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INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH AUTOMATIC EMERGENCY OVERRIDE AND TRAFFIC ALERT & MONITOR SYSTEM

Traffic lights are used at busy road junctions to regulate the traffic flow through the roads. In simple cases the traffic lights are controlled manually through operating consoles operated by traffic constables, this is a continues and tedious job which requires constant vigil and concentration. Also the signals have to be operated around the clock for busy cities, Hence it calls for an automated traffic controller. The prime requirement of the traffic control system is reliability and operational flexibility. Hence a micro-controller based design is chosen for the traffic controller. The present design not only works with selectable delays, the vehicle presence at each road is sensed and the signal timings are adjusted for the traffic load for each road. Hence the design is adaptive to the present traffic condition. The traffic controller is also incorporates a RFID based vehicle identification system to over ride the traffic signals to allow emergency vehicles such as ambulances or VIP convoys to pass the junction unhindered. The implementation of Intelligent Traffic Light Controller is based on micro-controller Atmel 89S8252.

Advantages of Present Design:


Automatically adapts the signal timings to the traffic flow. Incorporates RFID system to identify emergency vehicles and allows quick passing through the junction. Micro-controller based design provides a simple controller design, still provides considerable flexibility in operation. Various operating modes can be easily incorporated. Operating parameters such as delays etc, can be programmed through simple switches. Since the controller logic is software based, it can be upgraded for future requirements with same hardware. The 89S8252 is configured for internal memory mode, which provides a single chip stand alone design. Solid state lamp driver which improves the circuit reliability.

Provides complete electrical isolation between dc and ac circuits thus ensures operator safety. Traffic Density Alert broadcast at the junction roads provisioned.

Automatic Traffic position updation and alert in the vehicle system.

A typical four road junction is considered for this design. The junction is illustrated in the figure. A minimum of four signal posts are required for this junction. Each post should carry three set of traffic signal and a pedestrian crossing signal. Each forward direction signal should have three colours viz, red, yellow and green. A set of 7 Lamps are required for each road. A total of 28 separate output drives are required for this junction. Traffics sensing is carried out for each of the four approaching lanes. Optical technique can be used to detect the presence of the vehicle on the road. The emergency override of the traffic signals is based on the RFID identification of the approaching vehicles. The emergency vehicles will have to be fitted with the RFID devices and proper identification codes will be allotted. Each approaching roads to the junction will have RFID receivers to identify the approaching emergency vehicles. This information is used by the controller to stop all vehicles through the junction to clear the roads for the emergency vehicle. The RFID receivers will be located sufficiently away from the junction so that adequate time is available for clearing the junction. At the junction another RFID receiver will be used to confirm the passing of the emergency vehicle through the junction. Then the traffic signal will be restored back to the original condition prior to the stopping of all vehicles. The traffic density at the four road junction is observed by optical sensors and the same is broadcasted using RF wireless systems. This aired data is received by the receiver in the vehicle which gives the audible and visual alert to the driver about the traffic density at that junction, so that he or she can take a comfortable decision for deviation.

A typical four road Junction


RFID Receive r RFID Receiver RFID Receiver
Traffic Signal

RFID Receiver
Vehicle Sensor

RFID Receive r

INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER

RFID Receivers

LCD Display

TRANSMITTER 7 X 4 LEDs & Lamps


Lamp Data

4 Vehicle Sensors

Output Latch

Output Drivers

LED Indicators Lamp Drivers LED Indicators Lamp Drivers LED Indicators Lamp Drivers LED Indicators Lamp Drivers Lamp Cluster Lamp Cluster Lamp Cluster Lamp Cluster

Key Pad Output Latch Output Drivers

MicroController

Output Latch

Output Drivers

Oscillator
Output Latch Output Drivers

Reset Power Supply

Latch Enable

TRAFFIC ALERT SYTEM - VEHICLE UNIT

RECEIVER
MICRO CONTROLLER

STATUS DISPLAY

ALARM DRIVER