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India's modern history extends till its independence in 1947.

Year Event
1757 Battle of Plassey: The British defeat Siraj-ud-
daulah
1760 Battle of Wandiwash: The British defeat the
French
1764 Battle of Buxar: The British defeat Mir Kasim
1775 The First Anglo-Maratha war
1784 Second Mysore War : The British defeat Hyder
Ali
1790 Third Mysore War between the British and Tipu
1799 Fourth Mysore War: The British defeat Tipu;
Death of Tipu; Partition of Mysore
1805 The Second Anglo-Maratha war: The British
defeat the Marathas at Assaye: Treaty of
Amritsar
1814 The Anglo-Gurkha war
1817 The last Anglo-Maratha war: Marathas finally
crushed by the British
1824 The First Burmese war
1839 First Afghan war
1845 First Anglo-Sikh war
1849 Second Anglo-Sikh war, British annex Punjab as
Sikhs are defeated
1852 Second Anglo-Burmese war
1853 Railway opened from Bombay to Thane;
Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra
1857 First War of Indian Independence: The Sepoy
Mutiny
1877 Delhi Durbar: The Queen of England proclaimed
Empress of India
1905 The First Partition of Bengal
Formation of Muslim League; Congress
1906
declaration regarding Swaraj
The Imperial capital shifted from Calcutta to
1912
Delhi
Jalianwalla Bagh massacre; The Montague-
1919
Chelmsford Reforms offer limited autonomy
Civil Disobedience Movement; Chauri-Chaura
1922
violence leads to Gandhi suspending movement
Civil Disobedience movement continues; Salt
1930
Satyagraha: Gandhiji's Dandi March
Subhash Chandra Bose forms Indian National
1942
Army
Gandhi-Jinnah Talks break down on Pakistan
1944
issue
Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for
1947
partition of India on June 3rd.
Partition of India and Independence (15th
1974 August). Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the first
Prime Minister.

Indian Women and marriages

It is said that:
"Heaven is when you have an American Salary, live in a
British house, eat Chinese food and have an Indian Wife
Hell is when you have an American Wife; eat British
Food; have a Chinese house and get an Indian Salary"
Former Ms India - Juhi Chawla

It is not contempt for the British and the Chinese, but this sounds more right:
"Heaven is when you have an American Salary, an American house and eat Indian
food and have an Indian Wife"

Indian marriages are mostly arranged marriages. That might be one reason why
divorce rate in India is amongst the lowest in the world. The other reason of course
is that Indian women are extremely understanding. Making sacrifices and
adjustments are their strongest traits. Apart from winning beauty contests, Indian
women like twenty-one year old Subbaraman Vijayalakshmi excel in brains too. Viji
won a rare honour in July 2000, by becoming the first Indian women Chess Grand
Master (GM).

List of world's most beautiful women


Source: Femina, India

Ms Universe
Year Miss Universe Country
- Lara Dutta
2000 Lara Dutta India
1999 Mpule Kwelagobe Botswana
1998 Wendy Fitzwilliam Trinidad
1997 Brook Lee USA
1996 Alicia Machado Venezuela
1995 Chelsi Smith USA
1994 Sushmita Sen India

Reita Faria, a young medical student from Mumbai, created history in 1966 by
becoming the first Indian to be crowned Miss World. However, it took almost twenty-
six years for another Indian to win at an international beauty pageant.

Ms World - Aishwaria
Year Miss World Country
Rai
2000 Priyanka Chopra India
1999 Yukta Mookhey India
1998 Linor Abargil Israel
1997 Diana Hayden India
1996 Irene Skliva Greece
1995 Jacqueline Aquilera Venezuela
1994 Aishwarya Rai India

History of the beautiful women of India


Source: Femina, India

2007
• Miss India Universe - Puja Gupta
• Miss India World - Sarah-Jane Dias
• Miss India Earth - Pooja Chitgopekar

2006
• Miss India Universe - Neha Kapur, later placed among the top 20 semi-
finalists at Miss Universe
• Miss India World - Natasha Suri, top 17 semi-finalists, second runner up
(beach beauty), second runner up (dress designer award), top 10 in (talent
round)
• Miss India Earth - Amruta Patki, 1st runner-up Miss Earth 2006 held in Manila,
Philippines

2005
• Miss India Universe - Amrita
• Miss India World - Sindhura Gadde, later placed among the top 15 semi-
finalists at Miss World
• Miss India Earth - Niharika

2004
• Miss India Universe - Tanushree Dutta, later placed among the Top 10 at Miss
Universe
• Miss India World - Sayali Bhagat
• Miss India Earth - Jyoti Brahmin, later placed among the Top 16 Semifinalists
at Miss Earth

2003
• Miss India Universe - Nikita Anand
• Miss India World - Ami Vashi, later 3 runner up at Miss World 2003
• Miss India Earth - Swetha Vijay

2002
• Miss India Universe - Neha Dhupia, later ninth at Miss Universe. It started
with a dream for the tall and slender beauty with dark-brown eyes. Millions of
moments later, Neha Dhupia, a true-blue Virgo, sported a smile infused with
the fragrance of sweet success.
• Miss India World - Shruti Sharma semifinalist in miss world 2002
• Miss India Earth - Reshmi Ghosh

2001
• Miss India Universe - Celina Jaitley, later fourth runner-up at Miss Universe.
The light-eyed lady with an hourglass figure, Celina Jaitley was definitely a
crowd puller in the Femina Miss India contest. Little wonder, then, that she
walked away with all the laurels and the precious title too.
• Miss India World - Sara Corner
• Miss India Earth - Shamita Singha, later fifth place at Miss Earth (first
contestant from India ever to compete)

2000
• Miss India Universe- Lara Dutta, later Miss Universe, 2000 (also Miss
Intercontinental 1997). When she wore the crown in the beautiful city of
Cyprus, her triumph was best described as deserving. Lara Dutta describes
her winning the Miss Universe title as being "a culmination of a dream"
content.
• Miss India World - Priyanka Chopra, later Miss World, 2000. The eighteen-
year-old gal from Bareilly, Priyanka Chopra beat out 94 other lovely ladies to
claim the Miss World 2000 title. And she sashayed away with $100,000 as
prize money at the Millennium dome, London.
• Miss India Asia-Pacific International- Diya Mirza, later Miss Asia-Pacific, 2000.
Think delicacy, poise, elegance and brains. Think Diya Mirza, a heavenly
beauty from Hyderabad, who won the prestigious Miss Asia-Pacific title at the
beauty pageant held on December 2, 2000, in Manila.
• Miss India International- Gayatri Joshi, later semifinalist at Miss International
2000

1999
• Miss India Universe - Gul Panag, later sixth place at Miss Universe. She has
tremendous faith in herself. After obtaining a doctorate in developmental
economics. She entered the media, inspired by her newsreader aunt, Komal G
B Singh. She believes that the possibilities are endless.
• Miss India World - Yukta Mookhey, later Miss World, 1999. Her serenity and
calm shone throughout the pageant. The 5'11'' tall brunette from India took
London's Olympia theatre by storm in 1999.
• Miss India Asia Pacific - Shivangi Parikh. The stage was not new for Shivangi
who had modelled for Hemant Trivedi & Achala Sachdev, starred in music
videos and also won the Miss Mumbai pageant.

