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# National Institute of Science Education and Research

## Bhubaneswar - 751 005 Dr. Brundaban Sahu email:brundaban.sahu@niser.ac.in September 9, 2011

M202 : Algebra-I
Assignment 3
Objective: This homework will familiarize you with normal subgroups, homomorphism of groups. 1. Prove that intersection of two normal subgroups of G is again a normal subgroup of G. 2. Prove that every subgroup of an abelian group is normal. The converse need not be true. Give an example of such a group. 3. Suppose N is the only subgroup of order o(N ) in the group G. Prove that N is a normal subgroup of G. 4. If G is an abelian group and N is a normal subgroup of G, then prove that G/N is an abelian group. 5. If G is a cyclic group and N is a subgroup of G, then prove that G/N is a cyclic group. 6. Prove that the center Z(G) of a group G is a normal subgroup of G. 7. If G/Z(G) is a cyclic group, then prove that G must be abelian. 8. Give an example of group G and subgroups H, K such that H is normal in K and K is normal in G, but H is not normal in G. 9. Let N be a normal subgroup of G and g G. If g is of order k in G and N g is of order r in G/N , then prove that r is a divisor of k. 10. Let N, H be two subgroups of a group G. Recall that N H = {nh : n N, h H} and HN = {hn : h H, n N }. Prove that (a) If N is normal in G, then N H and HN are subgroups of G. (b) If N and H are normal in G, then N H and HN are normal in G. (c) If N and H are normal in G such that N M = {e}, then nh = hn for every n N and h H.

11. Let R be the set of real numbers and Q be the set of rational numbers. For a, b R, dene ab : R R by ab (x) = ax + b. Let G = {ab : a = 0} and N = {1b G}. Prove that (a) G is a group under composition of mappings. (b) N is a normal subgroups of G. (c) Show that G/N is isomorphic to the group of nonzero real numbers under multiplication. 12. Let G be an abelian group and consider the set T = {a G : am = e for some m > 1 depending on a}. Prove that (a) T is a normal subgroup of G. (b) The quotient group G/T has no nontrivial element of nite order. 13. Let A = {G : G is a group}. For G, H A, dene G H if G and H are isomorphic groups. Prove that is an equvalence relation on the set A. 14. Prove any two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic. 15. Prove that the quotient group (R, +)/Z is isomorphic to S 1 , where S 1 is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers of absolute value 1. 16. Prove that the quotient group (C , )/S 1 is isomorphic to the group of all positive real numbers under multiplication. Here C = C {0}. 17. Let G be any group and g be a xed element in G. Dene : G G by (x) = gxg 1 . Prove that is an isomorphism of G onto G. 18. Let G be a group and : G G be dened by (x) = x1 for x G. Is a homomorphism? If not, put some condition on the group G such that becomes a homomorphism. 19. Let N be a normal subgroup of G and H be any subgroup of G. Recall that H HN = {hn : h H, n N }. Prove that the quotient groups HN and HN are N H HN isomorphic (written as HN ). [This is the so called second isomorphism N H theorem. First convince yourself that the quotient groups HN and HN are N well-dened.] 20. Let H and K be normal subgroups of G such that K H. So the quotient groups H/K, G/H and G/K are all well-dened. (a) Prove that H/K is a normal subgroup of G/K. (b) Prove that (G/K)/(H/K) G/H. [This is the so called third isomorphism theorem] 21. Describe all the homomorphisms : (Z, +) (Z, +), and determine which are injective, which are surjective, and which are isomorphisms. 22. Let G be a group. Dene the set Aut(G) = { : G G | is an automorphism}. Prove that Aut(G) is a group with respect to composition of mappings. Find Aut(G) for G = (Z, +), Z10 , S3