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EDUCATION AND CULTURE LEONARDO DA VINCI Community Vocational Training Action Programme Second phase: 2000-2006

Leonardo Da Vinci Pilot Project

THE USE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPROVED VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

COUNTRY R EPORT FOR GREECE

Developed by: OGEEKA DIMITRA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

Introduction 1.1. A summary of prospects and challenges for fresh fruits and vegetables production and marketing 1.2. SWOT analysis 1.2.1. Strengths 1.2.1.1. Substantial natural resources 1.2.1.2. Tradition in cultivation of fruits and vegetables 1.2.1.3. Augmented income to the producer 1.2.1.4. Advances in productivity 1.2.1.5. Low labour costs 1.2.1.6. Small size of farm exploitations 1.2.2. Weaknesses 1.2.2.1. Demographic shrinkage and increase of the average age of producers 1.2.2.2. Dependence of production upon a small number of cultivations 1.2.2.3. Lack of Marketing Structures 1.2.2.4. Low educational level 1.2.2.5. Low life-time of products 1.2.2.6. Constraints to exports of fresh fruits and vegetables 1.2.3. Opportunities 1.2.3.1. New sophisticated consumer demand 1.2.3.2. Increasing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables demand 1.2.3.3. Quality and Stability of supply 1.2.3.4. Advances in Post-harvest management of Horticultural products 1.2.3.5. Protected cropping 1.2.4. Threats 1.2.4.1. Responsive to sound business practices 1.2.4.2. Competition 1.2.4.3. Transformation of Common Agricultural Policy 1.2.4.4. Lack of design and implementation of a vital and integrated agricultural development 1.2.4.5. Pervasive marketing system 1.2.4.6. Awkward Information Dissemination 2. Production 2.1. Current levels of production Quantities and varieties 2.2. The varieties of the most important fruits and vegetables 2.3. Production trends per product 2.4. Production areas 2.5. Geographic orientation 2.6. Irrigated land 2.7. Areas under glass/ plastic 2.8. Number of farms producing fresh fruits and vegetables average size 2.9. Organically cultivated areas 2.10. Production and harvest schedules 2.11. Main disease and pest problems 2.12. Key issues in relation to production 2.12.1. Greek agricultural production problems 2.12.2 Greek Agricultural production opportunities 3. Harvest and post harvest technologies 3.1. Techniques used for picking maturity indices 3.2. Storage containers 3.3. Handling transportation of products 3.4. Produce drying, treatments and additives 3.5. Storage, ripening, cooling, pre-cooling 3.6. Curing 3.7. Produce grading and packing 3.8. Seed treatment 3.9. Estimated level of post harvest losses 3.10. Food quality and standards

6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 18 21 22 24 24 25 25 26 26 27

3.11. Names of Main Organizations 27 3.12. Key issues and opportunities 30 4. Distribution and Marketing 32 4.1. Per capita consumption of fruits and vegetables in Greece 32 4.2. National production and Imports 32 4.3. Main Importing countries 32 4.4. Names of importers 32 4.5. Exports trade 33 4.6. General markets and marketing channels 34 4.7. Market Information Systems 34 4.8. Wholesale markets 35 4.9. Retail Chains 35 4.10. Systems for auctioning of fresh fruits and vegetables 36 4.11. Branding or Trade marking of Horticultural Products 36 4.12. Price formulation 36 4.13. Co-operatives and Traders 37 4.14. Pack-houses 39 4.15. Processors 39 4.16. Key issues and opportunities 40 5. Electronic trading systems 41 5.1. Current systems 41 5.2. National and international practices 44 5.3. Key issues and opportunities 46 6. Standards, contracts and Government 48 6.1. Key legislation 48 6.2. Quality Assurance 49 6.3. Main environmental legislation 49 6.4. Subsidies and incentive schemes 50 6.5. Infrastructure, credit and insurance 51 6.6. Key issues 52 7. Employment, education, research and extension 53 7.1. General employment issues in horticulture 53 7.2. Vocational training and education 54 7.2.1. Training centers 56 7.2.2. Training Materials 57 7.2.3. Educational and Vocational Training programmes 58 7.3. Research 58 7.4. Names of the main Organisations and responsibilities 59 7.5. Key issues and opportunities 60 7.6. Related programmes 60 7.7. International Intiatives 61 7.8. Training, research and extension needs 61 8. Relevant publications and contact names and addresses 62 9. APPENDICES 64 9.1. TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 65 Table 1: SWOT ANALYSIS of the fresh fruits and vegetable sector in Greece 66 SWOT ANALYSIS 66 3. Lack of Marketing Structures 66 4. Pervasive marketing system 66 5. Protected cropping 66 5. Awkward information dissemination 66 6. Small size of farm exploitations 66 8. Constraints to exports of fresh fruits and vegetables 66 Table II Levels of Production Land Areas Yield for Vegetables in Greece (19982000) 67 Table III Levels of Production Land Areas Yield for Fresh Fruits in Greece (19982000) 68 Table IV: The fresh fruits and vegetables varieties commercialized in Greece (2000) 69 Figure 1: The agricultural land use (Agricultural statistics, 1998) 76

Figure 2: Cultivated and irrigated areas of the most important fresh fruits and vegetables 76 VEGETABLE PRODUCTION TRENDS 77 Figure 3: Production trend for cucumber production 77 Figure 4: Production trend for artichoke production 77 Figure 5: Production trend for lettuce production 77 Figure 6: Production trend for fresh onions production 77 Figure 7: Production trend for dry onions production 78 Figure 8: Production trend for garlic production 78 Figure 9: Production trend for fresh beans production 78 Figure 10: Production trend for pumpkins production 78 Figure 11: Production trend for beets production 79 Figure 12: Production trend for peppers production 79 Figure 13: Production trend for egg plant production 79 Figure 14: Production trend for okra production 79 Figure 15: Production trend for cabbage production 80 Figure 16: Production trend for cauliflower production 80 Figure 17: Production trend for chicory production 80 Figure 18: Production trend for spinach production 80 Figure 19: Production trend for asparagus production 81 Figure 20: Production trend for leek production 81 Figure 21: Production trend for celery production 81 Figure 22: Production trend for carrot production 81 Figure 23: Production trend for potato production 82 Figure 24: Production trend for tomato production 82 Figure 25: Production trend for melon production 83 Figure 26: Production trend for watermelon production 83 Figure 27: Production trend for strawberry production 83 Figure 28: Production trend for lemons production 83 Figure 28: Production trend for grapes production 84 Figure 29: Production trend for oranges production 84 Figure 30: Production trend for tangerines production 84 Figure 31: Production trend for pears production 84 Figure 32: Production trend for apples production 85 Figure 33: Production trend for apricots production 85 Figure 34: Production trend for peaches production 85 Figure 35: Production trend for cherries production 85 Figure 36 Production trend for kiwi production 86 Table V: Greenhouses regional distribution in Greece and types of cultivations 86 Table VI: Regional Distribution of cultivation areas according to cultivation type (1992) 87 Table VII: Distribution of agricultural exploitations for fresh fruits and vegetables (1992) according to size of cultivation areas 87 Table VIII: Evolution of Organic Agriculture in Greece (1994 -1999) 88 Figure 37: Evolution of Organic Agriculture 88 Table VIIII: Cultivation areas by type of organic cultivation and areas in transitional stage in hectares (1999) 88 Table X: Organically cultivated areas Regional distribution 89 Figure 38: Harvesting seasons of the most important fresh fruits 90 Figure 39: Harvesting of the most important vegetables 91 Figure 40: Cultivation periods of the most important vegetables 93 Catalogue1: The most important fresh fruits and vegetables diseases and pests 94 Parasitical problems of General Fruits 94 Parasitical problems of Grapes 96 Parasitical problems of Vegetables 96 Figure 41: Handling and transportation procedures of fresh fruits and vegetables 99 Table XI: Average monthly per capita consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables. 100 Table XII: Imports of the most important vegetables in Greece (2000) 101 Table XIII:Imports of the most important fruits in Greece (2000) 102

Table XIV:Exports of the most important vegetables in Greece (2000) 103 Table XV :Exports of the most important fruits in Greece (2000) 104 Figure 42: National Production Imports Equilibrium for Vegetables 105 Figure 43:National Production Imports equilibrium for Fruits 105 Figure 44: The marketing channels for fresh fruits and vegetables 106 Table XVI: Number and geographic orientation of pack-houses in Greece (1998) 106 Table XVII: Number and regional distribution of cooling facilities and estimated cooling capacity (1998) 107 Figure 46: PC and Internet use by sector of Employment (Greece,2000) 107 TABLE XVIII: The main types of employment in agriculture, livestock, forestry and processing sectors. Number of employed people and corresponding percentages. 109 TABLE XIX: The education level of people employed in the agriculture, livestock, forestry and processing sectors. 109 Figure 47: The main job types and responsibilities of the vegetables/ horticulture production. 111 FIGURE 48: Agricultural Vocational Education and Training in Greece 112 Maps of Production Areas for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 113 Legislation 115 Common Organisation of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Markets 115

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece

1. Introduction
1.1. A summary of prospects and challenges for fresh fruits and vegetables production and marketing
The fresh fruits and vegetables sector in Greece comprises one of the most forceful sectors of Greek agriculture. The total cultivated area for fresh fruits and vegetables is 1086,1 hectares and is a big proportion of the total cultivated area (3,940 hectares). It is a type of cultivation, which requires extended exploitation of production resources and especially labor and which, at the same time, offers the biggest output per hectare. Fresh fruits and vegetables production in Greece amounts to 7.5 million tonnes per year on average, with 4 million tonnes of vegetables and 3.5 million tonnes of fresh fruits. The cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables is expanded throughout the whole country depending on the cultivated products. Fresh fruits and vegetables contribute to a great extent to the total value of agricultural production for most of the Greek areas such as Peloponnese, East, West and Central Macedonia. For this reason, it is recommended for Greece, a country where agricultural exploitations are small in size and there are no large plains. Another reason which promotes the cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables is the sub-tropical Mediterranean climate of Greece. Additionally, Greece represents a relatively high share in the total European Community production. More specifically, vegetables represent the 6.7% of tot al EU production, and fruits the 9.7%. Few countries exceed these figures, such as Italy, France and Spain. Contrary to the positive factors mentioned above, the cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables presents a decreasing trend for most of the cultivated species. The main reason for this is the aging of the farmers and the concentration of young people to large cities. Another reason is the weak social network of rural areas which is unable to keep young people in rural areas. However, the related settings and legislatures of Common Agricultural Policy regarding the withdrawal quantities and the formation of the high limit in juice production, in accordance with the existing intense competition in the International marketplace, seem to have a negative impact in the prospects of the sector. Until today, substantial assistance has been provided, in the framework of the development programs of the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as investment projects. Still the needs for updating and development of new units for processing and standardization of products are enormous. There is also a trend towards the development of new products. The deficiency of the European Community market in fresh fruits and vegetables as well as the turn of consumers to more hygienic nutrition patterns, give great potential for exports to the sector. However, there is a need for product standardization and improvement of marketing structures which must be first implemented in the internal market. The subsidies must aim to the developm ent of powerful private commercial companies so as to enforce the extroversion of the sector and to avoid the fragmentation of subsidies to a great number of small subsidies, which will not contribute much to the competitiveness of the sector in the international marketplace.

1.2. SWOT analysis


There are a number of factors, which have positive or negative impact to the production and marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetables in Greece. These factors usually comprise external or internal constraints and forces developed in a regional or a national environment or by the interaction of the regional with the national and international environment. The understanding of these factors will lead to the perception of the growth limits and the education practices that must be undertaken. SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) is a description model of the most important results occurring from the exposition and the recording of the internal and the external environment of Greece. The aim of SWOT analysis is to present the strengths which will support the developing progress of production and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables as well as to determine the strategic directions to a coherent and overall strategy for improvement and development of the sector. Furthermore, the detection and OGEEKA DIMITRA 6

exposition of weaknesses will be the base for the appropriate measures and practices that must be undertaken. Finally, SWOT analysis will shed more light to the opportunities and threats created by the continuously changing business environment. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the production and marketing sector for fresh fruits and vegetables in Greece are analyzed extensively in the following section:

1.2.1. Strengths
1.2.1.1. Substantial natural resources The wonderful climate and the fertile ground of Greece has always been one of the best environments for the cultivation of fresh produce since successful horticulture depends upon extensive control of the environment. Greece is one of the Mediterranean countries with a warm and sub-tropical climate. On average the sun shines for 3,000 hours per year. Winters are mild in the south with rare frost and snow but much colder in the north. The average temperature in the winter is approximately 54F (13C) in Athens and southern Greece, and colder in the north. Apart from that, the biggest proportion of cultivated land is comprised of sand and clay soils. This type of soil is appropriate for arboricultural and vegetable cultivations, since it maintains the appropriate levels of moisture and inorganic elements. The only constraining factor inhibiting the further expansion of production is the lack of water. It rains mostly from October to March. Except for a few thunderstorms, rainfall is rare from June to August, and days are dry and sunny, which is usual for a Mediterranean climate. These climate conditions give the opportunity for cultivation of fruits and vegetables unable to be cultivated elsewhere in Europe. This gives the ability to the Greek producers to export a big fraction of their yield to the European market. Examples are citrus, tomato, grapes, raisins etc.

1.2.1.2. Tradition in cultivation of fruits and vegetables Historically, horticulture in Greece was regarded as small scale garden based cultivation of crops, whereas agriculture was seen as large scale extensive cultivation of crops. The market garden approach of the early part of the 20th century tended to reinforce this division. The rural workforce of Greece presents a great amount of know-how about the cultivation practices of this kind. 1.2.1.3. Augmented income to the producer Additionally, production activities associated with horticulture are extremely demanding of labour and land and as such result to an augmented income to the producer. Horticultural crops are intensively cultivated high value crops, compared to the relatively low value extensive crops of agriculture. Due to this fact, they constitute an area of application of the most innovative and advanced practices of agricultural science. Recent advances in genetic engineering and in the chemistry and biochemistry of fruits and vegetables have radically changed our understanding of the potential for modification of the products themselves. 1.2.1.4. Advances in productivity During the last decades, agricultural research is focusing on the increase of productivity and especially to issues related to management of horticulture production as well as to environmental consequences of land cultivation. This research has lead to advances in the production of fresh fruits and vegetables such as: breeding of improved and high yielding varieties and cultivars, high density planting with higher yields per hectare, improved soil management techniques, the development of improved fertilizing practices, improvement in irrigation practices, improvement in plant protection practices, development of specialist production equipment, development of improved post-harvest practices etc. These advances are widely adopted by the Greek farmers of today.

1.2.1.5. Low labour costs The political- economical rearrangements in Balkan countries during the last decade resulted in a substantial inflow of immigrants to Greece, an evolution which has brought about changes to the labour status of Greece and especially to the rural regions. The biggest proportion of the immigrants turned to the primary sector which accepted them in order to compress the production costs so as to be more competitive. 1.2.1.6. Small size of farm exploitations Cultivations in Greece are 40 square meters in average. This fact is a constraining factor for the exploit of economies of scale which is necessary for the success of expansive cultivations such as cotton and tobacco. Additionally, farm ownership is proportioned to an extent that cannot be fully exploited. These facts result to the raise of production costs and thus, direct the producers to the cultivation of products with high added value such as vegetables.

1.2.2. Weaknesses
1.2.2.1. Demographic shrinkage and increase of the average age of producers There is a trend of demographic shrinkage in the rural areas in Greece. Additionally, people occupied to cultivation are middle- aged and aged to a great extent. It is speculated that mo st rural areas of Greece are abandoned and this trend is enforced with the passage of time. Young people of these areas prefer to move to big cities, expecting a better way of living. This situation inhibits the development and the adoption of new practices since old people are less prone to new ways of conducting cultivation. This severe weakness is one of the major problems of the agricultural sector. A proposed solution to the problem is the enforcement of the social web of rural areas, because the development of powerful social structures is mandatory for sustainable development. Not only financial incentives are sufficient for young people of rural areas but also the reduction of the sense of exclusion as well as the strengthening of their proud for their region and their tradition. Neither the application of national measures, nor European initiatives helped the situation. The continuing abandonment of rural areas will result to shrinkage of one of the most powerful economic sectors of Greece. 1.2.2.2. Dependence of production upon a small number of cultivations The number of cultivations is continuously decreasing. This is due to the increasing production costs, owing to limitations to the cultivated areas (quotas), decline of disposal values, lack of competitiveness to the international markets, and full dependence upon funding of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). A consequence of that is the gradual limitation of the agricultural income and the discouragement of young farmers to enter the agricultural production sector. Also, the dependence upon CAP creates a sense of insecurity and uncertainty to the producers about the future and evolution of CAP. 1.2.2.3. Lack of Marketing Structures Added value in the fruit and vegetable chain is limited. This restricts the opportunity to create brands. The lack of clearly distinct consumer brands makes it easy for the buyer to shift from one supplier - trader - to another, and suppliers are therefore vulnerable. Buyers loyalty to traders is based on service rather than on the branded products they sell. Producers in Greece are mainly concentrated in production and harvesting issues rather than marketing and promotion. The concept of marketing for agricultural products is quite new to the Greek market. It is only during the last decade that Greek farmers and traders are attempting to differentiate their products with the use of private labels. Up to now, fresh fruits and vegetables were commercialised only as commodities leading to a smaller profit margin for the producer. Additionally, the existing marketing structures do not have the knowledge to support activities of this kind.

1.2.2.4. Low educational level The average citizen of the rural areas of Greece has a rather low educational level. This is mainly due to socio-economic factors of bygone decades. The cognitive level as well as the conception of rural people is limited, making these people unable to follow up the dramatic changes occurring to the business environment and to identify ways of becoming more competitive to the international markets. As a result, they prefer to maintain the traditional way of producing and trading their products. This fact renders mandatory the education of rural people about the new trends in production, packaging and trading of fresh produce. 1.2.2.5. Low life-time of products Fruits and vegetables are traded as fresh perishable products, making the time factor and packaging critical. This is a unique characteristic of the fresh fruit and vegetable industry, which is an impediment for exports for most products. As a result, most of the products are directed only to local markets. A solution to the problem is the appropriate infrastructure for packaging and storing of products as well as the transportation with freight trucks. The modernisation and development of storing and packaging structures is mandatory to overcome this problem and to decrease the amount of losses of yield. Additionally, producers must consider the opportunity to dispose their products for processing and to pursue other markets.

1.2.2.6. Constraints to exports of fresh fruits and vegetables A number of factors combine to limit the amount of horticultural product which can be exported from developing countries: Cost of production Cost of processing Cost of marketing Availability of appropriate technologies Poor post-harvest management Inadequate cold storage facilities High import duties on packaging materials Inadequate market information services The need to comply with complex regulations in European and North American markets. The last mentioned factor results in the disposal of the biggest part of exports to countries of the Central Europe and to Balkan countries, which are more flexible to quality standards but offer lower prices, This fact leads to a lower profit margin of exported products.

1.2.3. Opportunities
1.2.3.1. New sophisticated consumer demand The future of vegetable production in Greece will depend on a continuing improvement in the standard of living of the general population. It will also depend on a more sophisticated demand of consumers in larger towns and cities for new types of vegetable products, which provide colour, taste, smell and improved presentation of foods. The three main new style vegetable products being introduced are: i) Organic vegetables and fruits The demand for organic vegetables has developed as a result of consumer dissatisfaction with many conventionally produced vegetables. The great number of pesticides, insecticides and hormones used in conventional farming has led to the production of tasteless and dangerous products. Today, consumers are more concerned about their health and they are aware of the correlation between health and food products hygiene. Consequently, consumers, especially in developed countries are available to pay price premium, in order to buy more healthy products. ii) Processed vegetables and fruits.

The new fast paced way of living, as well as the raise of female employment has modified the traditional nutrition model. Consumers prefer more flexibility and they are willing to spend less time to prepare their meals. This fact has given the opportunity for frozen, canned and precooked food products to gain a greater market share. This trend, is beginning to be obvious in the fresh fruits and vegetables sector, with the production of ready to cook meals, salads etc. iii) Packaged Vegetables The demand for vegetables which are packed and branded with a registered trade mark is increasing rapidly in many developing countries. These are value added products and there is an opportunity for developing countries to develop domestic and export name brands for products, and to industrialise production. 1.2.3.2. Increasing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables demand Fresh fruits and vegetable demand is projected to increase rapidly in the medium term. A number of factors are relevant to this increase: Rural migration to urban centres Higher per capita incomes Improved diet 1.2.3.3. Quality and Stability of supply A minimum standard of quality and stability of supply must be established to satisfy the needs of the market, especially when exporting to developed countries. Quality elements which are important in export marketing include: Grade of produce Defects Ingredients in processed products Mode of preparation of raw materials for processing Preparation and density of liquid medium Additives Drained weight Cleanliness Strength of container and packaging material Storage conditions to safeguard quality retention The adoption of these quality measures, will give the opportunity to the Greek fresh fruits and vegetables production, which by nature is of premium quality, to expand its market share in West European markets. The realisation of this fact and the development of appropriate infrastructure, will have a positive impact in the expand of markets and the increase in exports. 1.2.3.4. Advances in Post-harvest management of Horticultural products Over the past 40 years major advances in the management of harvested horticultural products has significantly increased the capability of transporting products over long distances without adverse effects on product quality. Fast cooling on farm, refrigerated transport vehicles and cool storage facilities in the retail food outlets constitute the cool chain which means that the horticultural industry can move the products to distant markets with minimum quality deterioration. Improved post-harvest management of products, has enabled production of horticultural crops to be relocated to warmer growing areas. Within the European Union large quantities of fruits and vegetables are now being produced in the warmer southern European countries such as Spain, Portugal and Greece and transported by refrigerated trucks into the colder northern countries. The development of controlled atmosphere storage facilities has enabled horticultural producers to store many products for extended periods of time so that products such as Granny Smith apples can be purchased in the local supermarket in every month of the year. These post-harvest developments have provided the opportunity for the horticultural industry to ensure continuity of supply to the point where the seasonal non-availability of many products has been overcome and it is now accepted by the more affluent consumers, that most fruits and vegetables can be purchased at any time of the year.

1.2.3.5. Protected cropping One means of extending the seasonal availability of many products is to produce the crops under protected growing structures such as glass-houses and plastic greenhouses. These structures have been used in many countries for 150 to 200 years. They enable many crops to be produced out of their natural season and some crops can now be grown all year round in protected growing structures. Where greenhouse grown crops are available out of their natural season of production, significantly higher prices can often be achieved. This is crucial if a grower is to meet the higher overheads associated with greenhouse crop production. Even simple plastic structures such as low plastic tunnels or low crop covers can be used to extend seasonal availability of many low growing row crops such as strawberries, lettuce and watermelon. The greatest benefits to the use of protected growing structures will accrue in the colder climates and many of the design advances in greenhouse structures have occurred in the northern European countries, especially Holland and England. Despite the protected cropping design expertise of the Northern Europeans and Americans, there are still many tropical and subtropical crops, which cannot be economically produced in the temperate countries of the Northern Hemisphere. Products such as tomatoes, egg-plants etc. which are in high demand in the developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere must be imported from several of the subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Greece, as a country with warm climate, has the ability to use only plastic non heated green houses in order to produce off season vegetables. Thus, the cost of green house cultivation is lower, resulting to the increase of profit margin of products.

1.2.4. Threats
1.2.4.1. Responsive to sound business practices As a commercial activity, economic vitality of horticultural enterprises depends on good business. Producers, must not only be interested in production and harvesting issues, they must be continuously informed about the market trends and the current consumer needs. In this context, they must learn to adapt to the changing business environme nt of the sector. For such producers to remain in business, profitability must be ensured through appropriate management practices. Issues of professionalism, efficiency, competition, government regulation, customer relations, employee training and retention, etc. play as much (if not more) of a role in the success of horticulture firms. 1.2.4.2. Competition It is a fact that Greece presents a relatively high share of the total EU fresh fruits and vegetables production. However, other EU countries such as Italy, Spain and France have a greater market share. These countries seem to have developed modern techniques of production, harvesting, packaging and trading of their products. They also have adopted the quality measures, required by the EU market with a faster pace than Greece. As a result, their products are more preferred in the markets of the developed world. So far, Greece did not manage to differentiate fresh fruits and vegetables, with the use of branding. As a result, they are only traded as commodities, obtaining lower prices. However, their price is not lower than products originating from developing countries and countries of the third world. These countries have lower labor costs and thus, can achieve lower prices. The prospect of fresh fruits and vegetables production seems to be an one way direction for Greece, as the possibility to reduce costs is impossible, the only solution is the improvement of product quality as well as the differentiation of products with branding. 1.2.4.3. Transformation of Common Agricultural Policy In the framework of Agenda 2000, major structural changes have occurred in Common Agricultural Policy. One important change, is the lowering of products price so as to be cheaper for consumers. This change results in the reduction of subsidies to production. Producers, seen

to be negative to this change as they are used to be funded with subsidies. However, the third Community Support Framework funds procedures for infrastructure development and upgrading. Therefore, producers must shift to the new situation and exploit the emerging opportunities, in order to upgrade their production and harvesting and to become more competitive in the international markets. 1.2.4.4. Lack of design and implementation of a vital and integrated agricultural development Contrary to the numerous European Community Programs related to Agricultural development, which are implemented in Greece, there seems to be a chaotic situation regarding the issues. There seems to be a lack of coordination between the local and national authorities and there is no strategic planning for the actions and measures that must be undertaken. As a result, many investments have proved to be inefficient and unfit for the needs of our Country. A central strategic planning is proved to be mandatory for the efficient exploitation of European Community Subsidies for Agricultural Development. 1.2.4.5. Pervasive marketing system The existing marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetables is characterized by many inefficiencies and illegalities. Although the total harvesting yield is to be operated through the two Central Wholesale markets of Athens and Thessaloniki, many traders and middlemen exist, who act to local markets and under opaque procedures. These traders trade their products without receipts or invoices. This illegal network of middlemen must be deteriorated and appropriate measures must be taken. 1.2.4.6. Awkward Information Dissemination Issues concerning the future of fresh fruits and vegetables production and marketing drag little of the attention of national and local authorities, as they are more interested in the present situation and its current problems. This lack of questioning, results to the lack of strategic planning about agricultural development. It also has a great impact to farmers, who remain uninformed about future trends and thus, stay back in the march of events. Information dissemination to farmers and other people activating in the rural areas is a necessity for the adoption of advancements and the increase of competitiveness.

2. Production
2.1. Current levels of production Quantities and varieties
Fresh fruits and vegetables production in Greece amounts to 7,5 million tons per year on average, of which 3,5 million tons are fresh fruits and 4 million tons are vegetables. (Tables II, III in the appendix) This quantity corresponds to the 9,5% of European Community production. The most important categories of products are: a. Citrus fruits, which amount to 1.200 thousand tons in total. Of these 902 thousand tons are oranges, 139 thousand tons are lemons and 100 thousand tons are tangerines and grapefruits. b. Stone fruits, which amount to 1.5 million tons in total. Of these 1 million tons are peaches and nectarines and 140 thousand tons are apricots and cherries. Production of peaches for canning amounts to 600 thousand tons. c. Apples and Pears which amount to 310 thousand tons and 72 thousand tons respectively. d. Kiwi, with total yearly production 50 thousand tons on average (77 thousand tonnes in 2000). e. Grapes for fresh consumption, which amount to 290 thousand tons and raisins amount to 80 thousand tonnes per year. f. Melons and watermelons, which amount to 165 and 785 tons respectively.

g. Vegetables, with total production of 4 million tons (160 thousand tons are cucumbers, 880 thousand tons are potatoes, 1.8 million tonnes are tomatoes and 35 tonnes are asparagus).

2.2. The varieties of the most important fruits and vegetables


The varieties commercialised in the Greek market for the most important categories of fresh fruits and vegetables are presented in Table IV of the appendix. Traditionally Greek farmers cultivated the varieties domesticated in the soil climate conditions of Greece. Technological advances led to the breeding of improved and high yielding varieties and cultivars so as to raise the horticulture production capability. Technological advances helped also in the production of varieties resistant to pests and diseases with better post-harvest behaviour. As a result more and more varieties are cultivated and every year many of them are proposed from the Ministry of Agriculture for each cultivated species. The sector of vegetable production is extremely dynamic in this prospect with more than 200 new varieties of tomato cultivated in Greece every year.

2.3. Production trends per product


Regarding Citrus fruits, Greece is ranked as the 13th producing country of the world considering the volume of production. Oranges and tangerines present increasing trends. Restructuring is mandatory as well as enrichment with new varieties of oranges and tangerines for the extension of the production and harvesting periods. Unfortunately, the perspectives of lemons production are not very optimistic, if the current cultivated varieties remain. It is necessary to mention at this point that while Greece is characterised by very good climate and soil conditions for the production of high quality lemons, the promotion and concern for this specific product has virtually extinct. Referring to stone fruits, production of peaches and nectarines tends to increase to a point balancing to a level of demand corresponding to these products. Apricots production presents problems both due to diseases and because of their replacement from other cultivations such as vineyards. Apple and pears production presents a stable level for the last 5 years but it seems that their production is not very promising. Kiwi production is increasing and the development of their cultivation must be more encouraged. Grape production is increasing as they correspond to the high demands and standards of integrated farming. Watermelon production presents an increasing trend in a dynamic way and the enrichment with new varieties is necessary. Regarding vegetables, cucumber production presents a decreasing trend as they dont correspond to the upgraded quality demands of consumers. On the contrary, Increasing trends are presented in asparagus production with good acceptance by consumers, but cultivation zones must be determined. The pro duction trends of the most important fresh fruits and vegetables from 1995 2000 are presented (figures 3 - 36) in the appendix.