1998
• Miss India Universe - Lymaraina D'Souza, later seventh place at Miss
Universe. How does a 19-year-old collegian who's never worn make-up before
and who claims to "eat like a horse" and be "pretty laid-back" get to be
Femina Miss India-Universe 1998? Well, Lymaraina D'Souza was clear about
her goals. She is pursuing her studies in Psychology in Hawaii.
• Miss India World - Annie Thomas

1997
• Miss India Universe - Nafisa Joseph, later tenth place at Miss Universe.
Winning the crown did not come as a big surprise to her. She portrayed great
confidence at the Miss Universe pageant, and in reply to one of the questions,
she said that, to bring a child into the world and not able to offer it peace was
the biggest injustice done in the world.
• Miss India World - Diana Hayden, later Miss World, 1997. This little princess
from Hyderabad flew out of the country only to return after being crowned the
world's most beautiful woman on November 22, 1997, in Seychelles. And
moments after winning the crown, she told that the title meant the world to
her.

1996
• Miss India Universe- Sandhya Chib, later seventh place at Miss Universe,
1996. Years after winning the contest, Sandhya returned and took the stage
by storm. Today, Sandhya is a successful model. Luck was not on her side at
the Miss Universe pageant where she stood seventh. On her return, she got
engaged.
• Miss India World - Rani Jeyraj, later third runner-up at Miss World, 1996
• Representative at Miss International - Fleur Dominique Xavier

1995
• Miss India Universe - Manpreet Brar, later first runner-up at Miss Universe. An
MBA student, Manpreet won the Miss Universe Runner-up title. Today, she
leads a busy life with ramp shows and shooting for channel [V] as a VJ. She
also plans to be a TV producer some day.
• Miss India World - Preeti Mankotia
• Representative at Miss International - Priya Gill

1994
• Miss India Universe - Sushmita Sen, later Miss Universe, 1994. She stunned
the universe. And shone on Manila. Euphoria gripped India on May 21, 1994,
when, for the first time ever, an Indian girl was crowned Miss Universe, at
Manila, Philippines. That's Sushmita Sen, Miss Universe 1994.
• Miss India World - Aishwarya Rai, later Miss World, 1994. She first caught the
audiences' fancy in the Pepsi advertisement with Aamir Khan. Soon after, she
won the Femina Miss India title in 1994. She also won the Miss World title,
and became the second Indian to be crowned Miss World in 28 years.
1993
• Miss India - Namrata Shirodkar, later sixth place at Miss Universe. Another
model-turned-actress, Namrata had support of her sister Shilpa, who's a
celebrated actress in Bollywood. Presently, Namrata is doing films and has a
lot of them lined up for release as well.
• Miss India first runner-up - Karminder Kaur
• Miss India 2nd Runner-Up - Pooja Batra. Who can miss Anil Kapoor's stunning
city-bred girlfriend in the film Virasat or the `Head & Shoulders'
advertisement that is flashed on television so often. Today, Pooja devotes her
time in doing meaningful roles and good films.

1992
• Miss India - Madhu Sapre, later second runner-up at Miss Universe, 1992.
This leggy lass came within touching distance of the Miss Universe crown but
was pipped by her own honesty. She still is the eternal ramp favourite. And
now she's writing a book tentatively titled ‘Tuff Girls Don't Talk Englis’. The
title says it all.
• Miss India World - Shyla Lopez
• Miss India International - Kamal Sandhu

Other prominent Miss India’s

1980 - Sangeeta Bijlani

1984 - Juhi Chawla

1985 - Sonu Walia

1986 - Mehr Jessia

History of the world

This is chronology of events in the history of mankind. So when someone tells you
the Greeks and Romans form the cradle of human civilization, you can tell them
Egyptians and Indians were building cities thousands of years before the so-called
Western civilization even set a stone.

4-5 MILLION B.C .- Humans (Hominids - in primitive ape-like stages) first appear
in AFRICA (EAST & SOUTH)
2.5 - 2 MILLION B.C. - Humans (Homo Habilis - humans with brain and dextrous
fingers and Homo Erectus) appear in Africa

900,000 B.C. - Humans (Homo Sapiens) move towards WEST ASIA (MESOPOTAMIA
- PERSIA -INDUS)

850,000 B.C. - Humans move towards LOWER EUROPE (ANATOLIA/ BALKANS).


(ANATOLIA is mordern day Turkey)

450,000 B.C. - Humans move towards CHINA (NORTH)

200,000 B.C. - Humans seen in MIDDLE EUROPE

120,000 B.C. - Humans start occupying JAVA

100,000 B.C. - EARLIEST KNOWN FORM OF HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS (AFRICA)

50,000 B.C. - Humans move towards AUSTRALIA

35,000 B.C. - Humans move towards UPPER EUROPE

30,000 B.C. - Humans set up in NORTH AMERICA

10,000 B.C - Humans migrate towards SOUTH AMERICA (ICE AGE ENDS)

10000-4000 B.C. - Humans start AGRICULTURAL/ HUNTING/ METAL WORKS

6000 B.C. COPPER FOUND IN WEST ASIA

5000 B.C. COPPER FOUND IN BALKANS

4000-2000 B.C. BRONZE/ COPPER IS WIDELY USED IN THE OLD WORLD (ASIA)

2000-1000 B.C. IRON IS FOUND IN WEST ASIA/ INDIA/ CHINA

3500 B.C.-1100 B.C. (EGYPTIAN EMPIRE AT ITS PEAK) - WORLD's FIRST CITIES
COMES UP ON THE BANKS OF RIVERS NILE, TIGRIS/ EUPHRATES- URBAN (CITIES
UR- URUK -BABYLON)

3200 B.C. WORLD's FIRST URBAN CIVILIZATION COMES UP AROUND NILES IN


EYGPT - URBAN (CITY- MEMPHIS, THEBES)

3000 B.C. - 1500 B.C. - WORLD's NEXT BIGEST URBAN CIVILIZATION COMES
AROUND - INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION- URBAN (CITIES - HARAPPA MOHENJO-
DARO)

