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12/18/12

Geography

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12/18/12 Geography SShhaarree 0 More <a href=Next Blog» Create Blog Sign In G G e e o o g g r r a a p p h h y y Home SUNDAY, JUNE 26, 2011 Send articles as PDF to Inland Waterways in India Enter email address PDF Creator Send FACEBOOK BADGE Find us on Facebook IAS OUR DREAM Like IAS OUR DREAM Delhi gangrape case ; The girl is fighting for the life , with low survival chances . We , at , I.O.D. pray for her long life , may she National Waterway 1 survive and came back to live a happy life . An innocent life , should not came to a tragic end . Allahabad — Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system. Search... Recent posts 5 Online 5 hours ago via mobile Estd = October 1986. Length = 1620 km Like 2.8m Random Fi xed terminals = Haldia, BISN (Kolkata), Pakur, Farrakka and Patna. Link Menu Link Menu Recent posts Recent Activity IAS OUR DREAM Fl oating terminals = Haldia, Kolkata, Diamond Harbour, Katwa, Tribeni, Baharampur, Jangipur, Bhagalpur, Semaria, Doriganj, Ballia, Aaaj kaaa current news kya sab hai...fatafatt Ghazipur, Varanasi, Chunar and Allahabad. Recommended Share 35,165 people like IAS OUR DREAM. Nationa l Waterway 2 Siv a Ram Khan Viv ek Shub Sadiya — Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra river. Estd = September 1982. Length = 891 km Harsh Varsha Imran Archana Aka Fixed terminals = Pandu. Facebook social plugin Floating terminals = Dhubri, Jogighopa, Tezpur, Silghat, Dibrugarh, Jamgurhi, Bogibil, Saikhowa and Sadiya National Waterway 3 SEARCH THIS BLOG Search Kottapuram-Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal. Estd = February 1993 Length = 205 km Fixed terminals = Aluva, Vaikom, Kayamkulam, Kottappuram, Maradu, Cherthala, Thrikkunnapuzha, Kollam and Alappuzha. geographyias.blogspot.in 1/32 " id="pdf-obj-0-11" src="pdf-obj-0-11.jpg">

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12/18/12 Geography SShhaarree 0 More <a href=Next Blog» Create Blog Sign In G G e e o o g g r r a a p p h h y y Home SUNDAY, JUNE 26, 2011 Send articles as PDF to Inland Waterways in India Enter email address PDF Creator Send FACEBOOK BADGE Find us on Facebook IAS OUR DREAM Like IAS OUR DREAM Delhi gangrape case ; The girl is fighting for the life , with low survival chances . We , at , I.O.D. pray for her long life , may she National Waterway 1 survive and came back to live a happy life . An innocent life , should not came to a tragic end . Allahabad — Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system. Search... Recent posts 5 Online 5 hours ago via mobile Estd = October 1986. Length = 1620 km Like 2.8m Random Fi xed terminals = Haldia, BISN (Kolkata), Pakur, Farrakka and Patna. Link Menu Link Menu Recent posts Recent Activity IAS OUR DREAM Fl oating terminals = Haldia, Kolkata, Diamond Harbour, Katwa, Tribeni, Baharampur, Jangipur, Bhagalpur, Semaria, Doriganj, Ballia, Aaaj kaaa current news kya sab hai...fatafatt Ghazipur, Varanasi, Chunar and Allahabad. Recommended Share 35,165 people like IAS OUR DREAM. Nationa l Waterway 2 Siv a Ram Khan Viv ek Shub Sadiya — Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra river. Estd = September 1982. Length = 891 km Harsh Varsha Imran Archana Aka Fixed terminals = Pandu. Facebook social plugin Floating terminals = Dhubri, Jogighopa, Tezpur, Silghat, Dibrugarh, Jamgurhi, Bogibil, Saikhowa and Sadiya National Waterway 3 SEARCH THIS BLOG Search Kottapuram-Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal. Estd = February 1993 Length = 205 km Fixed terminals = Aluva, Vaikom, Kayamkulam, Kottappuram, Maradu, Cherthala, Thrikkunnapuzha, Kollam and Alappuzha. geographyias.blogspot.in 1/32 " id="pdf-obj-0-41" src="pdf-obj-0-41.jpg">
SUNDAY, JUNE 26, 2011 Send articles as PDF to Inland Waterways in India Enter email address
SUNDAY, JUNE 26, 2011
Send articles
as PDF to
Inland Waterways in India
Enter email address
PDF Creator
Send
FACEBOOK BADGE
Find us on Facebook
IAS OUR DREAM
Like
IAS OUR DREAM
Delhi gangrape case ; The
girl is fighting for the life ,
with low survival chances .
We , at , I.O.D. pray for
her
long life , may she
National Waterway 1
survive and came back to
live a happy life .
An innocent life , should
not came to a tragic end .
Allahabad — Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system.
Search...
Recent posts
5 Online
5 hours ago via mobile
Estd = October 1986.
Length = 1620 km
Like
2.8m
Random
Fi xed terminals = Haldia, BISN (Kolkata), Pakur, Farrakka and Patna.
Link Menu
Link Menu
Recent posts
Recent Activity
IAS OUR DREAM
Fl oating terminals = Haldia, Kolkata, Diamond Harbour, Katwa, Tribeni, Baharampur, Jangipur, Bhagalpur, Semaria, Doriganj, Ballia,
Aaaj kaaa current news
kya sab hai...fatafatt
Ghazipur, Varanasi, Chunar and Allahabad.
Recommended
Share
35,165 people like IAS OUR DREAM.
Nationa l Waterway 2
Siv a
Ram
Khan
Viv ek
Shub
Sadiya — Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra river.
Estd = September 1982.
Length = 891 km
Harsh
Varsha
Imran
Archana
Aka
Fixed terminals = Pandu.
Facebook social plugin
Floating terminals = Dhubri, Jogighopa, Tezpur, Silghat, Dibrugarh, Jamgurhi, Bogibil, Saikhowa and Sadiya
National Waterway 3
SEARCH THIS BLOG
Search
Kottapuram-Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal.
Estd = February 1993
Length = 205 km
Fixed terminals = Aluva, Vaikom, Kayamkulam, Kottappuram, Maradu, Cherthala, Thrikkunnapuzha, Kollam and Alappuzha.