2.4. Production areas


The total cultivated land for fresh fruits and vegetables is 1086,1 hectares while the total agricultural land is 3940,5 hectares (Figure 1 in the appendix.) While the cultivated land for fresh fruits and vegetables is only the 27,5% of the total, fruits and vegetables are a big proportion of the total value of agricultural production in many areas of Greece such as Peloponnese, East, Central and West Macedonia. In these areas they amount to more than 30% of the total agricultural production. The levels of cultivated land, the quantities produced in the year 2000 as well as the average tonnage of production for the most important fruits and vegetables are presented in Tables II and III in the appendix.

2.5. Geographic orientation


Citrus fruits are mostly cultivated in Peloponnese, Aitoloakarnania and Hepirus. Stone fruits are mainly cultivated in Central- West Macedonia with apricots mostly cultivated in Corinth and Argolida. Apples are widely cultivated in Thessaly and Central Macedonia. Grapes are mainly produced in Crete, Corinth and Kavala as well as in Thessaly. Kiwis are mostly cultivated in Aitoloakarnania and central Macedonia. From the broad category of vegetables: Cucumbers are cultivated in Crete, watermelons in Peloponnese and Thessaly and asparagus in Aitoloakarnania and Hepirus. Some maps of the most important cultivated fresh fruits and vegetables are presented in the appendix.

2.6. Irrigated land


The 116,1 hectares of the total land used for fresh fruits and vegetables are under irrigation. As a results 93,7% of the total land used for vegetables cultivation is irrigated. The land used for arboriculture is 962.2 hectares with 321.3 under irrigation (33.3%) while vineyards in Greece cover an area of 135.6 hectares of which only 37.2 are under irrigation (27.4%). A diagram of the cultivation lands and irrigated lands for each category is presented in the appendix (Figure 2 in the appendix). Also, a map of the total irrigated land as a proportion of the agricultural land is provided in the appendix. The most important irrigation methods used are Watering with flooding, Watering with double basins, Watering with canals, Watering with artificial rain, Drop Watering and Watering with the use of high-dimension injectors.

2.7. Areas under glass/ plastic


The construction of greenhouses in Greece begun in 1955. The first greenhouses where mainly made of glass and where primarily used for indoor plants production. Their substantial development began only after 1961, with the use of plastic leaves of PVC. As a result, the number of greenhouses made of glass comprise only a small fraction of the total (4,1%) while the rest of them (95,9%) are covered with plastic leaves. The great expansion of plastic as a covering material is due to its low price as well as its ability to adjust to every type of construction. This gave the ability to producers to construct greenhouse without using a lot of capital. Consequently, the total area under plastic and glass greenhouses today is 4,435 hectares. Of these, 4,253 hectares are under plastic. The 82.9% of greenhouses is used for vegetables production while, 7 % is used for flowers and the remaining 10.1% is used for other cultivations. Table V in the appendix presents the areas under plastic / glass greenhouses in Greece, the purpose of their use along with their geographic distribution. As can be inferred from the table, most of t he greenhouses are located in Crete and Peloponnese (45.7% and 23.3%). These areas are the warmest of Greece, and producers have the ability to cultivate in non-heated greenhouse, the use of which results to a lower cost of production.

2.8. Number of farms producing fresh fruits and vegetables average size
A great number of agricultural exploitations are conducted in the primary sector of fresh fruits and vegetables, with most of them combining more that one cultivation type. However, most of the agricultura l cultivations are small in size according the cultivated area. Currently, available records for the number, the size and the cultivated area of exploitations are maintained by the National Statistic Institute of Greece Unfortunately, these records are available for the years prior to 1992, since the research conducted for the articulation of agricultural exploitations has stopped. As an indication we present these available records in Table VI in the Appendix. In the category of fresh fruits and vegetables there exist 126,260 agricultural exploitations, which (among others) produce and fresh fruits and vegetables. Of the total agricultural area of Greece only the 3,14% is used for vegetables production while 24,42%(records of 1998) is used in arboriculture i.e. production of fresh fruits and olives. Of the total number of cultivations, 102,710 (81,3%) are used for vegetables production with a cultivation ranging from 0.1 to 0.9

hectares. As a result a large number of exploitations exist with a small size, while only 130 exploitations (0.1%) use cultivation land greater than 10 hectares. In peaches production 33,010 exploitations exist with a total cultivated land of 101,863 hectares. 52.7% of exploitations range from 0.1 to 0.9 hectares and 40,6% of explo itations range from 1 to 2.9 hectares, while only 20 exploitations are bigger than 10 hectares. The respective numbers for apricots, apples, citrus fruits and grapes are presented in Table VII in the Appendix. As is concluded from the available records most exploitations are producing vegetables and citrus fruits while their number is smaller for pears and apricots. Also, in all categories, the exploitations are small ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 hectares. This wide-breaking of cultivated areas to a great number of small exploitations results in low levels of production management and raise of production costs.

2.9. Organically cultivated areas


Organic agriculture in Greece has its roots in the ecological movement at the beginning of the 1980s. The first organic farmers were mostly amateurs who experimented with different organic cultivation methods, e.g. according to Steiner, Fukuoka and others. Commercial organic agriculture started in 1982 with the demand for organic currants (sultanas) from a Dutch firm. There is no official data on organic agriculture for the period from 1982 to 1992. According to estimates, there were about 150 producers cultivating a total area of 200 hectares. EURegulation 2092/91 brought about a major change. Many farmers officially converted their farms to organic agriculture. A second expansion took place after the introduction of hectare subsidies in 1996 with the adoption of the EU-Regulation 2078/92. Organic agriculture has rapidly expanded since its official establishment, with annual growth rates between 50 percent and 120 percent. Table VII provides the evolution of organic Agriculture in Greece for the years 1994 1999. A figure is also provided to present the substantial increase of organic agriculture (Figure 37). In 1999, both the share of organically utilised area as well as the number of organic farmers reached 0.5 percent of the overall country total. Their main products organically cultivated are olive oil, citrus fruits, wine, cereals, kiwis and cotton. Table VIIII presents the cultivation areas by type of organic cultivation as well as the areas in transitional stage. The only standards for certification are Council Regulations (EEC) 2092/91 and (EC) 1804/99. State regulations for organic agriculture do not exist. Certification and Inspection Bodies The following certification and inspection bodies exist in Greece: "Dio" was founded in 1993. ("Dio" is the poetic name for Demeter, the goddess of fertility). "Soge" is part of "Soge Syllogos Oikologikis Georgias Elladas" ("Association for Organic Agriculture in Greece"); the association was founded in 1985 and the inspection body with the same name was founded in 1993. "Fysiologiki" ("The Natural One") was founded in 1994.

These organisations publish magazines (see chapter 12) and books, inform about related subjects (e.g. genetically modified organisms) and hold informational meetings for farmers and consumers. The members of the certification and inspection organisation "Dio" created the independent "Dio" ("Scientific Institute for Organic Agriculture") in order provide specialised information (e.g. research results, information on EU programmes and legislation concerning organic agriculture) to companies, farmers and other bodies. The Scientific Institute "DIO" publishes the legislation on organic agriculture in Greece, which is constantly updated. "DIO" is a non profit organisation, whereas FYSIOLOGIKI is a limited liability company (Ltd.) and SOGE will soon transform itself into a public limited company (PLC) / stock corporation under the name of BIO ELLAS. The regional distribution of organic cultivations is presented in table X in the Appendix. As can be inferred, the regions with biggest organic cultivation areas are western Greece and Peloponese.

2.10. Production and harvest schedules


The main harvesting seasons for the most important fruits and vegetables are presented in the Figures 37 and 38 respectfully. While the cultivation periods of the most important yearly vegetables are presented to the Figure 39 of the Appendix. In the figures 38 and 39 the principal harvesting periods are shaded with red colour while the periods that fruits and vegetables from a proportion of varieties are harvested (partial harvesting) are shaded with pink colour. In figure 40 the cultivations of different seasons are presented separately and so are the cultivations in warm and cold regions.

2.11. Main disease and pest problems


Fresh fruits and vegetables are infected by numerous fungi, insects and bacteria. Apart from that they are also sensitive to bad physical conditions and non contagious diseases. It is important to mention that fresh fruits and vegetables are characterised as the most sensitive agricultural products as they are infected by many post-harvest diseases, which renders their lifetime short after harvesting A thorough catalogue of the most important pests and diseases of fresh fruits and vegetables in presented in the appendix. (Catalogue 1).

2.12. Key issues in relation to production


2.12.1. Greek agricultural production problems Greek agriculture is undefended in front of the threats paused by the future. The OECD has forced the Greek government to begin actions for the improvement of competitiveness of the sector, so that Greece confronts the threats to come, with the use of the third Community Support Framework. As a result, two priorities have been set: o The immediate beginning of the implementation of the third Community Support Framework. o The stressing of information dissemination and education of Greek producers.

According to OECD, European Community subsidies, through common Agricultural Policy, will be interrupted after the year 2006. If the European community subsidies are to be replaced by National funding, even a partially, that would mean a substantial cost of the National budget. This urge for replacement may occur sooner, with the changes emerging in European Agricultural Policy and the discussions about partial re-nationalisation of Common Agricultural Policy. In addition, according to OECD, the import tariffs are withdrawn gradually for important competitors of Greece: the Nations of the Mediterranean area and the Nations of Eastern Europe and Turkey. However, Greek agriculture is not yet ready for such changes. The 9 constituencies, of the 13 defined, according to the commission distribution, belong to the black list of the 20 worst agriculture constituencies in the European Community. They present the lowest yield per production unit, and, furthermore, the highest percent of employment to agricultural production. According to the OECD report about structural reforms, agriculture continues to play an important role in the Greek economy. It constitutes the 7,2% of GNP and 19% of employment in the private sector. It is also the most generally subsidized sector of the Greek economy. The income transmissions to this sector amounted to 51% of its added value in 1999 i.e. at 3.7% of GNP. 75% of subsidies are derived from European Community transmissions (they reach the 2.8% of GNP). As it is mentioned later in the OECD report: the sector suffers from structural deficiencies which are reflected to its poor international competitiveness. It also mentions the five basic wounds of Greek agriculture: 1. Greece has a great number of small, inefficient agricultural exploitations, with the average size of an agricultural exploitation reaching only the 25% of the European Community average. As a result, most producers suffer from price pressures i.e. the cost of production inputs is very

high for them while the prices of products sold to traders are rather low. This leads to a compressed and low income to the producers. In this context, it is necessary that the concentration of the sector raises to a small number of powerful and competitive production units which will have bigger negotiation power over suppliers and traders. The raise of concentration of the sector can be better achieved through cooperatives and production groups. 2. The exports competitiveness remains poor, mainly because of the inadequate promotion and distribution, while only 30% of agricultural production is directed to further processing (packaging, standardization etc.). Additionally there is little consulting and support by National Authorities, that would increase the competitiveness of Greek producers and would give then directions regarding the new trends in farming such as integrated farming, organic farming etc. 3. The agricultural production has become very intensive, with high use of fertilizers and agricultural chemicals, which has led to the flattening of cultivations, the quality reduction of soil and to indications of environmental damage. The n ew environmental legislation pauses strict measures in the usage of fertilisers, pesticides and agrochemicals which contradicts the so-far common cultivation practice for fresh fruits and vegetables adopted by Greek producers. This fact leeds to the disappointment of producers, who remain uninformed about these issues and cannot achieve the expected prices due to their wrong cultivation practices. 4. The easy access to water resources, (for example, the use of illegal artesian wells) as well as the low cost of water supply, has led to their exhaustion. As a result, since the agricultural production absorbs the 85% of water consumption, the lack of water is occurring. 5. Distortions created by Common Agricultural Policy of European Community. The OECD report mentions as an example the generous support in cotton and wheat cultivations, which constitutes a high demand in easily irrigated areas. As a result, land prices and land rents become very high, so that, in many cases, the cost of land rent to be the half of the agricultural income. 2.12.2 Greek Agricultural production opportunities Common Agricultural policy plays an important role to future developments, as well as to the expansion of European Community to the Nations of Central and East Europe. With the reform of Common Agricultural Policy in 1992, the new goals of European Community are the greater orientation of prices to the market prices and the tension of policies for structural reforms. This direction change of Common Agricultural Policy may entail some elements, which may prove to be positive for Greek Agriculture. These elements are: The appointment of the role of countryside and the adoption of policies, which will lead to the support of the agricultural activities, as well as the promotion of the so-called countryside model of development. The direct correlation of the agricultural development and the environmental protection policies. In this context, the prospects, opportunities and threats characterizing the Greek agriculture must be searched out. It is a fact that, with the reform of CAP, there are numerous conditions, which, for the first time, make the environment favorable for the agricultural sector. These conditions are: 1. The turn from quantity to quality and products hygiene. The small size of the Greek agricultural exploitations may prove to be a benefit, since the direct supervision and flexibility achieved, may better ensure the market demand and expectations. As a result, the reform of production activity to these new trends may transform marginally viable and suffering exploitations to viable ones. 2. The structural measures related to the updating of agricultural exploitations, which are today adopted by Common Agricultural Policy. The time period until the year 2006 is quite lo ng and financial resources are high enough to transform the dynamics of agricultural exploitations. The Third Community Support Framework must be exploited properly so that the trade name and the quality of Greek products will be consolidated in the European markets.

3. A new model of country-side development is formulated. The model is heavily related to the agricultural sector, which is replenished with other activities, such as handicraft, home handicraft, packaging and standardization of traditional products, rural tourism and services. This model, which adds a supplement to the agricultural income, fits perfectly to the Greek area with the traditional mountain and island communities. 4. Many scientists support the opinion that only through organic production we can solve the nutritional impasse. Organic production is the only environmental-friendly form of agriculture. It is based on the full exploit of natural resources, as agricultural chemicals used in conventional production, have no position in organic p roduction. However, in Greece organic cultivations cover only the 0.5% of the total cultivated area i.e 26,488 hectares related to the 3,918,900 hectares used for conventional agricultural exploitations. The situation has changed after 1995, when the first organic cultivations begun. But the increase in the number of organic cultivations was steep. In the years 1995-1997, the total organically cultivated area was only 6000 hectares while today it surpasses the 20,000 hectares. However, in spite of the consolidated legislature, the systematic and extensive application of organic agriculture, both in Greece and in other European countries is still the requested. Greek producers may have the specific opportunity in mind as it is observed that many small organic producers take advantage of the high prices organic products obtain in the local and international markets. 5. Furthermore, the new scientific advances which lead to the production of new varieties which give higher production yields and are less sensitive to diseases and bad weather conditions. This is an opportunity recognised and widely adopted by producers, who are well informed by representatives of production inputs and seed trading companies in Greece. 6. Finally, the infrastructure projects, which are elaborated in Greece, a country distant from the major markets, form improvement conditions for the cost of production and distribution of agricultural products.

3. Harvest and post harvest technologies


3.1. Techniques used for picking maturity indices
The techniques used for picking of most important fresh fruits and vegetables as well as their maturity indices are analysed in this section. Citrus fruits: Harvesting begins when fruits are completely mature and begins in the autumn and ends in the spring (late-maturing varieties). The maturity indices are the uniform colouring of oranges and tangerines and the size for lemons, as the more subjective criteria. Another criterion is the relation of total sugars to the acids which must be 8:1 for oranges to 6:1 for tangerines. After maturing, citrus fruits may lose some of their quality attributes. This may happen to a greater of a lesser extent depending on variety and species. Harvesting must be conducted very carefully with the use of scissors and fruits must b placed immediately into e boxes and transported to the market or to pack -houses if they are to be exported. Citrus fruits are conserved in refrigerators with special conditions of temperature, humidity and ventilation for 3-4 months (oranges, tangerines) or 6-7 months(lemons). Apples: Harvesting for the most commercial varieties in Greece is conducted in September October, carefully by hand when fruits have reached the appropriate level of maturity. If apples are directed for conservation, they are harvested before they reach maturity, at the stage of natural maturity i.e. when fruits are not ready for consumption. In this case, apples are maturing slowly during conservation. In order to determine the appropriate stage for harvesting, several maturity indices exist such as the change of colour from green to yellow green, the cohesion of peel, the facility of detaching the apple etc. Apples are usually transported in plastic crates or cages to the sorters and they discerned in categories according to their size. They are preserved in refrigerators with temperature -1 - 1C for 2-6 months. Pears: The summer varieties are consumed immediately and are harvested as soon as fruits are almost mature (3-5 days before full maturity). The autumn and winter varieties which are directed for conservation are harvested in the stage of natural maturity and mature slowly

during conservation in the refrigerators. Maturity indices are the change of colour of the peel, the cohesion of the peel and the days from flowering. Pears are conserved in refrigerators with temperature ranging from -2C to 2C for 4-6 months with conditions of controlled atmosphere for most of the time. Quinces: They are harvested in October November, when they reach maturity i.e. when the quinces lose their down, become yellow and start shining. They are conserved in refrigerators for 1-2 months. Stone fruits: Peaches: Because of the great number of varieties, harvesting begins from the end of May and ends in October. Peaches and nectarines for fresh consumption, are harvested when they are mature by hand. In order to become fully mature they can be stores for 10-12 days in a temperature of 4-8C in truck- refrigerators. Peaches directed for canning are harvested mechanically with several types of vibrators, as soon as they reach the maturity stage in order to remain cohesive while processing. In sorter they are packed in special cases, after they are brushed for the removal of their down. Maturity indices are the colour, the flavour, their softness and the facility of detracting from the tree. Apricots: Harvesting begins in June and ends in August. It is conducted by hand as soon as they are mature if they are for fresh consumption of canning, and when they are completely mature when they are directed for marmalade production or juice. In the refrigerator they are conserved for a few days in 3-5 C and this case, harvesting must happen slightly before maturing. If apricots are directed for drying they are harvested with shaking of branches when they are completely mature. Then they are cut, their stone is removed, they are placed in SO2 steams for whitening and removal of insects and they are dried in the sun in drying floors. Plums: When directed for fresh consumption, they are harvested in two or three stages, beginning from June (1s t stage, the early maturing varieties) to August (late maturing varieties), when the plums are almost mature, i.e. when they start to gain the typical colour. When they are directed for drying, harvesting is conducted with shaking of branches, when plums are completely mature. They are collected in special fabrics or nets. Drying is conducted naturally in the sun in specialised containers (tarsus) or in ovens in which hot air circulates. The final analogy is 3 damp : 1 dry. Cherries: Harvesting is conducted when cherries mature on the trees. This happens at the end of May for early maturing varieties and at the beginning of July for late- maturing varieties. Maturity indices are the development of dark red colour and the content of soluble sugars to a specified level. Morellos : They are gathered by hand at they end of July when they are mature and because of that their value is very high (exceeding costs for gathering). Most of the production is directed for the processing industry, thus the mechanical way of production, by vibrators, is primarily used. An advantage of this harvesting method is that morellos are collected without stem, which is desirable for the processing industry. Mechanical harvesting is facilitated if the producer sprays the trees with fruit-fall substances a few days before harvesting. These substances causes simultaneous maturity of morellos, helps in the improvement of colour and size of fruits. Soft fruits: Berries: The most appropriate time for harvesting is when they obtain the black red colour. Their maturity period extends to a two weeks time. If they are directed for fresh consumption, their harvesting is conducted by hand, while their collection is mechanical if they are directed for processing. After harvesting they must be placed in cold storage facilities. Strawberries: They are harvested when the three quarters of their surface is red, and at least after 15 days after the application of pesticides, insecticides etc. Over-mature fruits must be removed because they facilitate they development of diseases. After harvesting, they must be stored in cold facilities as soon as possible especially in pre-cooling storage containers of air

forced cooling facilities. There must be a systematic control of the flow of cooling air, of the temperature and of relative humidity. Grapes: The grape harvest includes the cut of grapes, their placements in baskets and their transportation to storage containers of processing establishments according to their future use. In grapes directed for fresh consumption there is consideration about the colour of rails, their taste. Harvesting, in this case is conducted carefully by hand. For the production of raisins, grapes are harvested when they comp letely mature so as to have biggest yield in dry matter (sugars). Grapes are harvested in one stage, they are cleaned up from ruined rails, they are placed in baskets, and after they are soaked in KaCO3, they are dried. Vegetables: Potato: Potatoes are harvested as soon as possible in order to obtain high market prices. When market prices are low, producers have the ability to delay harvesting without any severe losses. In early harvesting, producers interrupt the development of nodules, by ruining the stems or by spraying the plants with substances that destroy the green parts of the plants within 8-10 days. Harvesting is usually conducted with the use of a plough. Also, digging machines are used, which are more efficient and economic. To a lesser extent, potato extracting machines are used, which simultaneously put the nodules in sacks. After harvesting, potatoes must be washed with chlorinated water in order to be decontaminated and then transferred to storage facilities. They must not be left in the field, because they obtain a green colour and their quality deteriorates. The storage of the main yield is accomplished in 12 16 C and high relative humidity as well as good ventilation for three weeks for curing. Then, the best storage conditions are 5 - 8C and 90% relative humidity so that nodules do not sprout. If potatoes are directed for processing, they are stored at 10 15 C and 90% relative humidity so that nodules do not sprout. Cabbages: They are collected when they obtain their final size, become tight and have white leaves. They are placed in sacks and transported to the market or they are placed in package baskets. Their storage is conducted with temperature of 0 C and relative humidity of 90% when prices are low and when, in the winter, there is a danger of production damage. Cauliflowers: They are harvested when flower-heads are tight with white or sub-yellow colour and covered with green leaves. If harvesting delays, flower-heads become yellow or brawn. Slightly immature flower-heads are stored in 1C and 90% of relative humidity for 3-4 weeks. After this time space they are downgraded in quality. Lettuces: Leafy lettuces are collected when their leaves grow and head lettuces when they obtain their final size and before a flowering stem develops. Good storage conditions are 0 C for 3-4 weeks. For good storage they are placed in plastic bags. Spinach: It is harvested 6 -8 weeks after sowing. They are harvested in tiers and each time the greatest plants are harvested. Before bundling they are left to dry a little so as not to dry and sorting is conducted according to size. They are conserved for 10 days in 1C. Asparagus: Harvesting begins in March and is conducted every two days for 30 45 days. During sorting they are placed in crates, in a uniform way and according their diameter. Tomatoes: When tomatoes are directed for processing, they must mature well on the plant and they are harvested mechanically. According to their destination: for pickle production, storage, long or short transport tomatoes are collected when they are immature, yellow green, light red or fully mature respectively. Yellow green tomatoes are stored in 2 C for 6 -20 days and ventilation is necessary so that they obtain their red colour. Also ethylene is used. Egg plants: Harvesting is conducted when fruits obtain their commercial size and for better commercialisation the uniformity of size is required. Carrots: When carrots are directed for fresh consumption, they are harvested with their leaves. The leaves reduce the duration of storage. Carrots are stored in 1C and 90% of relative humidity.

Water melons: The harvesting must be conducted by experienced workers. The fruit stem must be cut because, during storage, it rots. They are conserved i 2C and 90% of relative n humidity for 15-20 days. Melons: Harvesting depends on variety, distance from the market, way of transport and temperature while harvesting. The mature fruits has sub yellow colour and the typical melon flavour. Melons must be uniform in size Cucumbers: Harvesting is conducted in tiers and carefully so that they are soft, deep-green, and average in size when they reach the market. Thats why they are collected before they are completely mature. If they are directed for processing, they are harvested to a smaller size, which is the size that the industry demands.

3.2. Storage containers


Sacks and Nets Sacks and nets of various description, sizes and materials are in widespread use in Greece for the domestic and regional marketing of many root crops such as potato, onions, carrots, other crops such as pumpkin and fruits including citrus. the material used for the sacks may be woven natural fibres or more commonly nowadays the synthetic materials especially polypropylene or polyethylene. Sacks are the cheapest form of packaging available, and are often used several times over, being easy and cheap to return. The sack occupies very little space itself, which gives some advantage to the shipper in the regional trade. However, cheapness is the only advantage that sacks have over other forms of packaging. Baskets Traditional round wicker type baskets have been used in Greece for many years and are still in common use. The baskets have the advantage that they are relatively cheap and are made from locally available and readily renewable resources. Wooden Crates Wooden crates are widely used in the i ter-land trade in fresh produce. There are no standard n sizes and designs in current use. The size of the crate offers advantages to the traders in that the shipping cost is less on the inter-island schooners than for several smaller containers with the equivalent volume.. Fibreboard Cartons Fibreboard boxes or cartons may be of solid or corrugated fibreboard construction of varying thicknesses and resilience depending on the produce to be contained and the market to be supplied. They have the advantages of being light to carry, clean and smooth surfaced, they allow for easy printed application of labels and can be manufactured to a wide range of sizes, shapes and strength specifications.. Plastic Crates Plastic crates and containers can be manufactured to a wide variety of specifications, generally from either high density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP). Plastic crates are nearly always the container of choice as a field crate where their use can be controlled, but they have few applications for most distribution systems unless transport, wholesale and retail are closely integrated. Plastic crates are expensive and require a very high capital outlay. Paper, Plastic Film and Plastic Bags Paper or plastic film is widely used as lining material and dividers for other forms of packaging. Tissue paper, shredded paper or plain kraft paper helps prevent produce rubbing together or against the package walls and is generally only used with high value delicate commodities. Large

and small polythene bags and sacks are widely used as retail and occasionally as wholesale packages throughout the world and including Greece, b ecause they are relatively cheap and widely available. However, produce in plastic bags sweats horribly and heats up rapidly giving rise to perfect bacterial and fungal rot conditions. Their use should not be considered unless they are fairly small and properly ventilated with perforations and utilised only as a retail package.

3.3. Handling transportation of products


Transportation is often the most costly factor in the marketing channel, and for airfreighted export crops the cost of transportation may exceed the cost of production. The method of transportation for fresh fruit and vegetables is determined by distance, perishability and the value of the product. Handling and moving short distances Marketing and physical distribution of fresh produce inherently means moving the produce. The commodities are handled, either manually or mechanically, many times from harvest and through the distribution process before the consumer buys and prepares them to eat. Handling operations are seldom given much thought by the individuals directly involved in moving the process, particularly when the produce is only moved short distances. Figure 40 in the appendix gives an indication of the number of handling steps that will probably be endured by the produce. Most of them are movements over very short distances and most probably by direct manual handling. These short moves are usually highly repetitive operations. Roller-conveyors, be they motorised or gravity fed are of great assistance in the packing house for moving boxed produce but are equally useful for loading and unloading of pickups, trucks and stores. Hand-trucks can carry up to six or more crates of produce, are very manoeuvrable light and durable, and do not cost a lot of money. Hand-carts with the front wheels steered by the tow-bar can carry a lot more produce but need to be used on more level ground. Pallettrucks are in everyday use in Greece but are not yet used with any regularity for fresh produce handling and movement, probably because packaging has yet to be sufficiently standardized to benefit from pallet operations. A schematic diagram is provided in the appendix (Figure 41) for the better understanding of the procedures of handling and transportation. Handling and stowage during transportation Dropping of packages during loading and unloading is a frequent cause of damage to the produce and to the package. The method of stowage of the produce in the transport vehicle will depend on the pack, the commodity and the type and size of the vehicle. Road transportation For domestic transportation the use of road vehicles offers substantial advantages of convenience, availability, flexibility permitting door-to-door delivery, and reasonable cost of transport. The use of road transportation for fresh produce is increasing and likely to increase in countries all over the world. Produce may be transported by pick-up, enclosed truck, open truck or refrigerated vehicle. i. ii. Enclosed vehicle - these are only suitable for short journeys, unless provided with a cooling system, since the produce inside heats up rapidly. Open vehicle - pick-ups and open trucks are the commonest type of road transport. They are often fitted, before or after purchase, with frames to ease stacking and covering. Natural ventilation is usually sufficient to prevent overheating of produce over relatively short journeys and the most versatile types have a fixed roof and tarpaulin drapes which

can be pulled along the sides and back to allow access for loading and unloading at any point. These loose awnings are not in contact with the produce and so allow for ventilation systems on these types of vehicles are unnecessary for short journeys, but when transit time are more than a few hours, adjustable louvres and air-scoops may be needed. iii. Refrigerated vehicle - some highly perishable products may justify the use of refrigerated vehicles. Ice is not generally used to refrigerated trucks because of weight and corrosion constraints and for most refrigerated vehicles a mechanical system is used. Truck-based mechanical refrigeration systems vary in their cooling capacity. Most are only suitable for maintaining the temperature of produce which has been pre-cooled by other means, and they possess fairly weak air-circulation fans sufficient only to allow r efrigeration of air heated up by low respiration of the cool produce. Some form of ventilation may be necessary on longer journeys to prevent oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation.

Sea transport The perishability of fresh produce, allied with its tendency to heat up in confined spaces leading to rapid spoilage and decay, are all reasons why long distance unrefrigerated ship transportation is seldom used and never without high levels of spoilage. It is not likely that any mayor advances will be made in unrefrigerated shipping design to make the transport of fresh produce less risky. In most circumstances sea transportation is by reefer vessel and is largely used for export of fresh produce. Sea transportation, because of the journey times, is effectively a form of refrigerated storage and all the precautions necessary for storage are relevant here also. i. Reefer vessels - are totally refrigerated, have efficient air circulation systems and controllable rates of air-exchange. Loading is facilitated by side-hatches or by specialized loop-belt continuous conveyors, which transport the individual packages from the loading wharf up above the central hatches of the vessel and down into the holds (they are used in an identical fashion for off-loading). Reefer vessels are generally high capacity (4000 tonnes or more) and regularly carry fresh produce all over the world. The limiting factors are the journey times, which may exceed the storage-life of most produce, and the considerable amount of handling involved in loading and unloading. Palletisation of produce has reduced much of the handling but break-bulk loading of individual packages is still widely used. Reefer containers - are a specialized form of sea transportation which is rapidly growing in international popularity. Each container either has its own independent refrigeration system which can be powered electrically by the container vessel, or has special air ducts are one end which are lined up with conduits on the container vessel and refrigeration is thus provided entirely by the vessel's own system (this is know as the "ConAir" system). Reefer containers are in standard sizes all of which are 8 x 8 ft. cross section, but which may be 10, 20, 30 or 40 ft. long. The most widely used sizes are the 40ft. followed by the 20ft. size.

ii.