1800 B.C. - 1100 B.C. NORTHERN CHINA BEGINS URBANIZATION (CITIES -


ZHENGZHOU SHANG KINGDOM)
2000-1100 B.C. GREEKS START THEIR URBANIZATION
(I) KING MINOS OF THE ISLAND OF CRETE (AEGEAN EMPIRE) (2000-1700 B.C.)
(II) MYCENAEN EMPIRE (PALACE OF KNOSSOS BECOMES THEIR MOST FAMOUS
SYMBOL)

1650-1200 B.C. HITTITE EMPIRE (Turkey)

2000 B.C.- 1000 B.C. - LEVANT EMPIRE (Present day Israel) INCLUDES CITIES
LIKE JERUSALEM, AMMAN, DAMASCUS, GAZA). IT EXPANDS TO INCLUDE
MESOPOTAMIA (KIngdom of Mittanni and Kingdom of Hittite) AND EGYPT

- KINGDOM OF MITANNI (MESOPOTAMIA)


- KINGDOM OF HITTIE (ANATOLIA) - (BOGASKOY CITY)

1000-300 B.C. - POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CENTER OF INDIA SHIFTS FROM INDUS
VALLEY TO THE MORE FERTILE GANGES PLAINS. BUDDHISM, JAINISM AND THE
MYSTICAL VEDISM DEVELOPED IN THIS ERA. THE UPANISHADS (LAST PART OF
VEDAS) URGED ESCAPED FROM PHYSICAL WORLD. RAMAYAN (AROUND 300 B.C.)
AND MAHABHARATA STARTED AROUND 400 B.C.

1000-600 B.C. ASSYRIAN EMPIRE (MESAPOTAMIA & LEVANT) (CITY NIMRUD).


(MESOPOTAMIA is mordern day Middle-East)

900-300 B.C. GREEK EMPIRE (GREECE, AEGEAN, WEST ANATOLIA, ITALY)


(CITY-ATHENS)

300-100 B.C. HELLENISTIC WORLD (GREECE, WEST ANATOLIA, MESA)


(KING ALEXANDER)

563 B.C. BIRTH OF BUDHA - BUDHISM BEGINS TO SPREAD

600 B.C.-640 A.D. PERSIAN EMPIRE - EGYPT, MESA, ASSYRIA, INDUS


(PERSIAN EMPIRE ALSO CALLED ACHAEMENID EMPIRE)

1000 B.C.-50 A.D CELTIC EMPIRE IN EUROPE (BEYOND CACAUCUS MT.'S)

300 B.C. - 500 A.D. ROMAN EMPIRE (ITALY, SPAIN, FRANCE, GREECE, N.AFTRICA,
ANATOLIA, LEVANT, EGYPT)

600-200 B.C. MAURYAN EMPIRE (KING ASOKA) CITY-PATALIPUTRA

300 - 400 A.D. -GUPTA DYNASTY UNITES INDIA AROUND 320 AD. ART,
ARCHITECTURE AND LITERATURE ARE INDIA'S FINEST ACHIEVEMENTS OF THIS
EAR. MATHEMATICAL INNVOATIONS IN INDIA INCLUDE THE ZERO AND USE OF
DECIMAL NUMBERS

600-1000 A.D. ISLAM POWER SPREADS (622 AD MOHAMED/ MUSLIM ERA STARTS)

700-1100 A.D. VIKINGS RULE (N.W. EUROPE- SCANDINAVIAN, BRITISH, FRANCE,


GERMANY, RUSSIA)
100-1600 A.D. OTTOMON TURKS RULE ANATOLIA, LEGANT, EGYPT, S-E EUROPE

1500-1600 A.D. SAFAVID RULE IN PERSIA

1200-1600 A.D. MOGHULS RULE IN INDIA

400 B.C.-1600 A.D. HAN-TANG-SONG-MING DYNASTIES IN THE ORIENT

1600-1900 A.D. MANCHU-CHING DYNASTY

1500-2000 A.D. EUROPEAN DOMINATION

2000 AD onwards - INDIAN DOMINATION??????

History of India

Ancient
history of India can be divided into a period from 7000 BC to 1000 AD, then
Medieval India (1000 AD to 1756 AD) and modern day (1757 to 1947 AD).

Ancient India (BC to 1000 AD)


Age Event
7000-3750 BC Vedic Age
3000-2000 BC Harappa (Indus and Saraswati) Civilization
2200-1900 BC Decline of Indus and Saraswati Civilization
2000-1500 BC Period of Complete chaos and migration
Aryans expand into the Ganga valley from
1000 BC
the Indus valley
900 BC Mahabharata War
Aryans expand into Bengal (Epic Age of
800 BC
Mahabharata and Ramayana)
550 BC Composition of the Upanishads
544 BC Buddha's Nirvana
327 BC Alexander's Invasion
Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleacus
324 BC
Nicator
Rise of the Mauryas; Chandragupta
322 BC
establishes first Indian Empire
272 BC Ashoka begins reign
180 BC Fall of the Mauryas; Rise of the Sungas
145 BC Chola king Erata conquers Ceylon
Rise of the Satvahana Dynasty in the
30 BC
Deccan
Sakas in power in Indus Valley and
40 AD
Western India
Chandragupta I establishes the Gupta
320 AD
dynasty
Samudragupta conquers the North and
340 AD
most of the Deccan
Samudragupta conquers the North and
360 AD
most of the Deccan
Chandragupta II comes to power; Golden
380 AD
Age of Gupta Literary Renaissance
Fa-hein begins his travels through the
405 AD
Gupta Empire
415 AD Accession of Kumara Gupta I
467 AD Skanda Gupta assumes power
476 AD Birth of astronomer Aryabhatta
606 AD Accession of Harshavardhan Gupta
711 AD Invasion of Sind by Muhammad Bin Qasim
892 AD Rise of the Eastern Chalukyas
The Chola Dynasty: Accession of Rajaraja,
985 AD
the Great
1001 AD Defeat of Jaipal by Sultan Mahumd Medieval India
(1000 AD to 1756 AD)
Age Event
1026 Mahmud Ghazni sacks Somnath Temple
Prithviraj Chauhan routs Muhammad Ghori:
1191
the first battle of Tarain
Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan: the second
1192
battle of Tarain
1206 Qutbuddin establishes the Slave Dynasty
1221 Mongol invasion under Genghis Khan
1232 Foundation of the Qutub Minar
1288 Marco Polo visits India
Jalaludin Firuz Khalji establishes the Khalji
1290
dynasty
Ghiyasuddin Tughluk founds the Tughluk
1320
dynasty
1325 Accession of Muhammad-bin-Tughluk
1336 Foundation of Vijayanagar (Deccan)
1398 Timur invades India
1424 Rise of the Bahmani dynasty (Deccan)
1451 The Lodi dynasty established in Delhi
1489 Adil Shah dynasty at Bijapur
1490 Nizam Shahi dynasty at Ahmednagar
1498 First voyage of Vasco da gama
1510 Portuguese capture Goa
1518 Kutub Shahi dynasty at Golconda
Establishment of the Mughul Dynasty; First
1526
Battle of Panipat: Babur defeats Lodis
1526-1530 Reign of Babur
1530 Humayun succeeds Babur
1538 Death of Guru Nanak
Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayan and
1539
becomes Emperor of Delhi
1555 Humayun recovers the throne of Delhi
1556 Death of Humayun; Accession of Akbar
1564 Akbar abolishes poll tax on Hindus
Battle of Talikota: Muslim rulers in Deccan
1565
defeats Vijaynagar Empire
1568 Fall of Chittor
1571 Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar
1572 Akbar annexes Gujarat
1573 Surat surrenders to Akbar
1575 Battle of Tukaroi
Battle of Haldighat: Akbar defeats Rana
1576
Pratap; Subjugation of Bengal
1577 Akbar troops invade Khandesh
Accession of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in Bengal;
1580
Vedas and Upanishads