12/18/12

Geography

LABELS National Waterway 4 GEOGRAPHY (55) India (14) World (12) Industry (9) GS GS-Mains (8) Mountain
LABELS
National Waterway 4
GEOGRAPHY
(55) India (14) World (12)
Industry (9) GS
GS-Mains (8)
Mountain (8) Do
MAINS (8)
Kakinada - Puducherry stretch of Canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam – Rajahmundry stretch of River Godavari and
Map
(8)
Wazirabad – Vijayawada stretch of River Krishna.
u
know (6)
Estd = November 2008
Length = 1095 km
Geography Quiz (6)
infrastructure (6) Cyclone (5)
Land forms (5) Quiz (5) Solar
System
(5)
Universites
(5)
National Waterway 5
Earthquake
question trend (5)
(4) Forests (4) INDIA K RANG (4)
Climate
(3)
Continent
(3)
Talcher - Dhamra stretch of the Brahmani River, the Geonkhali - Charbatia stretch of the East Coast Canal, the Charbatia - Dhamra
Programme (3) Related
to
GS
stretch of Matai river and the Mangalgadi - Paradip stretch of the Mahanadi River Delta.
Prelims
(3)
Countries
(2)
Established = November 2008
Definitions
(2)
Earth
(2)
Length = 623 km
GEOGRAPHY Mains (2)
INTERNATIONAL
(2)
Industries
(2) Knowledge
Box
(2)
National Waterway 6
Longitudes (2) MPSC (2) Minerals
(2) Quick
Facts
(2)
Rivers
(2)
Tribes (2) Wildlife (2) Winds (2) 1
Lakhipur to Bhanga of river Barak.
Proposed
Length = 121 km
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Labels: GEOGRAPHY, Waterways
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TUESDAY, APRIL 26, 2011
REGIONAL PLANNING
Regional Planning Part II Types of Regions & Regionalization of India
(1) Africa (1) Asia (1) Astronomy (1)
Atmosphere (1) Bay of Bengal (1)
Centers (1) Cinema of India (1)
Classification (1) Climate Change (1)
Climatology (1) Coal (1) Currents (1)
Desert (1) Drinking water (1) Energy
(1) Environment (1) Europe (1)
Explorer (1) Floods (1) GEOGRAPHY-
Prelims (1) Ganges (1) Gangotri
Glacier (1) Geography Mains (1) Govt.
Schemes (1) Hayabusa (1) Himalayas
(1) IMD (1) Indian State Quiz (1) Inerior
of the Earth (1) Instruments (1)
Introduction (1) Islands (1) Jammu and
Kashmir (1) Japan Aerospace
Exploration Agency (1) Jara hatke (1)
Jet Stream (1) Jharkhand (1) Koppen
Climate Classification (1) Lakes (1)
Land of (1) Latitudes (1) List of
Ramsar wetlands of international
importance (1) Mining (1) Model (1)
Monsoon (1) Monuments (1) North
Africa (1) PMO (1) Radars (1) Ramsar
Convention (1) Regional Planning (1)
Roads (1) Shivling (1) Slides (1) Soil
(1) South east Asia (1) Space (1)
Spacecraft (1) Sphere (1) Statesw
(1) Storm (1) Theories (1) Trend
Analysis 1995-2010 (1) Tsunami (1)
Uttarkashi District (1) Valleys (1)
Various Organisations (1) Waterways
(1) Wetland (1) Wetlands (1) World
History (1) hYDROELECTRIC
PROJECTS (1) soils (1)
BLOG ARCHIVE
2011 (8)
June (1)
Inland Waterways in
India
April (3)
March (2)
► February (2)
2010 (73)

12/18/12

Geography

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Labels: Geography Mains, Regional Planning
FRIDAY, APRIL 15, 2011
THE KOPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
THE KOPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Introduction
The concepts of devising climate classes that combine temperature and precipitation
characteristics, but of setting limits and boundaries fitted into known vegetation and soil
distributions were actually carried out in 1918 by Dr. Wladimir Koppen of the University of
Graz, in Austria. Koppen was both a climatologist and a plant geographer, so his main interest
lay in finding climate boundaries that coincided approximately with boundaries between

12/18/12

Geography

major vegetation types. Although he was not entirely successful in achieving his goal, his climate system
major vegetation types. Although he was not entirely successful
in achieving his goal, his climate system has appealed to
geographers because it is strictly empirical and allows no room
subjective decisions.
The classification was subsequently revised and extended by his
students to become the most widely used of climatic
classifications for geographical purposes.
BASIS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION
The Koppen system is strictly empirical. This is to say that each climate is defined according
to fixed values of temperature and precipitation, computed according to the averages of
the year or of individual months. In such a classification, no concern whatsoever is given to
the causes of the climate in terms of pressure and wind belts, air masses, fronts, or storms.
It is possible to assign a given place to a particular climate sub-group solely on the basis of
the records of the temperature and precipitation of that place, provided, of course, that
the period of record is long enough to yield meaningful averages. Air temperature and
precipitation are the most easily obtainable surface weather data, requiring only simple
equipment and a very elementary observer education. A climate system based on these data
has a great advantage, in that the area covered by each sub-type of climate can be
delineated (outlined, profiled) for large regions of the world.
LIMITATIONS
As with any regional classification, this system is not universally applicable. It utilizes, for
example, only the data or mean monthly temperature and precipitation. There is not
provision for variations in the strength or constancy of winds, temperature extremes,
precipitation intensity and range, amount of cloud cover, or the net radiation balance. Its
greatest inadequacies perhaps lie in its application to humid dry boundaries, and it should
not be considered for land management and planning purposes, where more precise and
varied factors should be utilized.
ADVANTAGES
Despite these and other disadvantages, this system has been used mainly because of four
reasons that have special value.
1.
It has precise definitions that can be applied easily to standardize data that are available
for locations throughout the world.
2.
There is a reasonable correlation globally with major vegetation regions.
3.
It requires a minimum amount of calculation.
4.
It is widely used in educational circles throughout the world.
DESIGNATION OF VARIOUS TYPES
The Koppen features a short hand code of letters designating major climate groups, sub-
groups within the major groups and further sub-divisions to distinguish particular seasonal
characteristics of temperature and precipitation.
Major Groups

12/18/12

Geography

http://teacherweb.com/MI/CassTechnicalHighSchool/MrsKarenKachadurian/Koeppenclimate.jpg Five major climate groups are designated by capital letters as follows: A–Tropical Rainy Climate: Average
http://teacherweb.com/MI/CassTechnicalHighSchool/MrsKarenKachadurian/Koeppenclimate.jpg
Five major climate groups are designated by capital letters as follows:
A–Tropical Rainy Climate: Average temperature of every month is above 64.4oF (18oC).
These climates have no winter season. Annual rainfall is large and exceeds annual
evaporation.
B–Dry Climate: Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation on the average throughout the
year. No water surplus; hence no permanent streams originate in B Climate Zones.
C–Mild, Humid (Mesothermal) Climates: Coldest month has an average temperature under
64.4oF (18oC), but above 26.6oF (-3oC); at least one month has an average temperature
above 50oF (10oC). The sea climates have both a summer and a winter season.
D– Snowy Forests (Microthermal) Climates: Coldest month has an average temperature
under 26.6oF. Average temperature of warmest month is above 50oF.
E–Polar Climates: The average temperature of warmest month is blow 50oF. The climates
have no true summer.

12/18/12

Geography

Four of these five groups (A, C, D and E) are defined by the temperature averages,
Four of these five groups (A, C, D and E) are defined by the temperature averages,

12/18/12

Geography

whereas one (B) is defined by the precipitation to evaporation ratios. This procedure may seem to
whereas one (B) is defined by the precipitation to evaporation ratios. This procedure
may seem to be of fundamental inconsistency. Groups A, C and D have sufficient heat and
precipitation for both of high trunk trees, e.g., forest and woodland vegetation.
Sub-Groups
Sub-groups within the five major groups are designate by a second letter, according to the
following codes:-
S – Steppe Climate: A semi-arid climate with about 15-30 inches (38-76 cm) of rainfall
annually at low latitudes.
W – Desert Climate: Arid climate. Most regions included have less than 10 inches (25 cm)
of rainfall annually.
The letters S and W are applied only to the dry B climates, yielding two combinations
– BS and BW.
f:- Moist. Adequate precipitation in all months. No dry season. This modifier is applied to A,
C and D groups, yielding combinations – Af, Cf and Df.
w:- Dry season in the winter of the respective hemisphere (low sun season). This modifier is
applied to A, C and D groups, yielding combinations – Aw, Cw and Dw.
s:- Dry season in the summer of the respective hemisphere (high sun season). m:- Rainforest climate.
s:- Dry season in the summer of the respective hemisphere (high sun season).
m:- Rainforest climate. Despite short, dry season in monsoon type of precipitation cycle.
Applies to only A climates (Am).
Types of Climates
From the combination of the two letter groups, twelve distinct climates emerge as follows:
Tropical Rainforest Climate (Af): Rainfall of the driest month is 6 cm or more.
Monsoon variety of Af (Am): Rainfall of the direst month is less than 6 cm. The dry season
is strongly developed.
Tropical Savanna Climate (Aw): At least one month has rainfall less than 6 cm. The dry
season is strongly developed.
Steppe Climate (BS): A semi-arid climate characterized by grasslands. It occupies an
intermediate position between the desert climate “BW” and the more humid climates of A, C
and D groups.
Desert Climate (BW): An arid climate with annual precipitation usually less than 40 cm.
Mild Humid Climate
with
no
dry
season (Cf): Temperate rainy climate, moist in all
seasons. Precipitation of the driest month averages more than 3 cm.
Mild Humid Climate with a dry winter (Cw): Temperate rainy climate with dry winter. The
wettest month of summer has at least 10 times the precipitation of the driest month of
winter or 70% or more of the mean annual precipitation falls in the warmer six months.
Mild Humid Climate with a dry summer (Cs): Temperate rainy climate with dry summer.
Precipitation of the driest month of summer is less than 3 cm. Precipitation of the wettest
month of winter is at least 3 times as much as that of the driest month of summer or 70% or
more of the mean annual precipitation falls in the six months of winter.
Snowy Forest Climate with a moist winter (Df): Cold snowy forest climate with moist in
all seasons.
Snowy Forest Climate with a dry winter (Dw): Cold snowy forest climate with dry winter.
Tundra Climate (ET): Mean temperature of the warmest month is above 0oC, but below
10oC.
Perpetual Frost Climate (EF):Ice-sheet climate. Mean monthly temperatures of all months
are below 0oC.
Further Variations
To differentiate more variations in temperature or weather elements, Koppen added a third
letter to the code group. Meanings are as follows:
a: With hot summer; warmest month over 71.6oF. Used for C and D climates.
b: With warm summer; warmest month below 71.6oF. Used for C and D climates.
c: With cold, short summer; less than 4 months over 50oF. Used for C and D climates.
d: With very cold winter; coldest month below –36.4oF. Used for D climates only.
h: Dry, hot; mean annual temperature over 64.4oF. Used for B climates only.
k: Dry, cold; mean annual temperature under 64.4oF. Used for B climates only.
Analyzed according to the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from desert in
Analyzed according to the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from desert in
the west, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, to humid tropical regions supporting rain forests in the
southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different micro climates. The nation has
four seasons: winter (January and February), summer (March to May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June to
September), and a post-monsoon period (October to December).
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Labels: Classification, Climate, Climatology, GEOGRAPHY Mains, Koppen Climate Classification
THURSDAY, APRIL 14, 2011
Jet Stream