Air transportation Air transportation is very expensive and usually can only be justified for high value export produce such as vegetables for the extra-regional markets. These markets are very sophisticated and demand top quality produce which is carefully packed in standardized fibreboard cartons and correctly labelled. Any produce not meeting these specifications, or of less than top quality, will either be rejected immediately or will be down-graded to a price level which gives a break-even price for the exporter or very often a loss on the consignment. All airfreighted exports require a high degree of market research, planning, organisation and management. Constant communication with identified importers is vital to guage market trend, prices and fluctuations in demand, together with feedback on quality control.

3.4. Produce drying, treatments and additives


Produce drying is a treatment which aims at the removal of the biggest proportion of the fruits or vegetables, so that they can be better conserved in the common environmental conditions. Historically, produce drying used was accomplished in the sun, but today special drying equipment is used. The procedure of drying is differentiated according to products and their quality. Still, there are some common tasks such as: Washing Cleaning Sorting Removal of the peel Heating Sulfur addition Dehydrating. Dried vegetables are used primarily for soups and the most common are beans, cabbages, carrots, tomatoes and peppers. With the expansion of greenhouse cultivation and the yearround production of vegetables, the economic value of dried vegetables has decreased. The most common dried fruits are: grapes (for the production of raisins, figs, plums, apricots and apples). The systems used for drying of fresh fruits and vegetables are: Drying with the use of solar energy Drying with the use of drying equipment. In the drying facilities, a full control of the drying conditions as well as the hygiene of products is possible. The drying facilities are of two types: Discontinuous operation drying facilities. They are usually cabins in which hot air circulates from the bottom to the top. Fruits are placed in large perforate pans and are dried with the use of hot air. Continuous operation drying facilities: In these, the fruits are transported on moving bands and are dried with the use of hot air.

3.5. Storage, ripening, cooling, pre-cooling


The main storage facilities used for fresh fruits and vegetables are containers with controlled temperature and humidity. The biggest part of vegetables are stored at 0 and 90-95 % of C relative humidity. Some vegetables are sensitive to temperatures less than 5C such as pepper and egg-plant. Fruits are stored to higher temperatures (i.e. citrus at 5-10 C, apples and pears at 10-15C). The time for storing depends on the type of product. There are products which cannot be stored for more than a week. This is usually the case for leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach. These vegetables are sometimes stored in jacketed rooms in order not to lose much humidity. These storage facilities have walls and roof which act as cooling surfaces as cold air circulates in them with the use of tubes. For fruits, a technique used for storage is that of controlled atmosphere in order to control the levels of CO2. This technique in not widely used for vegetables as it is rather expensive. Another storage technique widely used for bulb vegetables (onions and garlic) is maintained with the use of air rushing in the room. This technique is necessary for maintaining the appropriate storage conditions of these products. Apart from the already mentioned techniques potatoes are also stored in simple clumps, usually named potato clumps of in ventilated clumps. They are also stored in potato sheds, i.e. simple storage rooms made of bricks, wood or cement. Some vegetables, sensitive to dehydration are protected with the covering with wax (peppers) or a thin plastic film (cucumber) or in plastic bags (lettuce). Another method used is pre-cooling. Pre-cooling is implemented right after harvesting. It is a method of fast cooling of products in order to remove the field heat before these are stored. The are a lot of pre-cooling systems such as hydro-cooling which is used for tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers, vacuum cooling used for leafy vegetables and lettuces and air cooling, mainly used for fruits. The length of post- harvest lifetime of fresh fruits and vegetables depends on their nature. As a result there are products that can se stored with serious losses and damages for 12 weeks and others that can be stored for less than a week such spinach. In order to extend the post-harvest life of products in so as to be available in non-harvesting seasons, many cooling techniques are used. The most important are: Room cooling, cooling in a simple room Forced air cooling, cooling with high circulation of air Hydro-cooling, cooling with the use of cold water Package icing i.e. cooling with ice in the package Vacuum cooling, cooling with the evaporation of the water in the surface of products

Transit cooling.

Fleshy fruits undergo a natural stage of development known as ripening. This occurs when the fruit has ceased growing and is said to be mature. Ripeness is followed by ageing (often called senescence) and breakdown of the fruit. There are two characteristic types of fruit ripening that show different patterns of respiration: Non-climacteric fruit ripening-refers to those fruits which ripen only while still attached to the parent plant. Their eating quality suffers if they are harvested before they are fully ripe because their sugar and acid content does not increase further. Respiration rate slows gradually during growth and after harvest. Maturation and ripening are a gradual process. Examples are: cherry, cucumber, grape, lemon, pineapple. Climacteric fruit ripening-refers to fruits that can be harvested when they are mature but before ripening has begun. These fruits may be ripened naturally or artificially. The start of ripening is accompanied by a rapid rise in respiration rate, called the respiratory climacteric. After the climacteric, the respiration slows down as the fruit ripens and develops good eating quality. Examples are: apple, banana, melon, tomato.

In commercial fruit production and marketing, artificial ripening is used to control the rate of ripening, thus enabling transport and distribution to be carefully planned. The effect of ethylene in post-harvest fresh produce. Ethylene gas is produced in most plant tissues and is known to be an important factor in starting off the ripening of fruits. Ethylene is important in fresh produce marketing because: it can be used commercially for the artificial ripening of the climacteric fruits. This has made it possible for fruits and vegetables such as oranges and tomatoes to be harvested green and shipped to distant markets, where they are ripened under controlled conditions; natural ethylene production by fruits can cause problems in storage facilities. Ethylene destroys the green colour of plants, so lettuce and other vegetables marketed in the mature green but unripe state will be damaged if put into storage with ripening fruit; citrus fruit remain green after becoming fully ripe on the tree. It develops full colour after harvest only if "degreened" by the use of (manufactured) ethylene gas. The gas concentration, temperature, humidity and ventilation have to be carefully controlled in specialized rooms, so degreening is economically viable only for high-value export or domestic markets. In most tropical countries fully ripe green citrus fruit is acceptable to local populations.

3.6. Curing
The healing of wounds and scars of products is of great importance for the success of storing, especially for nodules (potatoes) and bulbs (onions, garlics). A procedure widely used for the enforcement of healing is curing. Curing is accomplished physically in the field or with artificial ways in appropriate storage facilities with the use of hot air. In Greece the natural way of curing is used. Natural curing begins with the stop of watering a few days before harvesting. After harvesting, the products are left in the field in small piles and dried in the sun and the dry air. These piles are covered with leaves so as the products to be protected by the sun.

3.7. Produce grading and packing


Field preparation and packaging of produce is possible for only a limited number of crops, and for particular markets. After harvest most horticultural crops must be cleaned, sorted, sized and usually packaged if they are to be sold in the fresh produce market. Usually these procedures

take place in packing houses of different types, be it a small thatched shelter on the edge of the field, or a large packing with automated equipment. Pack-houses serve as a sheltered working site for the produce and the packers, and should create an orderly assembly and flow of produce which can be well managed and centrally supervised. They may also provide a storage point for packing equipment and materials and, if large enough, can house office and communications facilities. Packing houses tend to become focal points for the local horticultural industry and centres of information, and if properly designed, can be utilised for packing of different commodities in different seasons. For export of fresh produce, pack-houses are an essential part of the operation where selection, grading and quality control must be disciplined. The packing house design and facilities needed depend very much upon local infrastructure, types and quantities of produce, markets being served and the funds available. It is rare for two packing stations to be identical.

3.8. Seed treatment


Several treatments of seeds of vegetables are used for the confrontation of diseases and pests and for the improvement of germination as well as the facilitation of seeding in a mechanical way. Regarding confrontation to diseases and pests, the techniques used are incubation of seed in pesticides and insecticides solutions or covering the seeds with pesticides and insecticides. Sometimes thermal elaboration is used but it is not recommended as it reduces the germination of seeds. Film coating is the covering of seeds with a thin film enriched with pesticides and insecticides. Another seed treatment used mainly for the facilitation of seeding is seed pelleting. This treatment is used so that seeds acquire uniform shape and size. In this way a uniform seeding in the field is accomplished. The most usual treatments used for germination improvement are impregnation in B, Fe, Zn, Li, Mo solutions, use of: plant hormones (GA3, ethephon), inhibitors of development (ALAR, SADH, CCC, Cyclosen), radiation, magnetic fields, supersonic vibrations and heat. Another method used in osmoconditioning This method is rather expensive and is used only for seeds with small size and great value.

3.9. Estimated level of post harvest losses


There are no generally accepted methods for evaluating post-harvest losses of fresh produce. Whatever evaluation method may be used, the result can refer only to the described situation. In the appraisal of an existing marketing operation, the accurate evaluation of losses occurring is a problem. It may be suspected that losses are too great, but there may be no figures to support this view because: records do not exist; records if available do not cover a long enough period of time; the figures available are only estimates made by several observers; records may not truly represent a continuing situation; for example, losses may have been calculated only when unusually high or low; loss figures may be deliberately over- or understated for commercial or other reasons in order to gain benefits or to avoid embarrassment.

Losses occurring during manipulation, transportation, storage and commercialization of fresh fruits and vegetables vary from 0 100%. According to estimates of FAO, total losses amount to 20 25% on average. The most important factors provoking losses are the intense metabolic activation, which results in dehydration and limitation of the post-harvest lifetime of products. Good storage environment and fair selection of products harvested considering maturity and quality issues. Conditions that affect the amount of losses are physical factors such are creation of wounds and scars to products, high temperature, low humidity as well as factors concerning

the product itself such as transpiration, respiration, maturing and germination. Other factors affecting losses are post-harvest diseases usually caused by bacteria and fungi and pests. More prone to losses are leafy vegetables and soft fruits while onions, carrots and cabbages are the most resistant.

3.10. Food quality and standards


In Europe and N. America almost all of the agricultural products are traded under official measures, which have been established by Common Agricultural Policy of EU or by confederate or state policy in USA. The compliance with these measures may be optional or obligatory, depending the organisation, which establishes the official status of the organisation. Generally, most measures established and implemented by governmental organisations are obligatory. The compliance with these measures is of great importance when products are exported to other countries. In European Community, every product of fresh fruits and vegetables category is evaluated and categorised according to measures established by the EU. Each category is determined by different specifications related to the product size, cleanliness, absence of admixtures, Also uniformity of size plays an important role. Additionally, there are other measures, concerning the packaging and marking of the product. The category (class) of the product indicates the total quality and in consequence, its value. The first class EXTRA corresponds to the highest quality and imposes the best costing. EXTRA is followed by classes I, II and III. According to the regulation 1035/72 of EC, class III should not be commercialised unless these in not sufficient supply to cover the market demand. The regulations of EU with measures concerning the most important categories of commercialised fresh fruits and vegetables are presented in the Appendix.

3.11. Names of Main Organizations


Names of storage cooling facilities ALFA TRANSORT CENTERS OF NORTHERN HELLAS S.A. 30 Echinou 14564 Kifissia, Tel: 0106203394 Fax: 0106206059 Logistics. ASTIR S.A. Thessalonikis Kilkis National Rd (8th Km palaia) P.O. Box 333 57008 Ionia Thessaloniki Tel: 0310774852 Fax: 0310774854 Warehousing and distribution of merchandise. VERMION COLD STORAGE P. STAMATOPOULOS S.A. 88 Peiraios 18346 Mosxato, Tel: 0104813638 Fax: 0104828551 Cold storage. DI.A.S S.A. Patima Industrial Area 19600 Mandra, Tel: 0105552021-6 Fax: 0105552031 Warehousing, packaging and distribution of merchandise. LAMPROULIS PAPAGIANNIS ALPEIS COLD STORAGE S.A. Larissas Volou National Rd (4th Km palaia) 41110 Melissochori Larissa Tel: 0410571701-2 Fax: 0410571703 Cold storage. Imports fresh fruit. BALTAS, AL S.A. 124 Monastiriou 54267 Thessaloniki, Tel: 0310517731 Fax: 0310517735 Cold storage. PAPASTERGIOY, CHR., S.A. Agias Larissas Rd (3rd Km) 40003 Agia Larissa, Tel: 0494041451 Fax: 0494041151 Cold storage. Imports fresh fruit. ROTA LOGISTICS CENTRE S.A. Thessalonikis Katerinis Rd (5th Km) 57009 Kalochori Thessaloniki, Tel: 0310752202 Fax: 0310752280 Logistics. COLD STORES OF AGIA S.A. 40003 Agia Larissa, Tel: 0494023600-1 Fax; 04940236001 Cold storage. IOANNINA COLD STORAGE S.A. 6 Mich. Angelou 45332 Ioannina, Tel: 0651023593 Fax; 0651062401 Cold storage.

Names of Pack-houses AGIASMA S.A. Agiasma 64200 Chrysoupoli Kavala, Tel: 0591056678 Fax:0591056578 Sorting and packaging of fresh asparagus and kiwis. AGROEXPORT H. NEGAS S.A. Veroias Naoussas Rd (7th Km) 59100 Veroia, Tel: 0331093360 Fax: 0331093365 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit.

AGROFRUT HELLAS V. PANTAZIS S.A. Agia Triada 27053 Lexaina, Tel: 0623023075 Fax:0623023292 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and potatoes. ANDALOUDAKIS AGAMEMNON 20011 Perigiali Korinthia, Tel: 0741089100 Fax: 0741088977 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. GEORGIKI VIOMICHANIKI EVROY KIPOUROS S.A. Industrial Area 68200 Orestiada, Tel: 0552028378 Fax: 0552028379 Sorting and packaging of fresh vegetables. ELENA S.A. Myloniana 73100 Hania, Tel: 0821077757 Fax: 0821078138 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF ARGOLIDA Tirintha 21100 Nafplio, Tel: 0752024555 Fax: 0752025623 Sorting and packaging of fresh citrus fruit. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF GIANNITSA L.L.C. 58100 Giannitsa, Tel: 0382022203 Fax: 0382028344 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF LARISSA TIRNAVOS AGIA 81 Hatzimichali 41334 Larissa, Tel: 0410617418 Fax: 0410611742 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF PREVEZA L.L.C. Foros 48100 Preveza, Tel: 0682022227 Fax: 0682029142 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF PIERIA 10 Solomou 60100 Katerini, Tel: 0351028221-5 Fax: 0351038508 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF VEROIA CO. L.L.C. 37 El. Venizelou 59100 Veroia, Tel: 0331022531 Fax: 0331021510 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. ZEUS KIWI S.A. Karitsa 60100 Katerini Tel: 0351053359 Fax: 0351053901 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and kiwis. ILIDA HELLAS S.A. Patron Olympias National Rd (64th Km) 27051 Andravida, Tel: 0623033511-5 Fax: 0623035510 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. KESSIDIS BROS S.A. 59035 Kopanos Imathia, Tel:0332041029 Fax: 0332042552 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. MASTORAKOS, N.L., S.A. Archaia Tyrintha 21100 Nafplio, Tel:0752024049 Fax: 0752026327 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. BALAKANAKIS, P. & CO. S.A. Agios Pavlos 63080 Nea Kallikrateia, Halkidiki Tel: 0399021571-2 Fax: 0399021571 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. BATSAKIS BROS SKALA CITRUS PACKAGING S.A. 23051 Skala Lakonias, Tel: 0735022469 Fax: 0735023969 Sorting and packaging of fresh citrus fruit. BRAVO STIMAGA GRAPES S.A. Stimaga 20002 Vela Korinthia, Tel: 0742061477 Fax: 0742033729 Sorting and packaging of grapes. XANTHIA FRUIT S.A. Industrial Area Enmoiro 67100 Xanthi, Tel: 0541078202 Fax: 0541022235 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. OPORA S.A. Kourtaki 21200 Argos, Tel: 0751063048-9 Fax: 0751062771 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. RAPSOMATIOTIS S.A. Brachati 20006 Korinthia, Tel:0741056001 Fax:0741056002 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit. Drying of raisins. SEXTOS BROS NEA EXFRYIT S.A. 1 Smyrnis Ave. 58200 Edessa, Tel: 0381022247 Fax: 0381026478 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and asparagus. STARFAS , A.G., S.A. Tarsina 20002 Velo Korinthia, Tel: 0742032959 Fax: 0742034030 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and potatoes. TAVLARIDIS BROS S.A. 112 Merarchias 52125 Serres, Tel: 0321059490 Fax: 0321037471 Sorting and packaging of fresh peppers. FROUTYKOM S.A. Komotinis Alexandoupolis National Rd (2nd Km) 69100 Komotini, Tel: 0531037785 Fax: 0351037786 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. Standardization of frozen vegetables. CHALKIAS BROS S.A. Prevezas Igoumenitsas National Rd (14th Km) P.O. Box 70 48100 Preveza, Tel: 0682041185 Fax: 0682041226 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables. CHATZAKIS, G. G. KYRILAKIS S.A. 70400 Moires Irakleio, Tel: 0892024534 Fax; 0892022890 Sorting and packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Names of Equipment Suppliers

AGROTECHNIKI S.A. 15 Ippokratus St. 68200 Orestiada, Tel: 0552025010 Fax: 0552024398 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components. ANCHIALOS S.A. 230 Monastiriou St. 54628 Menemeni Thessaloniki Tel: 0310515721-5 Fax: 0310511892 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components. AMEREL TRADING CO. S.A. 1 Blaxaki St. Athens, Tel: 0106755871 Fax: 0106758872 Exclusive imports and wholesale t rade of food product and beverage processing and packaging machinery. BLACHOS S.A. 177 Peiraios St. 11853 Athens, Tel: 0103466544 Fax: 0103455661 Exclusive imports and wholesale trade of food product and beverage processing and packaging machinery. GAVRIILIDIS BROS S.A. 129 Stadiou P.O. Box 56, 59100 Veroia, Tel: 0331020262 Fax: 0331020263 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components. GEOMICHANIKI OF ATHENS LTD 280 Ag. Dimitriou St. 17341 Athens, Tel: 0109350054 Fax: 0109350973 Imports and wholesale trade of irrigation systems, seeds, and gardening machines. DEMETER S.A. Siokou & 107 Avionos 10443 Athens, Tel: 0105155357 Fax: 0105155578 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, spare parts, truck and agricultural machinery tires. HELLAGRICOLE S.A. Larissas Thessalonikis National Rd (6th Km) 41336 Larissa Tel: 0410575101-3 Fax: 0410575102 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, spare parts, truck and agricultural machinery tires. INTERTRAK S.A. 136 Athinon Ave. 10441 Athens, Tel: 0105148127 Fax: 0105254347 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, spare parts, truck and agricultural machinery tires. KANAVELIS, J. & CO. S.A. 130-132 Doiranis 17673 Kallithea, Tel: 0109595734 Fax: 0109589939 Agents for agricultural product processing and packaging machinery and industrial refrigerating apparatus. KATSAROS, PAN., S.A. 124 Monastiriou St. 54627 Thessaloniki, Tel: 0310529712 Fax: 0310538448 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, spare parts, truck and agricultural machinery tires. BELARUW GR SERRES S.A. 53 Pontou St. 62125 Serres, Tel: 0321038431 Fax: 0321038982 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components. RANAGROTIKI S.A. Lamias Athinon National Rd (1s t Km) 35100 Lamia Tel: 0231029345 Fax: 0231023010 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components. PROFI S.A. Paralia 26517 Patra, Tel: 0610515400 Fax: 0610515491 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components. SARANTOPOULOS, K. 33 Dimitrakopouloy St. 11141 Athens, Tel: 0102283914 Fax: 0102288138 Agents for canning, packaging and food product processing machinery. TOULOUMIDIS, G. S.A. 5 Al. Symeonidi, 54639 Thessaloniki Tel: 0310812275 Fax: 0310857781 Agents for food product packaging and processing machinery. HARARIS HADJIGEORGIOU LTD Alipedou & 1 Plataion St. 18540 Pireus Tel: 0104123841 Fax: 0104119186 Imports and wholesale trade of agricultural tractors, machinery and components.

Names of seed suppliers AGROAXON S.A. Krokio 37100 Magnissia, Tel: 0422024760-1 Fax: 0422022846 Processing of multiplication material (tomato hybrids). AGROSYSTEM S.A. Ierapetras Gra Lygias Rd (4th Km) 72200 Ierapetra Tel: 0842027394-8 Fax: 0842023013 Representations, exclusive imports and wholesale trade of seeds, fertilizers and greenhouse equipment. AMVIOS S.A. Koutso 67100 Xanthi, Tel - Fax:05410968401 Production of agricultural multiplication material.

ANTHOKIPEFTIKI ARGYRAKI S.A. 58 I. Gavriil 13671 Acharnes, Tel: 0102400248 Fax: 0102464127 Representations, exclusive imports and wholesale trade of agricultural supplies. Cultivation of vegetable hybrids. VITRO HELLAS S.A. Nisseli 59300 Alexandria Imathia, Tel: 0333024888 Fax: 0333026417 Production of agricultural multiplication material. KESPY 28 Karolou St. 10437 Athens, Tel: 0105236600 Fax: 0105239809 Production of agricultural multiplication material. LABORO S.A. 1 Panagopoulou St. 38100 Agrinio, Tel: 0641039346 Fax: 0641027651 Cultivation of peppers (peppers hybrids). SPYROU SPOROFYTA S.A. 6 Emm. Pappa St. Aigaleo Tel: 0103497500 Fax: 0103497502 Production of agricultural multiplication material. HYBRIDS HELLS S.A. 3 Fil. Etairias 14452 Metamorfossi, Tel: 0102836400 Fax: 0102836240 Representations, exclusive imports and wholesale trade of agricultural multiplication material and fertilizers. CHRISTIAS, G. & P., S.A. P.O.Box 285 57009 Kalochori Thessaloniki, Tel: 0310753760-2 Fax: 0310753131Representations, exclusive imports and wholesale trade of agricultural multiplication material.

3.12. Key issues and opportunities


From the above analysis as well as the questionnaires gathered by companies activating in the sector such as pack houses, transporters and processors, some important findings are extracted regarding the directions that must be adopted for the planning and the implementation of a development strategy about investments in the field of agricultural sector, such as: Generally, the fresh fruit and vegetables sector in Greece is characterized by inadequate storing and packaging infrastructure. This results in the inability to produce quality products. Thus, the production of fresh fruits and vegetables in Greece is characterized as less competitive in relation to the neighboring countries such as Italy and Spain who have better facilities for storage and packaging of products. In some cases, exceeding production capacity was reported, which results in the accumulation of production potential through investments, which is not able to be balanced by equal demand in the internal or the international marketplace. It is also important to notice that in some cases, the idle production capacity is of modern specifications. Thus, priority must be given in investments of updating and restructuring of units, as well as in reestablishing of units. Since, the common measure for development priorities is the observed exporting potential, it must be taken under consideration that this potential is not always a true indication of the real potential of some products. Probably, the critical success factors would be the proper networking, the more active promotion, and still the differentiation of packaging. The identification of the real critical success factors is necessary for the setting up of the competitiveness of products. A thorough research on the human workforce employed in the several actions related to the sector must be conducted. This will lead to the identification of the training and education needs of people activating both in production and in packaging, processing and marketing. The establishment of consolidated equipment related to the control and the supervision of aggravating consequences to the environment has significantly been delayed. Also, a covering of responsibilities regarding the approval of investments in the agricultural sector is reported. This fact is combined with the lack of coordination and strategy formulation, difficulties in cooperation and lack of information flow among parties. The situation worsens, considering the fact that the terms of approval of investments are differentiated according to the authority, which is responsible for the approval. This leads to difficulties in planning, improvement and development of the sector of processing and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to dissociate the responsibilities of the Ministries, or to improve coordination among them. In the fresh fruits and vegetables sector there is a high degree of fragmentation. Thus, the incentives and the subsidies provided must on the one hand, intend to enforce a competitive environment and on the other hand to increase the concentration rate and

the vertical integration of companies, so as to obtain the necessary extroversion and competitiveness in the international business environment. For this reason, the fragmentation of subsidies must be avoided and the development of strong commercial companies must be encouraged.

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece

4. Distribution and Marketing


4.1. Per capita consumption of fruits and vegetables in Greece
Table XI in the appendix presents the average monthly per caput consumption of fruits and vegetables in Greece. As can be inferred from the table, the consumption of fruits amounts to 9kg. The fruits with the biggest consumption are: Oranges (2.15 kg per month), Watermelons (1.8 kg) and Apples (1.5 kg), while Pears, Peaches and Grapes present a lower consumption (about 0.5 kg). The market needs on these products are covered mainly from national production. The production of Oranges was 902 thousand tonnes, the production of Apples was 309 thousand tonnes in the year 2000. A substantial number of apples consumed is imported. In 2000 13 thousand tonnes of apples where imported. The consumption of vegetables amounts to 12kg. The vegetables mostly consumed are potatoes (4.36 kg per month) and tomatoes (2.44 kg), while lettuce, cabbage and cucumber present lower levels of consumption (about 0.4 kg). the vegetables with the lower consumption are broccoli and cauliflowers (0.18 kg). The consumption of vegetables is primarily covered by national production. The production of tomatoes in 2000 amounted to 1.8 million tonnes and the production of potatoes was 880 thousand tonnes.

4.2. National production and Imports


Comparing the results of tables I and XII, a national production Imports equilibrium for I vegetables may be produced (Figure 42 in the appendix). As can be seen from the equilibrium, imports are lower than 1% of the national production. Exceptions to this rule are potato imports which comprise the 11.14% of the national production and onions, garlics and leeks (5.61% of national production). In the same logic, figure 43 presents the national production imports equilibrium for fruits. From the category of fruits, those presenting they greatest imports percentages are: Pears (13.8% of national production), Lemons (8.63%), Apples (4.92%) and Strawberry (1.11%), while the imports of the rest of the fruits are lower than 1%.

4.3. Main Importing countries


Tables XII presents the imports of the most important vegetables for the year 2000. Also, imports are categorized to imports from EU countries and imports from non EU counties and the names of the most important countries are mentioned for each product. The imports of vegetables amounts to 151 thousand tonnes, of these 105 thousand tonnes are imported from EU countries. The main importing countries are the Netherlands, which imports vegetables from non EU countries and then sells these products to other EU Members, France and Italy. Another 41 thousand tonnes are imported from directly from non EU countries such as Turkey, Syria, Egypt. The products imported from these countries are mainly potatoes and onions. Table XIII present the imports of fruits in Greece, with the same logic as table XII. Total fruits imports amount to 45 thousand tonnes, of which 27,5 are imported from EU countries and 17 thousand tonnes are imported from non EU countries. The main imported fruits are Lemons which are imported from Argentina and the Netherlands, Apples imported from Italy, and Chile, Pears imported from Spain, Italy and the Republic of South Africa, Grapes imported from Germany and Strawberries and Berries imported mainly from the Netherlands, Germany and Italy.

4.4. Names of importers

OGEEKA

DIMITRA

32

ALEX S.A. Polyplatanos 59034 Eirinoupili Imathia, Tel: 0332048102 Fax: 0332047518 Sorting and packaging, imports and trade of fresh fruit. ALKYON S.A. Industrial Area Pontolivado 64200 Chrysoupoli Kavala, Tel: 0510316928 Fax; 0510 316925 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. IRA FRUIT LTD Veroias Naoussas National Rd (8th Km) 59100 Veroia, Tel: 0331093066 Fax: 0331093476 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit. IMPERIAL FRUIT S.A. Railway Station 59200 Naoussa Imathia, Tel: 0332041561 Fax: 0332042579 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. KANELOPOULOS, G. S.A. 56 Panepistimiou 10678 Athens, Tel: 0103841532 Fax: 0103828266 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and potatoes. Imports and trade of frozen fruit and vegetables. KARAMPELAS, G. S.A. Giannitson Edessas Rd (1s t Km) P.O. Box 81 58100 Giannitsa, Tel: 0382026573 Fax: 0382025027 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit. BALAMOTIS S.A. New Vegetable Market Dimini 38500 Volos, Tel: 0421063958 Fax: 0421063317 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. NAFSIKA S.A. Mavrovouni 58500 Skydra Pella, Tel: 0381082512 Fax: 0381082510

Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. PANFRUIT HELLAS S.A. Airport Koutsopodi 21200 Argos, Tel: 0751029012-3 Fax: 0751022000 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit. PASKALIS KRETA S.A. Kounavoi 70100 Archanes Irakleio Kriti Tel: 0810741226 Fax: 0810741432 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. Imports and wholesale trade of fresh vegetable. PENTE S.A. Skafidaki 21200 Argos, Tel: 0751042051-2 Fax: 0751042053 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit. SARIKLAKIS S.A. Saratsi Kampos P.O. Box 26 72200 Ierapetra, Tel: 0842028589 Fax: 0842023258 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. TSOTOS MAROULIS S.A. Examilia 20100 Korinthos, Tel: 0741083556 Fax: 0741083500 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. Imports and trade fresh potatoes. NATURAL FRUIT S.A. Rizo 58500 Skydra Pella, Tel: 0381082700-4 Fax: 0381082705 Sorting and packaging, imports and wholesale trade of fresh fruit and vegetables.