The oldest literature of Indian thought is the Veda, a collection of religious and
philisophical poems and hymns composed over several generations beginning as
early as 3000 BC. The Veda was composed in Sanskrit, the intellectual language of
both ancient and classical Indian civilizations. Four collections were made, so it is
said that there are four Vedas. The four as a group came to be viewed as sacred in
Hinduism.

Some Vedic hymns and poems address philosophic themes, such as the henotheism
that is key to much Hindu theology. Henotheism is the idea that one God takes many
different forms, and that although individuals may worship several different gods and
goddesses, they really revere but one Supreme Being.

There are four Vedas:

The Rig-Veda
Its traditional date goes back to 3000 BC, something which the German scholar Max
Mueller accepted. As a body of writing, the Rig-Veda (the wisdom of verses) is
nothing short of remarkable. It contains 1028 hymns (10,589 verses which are
divided into ten mandalas or book-sections) dedicated to thirty-three different gods.
The most often addressed gods were nature gods like Indra (rain god; king of
heavens), Agni (fire god), Rudra (storm god; the 'howler'), Soma (the draught of
immortality, an alcoholic brew).

The Sama-Veda
The Sama-Veda or the wisdom of chants is basically a collection of samans or chants,
derived from the eighth and ninth books of the Rig-Veda. These were meant for the
priests who officiated at the rituals of the soma ceremonies. There are painstaking
instructions in Sama-Veda about how particular hymns must be sung; to put great
emphasis upon sounds of the words of the mantras and the effect they could have on
the environment and the person who pronounced them.
The Yajur-Veda
The Yajur-Veda or the wisdom of sacrifices lays down various sacred invocations
(yajurs) which were chanted by a particular sect of priests called adhvaryu. They
performed the sacrificial rites. The Veda also outlines various chants which should be
sung to pray and pay respects to the various instruments which are involved in the
sacrifice.

The Atharva-Veda
The Atharva-Veda (the wisdom of the Atharvans) is called so because the families of
the atharvan sect of the Brahmins have traditionally been credited with the
composition of the Vedas. It is a compilation of hymns but lacks the awesome
grandeur which makes the Rig-Veda such a breathtaking spiritual experience.

Upanishads

The term Upanishad ('upa' near; 'ni' down; 'sad' to sit) means sitting down near; this
implies the students sitting down near their Guru to learn the big secret. In the
splendid isolation of their forest abodes, the philosophers who composed the
Upanishads contemplated upon the various mysteries of life and its creation –
whether common, or metaphysical. The answers were however not open to all, but
only for select students. The reason for this was simple: not everyone can handle
knowledge.

The composition of the Upanishads marks a significant and stride forward in the
direction of knowing the mystery of earth's creation and one comes tantalizingly
close to the answers. Through episodes, commentaries, stories, traditions and
dialogue, the Upanishads unfold the fascinating tale of creation, life, the essence of
life and of that beyond to the seeker of truth.

There is no exact date for the composition of the Upanishads. They continued to be
composed over a long period, the core being over 7th -5th centuries BC. The
Upanishads were originally called Vedanta, which literally means the conclusion to
the Vedas.

In the Upanishads, views about Brahman (the Absolute, or God) and atman (one's
true self) were proposed.

There are 18 principal Upanishads viz:

Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad
The Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad is widely accepted to be the most important of all
Upanishads. It has three khandas or parts. The madhu khanda contemplates on the
relationship between the individual and the Universal self. The muni khanda or
yajnavalkya is a debate which goes on to give the philosophical backing to the earlier
teaching. The khila khanda tackles various rituals of worship and meditation.

Chandogya Upanishad
This Upanishad is a part of the Sama-Veda (see The Vedas). The name comes from
the singer of the songs (samans) who is called Chandoga. The initial chapters of the
Upanishad, discuss the ritual of sacrifice. The others debate the origin and profundity
of the concept of Om, among other things.
Aitareya Upanishad
This one forms part of the Rig-Veda. The purpose is to make the reader understand
the deeper meaning of sacrifice and to take him away from the outer trappings of the
actual act.

Taittriya Upanishad
A part of the Yajur-Veda, this Upanishad is divided into three sections or vallis. The
siksa valli deals with the phonetics of the chants, while the others, brahmananda valli
and bhrgu valli deal with self-realization.

Isa Upanishad
Also called the Isavasya Upanishad, this book deals with the union of God, the world,
being and becoming. The stress is on the Absolute in relation with the world
(paramesvara). The gist of the teachings is that a person's worldly and otherworldly
goals need not necessarily be opposed to each other.

Kena Upanishad
The name of this Upanishad comes from the first word kena, or by whom. It has two
sections of prose and two of poetry. The verses deal with the supreme spirit or the
absolute principle (brahmaana) and the prose talks of ishvara (god). The moral of
the story is that the knowledge of ishvara reveals the way to self-realization.

Katha Upanishad
Also called the Kathakopanishad, this Upanishad uses a story (katha) involving a
young Brahmin boy called Nachiketa to reveal the truths of this world and the other
beyond the veil.

Prashna Upanishad
Prashna literally means question, and this book is part of the Athrava-Veda. It
addresses questions pertaining to the ultimate cause, the power of Om, relation of
the supreme to the constituents of the world.