12/18/12

Geography

What is the Jet Stream? The jet stream is a river of wind that blows horizontally
What is the Jet
Stream?
The jet stream is a river of wind that blows
horizontally through the upper layers of the
troposphere, generally from west to east, at an
altitude of 20,000 - 50,000 feet (6,100 - 9,144
meters), or about 7 miles (11 kilometers) up.
A jet stream develops where air masses of differing temperatures meet. For this reason,
surface temperatures determine where the jet stream will form. The greater the difference
in temperature, the faster the wind velocity inside the jet stream. Jet streams can flow up
to 200 mph (322 km/h), are 1000's of miles long, 100's of miles wide, and a few miles thick.
Where the jet stream begins
o Air warmed in the tropics around the equator fuels the jet stream as it
rises. Hitting the tropopause at about 58,000 feet (the layer of the
atmosphere separating the troposphere from the stratosphere), it is
drawn toward the colder air at the north and south poles.
Jet Stream Atmospheric Positions
Positions of jet streams in the atmosphere. Arrows indicate directions of mean motions in a
meridional plane.
How it forms a convection cell

12/18/12

Geography

o At higher latitudes, the warm air cools and sinks, drawing more warm air in behind
o At higher latitudes,
the warm air cools
and sinks, drawing
more warm air in
behind it. The
cooled air flows
back towards the
equator, creating a
loop or convection cell.
Why the jet stream flows on an easterly course
o
As
the earth rotates on its axis, so does the air around it. Due to this
easterly rotation, rising warm air builds up momentum going the same
direction. Thus, the jet stream cannot flow due north or due south, but
makes an angular approach from the west, toward both poles.
Why the jet stream is so fast
o Objects and air at the equator rotate
around the earth's axis much faster
than they do at more northerly or
southerly latitudes. Thus, as the warmer
air is drawn toward the poles, it moves
faster, relative to the earth's surface.
Because the rising warm air feeding the
jet stream happens all along the
equator, the effects accumulate, giving rise to high-speed winds.
The size of the jet stream
o The jet stream is no more than three miles thick, a few hundred miles wide
and circles the earth. The size changes as temperature and other air
masses meet the jet stream, causing it to shift its course.
Identification
o Jet streams move around the Earth in a narrow band. They are created by
the difference in temperatures between two air masses, usually cold polar
air and warm tropical air. The temperature variance creates gradients in
air pressure, which in turn affects the strength of the winds in the jet
stream. The greater the variance, the greater the wind speed. Jet stream
winds normally are 100 to 200 mph but can reach speeds as high as 300
mph.

12/18/12

Geography

Development o A jet stream develops where air masses of differing temperatures meet, so surface temperatures
Development
o A jet stream develops where air masses of differing temperatures meet, so
surface temperatures help determine where they will form. The jet stream
is snakelike, undulating like a river, because of the pressures on either
side from the warm and cold air masses.
When the jet stream is pushed south by a cold air mass, it allows high
pressure to sink and create colder-than-normal weather in the South. In
the opposite situation, when northern regions get warmer than normal, the
jet stream has been pushed north by tropical air.
Jet streams travel from west to east in both hemispheres.
History
o Jet streams were discovered in the 1920s by meteorologist Wasburo
Ooishi, who was using weather balloons for his study of high elevation
wind patterns over Japan. In 1939, German meteorologist H. Seilkopf was
the first to use the term "jet stream" in a published scientific paper.
However, it wasn't until World War II, when the Japanese used the jet
stream for fire balloon attacks on the American mainland, that the upper-
level winds gained public recognition. Wiley Post, an American aviation
pioneer, is credited with being the first person to fly within a jet stream.

12/18/12

Geography

He and other WWII military pilots flying Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers found the jet stream made
He and other WWII military pilots flying Boeing B-29 Superfortress
bombers found the jet stream made high altitude flights difficult.
Weather Effects
o Currents travel at varying wind speeds within a jet stream, with the
greatest speeds at the core. A jet stream contains jet streaks, where the
wind velocity is higher than the rest of the stream. The jet streaks cause
air to rise, lowering the air pressure at the Earth's surface. When
surface pressures are low, the rising air can form clouds, precipitation
and storms.
Air Travel
o Jet streams play a major role in air travel. Eastbound flights usually take
less flying time than westbound flights because of help from the fast-
moving air. Jet streams can contain wind shear, a violent and sudden
change in wind direction and speed, which is a major threat in air travel.
Wind shear has caused airliners to suddenly lose altitude, putting them in
danger of crashing. In 1988, the FAA decided that all commercial
aircraft must have wind-shear warning systems, but it wasn't until 1996
that all airlines had them on-board.
Types of Jet Streams !!!
SUBTROPICAL JET STREAMS.— These jets, like the polar-front jets, are best developed in winter and
early spring. During summer, in the Northern Hemisphere, the subtropical jet weakens considerably, and
it is only identifiable in sporadic velocity streaks around the globe. During winter, subtropical jets
intensify and can be found between 20° and 50° latitude. Their maximum speed approaches 300 knots,
although these higher wind speeds are associated with their merger with polar-front jets. The core is
most frequently found between 35,000 and 40,000 feet. A subsidence motion accompanies subtropical
jets and gives rise to predominantly fair weather in areas they pass over. These jets are also remarkably
persistent from time to time, but they do fluctuate daily. Sometimes they drift northward and merge
with a polar-front jet. Over Asia in summer, the subtropical jet is replaced by the tropical easterly jet
stream.