4.5. Exports trade


Until 1976, the export trading of agricultural production of Greece presented a surplus of $ 100 million. After that year, the situation has worsen and resulted in a deficit of $1 billion in 1992 and $ 1.6 billion in 1995. This deficit was due to the inflation of meat and dairy products exports and on the other hand due to pressures to the exporting activities of traditional agricultural products of Greece such as tobacco, cotton and raisins. Tables XIV and XV present the amounts of exports for the most important vegetables and fresh fruits respectively, for the year 2000 as well as a categorization to exports to EU and non EU countries. Also the names to the main destination countries are mentioned for each product. Greek exports to other EU members amount to 950 1000 thousand tonnes per year, of which 57% is directed to other countries and the rest to the countries of EU. Regarding, citrus fruits, 75% of exports is disposed to Balkan countries, while 25% of the rest production is disposed to other EU members. The exports volume per product is (on average): Citrus fruits: 380 thousand tonnes (oranges:315 th. tonnes, lemons: 33 th. tonnes, tangerines: 35 th. tonnes).

Stone fruits: 150 thousand tonnes (peaches: 129 th. tonnes, apricots: 12 th. tonnes, cherries: 4 th. tonnes) Apples pears : 24 th. tonnes and 2th.tonnes respectively Vegetables: 190 th. thousand tonnes (cucumbers: 20 th. tonnes, asparagus: 16 th.tonnes, potatoes: 17 th. tonnes) watermelons: 139 th.tonnes Kiwi : 30 thousand tonnes Grapes : 100 thousand tonnes. The most important exported products of Greece are belonging to the category of fresh fruits and vegetables. This fact explains the potentiality of the sector and furthermore, highlights the need to carefully analyze the production procedures in order to further support the production of fresh fruits and vegetables. Examining the evolution of exports trade, it can be seen clearly that the fresh fruits and vegetables share in exports is 45% , with the volume of exports increasing at about 8.6% annually and the exports value increasing at about 23.6% annually. Thus, the trade balance presented a surplus of 575 million in 1995 while the 70% of fresh fruits and vegetables production is directed to EU countries. This information initiates the fact that the fresh fruits and vegetables sector plays an important role in the Greek economy, regarding the fact that the biggest proportion of exports involves commodities with low added value, which are used as supplies in processing industries in the destination countries. The processed products are then imported to Greece with a greater added value. This is also an issue that makes the development and the expansion of the fresh fruits and vegetables processing industry essential.

4.6. General markets and marketing channels


The most important distribution channels for the fruits and vegetables production yields are: Direct selling to the customer: This is conducted by the following ways: Establishment of a retail store Selling in flee markets Selling from house to house or in the field. Selling to retailers: It is the most usual way for producers in the country. Selling through co-operations: The co-operation has the role of a middleman or is in charge of the products selling and after that is conducted for each producer separately. In the latter situation, the co-operation may also accomplish the standardization, the packaging, and the processing of products. Selling through wholesalers: This procedure is conducted in two separate ways. Either the wholesaler sells the products as a representative of the producers, or the producers sell their products to the wholesaler at a fixed price or with a lump sum. Selling with auctions: This way of selling is not very popular in Greece, due to lack of large scale producers. Figure 44 in the appendix presents the marketing channels of fresh fruits and vegetable.

4.7. Market Information Systems


The information systems used in wholesale markets and regional markets are mainly manual. Markets keep truck of the quantities of the products sold as well as their prices on a daily basis. Unfortunately, Information systems are not yet automated and the retrieval of essential data is rather difficult. Many traders in wholesale markets use their own information systems, which are automated and transaction based for receipt and invoice issuing. There is not yet a link of the markets in Greece. A network communication would facilitate the co-ordination of supply chain and would balance the demand and supply of production.

Most of the information necessary to producers and traders, such as prices, seasonal variations in supply and demand, historical and anticipated prices, selection grading and packaging requirements, phytosanitary regulations, tariff barriers, trade legislation as well as production information for competing countries can be supplied by special organisations such as the National Statistic Institute of Greece or specific departments of the Ministry of Agriculture. In this case, the interested person must make an application to ask for these information. Lately, many of these information are provided on-line by the Ministry of Agriculture and specialised public authorities as well as on-line magazines specialised in the fruits and vegetables sector. This information can be provided to anyone with no restriction. To collect and broadcast such information is a complex operation and must be performed rapidly if the latest market news is not to become of historical interest only. The difficulty which confront many market information services in Greece regarding domestic market information is telling their clients something that is needed and not already known! Additionally, companies, especially processors and exporters derive marketing information from their internal analysis of their customers and competitors (inhouse marketing information systems). Presently, the organisation of Market Information Systems and Marketing Support Systems has to deal with two major developments, the first relating to an ongoing change in business management concepts, and the second to the widespread implementation of computer-based information and communications technologies. With the advent of electronic commerce, many traders, processors and retailers, and to a lesser extent producers and co-operatives are exploiting the facilities of the medium by having their own web-sites in the internet. These companies use their web-sites only for promotional reasons, by giving information for their company and products. Their focus extends the Greek boundaries and gives them the opportunity of an international awareness of their companies. To a lesser extent they give the ability to customers (especially businesses) to order products online and to track the status of their orders (business to business electronic commerce). The change happening in business concepts, with the use of total quality management practices as well as integrated farm management which aims at the standardization of fresh products will tend to facilitate the use of electronic commerce as a marketing channel. Additionally the raise of Internet users will enhance the development of electronic commerce.

4.8. Wholesale markets


Greece has two wholesale horticultural markets located in Athens and Thessaloniki. These markets have been the traditional outlets for most horticultural products. The products may be sent to a market agent on consignment. This means that the grower has no advance knowledge of what price will be paid for the product. Produce sent on consignment will receive the wholesale price prevailing on the day. Alternatively, a market agent may invite growers to send produce, which will receive a negotiated fixed price. This is common when certain product lines are undersupplied in the market place. The produce is then purchased by the retail chains, greengrocers, restaurants, etc. for eventual sale to the domestic consumer. No special contracts are accomplished between wholesalers and farmers. Usually the suppliers of fresh fruits and vegetables are not standard and their produce is disposed and priced according to product quality. In special occasions whereas specific producers give a standard supply to the wholesaler, there is a tense to give them some granting before the cultivation period in order to overcome their working capital needs. In this case, an informal contract is posed between the wholesaler and the producer which later gives the wholesaler to achieve better negotiations over price.

4.9. Retail Chains


The total proportion of horticultural products sold to the end consumer through the retail chain stores has progressively increased in recent years, to the point where the retail chains dominate

the market to a great extent. This market dominance has enabled the retail chains to bypass the wholesale market system in favour of buying direct from the larger growers. A retail chain may enter into a contractual arrangement with a large vegetable grower for the supply of specified quantities of a product over a defined time period at a nominated price. This can provide advantages to both parties. Horticulturally, this means a shorter marketing chain. Product can be cooled on the farm, delivered to retail distribution warehouses and be in the retail stores within a matter of hours of harvest. Grade and quality standards must be defined and agreed to so that the retail chain can monitor the overall quality of products delivered into the stores. A number of quality assurance programs such as integrated farming are now utilised by horticultural growers in Greece to enable retailers to monitor product quality.

4.10. Systems for auctioning of fresh fruits and vegetables


Throughout Greece there is a number of auction places for fresh fruits and vegetables. The most important is located in Tympaki, Crete. Crete is the biggest tomato producing region of Greece. It is a physical place where producers and traders are gathered. Producers are organised in cooperatives and producer groups and the quality of their products raise to a great extent their negotiating power over traders. Additionally, the main exports of tomato are produced in Crete. This situation makes the auction places in Crete very crowded and important exchanges happen. The auctions are conducted with closed prices. Both producers and traders are declaring a price value before auction begins and after the product prices are fixed, the exchanges happen. Another important auction place is located in Macedonia, Greece whereas groups of producers negotiate the prices of their products (usually peaches and nectarines) placing limits of prices. By this collectivism, producers can raise their negotiating power over traders. Also, there are auction places where market prices of the next day are taken into consideration for price definition and quantities sold. These systems are not electronic, they are primarily manual and the conduction of auctions requires the physical gathering of producers and traders. The advent of electronic commerce in general and electronic auctions more specifically in the future years will transform the way auctions happen, as well as their efficiency due to the wider participation of both parts. A constraining for the develo pment of electronic auctions is that product quality features such as colour, smell, texture, are senses that cannot be realised through electronic mediums.

4.11. Branding or Trade marking of Horticultural Products


Many of the leading horticultural exporting countries are highly market driven with their marketing programs. As with many retail commodities there is a trend to make produce from one supplier stand out from the rest through the use of brand names or trade marks. These private traders use contrac ts with farmers about the disposal of their yield, which is then commercialised with their private label. There is also a new trend for integrated farm management whereas the specific contract with the farmers contains a full description of the production and harvesting process. This is mainly accomplished for production yield directed for exports to European and North American markets, which have complex regulations and high quality standards. Private labelling of products results in the achievement of higher prices than commodities and is a new fresh produce trading trend adopted by private traders. In order to accomplish integrated farming contractors provide farmers with supplies such as crops fertilisers, pesticides and extended credit.

4.12. Price formulation


The market demand and supply functions are combined to form the model of competitive price determination in the short run. This is an equilibrium because, once established, it tends to

remain and, if disturbed, price and quantity will tend to remain to the equilibrium. Markets do not adjust immediately to equilibrium because of transaction costs and costs of obtaining information about the market. It takes time to learn prices, determine product availability, establish contacts between buyers and sellers, ascertain terms of trade and to analyze quantity. The aggregate demand for fresh fruits and vegetables tends to be very inelastic at the farm level, with income elasticity of demand in the range of 0.2 0.4. The supply of fresh fruits and vegetables tends to be also inelastic in the short run. Because of the biological production processes found in agriculture, there are usually significant time lags between the time a production decision is made and the time that production is available for consumption. The inelastic nature of short run supply and demand explain the large impact on the level of prices of small changes in either supply or demand. With the internationalization of markets, price making forces are no longer confined to national boundaries. Markets may exist in time, form of space, and price relationships are maintained through storage, processing and transportation. These marketing functions add utility to products. The pricing relationships between these markets under competitive conditions is expressed by the law of one price (LOOP) which states that, under competition, all prices within a market tend to equality when allowances are made for cost of storage, processing and transportation. Price changes for fresh fruits and vegetables may be classified as: (i) Long term price trends due to changing supply and demand or macro-economic factors such as inflation. (ii) Seasonal price movements due to regular seasonal changes in supply and demand that are repeated every 12 months. (iii) Cyclical price movements that occur over several years, and (iv) Year to year and irregular price changes. Other factors can also have important impact: Spatial factors: The price typically varies from point to point in the market due to transportation costs. Quality factors: Product characteristics, as measured by grades and standards, are also related to prices and to the efficient operation of markets. Government interventions: Government feels obliged to develop policies and programs to stabilize and / or increase the level of prices. Common Organization of Markets of fresh fruits and vegetables regulated by the EU dictates the specific measures concerning price formulation and stabilization (import tariffs and restrictions, limiting production, government purchase programs, price supports, exports subsidies etc). Weather factors: Bad weather conditions have a negative impact on produce, thus, limiting the supply of products. As a result product prices are increased to a great extent.

4.13. Co-operatives and Traders


Names of cooperatives UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF ARTA RHILIPIADA 20, Maximou Grekou str. 47100 Arta, Tel: 0681078202 Fax: 0681028751 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF XANIA Oasi Agias 73100 Hania Tel: o821032446 Fax: 0821031260 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF KYDONIA MALEME Maleme 73100 Hania Tel: 0821062210 Fax: 0821062483 REA UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF ARGOLIDA 2nd km. Nafplio Nea Kios 21100 Nafplio Tel: 0752026230 Fax: 0752028751 PANEGIALIOS UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF EGIO 201 Korinthou str. 25100 Egio Tel: 0691060449 Fax: 0691060448 ASEPOP OF NAOUSA 14 K. Dimitriadi str. 59200 Naousa Tel:0332041196 Fax: 0332041205

ASSOCIOTION OF PRODUCERS GROUPS OF ALMOPIA & VORA Tsaki 58400 Aridea Tel: 0384022092 Fax: 0384023065 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF VERIA 37 Benizelou str. 59100 Veria Tel: 0331022351 Fax: 0331021510 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF AMYNTEO 2 N. Chatzikonstantinou str. 53200 Amynteo Tel: 0386023879 Fax: 0386023835 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF GIANNITSA 9 M. Papadopoulou str. 58100 Giannitsa Tel: 0382028137 Fax: 0382020911 AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE OF ZAGORA 37001 Zagora Tel: 0426022517 Fax: 0426022950 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF PIERIA 1 0 Solomou str. Tel: 0351028221 Fax: 0351038508 AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE OF LECHEO 20006 Vrachati Korinthos Tel: 0741088797 Fax: 0741086202 AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE OF ARCHANES 70100 Archanes Greta Tel: 0810751834 Fax: 0810751474 AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE OF CITRUS FRUIT OF CHIOS 82100 Chios Tel: 0271023535 Fax: 0721022572 NESTOS AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE OF ASPARAGUS OF CHRISOUPOLI 11 Filippou 64200 Chrisoupoli Tel: 0591025286 Fax: 0591025285 ACHELOOS AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE OF ASPARAGUS OF GOYRIA Gouria 30001 Noechori Messologio Tel: 0632031940 Fax: 0632031941 OMOSPONDIA ASSOCATION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF THESSALONIKI 57011 Gefyra Thessaloniki Tel: 0310715869 Fax: 0310715884 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF GASTOYNI 19 Ioannou Liakou str. 27300 Gastouni Tel: 0623032207 Fax: 0623032093 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF ILIA & OLYMPIA 4 T. Petropoulou str. 27100 Pyrgos Tel: 0621029973 Fax: 0621035712 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF ZAKYNTHOS 42 Lomvardou str. 29100 Zakynthos Tel: 0695027611 Fax: 0695022268 KSOS CENTRAL COORERATIVE UNION OF SYLTANA B & H str. Industrial Area 71601 Iraklio Tel: 0810381406 Fax: 0810381438 SYKIKI CENTRAL UNION OF DRY FIGS 6th Km. Kalamata Messini 24100 Kalamata Tel: 0721069122 Fax: 0721069846 UNION OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES OF TRIKALA 13 Iouliou Adam str. 42100 Trikala Tel: 0431022911 Fax: 0431031062

Names of traders GEORGIADIS PATATOVIOMICHANIKI S.A. A-1 Odos 57022 Sindos Industrial Area, Tel: 0310799059 Fax: 0310799256 Processing, standardization and wholesale trade of pre-fried potatoes DELIPOULIOS, ANT. S.A. Soyfliou Alexandroupolis Rd (2nd Km) 68400 Soufli Tel: 0554023540 Fax: 0554022124 Processing and wholesale trade of dried fruit. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF AEGIALIA ACHAIA L.L.C. 201 Korinthou St. 25100 Aigio, Tel: 0691022409 Fax: 0691022384 Trade of sultana raisins. UNION OF AGRIC. COOP. OF ILEIA OLYMPIA 4 T. Petropoulou St. 27100 Pirgos Ileia, Tel: 0621029973-6 Fax: 0621035712 Trade of currants and agricultural supplies. INTERCOMM FOODS S.A. Larissas Sukouriou Rd (8th Km) P.O. Box 1127, 41110 Larissa, Tel: 0410575092-3 Fax: 0410575091 Trade of stewed fruit. IOANNOU S.A. Industrial Area 69100 Komotini, Tel: 0531038606 Fax: 0531038828 Processing and wholesale trade of frozen vegetables and pre-fried potatoes. KARALAKIS, A.& G., S.A. Nea Anatoli 72200 Ierapetra, Tel: 0842041750 Fax: 0842041760 Trade of fresh fruit. KARAMBELAS, G. S.A. Giannitson Edessas Rd (1s t Km) P.O. Box 81, 58100 Giannitsa Tel: 0382026573 Fax: 0382025027 Wholesale trade fresh fruit. KOZAT S.A. 27057 Tragano Ileia Trade of pickles LAKONT S.A. Larissas Tirnavou National Rd (3rd Km) 41500 Larissa Trade of tomato paste.

MAKEDONIKI V. HALVATZIS & CO S.A. NATO Ave. Spithari, 19300 Aspropyrgos Tel: 0105595314 Fax: 0105595162 Processing and wholesale trade marmalade and fruit in heavy syrup. BYONO INTERNATIONAL S.A. 3 Pikermiou Ave. 19004 Spata, Tel: 0106634791 Fax: 0106634798 Production and wholesale trade of fruit juices. BOURIKAS S.A. Leontari 34006 Amarynthos, Tel: 0229037777 Fax: 0229036239 Processing and wholesale of nuts, dried fruit and figs. OLYMRIA XENIA AGROINDUSTRIAL S.A. P.O. Box 51816, 14502 Ag. Stefanos, Tel: 010620065-7 Fax: 010 6220068 Standardization and trade of pickles. SRIDIDIS, S S.A. 60 Ag. Paraskevis St. 12132 Peristeri, Tel: 0105727853 FAX: 0105748846 Processing, packaging and wholesale trade of raisins and dried fruit. TETAS S.A. 38 Stadiou St. 24100 Kalamata Tel: 0721025478 Fax: 0721021282 Processing and trade of dried fruit. DELTA DAIRY S.A. 16 Eirinis Ave. 17778 Tavros Tel: 0103494000 Fax: 0103494040 Productions and trade of fruit juices. EVGA S.A. 88 Iera Odos 10447 Athens Tel: 0103487400 Fax: 3465021 Productions and trade fruit juices. FAGE DAIRY INDUSTRY S.A. 35 Ermou St. Metamorfossi, Tel: 0102892555 Fax: 0102828386 Trade fruit juices.

4.14. Pack-houses
Regarding the fresh fruits and vegetables distribution sector, especially the exports sector, it is essential to study the evolution of pack-houses, standardization establishments, sorting establishments as well as the cooling and pre-cooling facilities of these sensitive products. Table XVI in the appendix presents the number and the geographic orientation of the most important pack-houses and packaging facilities of Greece, according to records from the Ministry of Agriculture. As the records indicate, 385 pack-houses exist with most of them operating in the districts of Central Macedonia (114 pack-house units- 29,6% of total), Pelopenese (97 units 25,1% of total) and Crete (62 units 16,1% of total). It is important to mention that these three areas cover the 70,8 % of the total pach-houses of Greece while no pack-houses exist in the Ionian and Aegean islands. Apart from pack-houses, important is the existence of cooling and pre-cooling facilities which help to the conservation of fresh fruits and vegetables. Of the total cooling facilities operating, the total cooling capacity estimated is presented in Table XVII in the appendix. According to the provided elements the total cooling capacity is estimated to be 1,908,1 thousand cubic meters. The biggest cooling capacity appears in the district of Central Macedonia (914,6 thousand cubic meters) and Thessaly (492,9 thousand cubic meters). It is mentioned that these two areas cover to 73,8 % of the total cooling capacity of Greece.

4.15. Processors
AGROKTIMATA THRAKIS S.A. Toxoton Olviou Rd (4th Km) 67100 Xanthi, tel: 0541095077 Fax: 0541095978 Production of canned peppers. CITRUS FRYIT AGRIC. COOP OF AMYCLES LAKONIA LTD Spartis Gytheiou Rd (4th Km), Amykles 23100 Sparti, Tel: 0731044222 Fax:0731044782 Production of fruit juices, juice concentrates. ALEXANDER LTD Railway Station P.O. Box 35, 59100 Veroia, Tel: 0331024373 Fax: 0331026974 Production of stewed fruit. ASTERIS S.A. 17 Brana St. 11525 Athens, Tel: 0106749208 Fax: 0106749209 Production of canned tomato. BELUSSIS CURRANTS J. STAVROPULOS BELYSSIS S.A. Platani 26500 Patra, Tel: 0610991878 Fax: 0610 992012 Processing of currants and sultana raisins. GEA THRAKIS S.A. Industrial Area P.O. Box 223 69100 Kommotini, Tel:0531038614 Fax:0531038695 Production of frozen pre-fried potatoes.

GENARAL FROZEN FOODS S.A. A-5 Rd P.O. Box 108 57022 Sindos Industrial Area, Tel: 0310796213 Fax: 0310796211 Processing and trade of frozen vegetables, fruit and ready meals. DELTA DAIRY S.A. 16 Eirinis Ave. 17778 Tavros, Tel:0103494000 Fax: 0103494040 Production of natural fruit juices. EVGA S.A. 88 Iera Odos 10447 Athens, Tel: 0103487400 Fax: 0103465021 Production of natural fruit juices. SULTANAS EXRORT UNION LTD Agios Ioanis Hostos P.O. Box 1056 71110 Irakleio Kriti, Tel: 08102520032-5 Fax: 08102520030 Processing of raisins. ZAFIROPOULOS, C A. TOMARAS S.A. Traganou Andravidas Rd (2nd Km) 27057 Tragano Ileia, Tel: 0623054486 Fax: 0623054469 Production of pickles. KALTHERIS, B. BROS S.A. 34600 Nea Artaki Evoia, Tel: 0221043244 Fax: 0221044366 Processing of dried fruit. K.O.B.E. S.A. Mackochori P.O. Box: 22 59100 Veroia, Tel: 0331039375 Fax: 0331038344 Production of stewed fruit and canned tomato products. KYKNOS GREEK CANNING COMPANY S.A. 36 Asklipiou St. 21100 Nafrlio, Tel: 0752028901 Fax: 0752025291 Production of stewed fruit, marmalade and canned tomato products. NOMIKOS, D. S.A. 32 Kifissias Ave. Athina Center 15125 Marousi, Tel: 0106858820-6 Fax: 0106891106 Production of canned tomato products. PARTHENON S.A. Gefyra Megariti P.O. Box 1 25100 Aigio Tel: 0691074476 Fax: 0691074484 Processing and standardization of raisins. SE.KO.BI LTD Skoutari P.O. Box 122 62100 Serres, Tel: 0321041972 Fax: 0321041971 Production of tomato paste. SYKIKI CENTRAL COOP. UNION OF FIGS & NYTS L.L.C. P.O. Kalamatas Messinis Rd (6th Km) Sperchogeia, 24100 Kalamata, Tel: 0721069845 Fax: 0721069846 Processing of dried figs and fig paste. FAGE DAIRY INDUSTRY S.A. 35 Ermou St. 14452 Metamorfossi, Tel: 0102892555 Fax: 0102828386 Production and trade of fruit juices. FLORA S.A. 19 G. Kazantzi St. 30100 Agrinio, Tel: 0641051430 Fax: 0641051640 Production of fruit in heavy syrup, sugar products, dried vefetables, marmalade, confectionery raw materials and condensed fruit juices. ONASSIS, N. S.A. 57022 Sindos Industrial Area, Tel: 0310795556-7 Fax: 0310796983 Production of canned vegetables and meals.

4.16. Key issues and opportunities


Concerning the issues raised by the specific experimental research conducted with questionnaires completed by people occupied in the fresh fruits and vegetables marketing sector, some priority axes and intervention actions can be determined. The main objective of agricultural policy is to improve the trade balance of Greece, the increase of employment, and per capita income of farmers and people in rural areas. This may be accomplished with the increase of commercialisation and competitiveness of products, with improvements in processing and connectivity of the primary and the secondary sector. The partial strategic objectives are mostly directed in the increase of competitiveness and commercialisation of Greek products both in internal and in the international market, as well as in the balanced development and progress of the different regions of Greece. The proposed priority axes are: The upgrade of the operation of markets. The smooth and efficient operation of markets demands a harmonious structural framework and implementation mechanisms. In the fresh fruits and vegetables sector, the market does not operate efficiently not only for the final products, but also for the production inputs. Consequently, the subsidies must, at first, aim at the improvement and the upgrading of the structural operation of markets of fresh fruits and vegetables with a focus on: 1. The quality assurance of products 2. The ensuring of transparency of trading

3. The protection of competition 4. The enforcing of marketing structures 5. The development of powerful, reliable commercial units, which will be able to compete in the international market. Improvement of infrastructure and networks. The most weak infrastructure components are those related to transportation. At the same time, there is a great number of infrastructure problems whic h must be surpassed. For these reasons, several actions must be considered: 1. The investigation and improvement of operation of the whole transport system for fresh fruits and vegetables. 2. The formation of a quality control system 3. The creation of a new product development system 4. The information dissemination and support of small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Support of export activity. It is a fact that successful export companies may exist even in sectors that Greece does not seem to have a competitive a dvantage. However, the relative outcome, in terms of exchange, income and employment would be enhanced not only if the country has the resources but also the competitive advantage in the specific sector. It is, thus essential that the fresh fruits and vegetables sector which is characterised as one of the most dynamic sectors in the field of export activity as well as a sector with competitive advantage in relation to the other agricultural sectors, be subsidized to a great extent. It is also important to notice that it must be intended to develop strong, vertically integrated, extrovert commercial and processing companies which will be able to compete in the international market. Confrontation of the importing penetration. Lately, an increasing importing penetration is reported in the Greek market even for products which are considered as traditional for the country, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. The greatest output of the support measures in the internal market in terms of exchange, income and employment may be achieved through the financial support of specific products the production of which must be encouraged in order to confront the competition derived from imported products. Similarly, to the previous issues a vertical integration of companies of the sectors must be accomplished as well as the development of larger firms so as to be more competitive in the international market.

5. Electronic trading systems


5.1. Current systems
Internet technology and e-Commerce is developing rapidly. The range of applications developed for the agri-food sector, includes applications in the marketplace as well as information resources. E-Marketplaces are expected to emerge as a dominant force in e-commerce, accounting for 56% of the value of all Business to Business ( B2B) transactions by 2004, compared to 7.5% in 2000. Another trend observed in e-commerce is in the supply of information. In contrast to traditional sales processes, a vast amount of information is provided on each site. . It is a fact that Greece presents a delay in the adoption of Internet and Electronic commerce related to the west European countries and USA. According to the Computer Industry Almanac report (2000) there are currently about 108 million Internet users in Europe with a penetration rate of 34%. That figure varies from 65.2% in Sweden to 11,4% in Greece. This compares with a penetration rate of 49.2% in North America. A substantial number of Greek companies are beginning to use the Internet as a medium of promotion and advertising. The use of the Internet by Greek small and mid-sized companies has been greatly enhanced with the GO-DIGITAL project, which is an initiative of the Greek Ministry of Development. Its main objective is to support small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to connect to the Internet and inform them of the benefits that will be obtained through its usage.

Funding is provided to SMEs to purchase infrastructure and electronic services and also training is offered so that executives can be familiarized with the new technologies. Until today, several applications have been developed by different groups. Some of these are reviewed below. Applications in the marketplace can be categorized under three broad themes: o Factors of production and inputs o Services o Outputs Factors of production and inputs Agricultural chemicals are promoted and advertised by numerous sites. For example: http://www.aventis.gr provides extensive product information, company profile and contact details. Also, the Hellenic association of pharmaceutical companies in its web-site http://www.sfee.gr offers an online catalog of all the Greek pharmaceutical companies as well as their contact information. However, no agrochemical company is conducting transactions online. In the machinery and equipment marketplace, numerous companies are using the Internet to advertise and promote themselves. There are many examples of companies that offer machinery for pack-houses (www.packservice.8m.gr, www.agrotechniki.gr, www.maviel.gr ), PVC films for packaging (www.eurofilm.gr) etc. T hese companies also use their web-sites only to promote their products and they provide contact information and company profiles. Market applications for fertilizer sector appear to be developing relatively slowly. This may be attributed to the consolidated nature of this sector and the heavy reliance of farmers on input supplier expertise, which limits competition. However, some companies have their own websites such as www.nitrofarm.gr , www.humofert.gr , www.life-t.gr. In the seeds sector, a business sector in Greece, which is characterized by great competition, few companies use the Internet as a medium for promotion and advertising. Examples are the web-sites of www.aro-seed.gr, www.agris.gr and www.spirou.gr. Companies related to seed trading are more interested to have a personal relationship with the producer or retailer and they accomplish that with the use of augmented sales force. This example is typical of the way businesses prefer to conduct their transactions in Greece, as the adoption of Internet is in its infancy both for suppliers and for customers and, as a result, there is little trust to the new medium.