Mundaka Upanishad
This book also belongs to the Atharva-Veda. The name is derived from 'mund' or to
shave, meaning that anyone who understands the Upanishads is s(h)aved from
ignorance. This book inscribes the importance of knowing the supreme brahmaana,
only by which knowledge can one attain self-realization.

Mandukya Upanishad
The Mandukya is an exquisite treatise which expounds on the principle of Om and its
metaphysical significance in various states of being, waking, dream and the
dreamless sleep. The subtlest and most profound of the Upanishads, it is said that
this alone will lead one to the path of enlightenment.

Svetasvatara Upanishad
The name of this Upanishad is after its teacher. It comments on the unity of the souls
and the world in one all-encompassing reality. The concept of there being one god is
also talked about here. It is dedicated to Rudra, the storm god.

Kausitaki Brahmana Upanishad


The Upanishad has come down to us in bits here and pieces there. The core of the
text is dedicated to illustrating the fact that the path to release is through
knowledge.

Maitri Upanishad
This is a comparatively later Upanishad as it has references to the Trinity of Hindu
Gods (Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma) which is a later development, and plus references
to the world being illusory in character reflects Buddhist influence.

Subala Upanishad
Belonging to the Yajur-Veda, this Upanishad puts down a dialogue between the sage
Subala and Brahma the creator of the Hindu Trinity of Gods. It discusses the universe
and the absolute.

Jabala Upanishad
Belonging to the Athrava-Veda this Upanishad addresses some questions pertaining
to renunciation.

Paingala Upanishad
The Paingala is again a dialog, this between Yajnavalkya, the sage mentioned the
Brhad-aranyaka's muni khanda and Paingala, a student of his. It discusses
meditation and its effects.

Kaivalya Upanishad
This Upanishad delves into the state of kaivalya or being alone.

Vajrasucika Upanishad
Belonging to the Sama-Veda the Vajrasucika reflects on the nature of the supreme
being.

The core of the teachings of the Upanishads is summed up in three words: tat tvam
as… you are that.

India's Law and Order

India's enduring legal institutions, which are deep-rooted in the principles of


democracy and justice, ensure a transparent, predictable and secure environment for
business and foreign investment. One might tend to think that India has rampant
Crime and Corruption problems, but facts speak a little differently.

Corruption

Corruption in India might still be rampant and people (mostly those in government)
and embarrassing stinks like the Volker scandal, continue to be on the take. But to
everybody’s surprise, Corruption Perception Index, a survey released by
Transparency International, an anti-corruption watchdog, said corruption has
decreased marginally in India and it has ranked the country 88th among 159
nations. The survey is not just limited to the monetary value of petty corruption. It
also includes public services and states.
Corrupt Countries of the World (19 October 2005)
Source: Transparency International's Corruption Perception Ranking of 159 countries

Most Corrupt
Country Score (out of 10)
Countries rank
Bangladesh 158 1.7
Chad 158 1.7
Turkmenistan 157 1.8
Haiti 156 1.8
Myanmar 155 1.8
Pakistan 144 2.1
Afghanistan 117 2.5
Nepal 117 2.5
India 88 2.9
China 78 3.2
Sri Lanka 78 3.2
Least Corrupt
Country Score (out of 10)
Countries rank
USA 17 7.6
UK 11 8.6
Netherlands 11 8.6
Iceland - 9.75
Finland - 9.75
New Zealand - 9.75
Singapore - 9.75

Crime : At least 8 million people are being held in prisons and jails around the world,
more than half of them in the United States, China and Russia.

Worldwide Prison Statistics (May 2001):

Sources: Worldwatch Institute, US Bureau of Justice & Britain's Home Office research

Highest Rates of imprisonment per


Rates 100,000 population
Russia 687
USA 682
Ukraine 413
S. Africa 321
Uzbekistan 258
Canada 115
China 109
Turkey 95
France 90
Lowest Rates of imprisonment per
Rates 100,000 population
Japan 39
Bangladesh 37
Nepal 29
India 24
Indonesia 20

Note - Fortune magazine and US Department of Justice peg US incarceration rate at


481 per 100,000 residents

In absolute numbers too, USA, China and Russia each have atleast six times more
prisoners than India.

Languages

The government of India recognizes 112 mother tongues that have 10,000 more
speakers. India has a total of 1652 different languages and dialects, and most
people understand no more than five! This was bound to hapen in a country where
different races and stocks poured in for over five thousand years? They all came,
mixed and stayed, making the land one big heterogenous existence.

The Prinicpal languages of the World, 2004 World Almanac


Source: Ethnologue Volume I, SIL International, USA and Prof. Sidney Culbert,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
(All figures are 2000 estimates, in millions)

Native
Language Total speakers
speakers
Mandarin 874 1,075
Hindi 366 496
English 341 514
Spanish 322 425
Arabic 211 256
Bengali 207 215
Portuguese 176 194
Russian 167 275
Japanese 125 126
German 100 128
Korean 78 78
French 77 129
Chinese, Wu 77 77
Malay-Indo 75 176
Chinese, Yue 71 71
Telugu 69 69
Marathi 68 68
Vietnamese 68 68
Tamil 66 66

Official Languages of India


Hindi and English are the co-official national languages of India. In addition, the
Indian constitution recognizes 18 state languages, which are used in schools and in
official transactions. These are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada
(Kanarese), Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Meithei (Manipuri), Marathi, Nepali,
Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Telugu, Tamil, and Urdu. The regional languages
have been recognized as the official language of the States. In many cases, the state
boundaries are drawn between linguistic lines.

Environment

World's Highest Mountains


Source: National Geographic Society

Continent Place Height (ft)


N. America McKinley, Alaska 20,320
S. America Aconcagua, Argentina 22,834
Africa Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 19,340
Pacific Jaya, New Guinea 16,500
Europe Mt Blanc, France-Italy 15,771
Antartica Vinson Massif 16,864

Please don't laugh for long after you read the table below!!