12/18/12

Geography

TROPICAL EASTERLY JET STREAM.— This jet occurs near the tropopause over Southeast Asia, India, and Africa
TROPICAL EASTERLY JET STREAM.— This jet occurs near the tropopause over Southeast Asia, India,
and Africa during summer. The strongest winds are over southern India, but they are not as intense as
the winds encountered in polar-front or subtropical jet streams. This jet is closely connected to the
Indian and African sum-mer monsoons. The existence of this jet implies that there is a deep layer of
warm air to the north of the jet and colder air to the south over the In-dian Ocean. This warm air is of
course associ-ated with the maximum heating taking place over India in summer, while the colder air is
over the ocean. The difference in heating and cooling and the ensuing pressure gradient is what drives
this jet.
POLAR-NIGHT JET STREAM.— This jet meanders through the upper stratosphere over the poles. It
occurs only during the long winter night. Remember, night is 6 months long over the pole in which winter
is occurring. The polarstratosphere undergoes appreciable cooling due to the lack of solar radiation. The
horizontal temperature gradient is strongly established bet-ween the equator and the pole, and the
pressure gradient creates this westerly jet. The temperature gradient breaks down intermittently during
middle and late winter in the Northern Hemisphere; therefore, the jet is intermittent at these times. In
the Southern Hemisphere the temperature gradient and jet disappear rather abruptly near the time of
the spring equinox.
Detailed explanation on how the Jet Streams affect the
Monsoons and the Indian Sub Continent ?
Jet Streams are fast flowing winds blowing in a narrow zone in the high
altitude above 12000 m in troposphere. There are a number of separate jet
streams whose speed varies from 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in
winter.
In winter the sub-tropical westerly jet streams bring rain to the western
part of India, especially Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. In summer
the sub-tropical easterly jet blows over Peninsular India approximately at
14 O N and bring some rain and storm.
There are different jet streams and in respect of the climate and monsoons of India it is
the Subtropical Jet Stream (STJ) and the countering easterly jet that are most
important. As the summertime approaches there is increased solar heating of the Indian
subcontinent, this has a tendency to form a cyclonic monsoon cell situated between the
Indian Ocean and southern Asia. This cell is blocked by the STJ which tends to blow to
the south of the Himalayas, as long as the STJ is in this position the development of
summer monsoons is inhibited. During the summer months the STJ deflects northwards
and crosses over the Himalayan Range. The altitude of the mountains initially disrupts the
jet but once it has cleared the summits it is able to reform over central Asia. With the
STJ out of the way the subcontinental monsoon cell develops very quickly indeed, often in
a matter of a few days. Warmth and moisture are fed into the cell by a lower level
tropical jet stream which brings with it air masses laden with moisture from the Indian
Ocean. As these air masses are forced upward by north India’s mountainous terrain the
air is cooled and compressed, it easily reaches it’s saturation vapour point and the excess
moisture is dissipated out in the form of monsoon rains. The end of the monsoon season is
brought about when the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau begins to cool, this enables
the STJ to transition back across the Himalayas. This leads to the formation of a
cyclonic winter monsoon cell typified by sinking air masses over India and relatively
moisture free winds that blow seaward. This gives rise to relatively settled and dry
weather over India during the winter months. This year has been something of an
exception. Atmospheric changes over the southern Pacific Ocean led to warmer than usual
waters flowing into the Indian Ocean. This provided additional moisture to feed the
monsoon systems. Further to the north the polar jet stream stalled due to being
countered by Rossby Waves, there was a large kink in the stream and this was centred
over Russia. The stalled system prevented weather systems being drawn across Russia and
the kink acted as a barrier trapping hot air to the south and cold air to the north. The
consequence of this static mass of hot air was the heatwave that devastated Russia. With

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the jet stream stalled the STJ was unable to transit across the Himalayas as it would
the jet stream stalled the STJ was unable to transit across the Himalayas as it would do
ordinarily, the monsoon cell to the south, fed by warmer waters in the Indian Ocean, had
nowhere to go and as a consequence it deposited vast amounts of rain over Pakistan,
Himalchal Pradesh amd Jammu and Kashmir and this led to extensive flooding.
The Somali Jet
The monsoon wind that is deflected to the north as it crosses the equator is further deflected to the east
by the mountains of Africa. The progress of the southwest monsoon towards India is greatly aided by
the onset of certain jet streams including the crucial Somali jet that transits Kenya, Somalia and Sahel
and exits the African coast at 9 degrees north at low level and very fast. J. Findlater, a British
meteorologist observed this low level jet stream was found to be most pronounced between 1.0 and 1.5 km
above the ground. It was observed to flow from Mauritius and the northern part of the island of
Madagascar before reaching the coast of Kenya at about 3º S. Subsequently it ran over the plains of
Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia before reaching the coast again around 9º N. The jet stream appears to be
fed by a stream of air, which moves northwards from the Mozambique Channel.
The major part of this low level jet penetrates into East Africa during May and, subsequently, traverses
the northern parts of the Arabian Sea before reaching India in June. Observations suggest that the
strongest cross equatorial flow from the southern to the northern hemisphere during the Asian Summer
Monsoon is in the region of the low level jet. This has intrigued meteorologists, because it is not clear
why the major flow of air from the southern to northern hemisphere should take place along a narrow
preferred zone off the East African coast. The importance of the low level jet arises from the fact that
its path around 9º N coincides with a zone of coastal upwelling. As the strong winds drive away the
surface coastal waters towards the east, extremely cold water from the depths of the sea rise upwards
to preserve the continuity of mass. This upwelling is brought about by strong low level winds. After the
low level jet moves towards the Indian coastline around 9º N, it separates into two branches. One
appears to move to the northern parts of the Indian Peninsula while the other recurves towards the
southern half of the Indian coastline and Sri Lanka. It is still not clear why the jet separates into two
branches. Findlater analysed the wind profile for the months of July and August and found a
relationship between the cross-equatorial airflow, between 1.0 and 1.5 km, over Kenya and the rainfall
over western India. He opined that an increase in the cross-equatorial flow was followed by an increase
in rainfall over the west coast.
The Somali Current
Oceanographers have been interested in yet another phenomenon, which appears to have some
relationship with the low level jet stream off the coast of eastern Africa. This ocean current named the
Somali Current, flows northward from the equator to 9º N, where it separates from the coast. It is a
fairly strong current with a velocity maximum of 2 m m/s, but speeds as large as 3 m m/s have also been
observed. The Somali Current may be considered to be a western boundary current of the Indian Ocean.
But, its peculiar feature is a reversal in direction with the onset of the summer monsoon. In winter, this
current is from north to the south running southwards from the coast of Arabia to the east African
coastline; but with the advent of the summer monsoon it reverses its direction and flows from the south
to the north. This suggests a relationship with the reversal of monsoon winds, but usually the oceans
respond very slowly to changes in atmospheric circulation and oceanographers have wondered why the
Somali Current reverses its direction and reaches its maximum speed nearly a month earlier than the
onset of southwesterly monsoon winds.
Sub-tropical Westerly and Tropical Jet Streams
Certain interesting changes take place in the upper atmosphere with the advent of the summer monsoon.
Towards the end of May, a narrow stream of air, which moves from the west to the east over northern
India, suddenly weakens and moves to a new location far to the north of the Himalayas. This is known as
sub-tropical westerly jet stream. Its movement towards the north is one of the main features associated
with the onset of the monsoon over India. As the westerly jet moves north, yet another jet stream sets in
over the southern half of the Indian peninsula. This flows in the reverse direction from the east to west.
It is called tropical easterly jet, and it exhibits periodic movements to the north and south of its mean
location during the hundred-day monsoon season beginning with the first of June and ending around mid-
September.
The altitude at which the winds attain their maximum strength in the tropical easterly jet is around 150
hPa, but the maximum winds associated with the sub-tropical westerly jet occur at a lower altitude of

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300 hPa. A remarkable feature of the tropical easterly jet is that it can be traced
300 hPa. A remarkable feature of the tropical easterly jet is that it can be traced in the upper
troposphere right up to the west coast of Africa. HPa refers to 'hecta Pascal' and is a unit of measure of
atmospheric air pressure
Posted by swapnil patil at 11:31 AM
3 comments:
Labels: GEOGRAPHY Mains, Jet Stream, Monsoon, Winds
SUNDAY, MARCH 27, 2011
All you wanted to learn about South-East Asia !!!
Southeast Asia Comprises of ??
Southeast Asia (or Southeastern Asia) is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries
that are geographically south of China, east of India and north of Australia. The region lies
on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity.
Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as
Indochina, comprises Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Thailand, Vietnam and
Peninsular Malaysia, and Maritime Southeast Asia, which is analogous to the Malay
Archipelago, comprises Brunei, East Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia, the Philippines, and
Singapore. Geographically Hong Kong, Macau,and Taiwan are sometimes grouped in the
Southeast Asia subregion, although politically they are rarely grouped as such. The same is
true for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, and occasionally regions of the Seven
Sister States such as Manipur.
Mainland Southeast Asia includes:
Maritime Southeast Asia includes:

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Geography

Cambodia East Malaysia Laos Brunei Myanmar (Burma) Indonesia Thailand Philippines Vietnam Singapore Peninsular Malaysia East Timor
Cambodia
East Malaysia
Laos
Brunei
Myanmar (Burma)
Indonesia
Thailand
Philippines
Vietnam
Singapore
Peninsular Malaysia
East Timor
Looking into each region
North
Australia
"Aussie" is a colloquialism that
was used during World War I to
refer to Australian-born people
of British or Irish ancestry.
Initially used to describe a
happy-go-lucky character
capable of battling through hard
times, the term was employed
after World War II to
distinguish those born
domestically from "new"
immigrants from western and
southern Europe.
The Arnhem Land plateau is an enormous sandstone
tableland, roughly the size of Switzerland, that lies in
Australia’s tropical north. The western areas of this
plateau are part of the World Heritage Kakadu
National Park, and the larger eastern part lies in the
west of Arnhem Land. This is country that has been
home to Indigenous people for tens of thousands of
years and the rock paintings found throughout the
plateau are thought to represent the longest
continuous record of human culture anywhere in the
world.
Brunei
Darussalam
A tiny country with a small population, Brunei was
the only Malay state in 1963 to choose to remain
a British dependency rather than join the
Malaysian Federation.
It became independent in 1984 and, thanks to its large
reserves of oil and gas, now has one of the highest
standards of living in the world.
Its ruling royals, led by the head of state Sultan
Hassanal Bolkiah, possess a huge private fortune.
India
(Andaman
Nicobar
Islands )
In the Andaman Islands, the various Andamanese
people maintained their separated existence through
the vast majority of this time, diversifying into
distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups. By
the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact
by outside groups, the indigenous people of the
Andamans were:
the Great Andamanese, who collectively
represented at least 10 distinct sub-groups
and languages;
the Jarawa;
the Jangil (or Rutland Jarawa);
the Onge; and
the Sentinelese (most isolated of all the
groups).
The indigenous people of the Nicobars (unrelated to
the Andamanese) have a similarly isolated and lengthy
association with the islands. There are two main
groups:
the Nicobarese, or Nicobari, living
throughout many of the islands; and
the Shompen, restricted to the hinterland

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of Great Nicobar. Cambodia The fate of Cambodia shocked the world when the radical communist Khmer
of Great Nicobar.
Cambodia The fate of Cambodia shocked the world when the
radical communist Khmer Rouge under their leader
Pol Pot seized power in 1975 after years of
guerrilla warfare.
An estimated 1.7 million Cambodians died during the
next three years, many from exhaustion or starvation.
Others were tortured and executed.
Today, Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the
world and relies heavily on aid. Foreign donors have
urged the government to clamp down on pervasive
corruption.
China
China is the world's most populous country, with a
continuous culture stretching back nearly 4,000
years.
(Hainan)
Hainan has always been on the fringe of the Chinese
cultural sphere. Traditionally, the island was a place of
exile for criminals and disgraced officials. As a
frontier region celebrated by such exiled poets as Su
Dongpo, Hainan acquired an air of mystery and
romance. The influx of large numbers of mainlanders
after 1950 - particularly in the 1970s, when young
Chinese from southern Guangdong were assigned to
state farms to help develop Hainan, and in the 1980s,
when thousands more came to take advantage of the
economic opportunities offered - has perpetuated the
frontier atmosphere on the island.
East
Malaysia
Malaysia boasts one of south-east Asia's most
vibrant economies, the fruit of decades of
industrial growth and political stability.
Its multi-ethnic, multi-religious society encompasses a
majority Muslim population in most of its states and an
economically-powerful Chinese community.
East Timor's road to independence - achieved on
East Timor
20 May 2002 - was long and traumatic. The people
of the first new nation of the century suffered some
of the worst atrocities of modern times. An
independent report commissioned by the UN
transitional administration in East Timor said that at
least 100,000 Timorese died as a result of Indonesia's
25-year occupation, which ended in 1999.
Indonesia
Spread across a chain of thousands of islands
between Asia and Australia, Indonesia has the
world's largest Muslim population.
Ethnically it is highly diverse, with more than 300 local
languages. The people range from rural hunter-
gatherers to a modern urban elite.
Indonesia has seen great turmoil in recent years,
having faced the Asian financial crisis, the fall of
President Suharto after 32 years in office, the first
free elections since the 1960s, the loss of East Timor,
independence demands from restive provinces, bloody
ethnic and religious conflict and a devastating
tsunami.
Thailand Thailand is the only country in south-east Asia to have escaped colonial rule. Buddhist religion,
Thailand
Thailand is the only country in south-east Asia to
have escaped colonial rule. Buddhist religion, the
monarchy and the military have helped to shape its
society and politics.
The 1980s brought a boom to its previously
agricultural economy and had a significant impact on
Thai society as thousands flocked to work in industry
and the services sector.
Laos, one of the world's few remaining communist
Laos
states, is one of east Asia's poorest countries.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 it
has struggled to find its position within a changing
political and economic landscape.
Communist forces overthrew the monarchy in 1975,
heralding years of isolation. Laos began opening up to
the world in the 1990s, but despite tentative reforms,
it remains poor and dependent on international
donations.
Christmas Islands
The Territory of Christmas Island is a territory of
Australia in the Indian Ocean. It is located
2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) northwest of the Western
Australian city of Perth, 360 km (220 mi) south of the
Indonesian capital, Jakarta, and 975 km (606 mi) ENE
of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Cocos (Keeling)
Islands
Philippine
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, also called
Cocos Islands and Keeling Islands, is a territory of
Australia, located in the Indian Ocean, southwest of
Christmas Island and approximately midway between
Australia and Sri Lanka. The territory consists of two
atolls and twenty-seven coral islands, of which two,
West Island and Home Island, are inhabited with a
total population of approximately 600.
Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and
Western cultures. The Philippines exhibits aspects
found in other Asian countries with a Malay heritage,
yet its culture also displays a significant amount of
Spanish and American influences. Traditional
festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals)
to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are
common. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival
are a couple of the most well-known. These community
celebrations are times for feasting, music, and
dancing. Some traditions, however, are changing or
gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The
Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has
been lauded for preserving many of the various
traditional folk dances found throughout the
Philippines. They are famed for their iconic
performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling
and singkil that both feature the use of clashing
bamboo poles.
Singapore
Racial and religious harmony is regarded by the
government as a crucial part of Singapore's success
and played a part in building a Singaporean
identity.Due to the many races and cultures in the
country, there is no single set of culturally acceptable
behaviours. People in Singapore are generally well
educated, and although the country is socially

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conservative, some liberalisation has occurred. Foreigners also make up 42% of the population in Singapore and
conservative, some liberalisation has occurred.
Foreigners also make up 42% of the population in
Singapore and have a strong influence on Singaporean
culture. A.T. Kearney named Singapore the most
globalised country in the world in 2006 in its
Globalization Index.The Economist Intelligence Unit in
its "Quality-of-Life Index" ranks Singapore as having
the best quality of life in Asia and eleventh overall in
the world.
Climate
The climate in Southeast Asia is mainly tropical–hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall.
Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or monsoon. The tropical rain
belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rain forest is the second largest on earth
(with the Amazon being the largest). An exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain
areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape.
Other parts fall out of this climate because they are desert like.
Tropical Climate Regions
Overview
tropical rain forest climate dominates Southeast Asia
parts of mainlands and some islands have tropical savanna or humid subtropical
highlands climate found in highest mountain areas
Tropical Rain Forest Climate
little variation in temperature and mostly wet conditions year-round
79 degree F daily temperature average creates hot, humid, and rainy conditions
rainfall averages between 79 and 188 inches/year
humidity between 80 and 90 percent
Malaysian rain forest
145,000 flowering plant species
region's oldest forest, dating back millions of years
layers of vegetation
peat swamp forests in river valleys
sandy coastal soil supports shrubs
mangrove swamp forests cover tidal mud flats
leathery evergreens in lowlands with poor soil
resins - organic compounds - produced by evergreens used for
medicines and varnishes
Singapore
once an island covered by dense rain forest and surrounded by mangrove trees
now urban area with one of world's highest population densities (16732 people per
square mile)
population 4 million
endemic - native to a particular area
urbanized setting replaced natural habitat
80% trees and shrubs imported
one of only two cities (Rio de Janeiro) that have rain forest areas within
Tropical Savanna Climate
second most prominent climate zone
southeast across Indochina Peninsula and along southeast Indonesia
alternate wet and dry seasons
tropical grasslands and scattered trees
Indochina Peninsula dry season from four to eight months