Services Many logistical, transport and storage companies use the Internet to advertise their services. The situation is similar to the one of supply inputs i.e. their web-sites are restricted to services information and contact details. Examples are www.frost.gr, www.stathis.com e.t.c. The company cosmoONE Hellas MarketSite S.A. (http://www.cosmoone.gr) offers electronic commerce services for organisations with the development of e- marketplaces and with the use of applications such as e-procurement and e-auctions. The company was constituted in June, 2000 and began its commercial actinity in January 2001. Today, the company implements a horizontal e- marketplace b2bmarketsite and offers the service of electronic auctions b2bauctions. Some of the most important customers of cosmoone are companies of the sectors of services, industry, retail, which implement integrated commercial transaction through the use of applications of cosmoone. The FORTHNET S.A. company , which provides, among others, Internet connection services is developing a project which exploits the mobile communications technology and the ability to transfer images with SMS, and uses the specific application to offer diagnostic services to producers. The pilot project is currently implemented with producers from CRETE. Outputs Most of the companies in the fresh fruits and vegetables sector use the Greek portal www.in.gr to promote their web-sites. These companies use their web-sites primarily for advertising and promoting their companies and products. As a result, they have static web-pages in which they

give information about their company profile and products. Details are provided for each product, including photos and visual graphics. A very small fraction of companies with a website, offer the ability to customers to give orders on-line, while none of them seems to give administrative support to customers, such as to track their orders or to learn more about shipment dates. This fact proves the lack of technological know-how and the inability of executives to deal with the emerging medium. On the contrary, they prefer to accomplish their transactions personally or with the use of other, more familiar means such as telephone and fax. The sub-categories which have web-sites are mainly traders and exporters (www.agro-net.gr, www.amalthea.gr), firms related to organic products (www.biozeus.gr), pack-houses (www.freshfruit.gr, www.panfruit.gr) and producers (www.sitiacoop.gr). Many of these sites have useful links. An example is the www.bionatura.com with links to certification and inspection bodies for organic products. Also on-line trading of products is limited to a small number of sites such as www.smartbuy.gr where traditional sweets made of fresh fruits are sold. The trading actors are rural tourism female co-operations from several regions of Greece. Also, producers have embodied ordering forms to their web-sites such as www.minos-raisins.gr, www.iliossparagi.gr but the transaction is completed by a telephone communication. Additionally, the web-site of the Central Wholesale Market of Athens www.okaa.gr offers products prices and contact information of traders of specific products. As the Internet as a commercial medium, has recently entered the Greek marketplace, more sophisticated ways of e-commerce activities such as auctions and products exchanges are not yet implemented. Their emergence will be true only when executives of these business sectors become more familiarized with the new technologies. Information The first attempt for the establishment and operation of an information network for the agricultural sector was undertaken in the framework of a EU two-year pilot program on telematics elaborated by the FRIENDS. Subsequently, following a private initiative, the http://www.agrinet.gr has been set up and put in operation; this is a network providing information to farmers and information on special topics (legislation, bio-agriculture), on market conditions, on events of importance to the agricultural sector, etc. This network is already being expanded from its original services, while there is a plan for its expansion so that it covers topics relevant not only to agriculture but also issues of a broader interest for citizens living in the countryside, and for all the bodies involved in all stages of the agro-food chain (e.g. businessmen, exporters, etc.). Traditionally magazines and newspapers have provided agricultural producers and traders with news about the sector, product and management developments. Many existing farm management magazines are now online including Froutonea http://www.froutonea.gr, a magazine specialised in the fresh fruits and vegetables sector, which provides up to date market information, prices of products, demand and supply conditions in both Greek and foreign countries as well as business news and announcements. Recently, an online catalog of exporters, wholesalers, pack-house owners and organic producers is launched with registration form for potential members. Additionally, an online catalog of fresh fruits and vegetables retail outlets is prepared and will soon be available online. Another important Greek portal specialised in agricultural issues is the http://www.agrotypos.gr. Apart from producer names and contact information, the site offers links to Scientific journals related to agriculture, Agricultural Ministries in several countries, Farmers organisations, Agricultural statistics and economies, Plant production guides etc. Other useful web-sites which provide market information, weather reports and product movements are also available such as http://www.fruits.gr. In addition to the above, Ministry of Agriculture with http://www.minagric.gr provides important information to producers such as official publications, press releases, reports, market information and statistics, Legislation as well as links to other regulatory bodies. On the international level examples include the European Commission, Agriculture Directorate-General http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/agriculture/index_en.htm the Organisation of Economic , Co-operation and Development http://www.oecd.org, the Food and Agriculture Organisation http://www.fao.org and the World Trade Organisation http://www.wto.org.

5.2. National and international practices


A growing number of individual Internet sites are being developed for agricultural commodities providing information and services around the world 24 hours a day. The following is a list of some of the associations, projects and electronic commerce portals that provide information, training and e-commerce support for people interested in the agricultural and the agribusiness sector. These examples are provided as an indication of sites available on the Internet. WORLD AGRIWEB: Weaving the worlds Agricultural Web for you (http://www3.nis.za/jm/waw.htm has been constructed to provide some stability to the ) wonderful chaos that is the Internet, to provide a logical and clear route to aid users to find agricultural information. It includes agricultural and related mailing lists, online magazines, journals, and newsletters relating to agriculture, links to international and national indices, and search tools. EIARD: European intiative for Agricultural Research for Development Information System (http://dainet.de/eiard/homepage) is a cross index and virtual repository of information about Agricultural research for Development in Europe and Developing countries. The implementation of the Information System EIARD- Infosys will promote coordination at various European levels e.g. information exchange, concentration, exploratory studies for policy development and activities, and to strengthen partnerships between Europe and developing countries. The German Agricultural Information Network (DAINet) http://www.dainet.de the largest searchable catalog for agricultural information on the internet is an information service of the Center for Agricultural documentation and Information (ZADI). AGRARNET.DE (http://www.agrarnet.de) is a web-site with farmers homepages, agranet chat, forums, search and news related to agricultural topics. Agricultural marketing is an initiative of the Institute of Agricultural Economics / Agricultural Marketing (http://www.boku.ac.at/amn/) with research, seminars, and related links. Agrisurf! Is a basic search engine and browser be category patterned simirarly to Yahoo, but with a specific focus on agricultural topics. It includes some unusual topic areas, such as agrotourism, farm safety, farmers markets, and lifestyle. It further includes a calendar of events, news, weather, and polls. Sites are rated for speed and reliability (http://www.agriSurf.com ). Agribiz.com, a free information (http://www.agribiz.com ) resource for the global agricultural community

Agrigator Worldwide Agricultural and Related Information SITE INDEX (http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/AgriGator/ag.htm is a collection of Internet sites and resources that ) provide agricultural and related information. AgNIC Agricultutal Network Information Center (www.agnic.org/) is a distributed network that provides access to agricultural related information, subject area experts, and other resources. It was established by an alliance of the National Agricultural Library, land-grant universities, and other organizations committed to facilitating public access to agricultural and related information. Basically a page of pointers to fulltext information such as conference listing calendars, directories, information systems and databases in all areas of agriculture and natural resources. DIRAGIR: Directories of Agricutlure related internet information Resources (http://www.agnic.org/diragis/ ) points to subject and geographic focused directories of agriculture related information resources in the Internet. A subdirectory entitled Distribution and marketing of Agricutlural Products does exist.

Agrinet International, http://www.agrinetinternational.com provides agricultural and general information for farmers, agents property purchases and the wide agriculture community. Agrinet, http://www.tamu.edu/tamu.edu, is a service of the Texas A & M Agricultural Program developed to provide a single starting point to all agricultural resources on the Internet. The objective is to promote agribusiness and to enhance agricultural product marketing and research. The Greek portal in.gr (http://www.in.gr/agro/) incorporates specific links for agribusiness in Greece. Another example of a web-site presentation is the Information and Support Center for womens employment and Enterpreneurship in the area of Poroia Kerkini/ Greece supported by an international / national NOW project Innovative systems to improve womens qualifications for local business initiatives in the remote agricultural areas of Greece (http://www.uom.gr/now.html) Agrinet.gr is a portal in the Grrek that delivers information and services for Greek users (http://www.agrinet.gr) Foodex is an Electronic Commerce Esprit project, funded by the European Commission. It aims to support the producers of Food and perishable products to promote and export their products to the European Markets (http://www.thessal.singular.gr/foodex) Agromart is an Agricutlural telematic network in the Central Macedonia. It constitutes a pilot model application and the project will be financed by the Region of Central Macedonia and carried out by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (http://www.agromart.gr). Another initiative is developed by the Informatics Laboratory in collaboration with the Vegetable Production Laboratory of the Agricultural University of Athens. More specifically, a horticultural vortal (vertical portal) for Mediterranean countries is being developed, in order to provide a broad range of specialized, certified, quality information and services for targeted users within countries of the Mediterranean basin. The concept of this vortal is based upon linking specialized scientists and producers within a focused environment through the provision of a search engine, a directory of participants in horticulture (e.g. scientists, experts, producers, organisations), directories for pests and diseases, on-line horticultural news, forum or chat rooms, electronic bibliography, educational courses for students and individuals, links with relavant Mediterranean institutions and organisations. Additionally, a pilot educational project named Agroweb is developed within the framework of the MINERVA action for the European Commision (Cr no: 88172-CP-1-2000-1-GR-MINERVAODL). The project aims at the exploitation of ICT for the development of an environment that promotes interdisciplinary approaches and makes full use of capacity of informal learning. Agroweb is an example of the application of ICT in agriculture, in sensitising young people to th agricultural and commercial sector. In the framework of the project students from six European countries collect information about the agricultural products of their regions, which they present and sell through th Internet. Students also endeavour the sale of products through an electronic shop that has the form of an interactive web page. An initiative of the Greek Ministry of Development is the Go-digital action (http://www.goonline.gr, go-net@eommex.gr, godigital@grnet.gr ). Go digital is an action of the Operational Programmes "Information Society" and "Competitiveness" funded by the 3rd Community Support Framework of the European Union. Its main objective is to support small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to connect to the Internet and inform them of the benefits that will be obtained through its usage. For this purpose enterprises are divided in the following three categories: 1. Enterprises with no infrastructure to connect to the internet.

2. Internet ready enterprises with access to the Internet and an active e-mail address. 3. Enterprises that have a web site with the capacity of electronic transactions with customers and/or suppliers (B2C and B2B). Funding is provided to each of these categories to purchase infrastructure and electronic services. Purchase of basic terminal equipment, internet connection for two years and technical support for three years Development of a simple commercial web-page, maintenance and virtual hosting in an ISP for two years After the equipment is installed the local representatives of the consortium organise the first two consecutive visits to provide training to the SME employees. The third visit can be planned later upon prior communication between the eligible parties. Certified instructors will undertake the training and technical support of the SMEs. Instructors will participate in training seminars in order to become familiarised with the use of the Internet services provided by the public sector. An ECDL like test will be used to certify the instructors. The web-site http://www.ebusinessforum.gr is an intiative of the Greek Ministry of Development in the framework of the operational programme Information Society. The web-site offers information on issues of e-marketplaces, and other network applications such as Customer Relationships Management (CRM), Entreprise Resources Planning (ERP), E- marketplaces, Telework, Smart cards. The site offers news, links, publications, and information related to the results and the structural frameworks of the programs implemented.

5.3. Key issues and opportunities


A number of benefits are related to the adoption of e-commerce. These are: E-commerce is reinforcing the trend towards globalization A very important benefit of the utilization of Internet and electronic comme rce is the achievement of a global presence of firms. This fact will give the opportunity to Greek companies in the fresh fruits and vegetables sector to enter new markets, increase their turnover, and thus further develop and expand. E-commerce may offer solutions for a large and fragmented market The agricultural market is large, fragmented and spatially dispersed. E-commerce may offer solutions by integrating individual actors to improve organizational structures. Many aspects of business, even at the farm level, may be managed through the Internet. The internet may improve market reach with limited investments Internet technology provides the opportunity (with limited infrastructure investment) to link individual actors in the fruits and vegetables production irrespective of geographic location. This has the potential to improve market access through online transactions, by reducing geographic obstacles to market reach, such as time and distance. E-commerce may encourage transport and logistical developments Improvements in transport and logistics will inevitably develop in the agri-food sector in parallel with e-commerce. These will not be prohibitive in terms of cost ad may result in rationalization of the multiple tiers involved in the supply chain. Sites with strong links between producers, processors and retailers are likely to become more common.

Opportunities may arise for online co-operatives There may be opportunities for furthering the concept of co-operatives. From the farmers perspective e- Co- operatives could provide a solution for small businesses to increase critical mass. In addition savings can be made on freight costs with group purchases. On the other hand, the adoption of E-commerce is related to some major issues: Physical obstacles remain for physical goods The physical operation involved in delivering products of an acceptable standard to their destination remains. This is a particularly important consideration given the dynamic nature of fresh fruits and vegetables, most of which are perishable and susceptible to spoilage. In addition, producers and retailers are also faced with new challenges including: food safety, traceability and quality standards; year around supply programs; certification and guarantee programs; price regulations and stability; sustainable agriculture and environmental issues which involves data rich decision making processes. This fact must be taken into consideration for the development of e-commerce. Accessibility will be key to acceptance For Internet technology to be adopted, it must not only offer benefits, it must also be accessible to the farmer. Classical farm businesses do not appear to have either the capacity (capital, labour and expertise) or the necessity to set up and maintain sites. Additionally, people occupating in the agricultural sector, which is characterized by low information technology involvement, present the lower level of adoption among other sectors in Greece. The same situation characterizes the customers as Internet users. Figure 42 in the appendix presents the PC and Internet use by sector of employment in Greece. People who are employed in the Banking/ Insurance sector have PC and Internet penetration rates of 53% and 26,5% respectively. For those who are employed in the Agricultural, Fishing and Cattle sector, the corresponding rates are 2% and 0,1%. Additionally, our reserch indicates that the penetration of internet to firms of the sector is rather low. More specifically, companies in the secondary sector, which seem to be more technologically advanced, appear to use the mediun only for promotion of the companies and product information, while a minimum fraction uses the medium for commercial activity (purchases of input supplies or product selling) or participates in auctions. E-commerce developments require more consistent and predictable legal regimes Some of the areas, which come into conflict in the online marketplace are described below: Value added tax: Suppliers may be obliged to add VAT to all sales or under a modified regime tax could be charged according to customer location. Data protection: Differences or absence of data protection regional and national levels may hinder cross-border electronic trade and deter citizens use of communication services. Trade marks: Conflicts may arise when advertising online with national or supernational trademarks in the absence of agreed principles. Authentication and security: Legal security and trust is required in the medium and in order to prevent the appearance of weak links in the chain in countries where security guarantees are insufficient. Consumer protection: Laws and mechanisms providing protection to consumers also require classification. In particular, locating the origin of products, establishing liabilities where these products fall short of the advertising quality standards or prove to be unfit for the intended use. Terms and conditions of contracts: The validity of contracts entered into over the Internet is also uncertain due to the differences between countries and restrictions in understanding conditions while being online.

6. Standards, contracts and Government


6.1. Key legislation
The structural basis of Common Agricultural Policy is mentioned in the articles 38-43 of the Agreement of Rome (March, 1957). The goals of Common Agricultural Policy are: The development of agricultural production and the optimal use of production resources. The guarantee of a sufficient level of living conditions for farmers and rural people. The insurance of markets balance The insurance of markets supply The sufficient level of prices for the consumer The general operating principles of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) are: United marketfree distribution among member counties Preference to products of the European Community Protection of products of the European Community with tariffs to the imported products and subsidies to exported products. Economic solidarity Contribution of each member country to the Community Budget Mechanisms of CAP There are three distinguished sections of actions, in which the numerous measures can be enrolled. 1st section: Measures not directly related either to production itself or to the producers. These measures involve veterinary, plant pathology, seed production, research on food production. Dominant role in this section plays the National Legislation of each country member of s European Community since January 1 t , 1995. With the integration of the internal European market there is a trend to harmonise the EU Legislation with the National Legislatures. 2nd section: Measures involving the production factors (labour, land, capital) attributed as Structural Measures. This section engages more than 10% of the Community Budget directed for the agricultural sector. 3rd section: It involves measures related directly to products such as guaranteed prices, subsidies to production, tariffs to imports, subsidies to exports, quotas, formation of reserved funds etc. Common market organisation for fresh fruits and vegetables. It contains all the fruits and vegetables apart from potato, olives and dates. It was enacted with the European regulation 2200/96 in replacement of the regulation 1035/72. The difference between the new and the old status is based upon the limitation of prices and quantities of withdrawn products as well as the establishment of Operating Offices, in which both the Community and the producers participate with 50%. In the Common Market Organisation there are regulations dictating: Quality standards of fresh fruit and vegetables Producers organisations Inter-occupational organisations and agreements Interventions (eg. withdrawals). Exchange status with foreign countries ( non EU memebers). Controls for legislation observance. General regulations Common Market Organisation of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables is fully presented in the Appendix. Common Market Organisation for processed fruits and vegetables

The basic European Regulation is the 2201/96 and it contains all the fruits and vegetables which are sold as boiled, frozen, maintained in salted water, with sugar addition, marmalades, juices except some processed products stemming from potatoes and peppers. There are regulations dictating: Prices and subsidies Withdrawal Stabilisers, with the aim to reduce the extent of production Exchange status with foreign countries. Common Market Organisation for orange juice It is based on the regulation 2202/96 and covers products such as: lemons, shaddocks, grapefruits, oranges, tangerines.

6.2. Quality Assurance


In order to ensure the hygiene of food products in all the stages of production until the consumption of the products it is necessary to develop quality assurance systems. Such systems are: The ISO 9000 series standards The HACCP system The environmental security systems ISO 1400 Systems of hygiene and security of workforce. According to the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO): Quality is the total of attributes of products related to their ability to satisfy the consumers expressed or implied needs. Quality assurance: The scheduled and systematic actions required to ensure that the products covers the consumers needs. Quality assurance systems: The organisational structure, the responsibilities, the procedures and the means of implementing quality assurance. The HACCP system (Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points) is a systematic analysis of control of the whole production procedure beginning from the receiving of resources and ending with the consumption of the product by the end consumer. The use of HACCP is mandatory for all the food production companies. Important is the role of the Directive of European Community L 93/43 for the hygiene of food products in which the term of HACCP is mentioned. The HACCP system is implemented and certified by the certification bodies such as: Organisation for Certification and Supervision of Agricultural products: AGROCERT Greek Organisation of Standardisation (ELOT) Agrocert BVQI TUV As well as other foreign companies related to the certification of quality assurance.

6.3. Main environmental legislation


In Greece, the protection of the environment is anticipated in the constitution of 1975. The most important laws enacted for environmental protection, which are related to fresh fruits and vegetables production and marketing are: Law 721/77 Concerning the circulation and control of agricultural remedies. This law determines the prerequisites of circulation of agricultural remedies, the control of which is conducted in the Benakio Institute of Plant Pathology. Ministerial decision 300 481/ FEK B/ 724 / 11 10 1984 Determination of supreme limits of residues of agricultural remedies on the surface and in fresh fruits and vegetables. The regulations of this decision attune to the supreme limits of residues of the legislatures of EU and specify the law 721/77. According to this decision It is forbidden to trade fresh fruits and vegetables (mentioned in Appendix I of the decision) in the internal market of Greece and in all the member counties of EU, if they contain

residues exceeding the supreme limits mentioned. The appendix I of the decision specify a great number of fresh fruits and vegetables while appendix II names the values of the supreme limits of agricultural remedies. Law 1650/ FEK A / 160/ 16 10 86 For environmental protection. One f the goals of this law is the conservation of ecological balance. It is aiming at the protection and maintenance of nature and physical landscape, the protection of seas, shores, rivers, lakes and their bottom, as well as the protection of islets as natural resources. It forbids the change of use of both agricultural and forestry lands. It introduces the legislation of subjective responsibility, the institution the polluter pays and the legislation and procedure of studies on environmental effects and environmental responsibilities

6.4. Subsidies and incentive schemes


The Greek Ministry of Agriculture has an overall strategy for agricultural development which will be succeeded with a range of Operational Programs, the most important of which are the following: 1. The Operational Program Agricultural development Reorganization of countryside 2000 2006. The programs has a total budget of 2,934,702 . The Ministry of Agriculture has the administration responsibility. The program includes 7 priority axis, which include a total of 34 measures. The priority axis are: 1. Integrated interventions at the agricultural exploitation level. It includes actions related to investments in agricultural exploitations and to the seasonability of the Agriculturers register. 2. Interventions at the standardisation, processing and marketing level of the primary sector and forestry. It includes actions related to the improvement of competitiveness of agricultural products regarding quality and hygiene as well as the covering of markets needs and expectations. It will also aim at the environmental protection and the improvement of the producers income. It aims at the establishment of or the updating of existing establishments of the sector. 3. The improvement of composition of the rural populations age. Its scope is the easing off the problem due to the aging of the rural population by enforcing the introduction of young people to rural areas. It is aiming at the replacement of 14.000 farmers. 4. The improvement of the supportive mechanisms for the information dissemination to rural population with the use of innovative technologies. It will implement the upgrading of agricultural education establishments so as the vocational training and instruction of the rural population be accomplished. It also includes actions for the promotion of quality products and high added value products, their promotion in new markets, the increase of exports with the simultaneous decrease of the dependence on subsidies. 5. Interventions at the product level. It includes measures concerning methods of integrated farming, organic farming so that environmental protection can be accomplished. The implementation of these systems also aims at the reduction of production costs as well as the reduction of residues for the protection of public health. 6. Development and protection of natural resources. This axis includes implementation of irrigation projects and measures for the sustainable development of forests and ecologically sensitive areas. 7. Development of rural places measures. The measures included are among others, the development of a sufficient network for trading agricultural products and differentiation of agricultural activities so that producers can raise their income. 2. European Community Initiative LEADER PLUS with a total budget of 234,776,228 with the aim to establish and promote integrated and innovative strategies in sustainable agriculture development and production of high quality products. 3. The 13 Regional Operational Programs 2000 2006 with a total budget of 1,417,461,482 and the aim to support a big number of investments in agriculture, to finance irrigation projects and to implement integrated development programs of agricultural sector in relation to the National programs. Also, in Regional Operational Programs are included sectoral actions such as reorganizing of cultivations, re-establishments, greenhouses etc.

6.5. Infrastructure, credit and insurance


INFRASTRUCTURE It is fact that the trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and especially the exports depends a great deal upon macro-economic conditions as well as other factors such as infrastructure, road network etc. which contribute to a large extent to the competitiveness of products. Important factors are the transport infrastructure, the distributiion channels, issues concerning packaging materials, chemical pesticides on products, the market structure (wholesalers and retailers) as well as the organisational and structural framework of trade. The issues related to road and transport infrastructure are analysed in this section. The transport of fresh fruits and vegetables in Greece, espacially the exported ones, has always comprised a severe problem, which has worsen with the belligerent conditions in former Yugoslavia. The most common way of transportation for fresh fruits and vegetables in Greece is road transportation, especially for fresh fruits and vegetables, the biggest proportion of which are directed to markets of Central and West Europe. An important factor which must be considered is the location of products loading. According to the avalable records from the Ministry of Agriculture fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly loaded fron the following locations: 55% from Central and West Macedonia 27% from Peloponese 10% from Crete 4% from West Sterea Ellada 4% from East Macedonia and Thace whlie 75% of processed fruits and vegetables are loaded from North Greece (Macedonia and Thrace). As a result, the inneficient road networks due to the belligerent conditions in former Yugoslavia, are disastrouts for the exports trade of products. To this direction, important role will play the completion of Egnatia Road ( o road axis which will connect Igoumenitsa with Alexandroupoli) and the impovement of the road network which connects Kalamata with Igoumenitsa. Additionally, very important to the improvement of the situation are the settlements to the problem of providing licences for the crossing of several countries such as Austria, Switzerland and Italy for products directed to markets of Central and West Europe. Regarding marine transportations, they must be enhanced, especially fom products originating from Crete, and facilitated with the supply of reefer vessels and reefer containers. Additionally, it is necessary to develop the railway transport of products which is not adequately developed today. The issue of railway transportation is becoming mandatory, also due to the use of multiple use euro-pallete which can not be transported by the Greek trucks for road transportation. CREDIT Agricultural Bank of Greece provides loans to producers with favorable conditions. Depending the provided insurance, the goal and the duration loaning is divided in the following categories: a) Personal: It is based in the creditability of the person who gets the loan. b) Property: It is ensured with property elements (pledge, mortgage). A term used also is the agricultural pledge paper, with which the person who gets the loan pays off with the product. According to the goal, agricultural loans are divided in: a) Landed loans: for land purchase b) Loans for improvement: for irrigation projects, for building construction, for plant establishing. c) Loans for yearly expenditures: cultivation loans According to the duration of loans, it is divided in: a) Short-term loans: With a duration less than a year for covering of working capital needs (seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides etc.) b) Mid-term loans: With a duration less than 8 years for covering needs for machinery and other production means purchase such as irrigation equipment. c) Long-term loans: for the obtaining of consolidated property elements eg. Land, buildings, facilities etc.

INSURANCE Agricultural population in concerned both for insurance related to the agricultural population and for insurance of the production capital from bad weather conditions and bad market conditions (imbalance of demand and supply). In the conventional sense of insurance are included the insurance of production capital and products. Although, there might be insurance against the uncertainty of markets. Insurance of this kind comprise the intervention mechanisms included in the framework of Common Organization of Markets for fresh fruits and vegetables enacted by the European Community. In Greece, the full insurance system for producers and agricultural production was enacted in 1961 with the law 4169/61 Concerning agricultural insurance, by which the Organization of Agricultural Insurance (OGA) was established. The primary goals of OGA were to provide: Pension to farmers Health insurance to farmers and to their family members Compensation for damages caused to production by hail of frost. With the law 1790/88 the Organization of Greek Agricultural Insurance (ELGA) was established in which were transferred the responsibilities of organizing and implementing active protection and insurance of agricultural production and capital. The insurance covers the plant and land capital. In practic e, only the production of plant production is implemented. The active protection refers mainly to protection of hail and frosts. The formative law of ELGA anticipates the insurance of production for damages caused by natural or other reasons. Practically, the covered dangers are: hail, frost, windstorm, flood, extreme heat, excessive of untimely rain falls.

6.6. Key issues


Some important issues regarding legislation and infrastructure affect the sector of fresh fruits and vegetables and more generally the agricultural sector. An analysis of the issues follows: The transformation of Common Agricultural Policy has led to the distortion of the producers. The new legal framework demand a change in cultivation practices as well as a redirection of production to new products and high quality products. These changes are difficult to be accomplished by Greek farmers who are mainly over aged and less informed than producers in other European countries. Additionally, the new environmental legislation demands that the producers reduce the amounts of agrochemicals they use and generally demands that the cultivation of production is in accordance with environmental protection. This trend finds unprepared the Greek producers who are used to employ large quantities of agrochemicals for the cultivation of products. Another issue is the trend towards high quality products, based in the consumers preferences for more hygienic nutrition. As a result the quality and commercial standards of products have become very high and the foreign market have become very demanding in quality issues. Thus, the Greek fresh fruits and vegetables are characterized as less competitive than products from countries that have already adopted those measures. A first step must be the adoption of quality measures in the internal market, which so far is not necessary for the commercialization of products and thus, makes the producers prefer to promote their products only internally so as to avoid the high quality standards. This makes the sector of fresh fruits and vegetables rather introvert and less competitive to the foreign markets. Finally, some issues concerning the improvement of road infrastructure as well as the upgrade of transportation network would facilitate the conditions of marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables which are considered as the more perishable products.

7. Employment, education, research and extension


7.1. General employment issues in horticulture
The most augmented category of employment in Greece is that of specialised people employed in the primary sector (17.2%). In the agriculture, livestock and forestry sector this category comprises the 97.7%. The main types of employment in the agriculture, livestock and forestry sector as well as the corresponding percentages are presented in table XVI in the appendix. The biggest proportion of people activating in the agriculture, livestock and forestry have only elementary education (79.8%), while only 1.8% has university education. Table XVII in the appendix provided the corresponding percentage for each education level. Another important notice is that the contribution of farmers to the processing industry is almost 0% with only 27 producers reported to activate in the sector. The low involvement of farmers to the processing sector i an indication of the small integration between the layers of the value chain. This s condition is necessary for the increase of the products competitiveness and the improvement of coordination. Specialised technicians primarily comprise the processing sector. The number of people employed in the processing sector as well as the corresponding percentages, are also reported in table XVI. Contrary to the fact that the articulation of employment remains rather stable in the short term, several changes have occurred during the time period: 1996 1999. The most important changes, related to the agricultural sector are: The category of specialised farmers, stock breeders, foresters and fishermen, has decreased its contribution to the total employment from 19.8% in 1996 to 17.2% in 1999. However, specific categories in the agricultural sector present an increase. For example, tobacco and cotton producers have a decreasing progress, while fresh fruits and vegetables producers are increasing. Also, the category o small business in processing and packing of fresh fruits and f vegetables presents an increasing progress. However, it has not reached the expected levels. Also, there is an increase in the employment of women, not only in the category of farmers but also in the processing sector. In the different stages of production procedure, beginning with the production of fresh fruits and vegetables and ending with their consumption, several job types and responsibilities are taking place. A schematic diagram is provided in the appendix (Figure 47), to explain the structure of production procedure and to present the main job types and responsibilities. A detailed analysis of the main job types as well as the associated responsibilities follows: Producer: They comprise the most important job type in the production procedure, as they are involved in almost all of its stages. In Greece, the role of producer is confined only in the primary sector. This is a fact, which does not allow producers to obtain great economic advantages. Only a small fraction of producers is involved in the following stages of the production procedure. The development of agricultural exploitations, which will operate to the whole value chain, is important for the increase of economic profits of the producers. On the other hand, it will provide a great stimulus to the fresh fruits and vegetables sector. Intermediaries: They are the link between producers and the companies activating in the secondary sector. Without participating in the production procedure to a great extent, they have managed to obtain substantial profits, usually by aggravating the producers incomes, and, to a lesser extent the consumers incomes (with the raised product prices). Pack-houses and storage facilities: The secondary sector of fresh fruits and vegetables is not developed to the expected degree. As a result, much of the attention of the government and national authorities in directed to this issue. Another reason enforcing the development of the sector is owed to the high quality standards posed by the markets of the developed countries. The companies activating in this area obtain

substantial profits, as there is an adequate price difference between commodities and packaged fruits and vegetables. Processing companies: Similar to the just mentioned job types, the processing companies are not yet expanded and developed as expected. This notwithstanding, the commercialization of fresh fruits and vegetables is rather low. The development of this sector will also improve the competitiveness of the Greek products to foreign markets. Traders: The market of fresh fruits and vegetables is characterized as large and fragmented. Thus, many small local markets exist, while there are only two central wholesales markets in Greece, in which significant amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables are traded. Importers Exporters: As it was mentioned earlier in this study, fresh fruits and vegetables sector is the most forceful, to the agricultural exports equilibrium of Greece. However, the small growth of the packaging and the processing sectors as well as the lack of sufficient marketing channels results to the phenomena of importing expensive and exporting cheap products. Still, companies activating in this area gain substantial profits, which proves the significance of the sector. Electronic commerce Advertising: These two job types comprise only a small proportion of the companies activating in the sector. Electronic commerce is still in its infancy in Greece, but many prospects are viable. Greek companies must also activate to this medium, in order to have a global presence and not to remain speculators of the trends in the changing business environment.

