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## Figure 1. A conventional machine's slide is moved by an

operator turning the handwheel. Accurate positioning is
accomplished by the operator counting the number of
the dial.

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## Figure 2. A CNC machine takes the commanded position

from the CNC program. The drive motor is rotated a
corresponding amount, which in turn drives the ballscrew,
causing linear motion of the axis. A feedback device confirms
that the proper amount of ballscrew revolutions have
occurred.

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## Figure 3. Graph illustrates the use of base lines, the increments

used for each base line, and the origin point used when graphing.

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## Figure 4. Rectangular coordinate system for X-Y plane.

The program zero point establishes the point of reference
for motion commands in a CNC program. This allows the
programmer to specify movements from a common
location. If program zero is chosen wisely, usually
coordinates needed for the program can be taken directly
from the print.

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## Figure 5. If an end point needed within a CNC program

minus sign must be included in at least one of the axis
designations.

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## Figure 6. In this example, program zero is placed in the

center of the ring. Notice that any coordinates to the left of, or
below, program zero are specified as ngative positions.

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Figure 7. It is very easy to tell the precise location of the tool in any
command given in the absolute mode. In the incremental mode, it can be
very difficult to determine the tool's current position for a given motion
command.

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Figure 1. Actual motion generated with
linear interpolation. Notice the series of
very tiny single axis movements. The
step size is equal to the machine's
resolution, usually 0.0001 inch or
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during circular interpolation.

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## Figure 1. Offset tables in CNCs allow users to compensate for unpredictable

conditions related to tooling. The table at right provides an offset position for both tool
length and diameter. With a simpler table (middle) that only allows one entry per
offset, the programmer must make it quite clear as to the function of each entry. On a
popular turning center control, four values can be entered for each offset (at left).

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compensation, the tool's length
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as the offset value.

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G41 or G42 to instate cutter radius compensation.

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deviations from the required work surface if not considered
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courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron.

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