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Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering ME 4210 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND ENGINEERING Fall 2008 Quiz #1 September 17 Be sure to list all assumptions. Put all your work and answers in the "blue book". Write legibly. There are two (2) questions. Closed books and notes. Only a calculator and writing implements are allowed. This exam is 50 minutes long.

Problem #1 (75 points) You are hot-chamber die-casting a magnesium part in an iron mold. The part is a hollow cylindrical solid with an outer diameter of 20 cm, an inner diameter of 18 cm, and a height of 40 cm. The part is bottom gated on its entire bottom face. The mold, including the core, temperature is maintained at 50 C. The overall heat transfer coefficient between the liquid metal and the mold is 1,500 W/m2-C. For this problem you may ignore the effect of gravity and any Reynolds number restrictions. At what temperature should you inject the metal if you have a maximum injection pressure of 10,000 Pa above atmospheric pressure? (You may ignore the effect of gravity for this problem.)

Problem #2 (25 points) You are designing a riser for a sand casting of an iron cannon ball. The cannon ball is a solid sphere with a diameter 6 inches. The side and top of the riser are insulated so that they cool 5 times more slowly than the cannon ball. You may assume that this is an insulating mold. What should the diameter and height of the riser be?

Material properties: Data for solid materials (room temperature) Material Specific heat Density () (C) (kJ/kg-oC) (kg/m3) Sand Aluminum Nickel Magnesium Copper Gray cast iron 1.16 0.90 0.44 1.07 0.39 0.441 1500 2700 8910 1700 8970 7125

Thermal conductivity (k) (W/m-oC) 0.60 202 92 156 385 42.7

Thermal diffusivity () (m2/s) 3.45 x 10-7 8.31 x 10-5 2.35 x 10-5 8.58 x 10-5 1.1 x 10-5 1.36 x 10-5

Data for liquid materials Material Melting point (oC) Aluminum 660 Nickel 1453 Magnesium 650 Copper 1083 Gray cast 1251 iron

Latent heat of solidification (fusion) (Hf) (kJ/kg) 396 297 384 220 211

Specific heat (C) (kJ/kg-oC) 1.05 0.73 1.38 0.52 0.34

Viscosity () (mPa-s) 1.3 4.01 1.04 2.1 5.25

Solidification time (t) for an insulating mold ( mold << casting; k mold << k casting) casting H casting t= 4 Tmelting _ po int Tmold ,initial
2 V 1 casting k C A mold mold mold casting

Solidification time (t) for a conducting mold (Biot # =hl/k casting < 0.17)

casting H casting Vcasting t= h (T Tmold ) Acasting melting _ po int

H = latent heat for the process = Hf + CiT Hf = latent heat of solidification (fusion) V = volume A = area h = heat transfer coefficient C = specific heat = density

Cooling time (t) for a solid object for a small Biot number (Biot # =hl/k casting < 0.17)
t= Vcasting casting Ccasting Acasting h Tmold Tcasting ,initial ln Tmold Tcasting , final

Chvorinovs rule for solidification time for an insulating mold t = K (V/A)2 t = cooling time K = a constant V = volume A = area Chvorinovs rule for solidification time for a conducting mold t = K (V/A) Bernoulli's equation
2 vo 2 v1

Po +

+ gho = P1 +

+ gh1 + f

Reynold's number (good to keep below 20,000)

Re =


Conservation of mass Q = A0v0 = A1v1 Filling time for a bottom-gated mold tf = 2 Amold Agate 2 g

htotal htotal hmold

For no aspiration Abottom of sprue Atop of sprue = vtop of sprue vbottom of sprue = h pouring ba sin htotal

Mold filling time estimate

t= Mold volume Agate v gate

Thermal Diffusivity

k c

Roots of a quadratic equation

x= b b 2 4ac 2a