7.2. Vocational training and education


Agricultural education and training in Greece were not adequately developed until the recent years, since the adoption of formal qualifications was not necessary to producers, in order to be in the producer profession. After the incorporation of Greece to the European Community, agricultural education and training were restructured, as they comprise the primary objects of Common Agricultural Policy. The emphasis was given to the education of young farmers, to the newcomers of the farming sector (obliged to training L. 797/85), to the successors of farm exploitations (L. 2328/91 and L. 950/97) and to a lesser extent to the secondary vocational training. Today, several Institutions provide agricultural vocational education and training in Greece. I. University Education

Agricultural University education is provided by: The Agricultural University of Athens. The university consists of 7 departments (schools), which provide university education in several areas in agriculture, apiculture, stockbreeding and food processing. Among others, the departm ent of crop sciences has two laboratories: the laboratory of vegetables production and the laboratory of pomology whereas issues of these cultivation types are thoroughly examined. The University is also a significant research center, with experimental fie lds and laboratories stocked with advanced technology equipment, in which several research projects are conducted every year. The University is also equipped with experimental greenhouses, in which research projects related to production yield, varieties sensitivity to diseases and pests etc. are conducted. The Aristotle University of Thessalonica. The University consists of several departments, which provide university education on sciences and technology. One of the departments is the faculty of Geotechnical sciences. It is one of the most important departments of the University. The University also owns a university farm in which many research programmes are conducted. The University of Thessaly. One of the departments of the specific University is the Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Agricultural Environment. The University of Ioannina. The Department of Natural Resources and Enterprise Management has two schools representing the broader areas of knowledge. These are: Environmental and Natural Resources Management and Farm Organisation and Management.

The Demokritean University of East Macedonia Thrace. The 13 Institutes of Technical Education located in 10 different cities of Greece. II. Secondary Agricultural continuous training) Vocational Education (Initial education and

The National Institutes, which are responsible for the supply of Agricultural Vocational Education and Training, are: The Ministries of Agriculture (initial and continuous training), Education (initial training) and Labour (apprenticeship schools and continuous training). A schematic diagram is provided in the appendix for the better understanding of the agricultural vocational education and training system (Figure 46). Ministry of Education is responsible for the supply of the conventional school education. In the school year 2000 2001, specialties of agricultural concern were attained in 95 Technical Educational Establishments. Additionally, Ministry of Education supervises the action of the Organisation of Vocational Education and Training (OEEK), in the framework of which operate the Institutes of Vocational Training (IEK). Ministry of Labour has under its supervision 196 Centers of Vocational Training, located in the 13 constituencies of Greece. In the CVTs training courses and seminars are conducted, especially for unemployed in the framework of the programme of continuous training, so that they acquire the necessary knowledge and skills, and become more competitive in the labour market. Ministry of Agriculture has established the Organisation of Vocational Education, Training and Employment Organisation O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA for the efficient settlement of the agricultural education and training problem. The Organisation was established by law (2520/97) in 1997 with the aim to upgrade agricultural education and training. The Organisation owns 13 Technical Education Establishments, in which secondary vocational education is provided. Additionally, in the 68 DIMITRA Centers, a substantial number of seminars and training courses are conducted, in the fields of agriculture and rural tourism within the framework of continuous training. Currently, 150 training courses have been scheduled and will be attended by 3.500 farmers. The objectives of the Ministry of Agriculture are the overall organisation of Agricultural education on a national scale, the consolidation of the agricultural profession and the enactment of the Green Certificate, the owners of which will benefit from special treatments and facilities. The involvement of the three Ministries to the Organisation of agricultural education results to structural problems. One reason is the lack of flexibility of the current system and the other is that the classification into initial and continuous training for the agricultural sector is rather difficult, since it is directly correlated with the European Community sources of financing, which are determined by a number of regulations. Regarding the infrastructure and personnel, O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA has the upper hand, but there are still improvements and investments to be made in order to reach the expected condition. An Instructors record was also developed, so that the most appropriate instructors to be chosen for each seminar or training course. The aim is to provide the trainees the necessary qualifications and skills. Additionally, there is also a plan to stock the Organisation s structures with the necessary infrastructure and modern supervisory remedies (PCs, Videos). The correct articulation of the agricultural vocational education and training system is of great importance for the fresh fruits and vegetables sector, which claims a great deal of expertise and specialized skills not only for the production stage but also for the post harvest activities. The continuous progress that fresh fruits and vegetables sector presents makes the vocational education and training in these fields a priority. As can be observed from available records, 40 45% of the TEEs of the Ministry of Education as well as 3 of the TEEs of O.G.E.E.K.A DIMITRA are specialised in the fresh fruits and vegetables sector. Special attention is given also to the continuous training, and most of the scheduled training courses in the DIMITRA Centers will refer extensively to issues related to the production, postharvest and marketing techniques for fresh fruits and vegetables. Significant contribution to continuous vocational training is provided by PASEGES i.e. The Pan Hellenic Confederation of Agricultural Co-operations, through its Centers for Vocational Training. Having extensive knowledge of the issues concerning the production as well as the trading procedures, the executives of PASEGES are conducting a range of educational programs related to the agricultural sector. In the year 1999-2000, 33 programs, most of which refer to fresh fruits and vegetables, were conducted for the training of 950 farmers.

As it was earlier mentioned, agricultural vocational education and training aims to supply the producers and people occupatinf in the farm sector with the necessary knowledge and skills, so as to overcome easily and efficintly the issues related to the production procedure. O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA, during the planning stage of its educational and training programs has focused its attention on issues related to the proper developement of skills. Also, the strucure of programs is such that programs can: Provide continuous training to farmers (educational circle), Connect the labour market demands with the qualifications offered by the programs Determine the needs of trainees Connect the education with training and employment practices. In order to obtain these objectives, O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA is in continuous contact and cooperation with social authorities and carriers (members of most of these Organisations are members of the board of directors of O.G.E.E.K.A DIMITRA), with cooperations and producer groups. O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA is in a contituous effort to improve the educational and training programs for farmers. I this context, the Organisation organises and participates in meeting n with other educational Institutes with the aim to exchange knowledge and experience on agricultural vocational education and training issues. 7.2.1. Training centers Vocational Technical Education offered by OGEEKA DIMITRA corresponds to Cycle A of the Greek legislation for the Technical Education studies, equivalent to post-compulsory schooling. Secondary Compulsory Education (Gymnasium) graduates are admissible to the VTEEs without examinations, regardless of their year of graduation. Attendance is free of any charge. Cycle A studies last two years (four-months periods) and students are taught both, general educations courses and technical lessons, on one hand in theory and on the other in laboratories or in production line or in both, according to their specialisation. At the moment, the specialisations offered by the VTEEs of DIMITRA and the regions where each one is located are as follows : Agricultural Machinery Technicians : LARISSA, THESSALIA Animal Husbandry Technicians : LARISSA, THESSALIA Horticulture Technicians : ATHENS, ATTICA Apiculture Technicians : ATHENS, ATTICA Dairy Farming Technicians : IOANNINA, EPIRUS Greenhouse Technicians : IRAKLIO, CRETA Processing and Standardization of Local Products Technicians : KOMOTINI, THRAKI Viniculture Vinification Technicians : NEMEA, PELOPONESE Extensive Cultivation Crops Technicians : DRAMA, MACEDONIA Animal feed Production Technicians : ORESTIADA, THRAKI Agro-Tourism Executives : KARPENISI, CENTRAL GREECE Animal Husbandry Technicians : KOZANI, MACEDONIA Wood carving Furniture Decoration Technicians : KALABAKA, THESSALIA Appellation of Origin of Highest Quality Technicians: LESVOS, EAST AEGEAN SEA ISLANDS Extensive Cultivation Crops Technicians : KARDITSA, THESSALIA

The total number of teaching personnel in each VTEE varies from 10 to 17 people. The courses of general education are taught by graduates of corresponding universities, while specialist courses by Agronomists, graduates of Institutes of Technical Education, which usually do not have educational expertise. Additionally, some courses are taught by agronomists who have just graduated and they are implementing their practical exercise. Apart from the teaching personnel, the VTEE are staffed by non-teaching personnel, responsible for administrative activities. The administrative personnel varies from 3 to 22 people, most of them are administrative clerks, technicians, office-cleaners, guards etc. Great differentiation is observed, regarding the non educational staff of VTEEs. In some cases the infrastructure, the number of students and the offered services (boarding houses) justify the number of people employed. Also, great differentiation is observed regarding the available land areas, the size of buildings and the number of teaching classes to the VTEEs of O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA. Great availability of land area and extension opportunities appear in the VTEEs with long teaching tradition such as the VTEEs in Ioannina, in Larissa and in Crete. It is important to notice that, contrary to the extended land areas, the available space for teaching classes are minimum and do not reach the acceptable levels posed by requirements. The assistant rooms are satisfactory and they involve, boarding houses, storage facilities, offices and restaurants. These buildings (most of which are of historical value) need repairing. In some VTEEs the laboratory are hosted by other companies and institutes. Three TEEs own greenhouses for practical exercise and six own farms. In some TEEs, the farms used for educational purposes are leased by the municipalities and other local authorities. The laboratory infrastructure is sufficient in one VTEE ( in Kalambaka), average in some VTEEs (Karpenisi, Orestiada, Kozani and Lesvos) and inadequate in some others (Karditsa and Drama). VTEEs are also stocked with libraries which contain mainly school books and some scientific writings. The library of the VTEE in Crete contains old scientific writings (by donation) and that of the VTEE in Larissa contains old valuable scientific volumes. In addition to the VTEEs, O.G.E.E.K.A DIMITRA owns 68 centers for agricultural vocational education throughout Greece, the so-called DIMITRA centers. In the centers several seminars and continuous training programs on agricultural issues are conducted in order to provide farmers the appropriate skills and qualification. These establishments are located in almost every city of Greece. However, many of those malfunction due to lack of personnel and equipment. 7.2.2. Training Materials Training materials for general education Students books: In most of the VTEEs, training materials for the school lessons are provided to students. The books provided are mainly books of the VTEEs of the Ministry of Education. For lessons that are not included in the training programs of the Ministry of Education, there are no school books or commercial books are used. Teachers books: There are no teachers books available for the specialty lessons. Training materials for laboratory courses Students books: For laboratory courses which are included in training programs of the Ministry of Education, specific books published by the Ministry of Education are used. But in most cases, notes are kept by students and sometimes teachers provide students with their notes. Teachers books: There are no teachers books available for the specialty lessons. Supervision Training Means Most of the VTEEs are supplied with supervisory training means (transparency projectors, Television, Video, slide projectors). Yet, there are some VTEEs which do not have these facilities.

7.2.3. Educational and Vocational Training programmes As it is already mentioned earlier in this section, a great impact factor for the development and increase of competitiveness of the fresh fruits and vegetables sector is agricultural vocational education and training. People involving in the supply chain of fresh fruits and vegetables, should be qualified with the necessary k nowledge and skills, and, additionally, they should be informed about the emerging trends in the business environment as well as the advances in science and technology. Thus, continuous vocational training to these people, is considered mandatory for the better implementation of business practices and business success. Evaluating the available records, leads us to the conclusion that inadequate attention is paid to the issue. In the framework of our cooperation will several Institutes and Organisations, which implement vocational training, we concluded that the common fields of continuous vocational training involves crop science and production as well as arboriculture issues. In these training courses, the topic of fresh fruits and vegetables production comprises only a small educational unit while no special training programs for the sector exist. The continuously upward contribution of fresh fruits and vegetables to the agricultural products balance sheet and the increasing need for know how, make imperative the formation of training programs, specialised in fresh fruits and vegetables. The educational Institutions and organization, having already detected the need for such programs, design the implementation of such, specialised products. As a indication we present some: Greenhouse cultivation for vegetables and fruits Vegetables production Potato cultivation Tomato cultivation Citrus production Apples production Organic Citrus production Organic Vegetables production Procesing, standardisation and packaging of fresh fruits and vagetables.

7.3. Research
The research programs related to fresh fruits and vegetables are mainly conducted at the Benakio Plant Pathology Institute, The National Institute of Agriculture Research and the Agricultural Universities (Athens University of Agriculture, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki). The number of research programs for fresh fruits and vegetables exceeds the 200 per year and involve a wide range of research areas. The most important research programs conducted this year are: Development of biotechnology methods for the production of healthy of multiplying material. Development and resistance evaluation of varieties of tomato and watermelon. Trials of pathogen of isolations of the fungi Phytophthora nicotianae in tomato plants. Confrontation of soil domesticated fungi Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium oxysporum in asparagus cultivation with the use of biosterilization and sun-sterilization alone or in combination with sterilized soil. Evaluation of tomato varieties and hybrids for resistance to the fungi Alternaria solani. Study of the infection of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae to imported potato seed. Immunizing, Pathogenic and cultivation control of imported from European and American countries potato seed for the ascertainment of Clavibacter michiganensis infection. Biologic confronting of plant cancer in arboriculture Additionally, many Universities implement research projects every year in their laboratories and research farms. The Agricultural University of Athens has undertaken many research programs in the fields of fresh fruits and vegetables production and post-harvesting. The main research programs are provided below: Improvement of cultivation and conservation with frost of local abandoned varieties of fruits. Development of environmental cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables Environmental cultivation of vegetables Embryo-cultivation of peaches.

Many other research programs of the same context are conducted in the other Agricultural Universities of Greece. They are focusing more on issues related to the production of fresh fruits and vegetables, rather than on marketing issues.

7.4. Names of the main Organisations and responsibilities


Agricultural Vocational Education and Training University Level Agricultural University education is provided by: The Agricultural University of Athens. The Aristotle University of Thessalonic,. faculty of Geotechnical sciences. The University of Thessaly, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Agricultural Environment. The University of Ioannina, Department of Natural Resources and Enterprise Management. The Demokritean University of East Macedonia Thrace. The 13 Institutes of Technical Education located in 10 different cities of Greece. Secondary Level Organization of Agricultural Vocational Education, Training and Employment O.G.E.E.K.A DIMITRA (Initial Education in VTEEs, Continuous training in DIMITRA centers. Ministry of Education (Initial education in VTEEs) Ministry of Labour (Continuous Vocational Training in corresponding Centers) Pan- Hellenic Association of Agricultural Cooperatives ( Continuous Vocational training) Agricultural research Benakeio Insitute of Plant Pathology National Agricultural Research Foundatio n Universities of Agricultural Education Mediterranean Institute of Agriculture in Chania, Crete Certification Bodies Organisation of Certification and Supervision of Agricultural Products: AGROCERT National Organisation of Standardisation (ELOT) "Dio" Private cerfification body for Organic products SOGE, Private cerfification body for Organic products. Fysiologiki, Private cerfification body for Organic products Departments and Subordinate Organisations of the Ministry of Agriculture Department Department Department Department of of of of Processing, Standardisation and Quality Control of crops production and exploitment of fresh fruits and vegetables plant protection input supplies for crops

Chambers of commerce, Unions Organisation of Central Wholesale Market of Athens Organisation of Central Wholesale Market of Thessaloniki Pan Hellenic Union of Agricultural Cooperations EEBE Union of Professional Organic Producers in Greece "Rea", the "Scientific Society for Organic Agriculture

7.5. Key issues and opportunities


The main problems in agricultural vocational education and training are: Lack of specialised educational workforce. Need to upgrade the quality of information. Need to stock the educational structures with technologically advanced tools for vocational guidance. Lack of appropriate educational material. Lack of homogeneity and low educational level of people employed in the agricultural sector. The inability of agricultural vocational education planning to take into consideration the needs and conditions of the contemporary business environment. Lack of communication and coordination among Educational Institutes.

7.6. Related programmes


Similar projects are conducted at this time period n Greece. One project operating in the Framework of the Leonardo da Vinci program is entitled Electronic commerce of agricultural products and rural tourism services. It is a mobility project implemented by the Institute of Vocational Training in Didimoticho. The proposed project intends to improve the ability of young people undergoing vocational training to meet the demands of the labour market. This will be achieved by offering them the opportunity to acquire improved vocational qualifications in the field of electronic markets as well as to develop a range of core skills. The target group which the project is addressed to is young people in initial vocational training and specifically in the field of informatics. The beneficiaries will be placed in an Italian Institute where they will be taught: A) How to design, create, maintain and update websites concerning enterprises, and, in particular SMEs that produce ecologic products or offer agrotouristic services and B) how to promote, improve and broaden the presence of these enterprises in the Internet. Emphasis will be given on the qualifications that will be acquired by each beneficiary who, after evaluation procedures, will be granted with a certificate that will confirm the quality and the type of skills acquired. The dissemination and the results will be achieved through a website that will be created, a CD-Rom and regional meeting that will be conducted by the beneficiaries themselves. The specific program indicates the movement towards the need for education and training regarding the new trends of production and marketing of agricultural products and the use of the new mediums such as the Internet and the World Wide Web. This need has been recognised and the implementers of such projects must be in direct link and to communicate so that synergies be achieved for the better dissemination of the deliverables of the various projects, thus achieving economies of scope in the fields of agricultural education and training. The Greek Ministry of Development has developed the initiatives Go-digital which aims to support small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to connect to the Internet and inform them of the benefits that will be obtained through its usage (see Chapter 5). The project also involves training programs for the owners of the SMEs in order to familiarise them with the emerging ICT technologies. A rather informational web-site is the http://www.ebusinessforum.gr also developed by the Greek Ministry of Development. An educational programme for the training of 76.000 instructors with subject Training of Instructors for the exploitment of ICT technology in education. The training programme involves the training of 76.000 trainers of primary and secondary education regarding the adoption of basic knowledge and skills of the use of ICT in education.The educational programme will be implemented in the centers of support of training which are equipped with the necessary infrastructure. Additionally several activities and seminars are conducted by the Greek Ministry of Development regarding issues such as e training etc.

7.7. International Initiatives


The Czech University of Agriculture in Prague (CUA) is successfully implementing education of ICT experts in Agricultural Universities. The scope of the implementation of such training programmes is based in the premise that people who wish to implement ICT in the agro-food sector, besides being experts in ICT issues, in the same time should also communicate with farmers, tradesmen, offices and legal authorities. In this context, a curricula with a well balanced composition and a mixture of agricultural, economic and informatics courses was developed. Graduates profile is characterised as well balanced, consisting of biological, economics, management and informatics disciplines. This very good profile offers them the ability to achieve better careers and solve the problem of unemployment.

7.8. Training, research and extension needs


The broad framework for the intervention and the implementation of agricultural vocational education, training and information dissemination is the understanding of the high correlation between agricultural education and agricultural development. It is a fact that the educational level of people in the agricultural sector is rather low (table XVII in the appendix). Additionally, the first records of the population census in 2001 indicate that only 3% of the rural population has been systematically trained on agricultural issues. However, according to the review records of O.G.E.E.K.A. DIMITRA, the corresponding percent is 13%. Whatever the percent reflecting the true situation, agricultural education is very limited and needs to be expanded. Today, it is admitted by everyone that knowledge and development of business activity are two necessary dimensions for the development and the upgrade of agricultural production in general, and the fresh fruits and vegetables production in particular, in the contemporary conditions of the proliferation of trade and the culmination of competition. In order to improve the competitiveness of the Greek farm exploitations, a multilateral support from the Ministry of Agriculture is required. This approach is based in the philosophy that the modern producer is a businessman who must: Have extensive knowledge on new production techniques. Be familiarized with sales and marketing techniques and procedures. Be efficient in communication with other companies or agencies. Additionally, he must: Be familiarized with the emerging technologies. Have knowledge on storage, post-harvest activities and processing of products. And the most important of all: He must deeply respect the environment, which the fundamental life source. This complex role of the producer prescribes the need for continuous vocational training and information dissemination. It also prescribes the duty of the State to provide vocational education and training services to farmers and rural population in general. It also obligates the Educational mechanism to reach the most distanced places of the country, with the use of innovative technologies, to provide educational support and services. It is also necessary that the educational institutes elaborate and propose new solutions for the continuous training and information dissemination of the remote rural population, such as distance learning and teleducation, with objectives: The direct access to learning Equal learning opportunities Quality of provided education As a result, it is necessary to propose solutions based in Information Technology, which will not provoke fear to the producers. On the contrary, they must be user friendly, helping everyone to confront not only the lack on professional knowledge, but also digital illiteracy, which is typical for the people of the agricultural sector. Additionally, the fresh fruits and vegetables sector is considered as one of the most dynamic production sector of the Greek agriculture, holding a very big proportion of exports and presenting increasing trends in the production quantities for the most products. As such, people employed in the sector should have special knowledge and skills regarding the production and marketing of fresh fruits and research. It is thus, essential to research and promote training

programs, not only in the context of initial vocational training but also in the context of continuous vocational training which will be researched in the sector. It seems that the training needs of the people employed in the sector cover all the areas from production to marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. Additionally, it is necessary to provide information about the new trends in production and marketing, the production of quality products, organic products as well as training about innovative cultivation practices such as integrated farming. The proper training and information dissemination would be a great tool that would encourage the competitiveness and the extroversion of the sector.

8. Relevant publications and contact names and addresses


Several publications conducted in the field of production and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. A list of relative publications follows: Economics and production capacity of oranges in Greece. Authors: Ch. Zioganas, G. Kitsopanidis, E. Panagiotou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (1989) Integrated Insect pest management for citrus in Northern Mediterranean countries. Author: P. Katsogiannos, Benakio Institute of Plant Pathology (1996). Citrus Fruits in Greece and EU. Author: M. Kazas. Nea thesis Processed Vegetables. Author: D. Karsamba. IOVE, Unit of Industry sector esearch and information dissemination (1993) Selected fresh vegetables. ICAP (1994) Frozen vegetables. Authors: P. Athanasopoulos, L. Papakonstantinidis. Agricultural Bank of Greece, Department of planning and research studies. (1987). The marketing and distribution system for fresh fruits and vegetables in Greece. Authors: I. Kazakos, C. Papathanassiou, E. Sgouraki. Agricultural Bank of Greece, Department of planning and research studies. (1978). Cooling technology in conservation and tra nsportation of fresh fruits and vegetables. Agricultural Bank of Greece, Department of education and training. (1990). Conserved Vegetables. Industry Analysis ICAP. (1991). Packaging and standardisation of fresh fruits and vegetables. Authors: G. Vamvoukas, A. Drivas, A. Papadimitriou. IOVE, Unit of Industry sector esearch and information dissemination (1988) Canned Vegetables, Canned Fruits, Frozen Vegetables. IOVE. (1982) Post-harvest physiology and fresh fruits and vegetables technology. Author: E. Sfakiotakis typoMAN (1995) Second International symposium on protected cultivation of vegetables in mild winter climates: Iraklion Crete, Greece. International Society of Horticultural Science (1991) Agricultural research organization in the developing world. Author: E. Trigo, International Service for National Agricultural Research (1987). Priority setting in Agricultural Research, International Service for National Agricultural Research (1988). Monitoring and Evaluation in the management of Agricultural Research, International Service for National Agricultural Research (1988) Experimental research in Agricultural Greece. Author: E.Kovani, EKKE (1986) Vocational Training of Farmers: The case of Centers for Vocational Traing. Author: A. Athanasiou. Agricultural Bank of Greece, Department of planning and research studies. (1987). The training and visit extention system Authors: F. Gershon, R. Slade, A. Sundaram. The World Bank (1985) Improving Agricultural Extention: A reference manual. FAO. (1997) The agricultural education magazine (1985). Research on training needs of the primary sector in the regions of Agrolida, Arkadia and Messinia, University of Piraeus,Agricultural Bank of Greece (1999). The profile of contemporary farmers: Determination of Education and Training needs, National Institute of Social Research (2000).

Ooerational Program EPEAEK` Education and Intial Vocational Training, (2001)

Analysis of Training needs of Farmers, Cooperatives workforce and unemployed, PAnhellenic Association of Cooperatives (2002).

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece Table 1: SWOT ANALYSIS of the fresh fruits and vegetable sector in Greece SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities

1.Substantial natural resources

1. Demographic shrinkage and increase of the average age of producers 2. Production dependence upon a small number of cultivations

6. New sophisticated consumer demand 7. Increasing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables demand 3. Quality and Stability of supply 4. Advances in Postharvest management
5. Protected cropping

2. Tradition in cultivation of fruits and vegetables

3. Augmented income to the producer 4. Advances in productivity 5. Low labor costs


6. Small size of farm exploitations

3. Lack of Marketing Structures

4. Low educational level 5. Low life-time of products


8. Constraints to exports of fresh fruits and vegetables

5 d

OGEEKA DIMITRA OGEEKA DIMITRA

64 66

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece Table II Levels of Production Land Areas Yield for Vegetables in Greece (1998- 2000)

Category Cultivated Area (hectares) Vegetables Artichoke Asparagus Beans Fresh Beets Cabbage Cauliflower Carrot Celery Chicory Cucumber Egg plant Garlic Leek Lettuce Okra Onion dry Onion fresh Pepper Potato Pumpkin Spinach Tomato Total 2400 7400 6700 894 8900 3321.5 1196 660.8 2322.6 1806 2901 1300.6 1772 3730 1656 6968.5 2300 3469 38623.5 4185 3351.5 38571 87880

1998 Production Level (tonnes) 23700 26000 69100 20990 208700 64130 37670 13130 39950 151050 83780 9570 42474 69340 13730 169370 32000 86620 881760 93100 45360 1978230 4159754

Yield (tonnes/ hectares) 9.875 3.514 10.313 23.478 23.449 19.307 31.496 19.869 17.200 83.637 28.879 7.358 23.969 18.388 8 24.305 13.913 24.969 22.828 22.246 13.534 51.288

Cultivated Area (hectares) 2517 6695 6211 901.6 7800 3700 1040 618.4 2353 2059.1 2860.6 1020 1700 2353 1648 6335 2450 4177.3 34183 3826 3411 35306 122548

1999 Production Level (tonnes) 27464 28420 63956 21724 192400 71910 32840 12840 37640 174610 76650 8220 39490 37640 13540 166241 35336 98294 800000 84201 46100 1031890 3101406

Yield (tonnes/ hectares) 10.911 4.244 10.297 24.094 24.666 19.435 31.576 20.763 15.996 84.799 26795 8.058 23.229 15.996 8 26.241 14.422 23.530 23.403 22.007 13.515 51.886

Cultivated Area (hectares) 2800 6248 7550 1110 8626 4230 1093 747 2967 2038 2985 1430 1738 4490 1892 683 2145 3935 36000 3754 3574 37423.7 100035

2000 Production Level (tonnes) 29748 35520 77862 26502 210560 86663 34390 19360 51820 160921 87184 10485 44374 81399 16120 166600 30060 103710 880000 77880 46850 1836687 4114695

Yield (tonnes/ hectares) 10.624 5.685 10.312 23.876 24.409 20.487 31.463 25.917 17.463 78.960 29.207 7.332 25.531 18.128 9 26.112 14.013 26.355 24.444 20.745 13.108 49.078

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

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Table III Levels of Production Land Areas Yield for Fresh Fruits in Greece (1998- 2000) Category Cultivated Area (hectares) Citrus Fruits Orange Tangerine Lemon Apples Pears Apple Pear Stone Fruits Peach Apricot Cherry Plum Strawberry Kiwi Melon Watermelon Grapes Raisins 39,954.88 6626 13959.5 16916.32 11615.68 42,148.76 5876.9 9121.69 562.12 429 3664.1 7513 13512 16768 70309 1998 Production Level (tonnes) 801000 85000 150000 332160 69300 778820 65700 40800 3000 9200 43610 161160 613916 130,508 146,200 1999 Production Level (tonnes) 869810 84000 150480 336000 66000 962000 80000 45000 3280 8300 58000 156500 458890 242,109 234,070 2000 Production Level (tonnes) 902560 70200 139000 309400 71980 1000862 90900 52650 3430 77400 164071 783016 205,000 415,000

Yield (tonnes/ hectares) 20.047 12.828 10.742 19.635 5.966 19.14 11.353 4.472 5.336 21.45 11.901 21.45 39.576 7.783 2.079

Cultivated Area (hectares) 41,309. 25 7503.75 14688.66 16803.96 11121.50 44016.63 5881.65 9167.45 640.29 364 7273 16210 25000 89000

Yield (tonnes/ hectares) 21.056 11.194 10.244 19.995 5.934 19.13 13.60 4.908 5.122 22.802 21.51 28.309 9.684 2,631

Cultivated Area (hectares) 42049.63 6840.79 14600.51 16710.15 10865.10 45983.16 6280.04 8483.46 718.15 3480 75830 18590 14250 144400

Yield (tonnes/ hectares) 21.464 10.261 9.52 18.515 6.624 21.083 14.457 6.206 4.776 22.241 21.636 42.120 14.385 2.873

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece

Table IV: The fresh fruits and vegetables varieties commercialized in Greece (2000) I. Citrus Fruits Orange