Asia's Highest Mountains


Source: National Geographic Society

Peak Place Height (ft)


Everest Nepal 29,028
K2 India 28,250
Kanchenjunga India 28,208
Lhotse I Nepal 27,923
Makalu I Nepal 27,824
Lhotse II Nepal 27,560
Dhaulagiri Nepal 26,810
Manaslu I Nepal 26,760
Cho Oyu Nepal 26,750
Nanga Parbat India 26,660
Annapurna I Nepal 26,504
Gasherbrum India 26,470
Broad India 26,400
Gosainthan Tibet 26,287
Annapurna II Nepal 26,041
GyachungKang Nepal 25,910
Disteghil Sar India 25,868
Himalchuli Nepal 25,801
Nutpse Nepal 25,726
Masherbrum India 25,660
Nanda Devi India 25,645
Rakaposhi India 25,550
Kamet India 25,447
Namcha Barwa Tibet 25,445
Gurla Mandhat Tibet 25,355
Ulugh Muz Tagh Xinjiang 25,340

Note: Some peaks mentioned above fall in the Indian State of Jammu & Kashmir but
are illegally occupied by Pakistan

India's largest Peaks


Source: National Geographic Society
(Not counting the ones mentioned above)

Peak Height (ft)


Skyang Kangri 24,750
Jongsang Peak 24,472
Sia Kangri 24,350
Tent Peak 24,165
Kabru 24,002
Baltoro Kangri 23,990
Mana 23,860
Nepal Peak 23,500
Badrinath 23,420
Nunkun 23,410
Pyramid 23,400
Pauhunri 23,385
Trisul 23,360
Kangto 23,260
Trisuli 23,210
Dunagiri 23,184

The tallest peaks in the other continents of the world are not even taller
than Thirty tallest mountains of India.

Highest Annual Precipitation


Source: US National Climatic Data Center

Years of Highest Avg Elevation


Continent Place
record (Inches) (feet)
38 Asia 467.4 Mawsynram, India 4597
29 Oceania 460 Mt. Waialeale, Hawai 5148
30 Africa 405 Debundscha, Cameroon 30
32 S.America 354 Quibdo, Columbia 120
9 Australia 340 Bellenden, Australia 5102
14 N.America 256 Henderson Lake, B.C. 12
22 Europe 183 Crkvica, Bosnia-Herz. 3337

Note: Llora, Columbia claims to get 523.6 inches of rainfall, according to their own
measurement practices,procedures and period, but might not be recognized
worldwide

Principal World Rivers


Source: Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst. Library

Length
River Continent Outflow
(mi)
Nile Africa Mediterranian Sea 4160
Congo Africa Atlantic Ocean 2900
Niger Africa Atlantic Ocean 2590
Chang Asia East China Sea 3964
Huang Asia Yellow Sea 3395
Ob-Irtysh Asia Gulf of Ob 3362
Lena Asia Laptev Sea 2734
Mekong Asia South China Sea 2700
Yenisey Asia Kara Sea 2543
Ob Asia Gulf of Ob 2268
Brahmaputra Asia Bay of Bengal 1800
Indus Asia Arabian Sea 1800
Murray-Darling Australia Indian Ocean 2543
Volga Europe Caspian Sea 2290
Amazon S. America Atlantic Ocean 4000
Parana S. America Rio de la Plata 2485
Purus S. America Amazon River 2100
Madiera S. America Amazon River 2013
Sao Francisco S. America Atlantic Ocean 1988
Mississipi-Red Rock N. America Gulf of Mexico 3710
Mobile N. America Mississipi River 2540
Mississipi N. America Gulf of Mexico 2340
Missouri-Red Rock N. America Mississipi River 2315
Yukon N. America Bering Sea 1979
Rio Grande N. America Gulf of Mexico 1900

Note - Only rivers longer than Brahmaputra are shown above

Other Indian Rivers

Length
River Outflow
(mi)
Ganges Bay of Bengal 1560
Godavari Bay of Bengal 900
Yamuna Ganges River 855
Krishna Bay of Bengal 800
Narmada Arabian Sea 800

Waterfalls
Source: National Geographic Society

The earth has thousands of waterfalls, some of considerable magnitude. Their


relative importance is determined not only by height but also by volume of flow,
steadiness of flow, crest width, whether the water drops sheerly or over a sloping
surface, and where it descends in one leap or in a succession of leaps. A series of low
falls flowing over a considerable distance is known as a cascade.

Elevation
Name Location Continent
(ft)
Tugela# S. Africa Africa 2014
Jog, Sharavathi R.* India Asia 830
Wollomombi Australia Asia 1,100
Tully Australia Asia 885
Wallaman, Stony Cr.# Australia Asia 1,137
Helena N. Zealand Asia 890
Sutherland, Arthur R.# N. Zealand Asia 1,904
Gavarnie* Austria Europe 1,385
Maralsfossen(N) Norway Europe 1,535
Maralsfossen(S)# Norway Europe 2,149
Skjeggedal, Nybuai R.#** Norway Europe 1,378
Skykje** Norway Europe 984
Vetti, Morka-Koldedola R Norway Europe 900
Giessbach(C) Switzerland Europe 984
Staubbach Switzerland Europe 984
Trummelbach# Switzerland Europe 1,312
Della# Canada N.America 1,443
Takakkhaw, Daly Glacier# Canada N.America 1,200
Ribbon** United States N.America 1,612
Silver Strand, Meadow Br.** United States N.America 1,170
Yosemite## United States N.America 2,425
Glass Brazil S.America 1,325
Catarata de Candelas, Cusiana R Colombia S.America 984
Great, Kamarang R Guyana S.America 1,600
Angel#* Venezuela S.America 3,212
Cuquenan Venezuela S.America 2,000
Note:
Estimated mean annual flow, in cubic feet per second, of major waterfalls, are as
follows: Niagara, 212,200; Paulo Afonso, 100,000; Urubupunga, 97,000; Iguazu,
61,000; Patosa-Maribondo, 53,000; Victoria, 35,4000; and Kaieteur, 23,400.
Elevation= total drop in feet in one or more leaps. # = falls of more than one leap; *
= falls that diminish greatly seasonally; ** = falls that reduce to a trickle or are dry
for part of each year. If the river names are not shown, they are same as the falls. R
= river; (C) = cascade type.

Biggest deserts in the world


Source: National Geographic Society

Name Size (sq mi) Country

Arabian (E) 70,000 Egypt


Chihuahuan 140,000 US-Mex.
Dasht-e Kauir 30,000 Iran
Gibson 120,000 Australia
Gobi 500,000 Mongolia
Great Sandy 150,000 Australia
Great Victoria 150,000 Australia
Kalahari 225,000 Africa
Kara Kum 120,000 Turkmenistan
Kyzyl Kum 100,000 Kazakhstan
Libyan 450,000 Libya
Namib 48,000 Africa
Nubian 100,000 Sudan
Patagonia 300,000 Argentina
Rub a-Khali 250,000 S Arabia
Sahara 3,500,000 Africa
Sonoran 70,000 US-Mex
Syrian 100,000 Saudia
Taklimakan 140,000 China
Thar 100,000 India

Pollution:
Over the past century, the Earth's average temperature has increased by
approximately 1 F, and is expected to rise to upto 6 F in this century. The earth
naturally absorbs incoming solar radiation and emits thermal radiation back into
space. This is then trapped by green-house gases in the earths atmosphere. Water
vapor, Methane, Nitrous Oxide and Ozone and natural greenhouse gases. Human
made greenhouse gases include CFC (Chloro flouro carbons), HCFC (Hydro CFC),
HFC (Hydro flouro carbons), PFC (perflouro carbons), SF6 (Sulphur Hexaflouride) and
ofcourse Carbon-di-oxide and carbon mono oxide.