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Geography

Seasons Mainland and North of Equator summer monsoon rains from May through September winter dry season
Seasons
Mainland and North of Equator
summer monsoon rains from May through September
winter dry season from October to April
first few months of winter cooler and last hot
Indonesia South of Equator
wet and dry cycles reversed
hot dry season from South Pacific tradewinds from May to
September
monsoons bring rain from October to April
Humid Subtropical Climate
part of Southeast Asia's mainland - most of Laos, part of Thailand, and northern Myanmar
and Vietnam
relief from hot, humid temperatures
cool, dry season from November to April
lower temperatures in Shan Plateau of Myanmar (tropical Scotland)
Highlands Climate
mountainous areas of Myanmar, New Guinea, and Borneo
cooler temperatures from rest of area
deciduous - broad-leafed trees that lose leaves in autumn
deciduous forests covered in moss found on lower slopes
evergreens at higher elevations
Myanmar highlands have rhododendrons
Religion
Austronesian peoples predominate in this region. The major religions are Buddhism and Islam, f ollowed by
Christianity. However, a wide variety of religions are found throughout the region, including many Hindu
and animist-influenced practices.
Introduction of Islam to Southeast Asia:
The actual timing and introduction of Islamic religion and religious practice to Southeast
Asia is somewhat of a debate. European historians have argued that it came through trading
contacts with India, whereas some Southeast Asian Muslim scholars claim it was brought to

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Geography

the region directly from Arabia in the Middle East. Other scholars claim that Muslim Chinese who
the region directly from Arabia in the Middle East. Other scholars claim that Muslim Chinese
who were engaged in trade introduced it.
Whatever the source, scholars acknowledge that Muslim influence in Southeast Asia is at
least six centuries old, or was present by 1400 A.D. Some argue for origins to at least 1100
A.D. in the earliest areas of Islamic influence, such as in Aceh, northern Sumatra in
Indonesia.
Whatever exact dates and sources one chooses to support, there is no doubt that
Islamization of many peoples in present-day Malaysia, southern Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei,
and the southern Philippines occurred within a few hundred years. The process of religious
conversion absorbed many pre-existing Southeast Asian beliefs (often referred to as
'animism', or the belief in the power of invisible spirits of people's ancestors and the spirits
of nature to influence the fortunes of humans on earth).
The scholar Anthony Reid, Professor of History at the University of California, Los Angeles,
argues that this process of Islamization (and Christianization in the Philippines) occurred
rapidly in Southeast Asia, especially during the period of 1550-1650.
For example, Islam became strong in eastern Indonesia, especially coastal kingdoms of
Sulawesi, Lombok, Kalimantan, Sumbawa, Makassar, and in Sulu and Magindanao (Cotabato
Province) in the southern Philippines from 1603-1612. This does not mean that rulers and
their subjects in these areas were totally devoted to upholding all of the basic rules of
Islam. It means that Islamic influence was present, as evidenced through ruling elites'
obligation to renounce the consumption of pork and to pronounce the daily five prayers.
Some also practiced circumcision during this period.
Respect for Gods, Nature, Spirits
Duty vs. Rights
Community
Priority of responsibility over liberty
Communitarianism, Communalism, Fellows,
Other-centeredness
Helping each other in the community
Gods and nature spirits (Austronesian)
Southeast Asia
SEA
Bayanihan
Philippines
Nitu, Anito
Insular Southeast
Asia
Nat (Burmese)
Gods
Burma
Phii (Thai)
Spirits
Mainland
Southeast Asia
Deva, Devata, Diwata (Sanskrit)
Brahma (Sanskrit)
Goddess, spirits
SEA
Indian God the Creator important in Therevada
Buddhism that supplements Brahamanistic
practices
Mainland SEA
Angkor Thom
Brahma image in temple
Cambodia
Shaman
Informal village religious leader; medium
between the visible and spirit worlds; involves
in healing and divination
Southeast Asia
Amulets
Philippine Anting-Anting, Buddha images
SEA
Aswang
A sort of human vampire the top part of whose
body flies at night to feed on human blood and
internal organs
Philippines

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ASEAN The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in
ASEAN
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok,
Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of
ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on
23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of
ASEAN.
ASEAN and India
India’s focus on a strengthened and multi-faceted relationship with ASEAN is an outcome of the
significant changes in the world’s political and economic scenario since the early 1990s and India’s own
march towards economic liberalisation. India’s search for economic space has resulted in our ‘Look East’
policy. ASEAN’s economic, political and strategic importance in the larger Asia-Pacific Region and its
potential to become a major partner of India in trade and investment is a significant factor in our policy
paradigms. ASEAN’s steady expansion westward to include Myanmar has also brought it to our land
boundaries. It now provides a land bridge for India to connect with the ASEAN countries. ASEAN, on its
part, seeks access to India’s professional and technical strengths. Our traditional friendship with the
CLMV countries also makes India a valuable ally for promoting the Initiative for ASEAN Integ ration
(IAI).
CITIES
These are the nine of the most prominent cities in Southeast Asia:
Bangkok — Thailand's bustling, cosmopolitan capital with nightlife and fervour
Jakarta — The largest metropolitan city in southeast asia, and beautiful life in the evening
Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) — The Bustling Metropolis that has become Vietnam's
largest city and the economic centre of the south
Kuala Lumpur — grown from a small sleepy Chinese tin-mining village to a bustling metropolis
Luang Prabang — a UNESCO World Heritage City known for its numerous temples, colonial era
architecture, and vibrant night market
Manila — historic, bustling, awe-inspiring, Manila is a blend of cultures and flavors with many
places to see
Phnom Penh — a rough city striving to retain the name of "Paris of the East", as it was known
before 1970
Singapore — modern, affluent city with a medley of Chinese, Indian and Malay influences
Yangon (formerly Rangoon) — the commercial capital of Myanmar, known for its pagodas and
colonial architecture
Tanah Lot Temple, Bali, Indonesia
Balinese Rice Farmer,
Indonesia

