i 360 = -2520W (dis s ipated)
P 900
= = 35.71%
P 2520

4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 4.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 78 78
Summary Summary
n n Objective 7 : Understand and be able to use Objective 7 : Understand and be able to use
superposition theorem. superposition theorem.
n n Objective 8 : Understand and be able to use Objective 8 : Understand and be able to use
Thevenin Thevenin s s theorem. theorem.
n n Objective 9 : Understand and be able to use Objective 9 : Understand and be able to use
Norton Norton s theorem. s theorem.
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 79 79
Summary Summary
n n Objective 10 : Understand and be able to use Objective 10 : Understand and be able to use
source transform technique. source transform technique.
n n Objective 11 : Know the condition for and be Objective 11 : Know the condition for and be
able to find the maximum able to find the maximum
power transfer. power transfer.
C.T. Pan C.T. Pan 80 80
Summary Summary
n n Problem : 4.60 Problem : 4.60
4.64 4.64
4.68 4.68
4.77 4.77
4.86 4.86
4.91 4.91
n n Due within one week. Due within one week.