The top 6 producers of CO2 in the world are USA, China, Russia, Japan, India and
Germany.
National Monuments
(Architecture)

Indian architecture ranges from the Hindu (and Buddhist and Jain) civilizations
starting from 2500 BC to the Muslim and Colonial architecture, and finally to the
modern day Contemporary architecture.

Hindu Monuments:
Hindu architecture concentrates immensely on the religious and spiritual. Hindus
incorporated idols into their art. Hinduism is a religion based on worshipping
thousands of deities, and for each one of them there exist thousands of temples.
Getting into a detailed account of Hindu architecture would be an impossible task, for
it dates back to 2500 BC and millions of temples, forts and palaces spread out across
the length and breadth of India.

Highlights:

• Way back in 300 BC, Chandragupta Maurya’s fort along the Ganges in Bihar
stretched for an impossible nine miles long and a mile and a half wide. The
architecture of the Maurya’s was embalmed in timber, for rock and stone were
not as freely in use then. The Mauryan period was also responsible for
perfecting the art of polishing, so much so that wood glistened like a mirror
• From the 7th to 9th century AD, the Pallava kings in the Tamil area were
building Kanchipuram, a cluster of over a hundered Hindu shrines mostly
dedicated to Shiva.
• In Thanjavur, the capital of the Cholas in the 10th century, the Thanjavur
temple is made entirely of granite and is 207 feet high.
• The temples in Khajuraho (950-1050AD), while dedicated to Gods, are
splattered with images of a sexual nature.
• The most amazing aspect of architecture in the 15th century would probably
be the chariot "rock temples" in southern India, dedicated to the 2nd
century BC Aryans.
• The 16th century saw the revival of Hindu temple architecture, especially in
the south. Apart from the main deity, there were images of a thousand gods,
goddesses and mortal beings on the outside walls.

Muslim Monuments (architecture)


It is a fact that Islamic rulers destroyed temples all over Hindustan and continued
doing so till they ran out of time. The vigourous exercise might have had other
reasons than just religious fervour. Perhaps the Muslims couldn’t stomach the
structure of a Hindu temple. Or the abounding temples across the sub-continent
were methodically dissected and their masonry used for further construction of
Persian architecture. Nowhere else in the world can be found such dramatic results of
Muslim builders; thousands of monuments, evolving from simplicity and geometric
anarchy to splendid harmonies of stone, marble and brick.

Highlights:

• In every city there will be a Jama Masjid where the faithful assemble for the
Friday prayer or Jum’ah.
• While the masjid was mainly known for its simplicity, a tomb or maqbara
ranged from a simple affair (like Emperor Aurangzeb’s tomb in Aurangabad)
to an awesome structure enveloped in a grandeour which has to be seen to be
disbelieved (the glorious Taj Mahal in Agra).
• Amongst the secular buildings stand the palaces and the forts, which were
extremely elaborate and massive structures, of imposing height and splendid
grandness, depending on the size of the empire under control. Built almost
entirely of stone and marble, palaces could be as high as five storeys.
• The final flickering example of Mughal architecture in India would perhaps be
Safdarjung’s tomb (1753-74 AD) in Delhi. Built of red sandstone and
marble panels, the effort was probably to make something similar to
Humayun’s tomb, but by this time decay had already seeped into Mughal
architecture.

Buddhist Monuments (architecture):


The origin of Buddhist architecture goes back to Gandhara, the region from the
Khyber Pass to the river Indus. Gandhara architecture took the form of Buddhist cult
objects, Buddhas and ornaments for Buddhist monastries. Monastries were invariably
made of stone, and most of the sculpture (like friezes) was used to decorate the
lower levels of buildings. The most characteristic trait of Gandhara sculpture is the
standing or seated Buddha in the few hundreds of temples which have survived out
of thousands. The seated Buddha is always cross legged in the traditional Indian way.

Highlights:

• Ashoka’s edicts, the most early Buddhist sculptors were mainly stone pillars
with inscriptions. They were circular free standing pillars rising upto to great
heights so that they could be seen from a distance, topped off with a stone
lion.
• The stupa at Sanchi, was originally built by Emperor Ashoka. In 150 BC,
renovation work made the stupa 54 feet high and 120 feet in diameter. The
timber railings were replaced by stone ones, standing 11 feet high with
entrances at five cardinal point, forming a barricade.
• Emperor Ashoka’s palace near Patna was a masterpiece. Made mostly of
wood, it seems to have been destroyed by fire.
• Rock art of the Buddhists included massive larger than life statues of
Buddha's likeness made out of stone, brass and copper.
• The shrine or the monastry, evolved from the site of an ancient stupa in
the south and the monastry in the north surrounding a rectangular courtyard.
Stone formed the base of most temple building. The Buddhist temples in
Ajanta and Ellora are the best examples.

Jain Monuments (Architecture)


In the initial years wherever there would be Buddhist or Hindu temples, Jains would
begin making their own, following the Buddhist rock-cut style. The system of carving
out temples from rock faces was adopted. In later years when Jains discovered the
concept of `mountains of immortality’, they proceeded build their own temples on a
peaceful mountain or hill away from snoopy eyes.

Highlights:

• While Hindus and Buddhists built temples, Jains built temple-cities on hills.
From the architectural perspective, Jain temple-cities seem to be average
compared to Hindu or Buddhist temples.
• Jain temples had a certain militant aura around them to protect them from
plunderers . Surrounded by embattled walls, the temples wards were guarded
by massive bastions at its ends, with a fortified gateway as the main
entrance. The reason being that Jain temples are the richest temples in the
world, surpassing even Mughal buildings in terms of grandeur and material
wealth. The Chamukh temple of Adinath, built 1618 AD, is a characteristic
example of the four-door temple-city.
• In Ranakpur and Mount Abu in Rajasthan are found the most spectacular of
all Jain temples. The Ranakpur temple is built in white marble and the main
chamber is supported by finely carved columns, totalling 1,444 in all.

Colonial Architecture
The British followed various architectural styles – Gothic, Imperial, Christian, English
Rennaissance and Victorian being the essentials.