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OTHER DESTINATIONS These are some of the largest and most famous destinations outside of major cities.
OTHER DESTINATIONS
These are some of the largest and most famous destinations outside of major cities.
Angkor Archaeological Park — magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empi re
Bali — unique Hindu culture, beaches and mountains on the Island of the Gods
Boracay — long white sand beaches and bustling nightlife
Borobudur — one of the largest Buddhist temples in the world
Gunung Mulu National Park — fantastic limestones caves and karst formations
Ha Long Bay — literally translated as "Bay of Descending Dragons", famous for its scenic rock
formations
Komodo National Park — the komodo is the biggest reptile in the world, and it can only be
found in this national park
Krabi Province — beach and watersports mecca, includes Ao Nang, Rai Leh, Ko Phi Phi and Ko
Lanta
Preah Vihear — cliff-top temple pre-dating Angkor Wat
History
Pre-historic Southeast Asia was largely underpopulated. A process of immigration from India across the
Bay of Bengal is referred to as the process of Indianization. Exactly how and when it happened is
contested; however, the population of the mainland region largely happened through immigration from
India. The Sanskrit script still used as the basis for modern Thai, Lao, Burmese and Khmer has its roots
from this process. On the other hand, population of the archipelegos of East Timor, Indonesia and the
Philippines, as well as Malaysia on the mainland is thought to have come about though immigration from
Taiwan.
Facts
Thailand's capital; Bangkok serves as one of Thailand's financial centers, it is the gateway to
the whole of Thailand who boasts itself as the only country who wasn't colonized by any
Western power as well as one of the most visited countries in Asia.
Ayutthaya became the capital of early Thailand; Siam, it had been a major trading capita l in
Asia due to its location in between China and India.
Sukhothai was one of the former capitals of early Thailand, today it stands in ruins and is a
popular destination for tourists for its temples and Buddha statues. King Ramkhamhaeng the
great has a connection with Sukhothai, he created the Thai alphabet, laid foundations for
politics, religion and Monarchy which makes Sukhothai important in History.
Angkor Wat in Cambodia is considered an architectural wonder which made it as a UNESCO
World heritage site, the temple is first build as a Hindu temple but as Jayavarman VII
converted to Buddhism, the temple was converted into a Buddhist temple.
India and South East Asia
In the 1970s and 1980s, India's close ties with the Soviet Union and its pro-Soviet,
pro-Vietnamese policies toward Cambodia precluded development of any
constructive relations between India on the one hand and the countries of the
Association of Southeast Asian Nations on the other. Furthermore, India's military
buildup, particularly of its naval capabilities and naval installations in the Andaman
and Nicobar Islands, worried ASEAN policy makers, who saw India as a potential
threat to regional security. Indian-ASEAN relations improved in the 1990s as the
result of the end of the bipolar world system, the UN-brokered peace settlement in
Cambodia, and the breakup of the Soviet Union. For its part, New Delhi sought to
boost economic and trade ties with the region and to establish closer political and
defense ties in order to counteract China's growing influence in Southeast Asia.
ASEAN countries grew less concerned with India's regional ambitions after New
Delhi's decision to curtail its naval buildup because of financial restraints. In
January 1992, ASEAN accepted India's proposal to become a "sectoral dialogue
partner" in the areas of trade, technical and labor development, technology, and
tourism. India's new role was expected to facilitate economic cooperation. In

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January 1993, India and Malaysia signed a memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation. India has had
January 1993, India and Malaysia signed a memorandum of understanding on
defense cooperation.
India has had close ties with Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam as a result of its 1954-73
chairmanship of the International Commissions of Control and Supervision
established by the 1954 Geneva Accords on Indochina. These relations were
enhanced by India's friendship with the Soviet Union, particularly after 1971 and, in
the case of Vietnam, shared perceptions of the threat from China. With regard to
Cambodia, India recognized the Vietnamese-installed regime in 1980 and worked to
avert censure of the regime in the annual UN General Assembly and triennial
Nonaligned Movement summit meetings. In the late 1980s, Indian diplomats
attempted to facilitate the search for peace in Cambodia, and India participated in
the 1989 Paris Peace Conference on Cambodia and in subsequent efforts to find a
solution to the Cambodian situation. New Delhi played a minor but nevertheless
constructive role before and after the Agreement on a Comprehensive Political
Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict and three other documents were signed in Paris
on October 23, 1991.
India contributed more than 1,700 civilian, military, and police personnel to the
United Nations Advanced Mission in Cambodia and the United Nations Transitional
Authority in Cambodia.
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was set up in 1993 as a
regional security cooperation and dialogue platform. The Forum grew out of
deliberations in the ASEAN Post Ministerial Conference between the Foreign
Ministers of ASEAN and its full dialogue partners. In 1995 the ARF agreed to an
evolutionary approach to effectively tackle security issues and adopted a 3-stage
process viz 1st stage – Confidence Building Measures (CBMs); 2nd stage –
development of preventive diplomacy; and 3rd stage – elaboration of approaches
to conflicts. ASEAN values of consensus, confidence building and progress at a
pace comfortable to all have guided the ARF process since inception.
At present ARF has 27 member states. These include: the 10 ASEAN
countries - Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam; the 10 ASEAN Dialogue Partners
- Australia, Canada, China, EU, India, Japan, ROK, New Zealand, Russia and
United States; and 7 other countries, namely, Bangladesh, DPRK, Mongolia,
Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and Sri Lanka.
India's Participation in ARF
participation in the ARF demonstrates our increasing engagement in the

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Asia-Pacific region, both in the politico-security and economic spheres and underlines our commitment to the objective
Asia-Pacific region, both in the politico-security and economic spheres and
underlines our commitment to the objective of sustaining regional peace and
stability. Our participation is consistent with our “Look East” policy, and
development of closer links with the ASEAN as a full-dialogue partner
India has been an active participant in the various ARF processes. India
has organized several seminars, workshops and training programmes for ARF
Members. The themes of these activities have included peacekeeping, maritime
security, anti-piracy and cyber security. India co-chaired the ARF-ISG on
Confidence Building Measures and Preventive Diplomacy meetings for the intersessional
period 2009-10. Vietnam was the ASEAN co-Chair. An ARF-ISG
meeting was held in New Delhi from 9-11 November 2009. India had also cochaired
the 6th ARF-ISM on Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crime, held in
Indonesia in February 2008. In November 2008 and March 2009, India organized
two training programmes on maritime security in Chennai. In May 2009 a UN
Peacekeeping course was organized in New Delhi.
Important Physical Geographic Points about
Southeast Asia
1.
Southeast Asia is located on the equator, which means almost the entire region
falls within the humid tropics.
2.
Southeast Asia is conventionally divided into two cultural, linguistic, and
geographic regions:
a. Mainland Southeast Asia - the countries of Thailand, Laos, Burma, Cambodia and
Vietnam;
b. Insular Southeast Asia - the island or peninsular countries of Malaysia, Singapore,
Brunei, the Philippines, East Timor.
3.
While many countries in Southeast Asia today have dense populations, in the
past the region had considerably lower population density than major Asian
countries like India, China and Japan.
The low population density placed a premium on the ability of leaders and rulers to
attract people to various population centers. River valleys, deltas, and major maritime
trading ports that were well-positioned along trading routes between India and China
were the areas where early population centers, major kingdoms, and great temples first

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Geography

arose. Southeast Asian maritime skills were highly developed in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. The combination
arose. Southeast Asian maritime skills were highly developed in Malaysia, Indonesia and
the Philippines.
The combination of rice agriculture and maritime skills led to the development of two
different kinds of classical Southeast Asian states: inland states, based on rice
agriculture, and maritime states, based on trade and raiding.
Upland and Lowland Distinctions in Southeast
Asia:
Just as the great civilizations of Southeast Asia were located along rivers, deltas,
coastal areas or geographic locations suitable for intensive rice agriculture, there
are similar geographic contrasts in the characteristics of peoples who live in the
lowland areas versus the highland areas.
Generally, upland areas can be characterized as having lower population densities,
greater heterogeneity in languages, cultures, and ethnicity, greater political
fragmentation, and slash burn cultivation of root or grain crops.
Slash and burn cultivation, or swidden agriculture, is based on a system wherein
standing tropical forest is cut and cleared before the rainy season begins. After the
timber dries, farmers burn the cut area, which leaves a thick layer of ash on the soil.
When the ash is mixed with the soil, it provides important nutrients and phosphate
that increase soil fertility and hence the productivity and size of crops. The rainy
season further pushes these nutrients into the soil. After one or two years of
cultivation, the farmer needs to cut down a new area of the forest and abandon the
original plots for 10-15 years so that the forest will grow back. Slash and burn
cultivation usually necessitates some mobility of the population over time, hence
requiring a fairly large area of land per person.
Wet rice agriculture, in contrast, is a form of permanent agriculture that involves
radically transforming the landscape. Farmers must build terraces and irrigation
canals to regular the flow of water from streams and rivers. Nutrients are provided
through the algae that form in the water of the rice paddies. This type of rice
agriculture is more intensive, and responds well to increased labor inputs. Hence,
since in tropical lowland areas a farmer can get two seasons a year of rice without
difficulty, wet rice was the support base for many Southeast Asian states.
Modern environmental pressures:
In 1997, 13 of the world's most polluted cities were in Asia. One-third of Asians did not
have access to clean water; one-half did not have access to adequate sanitation facilities.
The financial crisis in Asia during the 1997-99 period halted or slowed the fairly recent
efforts by Southeast Asian states to invest in greater environmental regulations and
conservation efforts. Even as environmental budgets were cut by many governments
whose currencies lost value during this period, the need for foreign exchange created
powerful pressures to export ever-larger quantities of fish, minerals, agricultural and
plantation products. Furthermore, while many states already have lost most of their
primary forest cover, additional incentives now exist to increase commercial tropical
timber production and export. Total forest plantations in Indonesia covered 3.8 million
hectares in 1994, and the Indonesian government hopes to increase this amount to 8
million hectares by 2005. Similarly, the Philippines already has lost 99% of the forest
cover it had 100 years ago.
In Indonesia, illegal fishing (dynamite fishing, cyanide fishing for aquarium fish exports)
also appears to have increased during this period of financial crisis.
Some economists view the devastation to the forest and marine resource environments of
Southeast Asian countries to be a more serious, longer-lasting problem than economic
recovery and banking reforms in the region.