Catwood Navel Cal Catwood Navel SRA 157 Giaffa or Shamouti Double Fine Fisher Navel Hamlin Hamlin SRA 41 Common Orange Spartis Common Orange Chanion Common Orange Hiou Common Orange Artas Madam Venus Marsh Early Cal Mayroportokala Moro Moro SRA 24 Mpotsato Myrodato Tympakiou Navel Atwood Cal Navel Atwood SRA 157 Navelane Navel A Petit Fruit Navelate Navel Dream Navel Fisher Navel Frost Navel Frost Washington Navel Gillette Navelina Navel Navelate Navel New Hal Navel Parent Navel RO 25 Navel Robertson Navel Rocky Navel SK Bonanza Dolca Oval Calabrese Parson Brown Pineapple Sangouini Aigiou Sangouini Gouritsis Sangouini Ruby Sangouini Taroco Rossi Sangouini taroco SRA 160 Salustiana Cal Salustiana SRA 160 Shamouti SRA 25 Soultani Kritis Taroco Taroco SRA 23

Lemon

Adamopoulou Vakalou Bella Bellafranca Diforo Aspermo Rizas Diforo Stathmou Rodou Ermioni Eureka Frost Eureka Old Line Eureka SRA 4 Eureka UCLA 12A Femminelo Zambetakis Interdonnato Karystini Xylokastrou Karystino Lapithou Lisbon Dr. Strong Lisbon Frost Lisbon Israel Lisbon Limoneira 8A Lisbon Old Line Lisbon Prior Lisbon SRA 6 Maglini Xylokastrou Masotlemono Hiou N. Athos Santa Tereza Yuma Ponterosa Ziagarra Bianca

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Tangerine

Lime

Valencia Cambell Valencia Cutter Valencia Frost Valencia Frot SRA 11 Valencia Late Old Line Valencia Liugim Cong Valencia Old Line Valencia Olinda Valencia Olinda SRA 106 Valencia Oval Porou Washington Navel SRA 100 Clasuelina Encore Fortune Kinnow Klimentini Denules Klimentini Kinnow Sra 117 Klimentini Marisol Klimentini Porou Klimentini SRA 63 Murcott Nova Cal Ortaniqe SRA 110 Ortaniqe SRA 163 Page Pixie Satsuma (N) Satsuma Mivacava Satsuma Okitsu Satsuma Owari Satsuma Owari Cal Satsuma Owari SRA 12 Satsuma Owari SRA 145 Satsuma Wase SRA 12 Tardivo Di Giaculi Glikolimettia Lime Tahiti Mexicaine Rangur Lime

Grapefruit

Duncan Foster Foster Ring Hennigers Marsh Marsh Cal Marsh Frost March Seedless Marsh Seedless SRA 8 MC Carty S-FL Pink Marsh Red Blush Red Blush SRA 22 Red Blush SRA 56 Red Flesher Red Marsh Red S-FL Ruby Star Ruby (N) Sambar Sambar SRA 22 Thompson FL Triumph

II. General Fruits Avocado

Anakeym Bacon Benic Booth 7 Booth 8 Dickinson Ettinger Fuerte Fuerte Mac Arthur Hass Nabal Reed Zutano

Kiwi

Abbott Male clone Bruno Monty Tonure

Apple

Waldin Black Ben Davis gano Payton Jacks Red Ozack Double Red Rome Beauty Du Commerce Commercio Elstar Gala Gioura Spur Golden Delicious Granny Smith Granny Smith Spur Jerseymac Jonagold Jonagored Jonathan Idared Imperial Double Red Delicious Kalliga Kalkania Kalliga Aiginiou Karlat Kydonomilo Lusgolden Megalou Alexandrou Molies Delicious Mutsu (Crispin) Ntopio Orous Karpathi Oregon Spur Ozark Gold Pilafa Delicious Pilafa Priam Prima Querina Florina Red Chief Red Delicious Reines des Reinettes Renetes Aigiasou Royal gala Starking Delicious Smoothee Top Red Yellow Spur Florinis 1 Florinis 2 Firiki Firiki Aspermo Firiki Tzoumanga

Pear

Aktsedes Aktsedes Lesbou Amaltheia Apostoliatiki Aygoustiatiko Afroditi Bella di Giugno Merandino rosso Precoce Di Moulia Vergina Beurre D Angou Beurre Clairgeau Butirra Clairgeau Beurre Hardy Hardy Bon Chretien Williams Voutyrato Moschato Korinthou Butirra Rosata Moretini Butirra Precose Morretini Colette Conference Coscia Coscia Precose Doyenne de Comice Decana Del Comizio Vereinsdechantssirne Docteur Jules Guyot Limonera Kigio Doyenne De Junes Duchesse D Angouleme Duchesse Bererd Epine Du Mas Etrusca Favoritta di Clapp Clapps Favourite General Leclerc Grand Champion Harrow Sweet Highland Jusco Zlato Hmathia Kaiser Alexander Boscs Flasherbine Beurre D Apremont Beurre Bosc Kaiserdine Imperatore Alessandro Kaijer Kalliopi Kontoula Akratas Kontoula Patron Kontoula Lexeou Lito Max Red Bartlett

Peach

Apple peach

Andross Bowen Cardinal Catherina Early red Free Elegandlady Everts Fayette Flame Crest Flaminia Flavor Crest Fortuna Honey Dew Male J.H. Male July lady June Gold Iris Rosso Kontoni Naoussas Lemonato Volou Loadel Merriam Maria Bianca Maria Rosa Maravilha May Crest Opsimi Naoussas Paola Cavicchi Papagianni Red Heaven Royal April Royal Glory Springcrest Spring Time Spring lady Suncloud Suncrest Vivian Aurelio Grand Autumn Free Caltesi 2000 Cassiopea Fantasia Nectaross Pegaso

Apricot

William Rouge Bousdouvaniko Naousa Niki Olympiada Passe Crassane Packhums Triumph Precose De Grevoux Santa Maria Moretini Syrianidi Tosca Trapezista Winter Nellis Bergeron Bulida Diamantopoulou Festivalna Fracasso Harcot Harlayne Ikarias Koliopoulou Luizet Malatia Bebekou Plakes Piliou Places Serron Proimo Tirynthas Tirynthas Epidaurou San castresse Sayes Screara Sunglo Sun- drop Tardif De Bordaneil Tsetsela Piliou Yperproimo Poroy Chasiotiko Chatzipauli

Cherry

Bigerreau Burlat Big Italy Burlat Early Burlat Bigarreau Hatif Burlat Bigarreau Napoleon Napoleon Royal Ann

Snow Queen Springred Stark red Gold Sunfree Tasty free Venus Weinberger

Vitalou B.S.H. Giant Hardy Giant Bigarreau Stark Hardy Giant Gerakariou Kritis Geroplatanou Chinook Draganova Zuta Germersvore Hedelfingen Bigearreau Grant D Helelfingen Hudson Jubilee Caramela Tripoleos Kifissia Kokkino Anastasias Serron Koromilokeraso Larian Maraski Metoxiou Stroponon Bakirtzeika Opsimo Agra Pella Petrokeraso Achaias Petrokarasia Tripoleos Politiko Politiko Zoirato Proimo Tegeas Primavera Rainier Stella Tragana Agiasiou Tragana Volou Tragana Edessas Tragana Komotinis Ulster Van Vega Fraoula Volou Chasilamas Plum Agen Scopelitiki Agen Scopelou Maura Scopelou Agioritika Cacansca Kajbolja Gaidourodamaskino Kila Koromilodamaskino Limnou Mpereketia President Stanley

Morello

Dwarf North Star Kanaris Keleris Montmorency Oblogensha Piliou Tripoleos Florinas

III. Grapes - for fresh consumption

Rozaki Moschato Amvourgou Fraoula Cardinal Sidiritis Opsimos Edessis Perlette Victoria Italia Alfonse Lavallee

- for raisin production

Soultanina Corinthe noir

IV. Soft Fruits Strawberry

Bruhton Chandler Douglas Fern Kerkyraiki mikrokarpi Parker Selva Oso Grade

V. Vegetables Onions

Vatikiotiko Thivas Androu Florinas Kozanis Red Cross F1 Red star Bisar F1 Granex 429 F1 Vista Tripoleos Kalami Swiss Giant Elephant D Hiver Cross Lang American Flag Mary Washington Martha Washington California 500 California 500W Viking Rutgers beacon Argenteuil Green of Argos Violet-coloured of Attica Politiki Augoulati - White Asparagus Mammoth white Limbras Limburgia Larac - spring sowing Goldmine (Ideal 11) Dorata di Pqrma Marada de Amposta Ideal 15 Durada di Polonia Yellow sweet Spanish (Peckham strain)

- fall sowing

Garlic Leek

- Green Asparagus

Artichoke

Potato

Celery

Tomato

Egg plant

Spunta Marfona Jaerla Liseta Timate Utah Utah 52 70R Pascal Giant Pascal Dombo Dombito Concreto Caruso Jolly Fantastic Vision Angela Carmelo Bonica Delica Black King Zenith Festival Black mamouth Domestic white White Italian Domestic green Black beauty Elysee Black Jack Seneca Senator President Ogen Galia Round Pack Necores Helda Stringless Blue Lake Barbounia Tsaoulia Paris Island Cos Paris White Noga Paris Cos Fairen Marvel Salinas Grand Rapids Prizehead Simpsons curl Salad Bowl

Carrot

Nantes tip top Nantes fancy Nantes Nantes 1003 Chantenay red core

Pepper

Cucumber

Cleopatra No4 Cleopatra No1 Lamuyo P13 P14 California wonder Yolo Wonder Gedeon Maor Pepinex69 Sandra Bambina Corona Prunex Femina Dania

Pumpkin

Melon

Watermelon

Sugar baby Crimson sweet or Galaxy Blue Ribbon Charleston gray

Fresh bean

Lettuce

Source: Variety Research Institute of Cultivated Plants (2002)

Figure 1: The agricultural land use (Agricultural statistics, 1998)

Agricultural Land Use

11,53% 3,44% Grain, tobacco, cotton Vegetables 24,42% Arboriculture 57,46% Vineyards Fallow fields 3,14%

Source: Ministry of Agriculture Figure 2: Cultivated and irrigated areas of the most important fresh fruits and vegetables (Agricultural statistics, 1998)

Cultivated and Irrigated land of cultivations


1200 1000 hectares 800 600 400 200 0 Vegetables Arboriculture Cultivation type Vineyards cultivated land irrigated land

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece VEGETABLE PRODUCTION TRENDS Figure 3: Production trend for cucumber production
CUCUMBER CULTIVATION AREA
2100 2000 1900 1800 1700

CUCUMBER PRODUCTION
200000 150000 100000 50000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Figure 4: Production trend for artichoke production


Artichoke CULTIVATION AREA
HECTARS

Artichoke PRODUCTION
40000 30000 20000 10000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
2000

1000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

TONES

3000 2000

Figure 5: Production trend for lettuce production


LETTUCE CULTIVATION AREA
6000 4000 2000 0

LETTUCE PRODUCTION
100000 50000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Figure 6: Production trend for fresh onions production


FRESH ONIONS CULTIVATION AREAS
2500 2400 2300 2200 2100

FRESH ONIONS PRODUCTION


36000 34000 32000 30000 28000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

OGEEKA

DIMITRA

77

2001

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2001

2001

Figure 7: Production trend for dry onions production


DRY ONION CULTIVATION AREA
7200 7000 6800 6600 6400 6200
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 HECTARES

DRY ONION PRODUCTION


180000

TONES

170000 160000 150000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Figure 8: Production trend for garlic production


GARLIC CULTIVATION AREA
2000 1500 1000 500 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

GARLIC PRODUCTION
15000 10000 5000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000
1999

Figure 9: Production trend for fresh beans production


FRESH BEANS CULTIVATION AREA
8000 6000 4000 2000 0

FRESH BEANS PRODUCTION


75000 70000 65000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

60000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000

Figure 10: Production trend for pumpkins production


PUMPKIN CULTIVATION AREA
6000 4000 2000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

PUMPKIN PRODUCTION
150000 100000 50000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

2001

2001

Figure 11: Production trend for beets production


BEET CULTIVATION AREA
1500 1000 500 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

BEET PRODUCTION
30000 20000 10000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
2000

Figure 12: Production trend for peppers production


PEPPER CULTIVATION AREA
6000 4000 2000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

PEPPER PRODUCTION
150000 100000 50000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Figure 13: Production trend for egg plant production


EGG PLANT CULTIVATION AREA
3100 3000 2900 2800 2700 2600
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

EGG PLANT PRODUCTION


150000 100000 50000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
2000

Figure 14: Production trend for okra production


OKRA CULTIVATION AREA
2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

OKRA PRODUCTION
20.000 15.000 10.000 5.000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2001

2001

2001

2001

Figure 15: Production trend for cabbage production


CABBAGE CULTIVATION AREA
9000 8500 8000 7500
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

CABBAGE PRODUCTION
220000 210000 200000 190000 180000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Figure 16: Production trend for cauliflower production


CAULIFLOWER CULTIVATION AREA
6000 4000 2000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
100000 50000 0

CAULIFLOWER PRODUCTION

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Figure 17: Production trend for chicory production


CHICORY CULTIVATION AREA
4000 3000 2000 1000 0

CHICORY PRODUCTION
60000 40000 20000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000
2000

Figure 18: Production trend for spinach production


SPINACH CULTIVATION AREA
3600 3400 3200 3000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

SPINACH PRODUCTION
48000 47000 46000 45000 44000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001

2001

2001

2001

Figure 19: Production trend for asparagus production


ASPARAGUS CULTIVATION AREA
7500 7000 6500 6000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

ASPARAGUS PRODUCTION
40000 30000 20000 10000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
2001

Figure 20: Production trend for leek production


LEEK CULTIVATION AREA
1850 1800 1750 1700 1650 46000 44000 42000 40000 38000

LEEK PRODUCTION

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000
2000
2000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Figure 21: Production trend for celery production


CELERY CULTIVATION AREA
800 600 400 200 0

2001

CELERY PRODUCTION
30000 20000 10000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Figure 22: Production trend for carrot production


CARROT CULTIVATION AREA
1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

CARROT PRODUCTION
38000 36000 34000 32000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2001

2001

Figure 23: Production trend for potato production


POTATO CULTIVATION AREA
60000 40000 20000 0 1000000 950000 900000 850000 800000 750000

POTATO PRODUCTION

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Figure 24: Production trend for tomato production


TOMATO CULTIVATION AREA
39000 38000 37000 36000 35000 2000000 1950000 1900000 1850000 1800000

TOMATO PRODUCTION

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

2001

2001

FRUIT PRODUCTION TRENDS


Figure 25: Production trend for melon production
MELON CULTIVATION AREA
S????????

MELON PRODUCTION
200000 150000 100000 50000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
2001

7500 7000 6500


1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Figure 26: Production trend for watermelon production


WATERMELON CULTIVATION AREA
20000 15000 10000 5000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

??????

8000

WATERMELON PRODUCTION
1000000 500000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Figure 27: Production trend for strawberry production


STRAWBERRY CULTVIVATION AREA
600 400 200 0

STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION
15000 10000 5000 0

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999
1999 2000

Figure 28: Production trend for lemons production


LEMONS No OF TREES
4900000 4850000 4800000 4750000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

LEMONS PRODUCTION
200000 150000 100000 50000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

2000

Figure 28: Production trend for grapes production


GRAPES CULTIVATION AREA
30000 20000 10000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

GRAPES PRODUCTION
300000 200000 100000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
2000 2000
2000

Figure 29: Production trend for oranges production


ORANGES No OF TREES
17.800.000 17.750.000 17.700.000 17.650.000 17.600.000 17.550.000
1994,5 1995,5 1996,5 1997,5 1998,5 1995 1996 1997 1998

ORANGES PRODUCTION
1500000 1000000 500000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001
2001

Figure 30: Production trend for tangerines production


TANGERINES No OF TREES
3.320.000 3.300.000 3.280.000 3.260.000 3.240.000 3.220.000
1994,5 1995,5 1996,5 1997,5 1998,5 1995 1996 1997 1998

TANGERINES PRODUCTION
100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001

Figure 31: Production trend for pears production


PEARS No OF TREES
4400000 4350000 4300000 4250000 4200000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

PEARS PRODUCTION
80000 60000 40000 20000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2001

Figure 32: Production trend for apples production


APPLES No OF TREES
6500000 6400000 6300000 6200000 6100000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

APPLES PRODUCTION
340000 320000 300000 280000

1996

1996

1997

1997

1998

1998

1999

1999

2000

2000
2000

Figure 33: Production trend for apricots production


APRICOTS No OF TREES
1900000 1850000 1800000 1750000 1700000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

APRICOTS PRODUCTION
100000 50000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001

Figure 34: Production trend for peaches production


PEACHES No OF TREES
21000000 20000000 19000000 18000000 17000000 16000000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

PEACHES PRODUCTION
1500000 1000000 500000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Figure 35: Production trend for cherries production

CHERRIES No OF TREES
2100000

CHERRIES PRODUCTION
60000
TONES

TREES

2050000 2000000 1950000

40000 20000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2001

Figure 36 Production trend for kiwi production


KIWI CULTIVATION AREA
39000 38000 37000 36000 35000 34000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

KIWI PRODUCTION
100000 50000 0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

Table V: Greenhouses regional distribution in Greece and types of cultivations Regions Crete Peloponese Central Macedonia Rest of Greece Total % Areas under plastic / glass (hectares) Plastic Glass Total % 2011.1 17.4 2028.5 45.7 992.2 39 1032.1 23.3 635.8 614.8 4253.5 95.9 17 107.2 181 4.1 652.8 722 4434.5 100 14.7 16.3 100 Types of cultivation Vegetables Flowers Others 1620 86 322.5 875 44.3 111.9 620 560.5 3850 82.9 25.8 153 300 7 7 8.5 450 10.1

Source: Ministry of Agriculture (1998)

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece Table VI: Regional Distribution of cultivation areas according to cultivation type (1992) Region Sterea Ellada and Euvoia Peloponese Ionial Islands Epirus Thessalia Macedonia Thrace Aegean Islands Crete Total Vegetables 25100 24400 2200 3500 8700 31800 7600 5300 8800 117400 Arboriculture 150100 269500 43500 32200 54200 115500 4800 81600 171100 922500 Vineyards 25500 49300 7000 800 6700 13400 700 10800 36600 150800 Source: National Service of Statistics

Table VII: Distribution of agricultural exploitations for fresh fruits and vegetables (1992) according to size of cultivation areas Source: National Service of Statistics Cultivatio n Category Number of Exploitat ions 126,260 Total used cultivati on area 631,955. 3 101,863. 1 53,398.7 94,350.4 76,871.1 329,717. 9 108,221. 9 OGEEKA Cultivation area used for the specific cultivation 72,946.2 Distribution according to size classes of cultivations

Fresh vegetable s Peaches Apricots Apples Pears Citrus fruits Grapes

0.1-0.9 Hs >20Hs 102,710

1-2.9Hs 20,500

3-4,9 Hs 2,259

5-9,9Hs 630

10-19,9Hs 100 30

33,010 12,690 30,190 15,650 111,880 27,440

37,330.1 6,646.5 15,873.8 4,890.7 58,308.4 14,408.9 DIMITRA

17,400 10,620 24,800 14,570 93,350 22,590

13,420 1,940 5,000 1,020 16,290 4,370

1,820 110 320 30 1,840 450 87

350 20 50 30 390 30

20 20 10 -

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece Table VIII: Evolution of Organic Agriculture in Greece (1994 -1999) Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Cultivation area (hectares) 21451 15401 9999 5296 2400 1188 Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Organic Agriculture office Figure 37: Evolution of Organic Agriculture
ORGANIC AGRICULTURE CULTIVATION AREA
25000 20000

HECTARES

15000 10000 5000 0 1993 1994 1995 1996

1997 1998 1999 2000

Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Organic Agriculture office

Table VIIII: Cultivation areas by type of organic cultivation and areas in transitional stage in hectares (1999)

Type of cultivation Citrus fruits Vineyards Fruits Total Organic cultivation

Area in transitional stage 1151.1 1341.1 163.9 219.5

Organic cultivation 317.9 805.6 106.1 128

Total 1469 2146.7 270 347.5

Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Organic Agriculture office

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Table X: Organically cultivated areas Re gional distribution Region Peloponnesus Western Greece Crete Central Greece North Aegean Islands Attica Central Macedonia Ionian Islands Western Macedonia Thessaly East Macedonia and Thrace Epirus South Aegean Islands Total Hectares 2,843 1,623 922 813 713 676 614 459 427 242 175 133 90 9,730 % of entire organically utilised area 29.2 16.7 9.5 8.4 7.3 6.9 6.3 4.7 4.4 2.5 1.8 1.4 0.9 100

Sources: Certification and inspection bodies Dio and Fysiologiki for December 31,1998

FRELECTRA Project Country Report for Greece Figure 38: Harvesting seasons of the most important fresh fruits Harvesting seasons of the main fruits Jan. Feb. Mar. Citrus Fruits Oranges Lemons Tangerines Grapefruits General fruits Apples Pears Peaches Apricots Morellos Cherries Plums Kiwi Grapes Soft Fruits

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

: Principal harvesting season : Partial harvesting season

Source: Agricultural University of Athens

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Figure 39: Harvesting of the most important vegetables Harvesting seasons of the main vegetables Jan. Feb. Mar. Onions Fresh Onions Garlics Leeks Asparagus Artichokes Potatoes Carrots Celeries Tomatoes Pepper Egg Plants Cucumber Melon Pumpkin Watermelon Fresh beans Lettuce

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

: Principal harvesting season : Partial harvesting season : Greenhouse cultivation Source: Agricultural University of Athens

Figure 40: Cultivation periods of the most important vegetables Cultivation periods of the main vegetables Jan. Feb. Mar. Onions Spring cultivation

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Autumn cultivation Fresh Onions Garlics Leeks Potatos Carrots Celeries Tomato Pepper Egg plant Cucumber Melon Pumpkin Watermelon Fresh beans Lettuce : Field cultivation : Greenhouse cultivation Source: Agricultural University of Athens Spring cultivation Cold areas Autumn cultivation Warm areas

Spring cultivation Summer cultivation Cold areas

Autumn cultivation Warm areas

Catalogue1: The most important fresh fruits and vegetables diseases and pests Parasitical problems of Citrus Fruits Parasitical problems in citrus fruits are owed to bacteria, fungi diseases and pest infections, the most important of which are: Bacteriological diseases: Pseudomonas syringae: It infects the leaves, buds and fruits Xanthomonas citri: It infects young leaves, young buds and young fruits Mycetological diseases: Penicillium italicum: It infects the fruits Penicilium digitatum: It infects the fruits Pythium apnanidematum: It infects the young trees Penizoctonia solani: It infects the young trees Phytophthora citrophthora: It infects the trunk of the trees, fruits, leaves, buds and flowers. Phytophthora parasitica: It infects the trunk of the trees, fruits, leaves, buds and flowers. Botrytis cinerea: It infects fruits and flowers Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: It infects the roots, fruits and buds. Alternaria citri: It infects the fruits. Gloeosporium limetticolum: It infects young leaves, young buds and young fruits Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: It infects the mature fruits. Septoria citri: It infects leaves and fruits Armillaria melea: It infects the roots and the base of the trunk. pests: Aonidiella aurantii (Red scab of citrus fruits): It infects the leaves, buds and fruits. Aspidiotus nederae (White scab of citrus fruits): It infects the leaves, buds and fruits. Pseudococcus citri (Cotton scab of citrus fruits): It infects leaves and fruits. Icerya purchasi: It infects leaves and buds. Aceria sheldoni: It infects the leaves, buds and fruits Aculus pelekasi: It infects the fruits Tetranychus urticae: It infects leaves and fruits Prays citri: It infects the flowers. Ceratitis capitata: It infects the fruits. Toxoptera aurantii: It infects leaves and fruits. Calocoris trivialis: It infects the buds. Virus diseases Tristeza Psoropsis Cachexia Cristacortis Stubborn Exocortis Non contagious diseases Water spot Creasing Oleocellosis Gum spots Parasitical problems of General Fruits Apples, Pears Bacteriological diseases:

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (plant cancer): It causes the decay of trees Ervinia amylovora (fireblight): It infects the branches, the trunk and the fruits Pseudomonas syringae: It infects the leaves, buds and pears. Mycetological diseases: Spilocaea dendriticum (scab): It infects the leaves, flowers and apples Venturia pyrina (scab): It infects the leaves, flowers and pears. Podosphaera leucotricha (powdery mildew): It infects the leaves, young buds, flowers and fruits. Monilia laxa f.sp. mali (brown rot): It infects the flowers, twigs, branches. It causes post-harvest decays of fruits. Gymnosporagium sp. (rusts): they infect the leaves Phytophthora cactorum: It infects the trunk of the trees, fruits, leaves, buds and flowers. Armillaria melea: It infects the roots and the base of the trunk. Septoria pyricola: It infects leaves and fruits. Alternaria alternata: It infects the fruits. Botrytis cinerea (blossom-end rot): It infects fruits and flowers. It causes post-harvest decays of fruits. Penicillium expansum(blue mold rot): It infects the fruits. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: It infects the mature fruits. Virus diseases Apple mosaic Pear stony pit Non contagious diseases Bitter pit Internal bark necrosis Jonathan spot Pest diseases: Apiomyia Bergenstammi Tylenchorhynshus sp. Ptytoptus pyri Stone fruits Bacteriological diseases: Pseudomonas syringae: It infects the leaves, buds and fruits. Agrobacterium tumefaciens (plant cancer): It causes the decay of trees Mycetological diseases: Taphrina sp. (leaf curl): It infects leaves and fruits. Stigmina carpophila (coryneum blight): It infects leaves, twigs and branches. Sphaerotheca pannosa (powdery mildew): It infects the leaves, young buds, flowers and fruits. Verticilium dahliae: It is responsible for tree strokes Eutypa lata (dieback): It causes stagnation of branches Virus diseases Plum pox: It infects the fruits Prun dwarf Peach mosaic Pest diseases: Rotylenchus sp Caliroa limacina

Parasitical problems of Grapes Bacteriological diseases: Agrobacterium tumefaciens (plant cancer): It causes the decay of trees Ervinia vitivora (fireblight): It infects the branches and the trunk MLO (black wood): It hinders the development of branches Mycetological diseases: Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew): It infects young leaves, young buds and young grapes. Uncinula necator (powdery mildew): It infects the leaves, young buds, flowers and grapes. Phomopsis viticola (dead arm): It infects the branches Phellinus igniarius (black measles): It causes vine strokes Botrytis cinerea (blossom-end rot): It infects fruits and flowers. It causes post-harvest decays of grapes. Verticilium dahliae: It is responsible for tree strokes Eutypa lata (dieback): It causes stagnation of branches Armillaria melea: It infects the roots and the base of the trunk. Virus diseases Grape vine fan leaf Grapevine leaf roll Pest diseases: Dactylosphaera vitifoliae Xyphinema idex Colomerus vitis Parasitical problems of Vegetables Onions, Garlics, Leeks Bacteriological diseases: Agrobacterium tumefaciens (plant cancer): It causes the decay of trees Ervinia vitivora (fireblight): It infects the branches and the trunk MLO (black wood): It hinders the development of branches Mycetological diseases: Peronospora destractor: It infects the leaves and the bulbs. Urocystis cepulae: It infects the young plants. Puccinia sp.: It infects the leaves. Sclerotium capivorum (white rot): It infects the leaves. Botrytis allii (neck rot): It infects the plants neck Aspergilus niger (black rot): It infects the bulbs. pests: Gryllotalpa vulgaris Thrips tabaci. Hilemya antica. Acrolepia assectella Ditelinchus dispaci (Nematoda) Potato Bacteriological diseases: Actinomyces scabies: It infects the nodule

Mycetological diseases: Phytophthora infestans: It infects the leaves and the nodules. Alternaria solani: It infects the nodules. Verticilium spp.: It is responsible for plant decay. pests: Myzus persicae Leptinotarsa decemlineata Phorimaia opercullela Acrolepia assectella Agrotis spp. Heterodera rostochiensis (Nematoda) Tomato, Egg-plant, Pepper, Okra

Bacteriological diseases: Ervinia carotovora (bacterial soft rot): post- harvest disease. Mycetological diseases: Phytophthora infestans: It infects the leaves and the fruits. Leveillula taurica: It infects the leaves. Septoria lycopersici: It infects leaves and fruits. Alternaria solani: It infects the leaves, stems and fruits. Phytophthora spp.: It results in plant decay. Verticilium spp.: It is responsible for plant decay. Botrytis cinerea (blossom-end rot): It infects fruits and flowers. It causes post-harvest decays of fruits.post harvest disease.

Artichoke Mycetological diseases: Ascochyta sp. Botrytis cinerea (blossom-end rot): It infects fruits and flowers. It causes post-harvest decays Cucumber, Melon, Watermelon, pumpkin Mycetological diseases: Fusarium sp. Pythium sp. Rhizoctonia solani Botrytis cinerea (blossom-end rot): It infects fruits and flowers. It causes post-harvest decays Pest diseases: Meloidogyne sp. Tetranychus urticae

The diseases for the rest of the vegetable categories are ought to the species of fungi :Phytophthora spp., Rizoctonia spp. Botrytis spp. Alternaria spp. Verticilium spp. And to bacterial species: Ervinia spp. and Pseudomonas spp.