Highlights:

• Mumbai's Gateway of India (through which the last British troops left) was
built to give Bombay a truly Imperial (Gothic) ambience.
• The Victoria Terminus in Mumbai followed the Victorian Gothic style, is the
finest example of Gothic architecture in India. Its architecture was marble,
decorated tiles, stained glass, metal, concrete and bricks in a fusion which
never happened again. High above the huge stairway inside a massive dome
looms up as statement of Imperial progress in all its glory. The entrance is
flanked by symbolic sentinels of the Raj, a tiger and a lion.
• Some of the true Gothic monuments include Varanasi's Queen’s College;
Allahabad's University, Calcutta's High Court; All Saints Church in
Nagpur.
• Calcutta's Howrah Bridge leading to Howrah Station whose red brick facade
is surrounded by 8 square towers in Oriental and Roman style.
• Calcutta's Victoria Memorial dedicated to Queen Victoria, is probably the
most imposing of all British structures in India.
• Delhi was planned systematically, combining 20th century architecture with
that of two centuries before. The tour de forte is Rajpath, approached by a
3.2 km long road flanked by the imposing buildings of the two Secretariats.
The Rashtrapati Bhawan, built of brown stone, is truly a befitting home for
the President. Connaught Place, Eastern and Western Courts, Flagstaff
House and the thousands of public buildings, post offices, officer’s bungalows
and public buildings and St. Martin's Garrison church marked an end to this
era.
Contemporary Architecture

Over centuries, architecture had evolved from mud to wood, from stone to rock,
from brick to marble and eventually, to concrete.

Highlights:

• In 1950, Le Corbusier, was hired by the Punjab government to design the new
city of Chandigarh, which was a symbol of creativity and modern
architecture.
• A feature now becoming common to almost all major cities in India was tall
multi storeyed buildings.
• The Asiad Village was built as a colossal complex with more than 800
residential units, landscaped courts, streets, restaurants and shops, all
catering to sportspersons who assembled here for the Asian Games.
• The Oberoi hotel in Bhubaneshwar is a classic example of the intermingling
of the concept of a Hindu temple and a Buddhist monastry.
• Going by tradition and after tracing Indian architecture through 2000 years,
modern Indian edifices seem a little jaded, if not forced. Gone are the
subtle details; those little carvings; those colossal domes and the intricate
patterns on walls and pillars. Indian architecture has come a long, long way
from Mohenjodaro and Harappan era.

Population

Population growth in India was 1.5% in 2006, compared to 1.72% in 1997. India
does not appear in the top ten most densely populated countries of the world.

Current Population for All Countries: 2007


Source: United Nations, World Population prospects and U.S. Dept. of Commerce
(in thousands)

Rank Country 2007


1. China 1,321,852
2. India 1,129,866
3. USA 301,139
4. Indonesia 234,693
5. Brazil 190,010
6. Pakistan 164,741
7. Bangladesh 150,448
8. Russia 141,377
9. Nigeria 135,031
10. Japan 127,433
Indian population statistics (2007 est.)
Source: Indian Census bureau/ CIA

Birth rate: 22.69 births/1,000 population (Ranked 86th in the world)


Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000 population
Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (Ranked 86th in the world)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.8%
15-64 years: 63.1%
65 years and over: 5.1%

Median age of population:


total: 24.8 years
male: 24.5 years
female: 25.2 years

Overall life expectancy at birth was about 68.59 years in 2007 compared to 64
years in the 2002, compared with 60 years in mid-1990's and 32 years in 1941.

The infant mortality rate declined from 151 to an estimated 88 per 1000 live births
between 1965 and 1995. Infant mortality rate was 34.61 deaths per 1000 live
births, in 2007. India is ranked 74th in the world for IMR.

According to a world bank report, 80% of India's six-year old's are enrolled in school,
as of 2002. Literacy rate in India has improved from 52.21% in 1991 to 65.38% in
2001.

Poverty (2006)
For a change, there’s good news on poverty in India. The percentage of Indians
below the poverty line has dropped to 21.8%, as reported by National Sample
Survey of the Planning Commission of India. That’s down from 26.1% for the fiscal
year ending in March 2000, but that still means there are 238.5 million people living
below the poverty line across India — 170.3 million in rural areas and 68.2 million in
urban areas.

The study measured poverty for the fiscal year ending in March 2005. It used a
measurement called the mixed recall period, under which a consumer recalls
spending in five categories, like durable goods, institutional medical expenses,
clothing and education from a 365-day period.

Population of the World's Largest Cities


Sources: United Nations, Dept. for Economic and Social Information and Policy
Analysis

Pop. Pop.
Rank City, Country (thousands) (thousands)
2000 1995
1. Tokyo, Japan 26,444 26,959
2. Mexico City, Mexico 18,131 16,562
3. Mumbai (Bombay), India 18,066 15,138
4. Sao Paulo, Brazil 17,755 16,533
5. New York City, U.S. 16,640 16,321
6. Lagos, Nigeria 13,427 10,287
7. Los Angeles, U.S. 13,140 12,410
8. Calcutta, India 12,918 11,923
9. Shanghai, China 12,887 13,584
10. Buenos Aires, Argentina 12,560 11,802
11. Dhaka, Bangladesh 12,317 -
12. Karachi, Pakistan 11,794 -
13. Delhi, India 11,695 9,948
14. Jakarta, Indonesia 11,018 -
15. Osaka, Japan 11,013 10,609

Notes:
The figures given here are United Nations estimates and projections,as revised in
1996, for "urban agglomerations"----that is, contiguous dnsely populated urban
areas, not demarcated by administrative boundaries. These figures may not
corresond to figures for cities in other parts of The World Almanac
(1) Denotes percentage of the total population of the country in which the city is
located. (2) Denotes percentage of the total urban population of the country in which
the city is located.
(-) Denotes numbers unknown for the year 1995

World Population AD 1-2007


Source: World Almanac

Year Population (billions)


1 0.2
1650 0.5
1850 1
1930 2
1975 4
1999 6
2001 6.2
2003 6.305
2007 6.6

Population break-up in the USA, 1990 census


Source: US Bureau of Census
Results for 2000 census not yet declared

All persons Number


White 199,686,070
Black 29,986,060
Hispanics 22,354059
American Indian 1,959,234
Chinese 1,645,472
Filipino 1,406,770
Japanese 847,562
Asian Indian 815,447
Korean 798,849
Vietnamese 614,547
Hawaiian 211,014
Samoan 62,964
Guamanian 49,345
Other Asian 821,692
Other races 9,804,847

Indians are the highest income earners in the US.

The World's Refugees (in India), 2000


Source: The World Refugee survery, 2001

Origin Total Numbers


Tibet, Sri Lanka, Burma, Bangladesh,
290,000
Afghanistan, Bhutan other

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