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Geography

Stability and Instability in Southeast Asia A. Asian (Authoritarian) "Democracies" 1. Thailand 2. Malaysia 3. Singapore
Stability and Instability in Southeast Asia
A.
Asian (Authoritarian) "Democracies"
1.
Thailand
2.
Malaysia
3.
Singapore
4.
Philippines
B.
Asian Authoritarian Governments
1.
Indonesia (in transition)
2.
Burma
3.
Brunei
4.
Laos
5.
Vietnam
6.
Cambodia (in transition)
C.
Period of Non-Crises
1.
End of external and internal Communist threats

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Geography

2. End of struggles for independence 3. Regional cooperation D. Economics 1. Flourishing free enterprise economies
2.
End of struggles for independence
3.
Regional cooperation
D.
Economics
1.
Flourishing free enterprise economies
2.
Liberalizing command economies (Vietnam, Laos)
E.
Primary Problems for Foreign Investors
1.
Infrastructure weaknesses (stemming from remarkable economic
successes)
2.
Bureaucratic obstacles
3.
Environmental degradation (traffic, pollution, water contamination,
crime, urban alienation)
4.
Corruption
5.
Cost of living
6.
Gap between urban rich and rural poor
7.
Cultural difference
F.
Primary Opportunities
1.
Vietnam - The New Economic Frontier
2.
Thailand - Stability, Discipline, Inexpensive Labor, Gracious
Citizenry
3.
Singapore - Antiseptic, Technological, Safe, Orderly,
Entrepreneurial
4.
Philippines - English language, Educated, Democracy, Coming out of
malaise
5.
Malaysia - relatively non-corrupt, infrastructure
6.
Indonesia - vast population, inexpensive labor
Impact of Colonialism
Six countries: Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, and the United
States, had colonies in Southeast Asia.
Portugal
The Portuguese had the least impact on Southeast Asia. They captured Malacca in 1511,
holding it until the Dutch seized it in 1641. Otherwise, they maintained only a small piece
of territory on the island of Timor, southeast of Bali.
Spain
Spain ruled the Philippines from its conquest of Cebu in 1565 and Manila in 1571 until its
defeat in the Spanish-American War in 1898.
The Netherlands
Dutch colonialism falls into two periods. the first, that of the V.O.C., or Dutch East India
Company, lasted from 1605 to 1799. The V.O.C. had little interest in territorial
administration; its primary concern was to maximize profits through trading monopolies.
When the V.O.C. collapsed in 1799, the Dutch government took control of its assets in
1825, after the Napoleonic Wars, and began to bring the Indonesian archipelago under its
administrative authority. This process was completed during the 1930s.
At the end of the Second World War, the Dutch had hoped to retain the Netherlands
East Indies as a colony, but the Indonesians opposed the return of the Dutch, setting up a
republic in 1945. In 1949, after four years of fighting, the Indonesians gained their
independence with the assistance of the United Nations which served as a mediator
between the Indonesians and the Dutch.

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Geography

Great Britain The British conquered Burma, fighting three Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1824-26, 1852, and 1885-86. Unlike
Great Britain
The British conquered Burma, fighting three Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1824-26, 1852, and
1885-86. Unlike other colonies which maintained their ethnic identity, Burma was a
province of British India. The Burmese, therefore, had two sets of rulers, the British at
the top with the Indians in the middle. In 1935 the British agreed to separate Burma from
India, putting this agreement into effect in 1937. Burma was able to negotiate its
independence from Great Britain in 1948.
Penang (acquired in 1786), Singapore (founded by Raffles in 1819), and Malacca (Melaka,
acquired in 1824), were governed by Britain as the Straits Settlements. The Straits
Settlements served as a base for British expansion into the Malay Peninsula between 1874
and 1914. When the Malay States entered into negotiations for their independence--
achieved in 1957--Penang and Malacca became part of Malaysia as did Singapore in 1963.
However, Singapore was asked to withdraw from the federation in1965. Singapore has
been an independent city state since that date. Sarawak and Sabah which joined
Malaysia in 1963 continue to remain members of the federation.
France
France moved into Vietnam in 1858, capturing Saigon in 1859. Using the south, then called
Cochin China, as a base the French moved west and north completing the conquest of
Indochina by 1907. (Indochina--the five territories under French authority: Cochin China,
Annam, Tongking, Laos, and Cambodia.) The French also wanted to retain their colony
after the Second World War. The Vietnamese rejected French rule, and after defeating
the French at Dien Bien Phu, obtained their independence at the Geneva Conference in
1954.
The United States
The United States moved into the Philippines as a result of the peace settlement with
Spain in 1898. The Filipinos were granted a Commonwealth (internal autonomy)
government in 1935, and their independence in 1946.
Thailand
Thailand continued to be independent. It was the only Southeast Asian state to remain
independent during the colonial period.
Nobel Prize Winners
· Aung San Suu Kyi Daughter of Aung San;
· Leader of National League for Democracy Burma Bishop Belo Important church
leader who fought for national freedom and democracy
· East Timor Jose Ramos Horta Professor; International spokesperson for national
liberation East Timor
Terrorist Groups
1.
Abu Sayyaf Engage in kidnap for ransom, killing, beheading
Philippines
2.
Al Qaeda cells International terrorist ring under Osama bin Laden
Asia
Southeast
Physical Features
Mountains
dominate landscape
most peaks below 10,000 feet
create geographical and political barriers

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Geography

western and northern higlands separate region from India and China three cordilleras run north to south
western and northern higlands separate region from India and
China
three cordilleras run north to south
Arakan Yoma Range in western Myanmar
Bilauktaung Rnage between Myanmar and Thailand
Annam Cordillera separating Vietnam from Laos and
Cambodia
island mountains form part of Ring of Fire
Indonesian and Philippine islands marked by craters
mineral-rich volcanic material breaks down and leaves rich,
fertile soil, making Southeast Asia highly productive agricultural
area
Volcanoes of Indonesia and the Philippines
327 volcanoes stretch across Indonesia
Java, home to 17 of Indonesia's 100 active volcanoes, is one of
Ring of Fire's most active areas
1883 eruption of Krakatau destroyed everything
now monitor volcanic activity to be prepared
1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo 20th century's most powerful
55 miles north of Philippine capital Manila
damaged town of Angeles
foot deep layer of ash over U.S. Clark Air Force Base
Rivers
waterways for transportation, communication, and food
silt and deposits of sediment creat fertile agricultural regions
mainland rivers originate in northern highlands and flow south to
Gulf of Thailand
Irrawaddy in Myanmar
Chao Phraya in Thailand
Red in Vietnam
Mekong between Thailand and Loas and through
Cambodia and Vietnam before emptying into South
China Sea, where it adds 50 feet/year to shoreline
from sediment
island rivers shorter and flow in various directions
Indonesian rivers flow south to north
Borneo's rivers flow from center outward
Posted by swapnil patil at 7:44 AM
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