Source: Agricultural University of Athens

Figure 41: Handling and transportation procedures of fresh fruits and vegetables

Source: OECD (2000)

Table XI: Average monthly per capita consum ption of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Product

Self - consumption Of their Of their own own production company 848 123 283 47 66 11 48 63 67 10 125 2299 329 90 49 17 71 62 129 136 434 124 116 242 500 117 2 12 5 10 5 7 4 49 12 7 119 3 2 2 2 4 3 1 5 28 2 5 36 26

Other sources

Purchases

Total

Average per caput consumption

Fruits Fruits Lemons Oranges Tangerines Apples Pears Peaches Grapes Watermelons Melons Other fruits Vegetables Vegetables Chicories Lettuces Spinach BroccolisCauliflowers Cucumbers Caggages Pumpkins Egg-plants Tomatoes Fresh beans Peppers Potatoes Other Vegetables 749 101 227 45 99 19 29 27 100 22 66 800 108 23 22 10 29 34 33 49 164 37 36 131 124 24999 1401 5551 1102 4058 1230 1419 845 4827 1167 1697 31717 1381 609 557 492 1093 1090 919 756 6273 901 761 11093 5792 26713 1632 6073 1199 4233 1265 1503 939 5043 1211 1895 34935 1821 724 630 521 1197 1189 1082 946 6899 1064 918 12312 6442 9472.69 578.72 2153.54 425.17 1501.06 448.58 532.97 332.97 1788.29 429.43 671.98 12388.29 645.74 256.73 223.4 184.75 424.46 421.63 383.68 335.46 2446.45 377.3 325.53 4365.95 2284.39

Source: National Statistical Service of Greece, Research of Housebold Budgets (1998-99)

Table XII: Imports of the most important vegetables in Greece (2000) Total Product Production Level (tonnes) 98329.178 15883.982 3727.162 18621.628 4104.317 947.270 923.600 286.010 50.030 267.547 359.101 7515.744 151015.096 Value 24,049,966 7,340,123 3,337,956 6,309,215 2,100,567 902,572 595,115 327,524 129,113 242,972 226,491 4,337,197 48898811 Import from EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes) 69526 15883.982 1850.404 9648.349 3679.316 782.645 910.760 90.815 48.780 178.590 323.185 2647.126 105569 16,244,291 7,340,123 2,031,121 4,077,720 1,925,321 742,092 Import from Non EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes) 24854 0 1820.500 8973.479 425.001 164.625 6,939,978 0 1,306,835 2,231,495 86,246 160,480

Main importing countries

Potato Potatoseed Tomato Onion, garlic, leek Brassica Lettuce, chicory Carrot, beet Artichoke Asparagus Egg-plant Celery Pepper Total

HOL, FR, EG, SYR,GER,BEL, IT, UK, AUS. HOL,UK,FR,BEL,DEN,IT, GER,ISR,SYR. TUR,BEL, HOL,GER,IT,POL,FYR,ISR,POL. HOL,EG,GER,IT,ARG, TUR,AUS, FR,CHI. IT,HOL,FR,SP,BEL,FYR,GER,TUR,ISR,POL. HOL,IT,TUR,GER,SP,FR,ISR.

591,003 12.480 4,112 HOL,IT,BEL,GER,AUS,FR,TUR,SP,SYR. 189,460 195.195 185,064 EG,UK,SP,IT,FR,BEL,HOL,TUR, GER. 122,796 1250 6,317 HOL,GER,TUR,BANGL. 133,026 128.957 109,945 TUR,IT,GER,FR,HOL,JORD, SYR. 200,837 35.916 25,653 IT,HOL,ISR,TUR,FR,GER. 2,124,084 4868.618 2,213,114 HOL,FYR,ISR,IT,TUR,SP,GER,BUL,EG. 35513360 41480.021 13124807 Source: National Statistical Service, External trade Statistics (2000) UK: UNITED KINGDOM AUS: AUSTRIA JORD: JORDA

COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS: HOL: HOLLAND FR: FRANCE TUR: TURKEY ISR: ISRAEL CHI: CHINA ARG: ARGENTINA FYR: FYROM EG: EGYPT SYR: SYRIA GER: GERMANY BANGL: BANGLADESH BEL: BELGIUM IT: ITALY

Table XIII:Imports of the most important fruits in Greece (2000) Total Product Production Level (tonnes) 1165.275 208.207 12951.422 1151.199 1528.781 1610.577 565.844 511.284 13634.738 10936.363 234.017 46.929 470.153 171.270 102.155 33.205 4.908 392.204 45358.531 Value 737,468 223,832 8,674,082 595,705 981,073 1,798,010 883, 066 472,532 8,491,891 7,586,019 335,892 104,589 891,485 233,315 639,177 44,965 10,456 848,640 33552197 Import from EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes) 317.895 41.837 3592.016 1005.537 1331.758 282.356 137.911 472.532 10032.205 9203.516 234.017 46.929 470.153 171.270 62.076 33.205 4.908 7.516 27447.637 Import from Non EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes)

Main importing countries

Orange Tangerine Lemon Gr. Fruit Grape Raisin Melon Watermelon Apple Pear, Quince Apricot Cherry Peach Plum Strawberry Berry Gooseberry Kiwi Total

142,892 847.380 594,486 ARG,UR, GER,IT,HOL,S.AFR. POL. 45,260 166.370 178,572 ARG,HOL,IT,GER,ISR,CYP. 2,014,687 9359.406 6,659,395 ARG,SP,IT,HOL,GER,BEL,TUR,P. 502,565 145.662 93,140 HOL,IT,ISR,UR,GER,BEL,FR 658,728 197.023 322,345 GER,HOL,IT,ARG,CHIL,S.AFR,AR,DEN. 388,798 1328.221 1,409,221 IR,TUR,UK,USA,GER,AFG,IT,S.AFR,FR 199,985 427.933 663,000 HOL,ISR,S.AFRS.ARAB,SP,FR,IT,TUR,IR 450,810 72.867 21,722 HOL, ISR, IR, FR,EG, IT, GER, TUR, FYR 5,441,958 3602.533 3,049,933 IT,CHIL,S.AFR, ARG, GER, FR, HOL 6,129,146 1732.847 1,456,873 SP, IT, S.AFR, ARG, UK, HOL, CHIL. 335,892 0 0 SP,HOL, FR, IT 104,589 0 0 HOL, SP, GER, IT 891,485 0 0 SP, HOL, IT, FR 233,315 0 0 HOL, IT, SP, FR, GER 489,369 40.079 149,808 HOL, EG, SP, IT, TUR 44,965 0 0 HOL, IT, GER 10,456 0 0 P, HOL 23,459 384.688 825,180 TUR, UK, HOL, FR, GER 18108629 17910.894 15443568 Source: National Statistical Service, External trade Statistics (2000)

COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS P: PORTUGAL UR: URUGUAY S. AFR: REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA S. ARAB: SAUDI ARABIA POL: POLLAND DEN: DENMARK CHIL: CHILE CYP: CYPRUS

Table XIV:Exports of the most important vegetables in Greece (2000) Total Product Production Level (tonnes) 17382.025 462.580 2,801.518 3661.742 611.530 164.659 Value 3,385,697 34,215 1,493,722 669,927 250,333 202,420 Export to EU countries Production Level (tonnes) 1625,592 0 191.940 225.427 0 31.702 Value 434,531 0 169,653 38,352 0 61,348 Export to Non EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes) 15729.433 462.580 2609.578 3,436.315 611.530 132.957 2,951,167 34,215 1,324,069 631,575 250,333 141,073

Main export countries

Potato Potatoseed Tomato Onion, garlic, leek Brassica Lettuce, chicory Carrot, beet Artichoke Asparagus Egg-plant Celery Pepper

POL, BUL, CYP, AL, PAN,SL, MAL, AUS AL AL,FYR,GER,RUS,POL,BUL, BAH, CYP,MAL BUL, FYR, AL, ROM, GER, CYP, SER, ISR, FR, BAH, UK. PAN, AL, BUL, BAH, CYP, FYR, ROM, HOL GER, BAH, FYR, CYP, BUL,AL, LI, MAL HOL, UK GER, AL, ROM, CYP, BUL, BAH, FYR, MAL, POL

0.618 15,900.503 184.374 2.797 2569.597

3,127 33,397,352 93,923 4,142 2,488,347

0 15,889.991 15.112 0 1090.834

0 0.618 3,127 33,394,495 10.512 2,875 GER, HOL, FR, SW, SP, IT, POL, UK, BEL 9,575 169.262 84,348 AL,GER,BUL,ROM,FYR,CYP, SER, MAL 0 2.797 4,142 FYR, BUL 1,607,770 1478.763 880.577 GER, FYR, AL, POL, BUL, AUS, ROM, SL, FI Source: National Statistical Service, External trade Statistics (2000)

COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS SW: SWITZERLAND AL: ALBANIA PAN: PANAMA SL: SLOVENIA MAL: MALTA LI: LIBERIA FI: FINLAND RUS: RUSSIA POL: POLLAND BAH: BAHREIN ROM: ROMANIA

Table XV :Exports of the most important fruits in Greece (2000) Total Product Production Level (tonnes) 315,413.637 32,007.729 33,725.250 964.160 81,229.170 41,509.433 139,098.452 24,665.110 2,212.190 12,314.100 4,976.440 129,641.602 368.472 336.176 5.276 31,127.273 Value 89,772,998 65,065.044 12,322,293 339.320 89,557,396 111,880,270 27,327,730 7,170,072 1,138,529 9,273.834 7,721,062 50,582,715 175,419 713,673 36,256 16,067,990 Exports to EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes) 44,184.616 3,160.994 1,869,485 13,860 49,659.708 31,183.433 89,003.111 1,813.041 825.326 9,609,727 4,659.409 31,591.966 72.984 234.000 5.276 8,609.081 16,029.070 2,028.757 917.910 11,257 69,884,679 99,905,007 18,340,090 1,067,116 Exports to Non EU countries Production Value Level (tonnes) 271,229.021 26,846.735 31,855.765 950.844 31,569.462 10,326.000 50,095.348 22,852.069 73,743,838 63,036.286 11,404.385 328,663 18,090,246 11,975,264 8,987.640 6,102,957

Main export countries

Orange Tangerine Lemon Gr. Fruit Grape Raisin Melon, Watermelon Apple Pear, Quince Apricot Cherry Peach Plum Strawberry Berry Kiwi

ROM,HUN,BUL,FYR,GER,CHE,RUS,UK,P,FR ROM,HUN,BUL,FYR,GER,CHE,RUS,UK,P,FR BUL,ROM,FYR,SER,CHE,HUN,RUS,UKR,FR BUL,RUS,FYR,HUN,POL,ROM,SER,SLO,CHE,HOL UK,GER,POL,HOL,FYR,CHE,BUL,RUS HOL, UK, GER, AUS, FR, IT, CAN, TUR POL,GER, CHE, UK,FYR, HUN,BEL,BUL,SLO BUL,AL,IT,BELROM,FR,FYR,EG,HOL,P IT,BUL,AL,BEL,CYP,SP,FYR,ROM,UK

523,767 1,386.864 614,762 8,137.224 2,707,373 1,136.609 GER,AUS,BUL,POL,IT, HOL,FYR,ROM,CHE,UK 7,627,205 317.031 93,857 GER,HOL,UK,BEL,AUS,AL,POL,FYR,BUL,IT 17,643,576 98,049.636 32,939,139 GER,POL,RUS,FYR,ROM,CHE,AL,HOL,AUS, UK 75,024 295.488 100,891 UK,AL,GER,CYP,BUL,S.ARAB, HOL,FYR, POL 557,476 102.176 156,197 BEL,BUL,BAH,HUN,CYP,FYR,ROM,AL 36,256 UK,BEL 6,319,493 22,608.192 9,748,496 GER,POL,UK,RUS,BUL,USA,FYR,HUN,CYP,SER Source: National Statistical Service, External trade Statistics (2000)

COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS: UKR: UKRAINE HUN: HUNGARY CHE: CHECZ REPUBLIC CAN: CANADA

Figure 42: National Production Imports Equilibrium for Vegetables

Vegetables National Production - Imports Equilibriium 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0


Artichoke Asparagus Carrots Beets Egg-plant Onion, Gerlic, Leek National Production Imports Potato Lettuce, chicory Tomato

Source: National Service of Statistics(2000)

Figure 43:National Production Imports equilibrium for Fruits

Fruits National production - Imports Equilibrium 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0
Orange Tangerine Lemon Apple Pears Strawberry Peach Watermelon

Natonal Production

Imports

Source: National Service of Statistics(2000)

Figure 44: The marketing channels for fresh fruits and vegetables

Producer

Cooperation

Wholesaler / Private trader

: Three level channel : Two level channel : Two level channel : One level channel : Zero level channel

Retailer

End Consumer

Source: Agricultural University of Athens, (1998) Table XVI: Number and geographic orientation of pack-houses in Greece (1998) No of Packhouses - Standardization establishments 26 114 2 6 20 46 10 2 97 62 385 % of the total 6,8 29,6 0,5 1,6 5,2 11,9 2,6 0,5 25,2 16,1 100

REGION East. Macedonia - Thrace Central Macedonia West Macedonia Hepirus Thessaly Ionian Islands West Greece Sterea Ellada (without Attica) Attica Peloponese North Aegean Islands South Aegean Islands Crete Total

Source: National Service of Statistics(1994)

Table XVII: Number and regional distribution of cooling facilities and estimated cooling capacity (1998) REGION COOLING CAPACITY Thousand cube meters 84.5 914.6 62.5 38 492.5 5 36.7 31.7 41 157.5 7 7 29.7 1901.8 Source: Ministry of Agriculture (1998) Figure 46: PC and Internet use by sector of Employment (Greece,2000)
PC & INTERNET USE BY SECTOR OF EMPLOYMENT
Bank./Insur./Misc. Education Other Services Public Administration Health/Welfare Commerce Telecom./Transport./Wareh. Average Build./Constr./Public works Restaur./Hotels Manuf./Craft. Energy/Water sup. Agric./Fish./Cattl.
0,9% 2% 0,1% 1,8% 5,2% 6,5% 9,9% 4,1% 6,5% 10,2% 6,4% 8,3% 9,5% 8,6% 6,4% 5,4% 7,4% 6,0% 5,0% 5% 15% 15% 50% 12,9% 13% 13% 18,2% 45% 40% 26,5% 30,1% 22,9% 14,4% 22% 18,1% 22% 20% 19% 30% 30% 36% 64% 48% 44% 53% 50% 68%

East Macedonia Thrace Central Macedonia West Macedonia Epirus Thessalia Ionian Islands Ditiki Ellada Sterea Ellada (without Attica) Attica Peloponese North Aegean South Aegean Crete Total

47% 41% 49% 43%

Internet use to PC use

Internet use

PC use

group as a % of sample

Source: Ministry of Development.(2000)

TABLE XVIII: The main types of employment in agriculture, livestock, forestry and processing sectors. Number of employed people and corresponding percentages. Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock Number of Percentage employed 926 0.1% 554 0.1% 132 0.0% 1304 0.2% 502 0.0% 660325 139 1411 10501 97.7% 0.1% 0.2% 1.6% Processing Number of employed 31806 22073 30039 12198 41512 27 287902 110666 30796 Percentage 5.6% 3.9% 5.3% 2.2% 7.3% 0.0% 50.8% 19.5% 5.4%

Type of employment Members of chamber bodies Scientists Technologists/ Technical assistants Service providing Office employees Specialised farmers, stock breeders, foresters, fishermen Specialised technicians Handlers of industry machinery Unskilled workers

Source: national service of statistics, 1999 TABLE XIX: The education level of people employed in the agriculture, livestock, forestry and processing sectors. Educational Level Elementary Secondary (gymnasium) Secondary (high school) University, Post graduate Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock 78.9% 8.7% 10.6% 1.8% Processing 37% 15% 33.5% 14.5% Source: National service of statistics, 1999

Figure 47: The main job types and responsibilities of the vegetables/ horticulture production.
FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES VALUE CHAIN

ADVERTISING FINANCIAL SERVICES TRANSPORTATION INSURANCE

PRIMARY SECTOR INPUT PRODUCTION HARVESTING

SECONDARY SECTOR STORING PACKAGING STANDARDIZING PROCESSING

TERTIARY SECTOR MARKETING TRADING

SUPPLIERS

MAIN JOB TYPES

PRODUCERS INTERMEDIARIES

PACKHOUSERS STANDARDISERS PROCESSORS

WHOLESALERS RETAILERS IMPORTERS EXPORTERS

Source: Agricultural University of Athens, (1999)

FIGURE 48: Agricultural Vocational Education and Training in Greece

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION


O.G.E.E.KA DIMITRA

MINISTRY OF LABOUR

13 CONSTITUENCIES

CVT FOR UNEMPLOYED CVT FOR UNEMP. 196 CVT 196 CVT

CONTINUOUS VOCATIONAL TRAINING 71 DIMITRA CENTERS -FARMERS -R U R A L P O P U L A T I O N -Y O U N G F A R M E R S

???? 14 IVT

CVT FOR UNEMPLOYED OAED/ ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION

SECONDARY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 13 TEE

INFORMATION DISSEMINATION TO FARMERS


71 DIMITRA CENTERS 13 ? ? ?

CVT FOR UNEMPLOYED 5 CVT D I M I T R A

PRIVATE IVT 2 UNITS

INITIAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING

SECONDARY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 95 TEE

Source: OGEEKA DIMITRA, 2001

Maps of Production Areas for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

Vineyards cultivation areas

Arboriculture cultivationa areas Vegetables cultivation areas Organges Lemons

Tangerines Peaches Apples

Irrigated lands

FOR PRACTICAL REASONS, THESE MAPS HAVE NOT BEEN INCLUDED IN THE WEBSITE. IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN OBTAINING THESE MAPS, (approximately 7 Mb), PLEASE CONTACT US ON hcl@otenet.gr , ATTENTION VASSO ARGYROPOULOU.

Legislation Common Organisation of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Markets Quality and Marketing Standards for fresh Fruits and Vegtables

Council Regulation (EC) No 2200/96 of 28 October 1996 on the common organization of the market in fruit and vegetables Official Journal L 297 , 21/11/1996 p. 0001 - 0028 Amendments: Implemented by 397R0412 Implemented by 397R0478 Implemented by 397R0659 Implemented by 397R1474 Amended by 397R2520 (OJ Amended by 399R0857 (OJ Amended by 399R1257 (OJ Amended by 300R2699 (OJ Amended by 300R2826 (OJ Amended by 301R0718 (OJ Amended by 301R0911 (OJ

(OJ L 062 04.03.1997 p.16) (OJ L 075 15.03.1997 p.4) (OJ L 100 17.04.1997 p.22) (OJ L 200 29.07.1997 p.23) L 346 17.12.1997 p.41) L 108 27.04.1999 p.7) L 160 26.06.1999 p.80) L 311 12.12.2000 p.9) L 328 23.12.2000 p.2) L 100 11.04.2001 p.12) L 129 11.05.2001 p.3)

Text: COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 2200/96 of 28 October 1996 on the common organization of the market in fruit and vegetables THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Articles 42 and 43 thereof, Having regard to the proposal from the Commission (1), Having regard to the opinion of the European Parliament (2), Having regard to the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee (3),

(1) Whereas at the present time various changes are placing the fruit and vegetable sector in a new situation to which producers must adjust; whereas, accordingly, a reorientation of the basic rules of the market organization for the sector is warranted; whereas, in view of the numerous changes made to that market organization since it was first adopted, a new regulation should, for reasons of clarity, be adopted; (2) Whereas it is desirable to insert in that new regulation the main provisions of Council Regulation (EEC) No 3285/83 of 14 November 1983 laying down general rules for the extension of certain rules issued by producers' organizations in the fruit and vegetables sector (4), of Council Regulation (EEC) No 1319/85 of 23 May 1985 on the reinforcement of supervision of the application of Community rules on fruit and vegetables (5), of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2240/88 of 19 July 1988 fixing, for peaches, lemons and oranges, the rules for applying Article 16b of Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 on the common organization of the market in fruit and vegetables (6), of Council Regulation (EEC) No 1121/89 of 27 April 1989 on the introduction of an intervention threshold for apples and cauliflowers (7), and of Council Regulation (EEC) No 1198/90 of 7 May 1990 establishing a Community register of citrus cultivation (8); whereas these Regulations should therefore be repealed; (3) Whereas classification using common obligatory standards for fruit and vegetables both marketed within the Community and exported to third countries provides a reference framework that encourages fair trading and market transparency and also eliminates products of unsatisfactory quality from the market; whereas compliance with these standards thus also helps to imp rove the profitability of production; (4) Whereas it would be desirable, for reasons of simplicity, to adopt standards for fruit and vegetables having a relatively large impact on the market which take account of the standards adopted by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE); whereas it is necessary to set the terms on which these international standards can be adjusted to the specific requirements of the Community;

(5) Whereas standardization cannot be fully effective unless it is applied, subject to exemption, at all marketing stages and on departure from the production region; whereas exemption may, nevertheless, be provided for in the case of certain operations which either are very marginal and specific or take place at the start of the distribution chain, or in the case of products intended for processing; whereas account should also be taken of the possibility of shortages and of exceptionally plentiful supply; whereas in order to guarantee the quality required by the standards, the holder of the product must be responsible for compliance, whereas in particular, consumer requirements as regards the characteristics of fruit and vegetables mean that the origin of products should be included in the labelling up to and including the final retail stage; (6) Whereas the production and marketing of fruit and vegetables should take full account of environmental concerns, including cultivation practices, the management of waste materials and the destruction of products withdrawn from the market, in particular as regards the protection of water quality, the maintenance of biodiversity and the upkeep of the countryside; (7) Whereas producer organizations are the basic elements in the common market organization, the decentralized operation of which they ensure at their level; whereas, in the face of ever greater concentration of demand, the grouping of supply through these organizations is more than ever an economic necessity in order to strengthen the position of producers in the market; whereas such grouping must be effected on a voluntary basis and must prove its utility by the scope and efficiency of the services offered by producer organizations to their members; whereas the delivery of products to specialist producer organizations existing before the entry into force of this Regulation is not brought into question; (8) Whereas a producer organization cannot be recognized by its Member State as able to contribute to achievement of the objectives of the common market organization unless its articles of association impose certain requirements on it and its members; whereas producer groups wishing to acquire the status of producer organizations in accordance with this Regulation should be allowed the benefit of a transitional period during which national and Community financial support can be given against certain commitments by the group; (9) Whereas a transitional period should be allowed to producer organizations already recognized under Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 (9) which cannot immediately me et the requirements of this Regulation for recognition; whereas such organizations must be able to show themselves able to make the necessary changes; (10) Whereas in order to give producer organizations greater responsibility for their financial decisions in particular and to gear the public resources assigned to them towards future requirements, terms should be set for the use of these resources; whereas joint financing of operational funds set up by producer organizations presents itself as an appropriate solution; (11) Whereas the establishment and proper functioning of operational funds requires that producer organizations should take charge of the whole of the relevant fruit and vegetable production of their members; (12) Whereas in order to control Community expenditure, there should be a cap on assistance granted to producer organizations that establish operational funds; (13) Whereas in regions where the organization of production is weak the grant of additional, national, financial contributions should be allowed; whereas in the case of Member States which are at a particular disadvantage with regard to structures, those contributions should be reimbursable by the Community via the Community Support Framework; (14) Whereas, in order to further boost the impact of producer organizations and associations thereof and ensure the market as much stability as is desirable, Member States should be allowed on certain conditions to extend to non-member producers in their region the rules, particularly on production, marketing and environmental protection, adopted for its members by the organization or association for the region concerned; whereas, where proper justification is given, certain costs arising from this extension of the rules should be chargeable to the producers concerned since they will benefit from the extension; (15) Whereas interbranch organizations set up on the initiative of individual or already grouped operators can, if they account for a significant proportion of the members of the various occupational categories of the fruit and vegetable sector, contribute to behaviour taking closer account of market realities and facilitate a commercial approach that will improve production reporting, that is to say the organization of production, product presentation and marketing; whereas since the work of these organizations is able to contribute in general to attaining the

objectives of Article 39 of the Treaty and in particular to those of this Regulation it should, once the relevant forms of action are defined, be possible to grant specific recognition to those organizations which provide proof of sufficient representativeness and carry out practical action in regard to the abovementioned objectives; whereas the provisions on extending the rules adopted by producer organizations and their associations and on sharing the costs resulting from such extension should, given the similarity of the objectives pursued, also apply to interbranch organizations; (16) Whereas to stabilize prices it is desirable that producer organizations should be able to intervene on the market, in particular by deciding not to put up for sale particular quantities at particular periods; whereas these withdrawal operations must not be regarded as an alternative outlet to the market itself; whereas Community financing of withdrawals should therefore be restricted to a set percentage of production and the Community compensation granted at a reduced level, though use of the operational funds for this purpose should be permitted; whereas for simplicity Community compensation should be at a single flat rate for each product; whereas, to achieve a comparable reduction for all products, certain differentiations are required; (17) Whereas intervention can be fully effective only if the products withdrawn from the market are not reintroduced into the normal marketing channel again; whereas various alternative uses to which they may be put should be specified so that their destruction is avoided wherever possible; (18) Whereas this new way of m anaging withdrawals will allow the provisions in force on the implications of threshold overruns to be repealed immediately; whereas it is, however, reasonable to retain the underlying principle of those provisions for a transitional period and to give the Commission authority to take action on the basis of that principle if the need arises; (19) Whereas by Regulation (EC) No 3290/94 (10) the Council has adopted the adjustments and transitional arrangements required in the agricultural sector in order to implement the agreements concluded in the context of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, in particular the new trading arrangements with third countries in the fruit and vegetable sector; whereas the provisions in Annex XIII to Regulation (EC) No 3290/94 have been inserted in this Regulation; whereas, however, where products are imported into the Community for industrial processing, they are not sold on consignment; whereas verification of the entry price can therefore be made on other bases than a flat rate value; whereas the relevant provisions should therefore be supplemented in this regard; (20) Whereas the rules of the common market organization should be complied with by all operators to whom they apply, otherwise their impact will be distorted with all the resulting consequences in terms of both the use of public resources and the interplay of competition; whereas a special corps of Community inspectors should be set up for this sector; whereas for both budget reasons and effectiveness the corps should consist of Commission officials and possibly other staff; whereas it is also necessary to make provision for Community penalties in order to ensure that the new rules are uniformly applied throughout the Community; (21) Whereas one of the indispensable elements for the proper management of the common organization of the market is detailed knowledge of the market; whereas measures should therefore be provided for to this end; (22) Whereas the granting of certain aid would compromise the functioning of the single market; whereas, therefore, the provisions of the Treaty enabling aid granted by Member States to be examined and enabling aid which is incompatible with the common market to be prohibited, should be extended to cover the sector referred to in this Regulation; (23) Whereas the common organization of the market in that sector must take proper and simultaneous account of the objectives set out in Articles 39 and 110 of the Treaty; (24) Whereas, to facilitate the implementation of the provision of this Regulation, a procedure for close cooperation between the Member States and the Commission by means of a management committee should be set up; (25) Whereas in order to deal with a particularly unfavourable situation in the hazelnut sector, flatrate aid should be granted for hazelnuts harvested in the 1997/1998, 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 marketing years,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

Article 1 1. This Regulation sets up a common organization of the market in fruit and vegetables. 2. The common organization shall cover the following products: >TABLE POSITION> 3. The marketing years for the products listed in paragraph 2 shall be determined, if necessary, in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. TITLE I Classification of products Article 2 1. Products to be delivered fresh to the consumer may be classified by reference to a set of standards. 2. The standards for fresh fruit and vegetables contained in Annex I shall be adopted, by the procedure laid down in Article 46, for imp lementing the common organization of the markets. To this end, account shall be taken of the UN/ECE standards recommended by the Economic Commission for Europe's Working Party on perishable product standardization and quality. Until new standards are adopted, the standards drawn up pursuant to Article 2 of Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 shall continue to apply. 3. The Commission acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46 may add other products to the list in Annex I. Article 3 1. The holder of products covered by the quality standards adopted may not display such products or offer them for sale, or deliver or market them in any other manner within the Community than in conformity with those standards. The holder shall be responsible for observing such conformity. However, Member States may exempt the following from the requirement of complying with the quality standards or with some of their provisions: (a) products displayed or offered for sale, sold, delivered or marketed in any other manner by the grower on wholesale markets, in particular on producer markets, situated in the production area; (b) products shipped from those wholesale markets to preparation and packaging stations and storage facilities situated in the same production area. Where the second subparagraph is applied, the Member State concerned shall inform the Commission and shall notify it of the measures taken. 2. The following shall not be required to conform to the quality standards within a given production area: (a) products sold or delivered by the grower to preparation and packaging stations or storage facilities, or shipped from his holding to such stations; (b) products shipped from storage facilities to preparation and packaging stations. 3. The following shall not be required to conform to the quality standards: (a) products shipped to processing plants, unless minimum quality criteria for products intended for industrial processing are set in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46; (b) products transferred by the producer on his holding to consumers for their personal use; (c) on a Commission Decision taken at the request of a Member State using the procedure referred to in Article 46 for products of a given region which are sold by the retail trade of the region for well-established traditional local consumption. 4. Evidence must be supplied that the products covered by paragraphs 2 and 3 (a) fulfil the conditions laid down, in particular with regard to their intended use. Article 4 Where, following extreme shortage or exceptionally plentiful supply, the supply of products conforming to the quality standards is insufficient to meet or appreciably exceeds consumer demand, measures derogating from their application for a limited period shall be adopted in compliance with the Community's international obligations and in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 5 1. The information particulars required by the quality standards must be shown legibly in an

obvious position on one side of the packaging, either indelibly printed directly onto the package or on a label which is an integral part of or firmly affixed to the package. 2. For goods shipped in bulk and loaded directly onto a means of transport, the particulars referred to in paragraph 1 shall be given in a document accompanying the goods or shown on a notice placed in an obvious position inside the means of transport. Article 6 At the retail stage, where products are packaged the information particulars required shall be legible and conspicuous. For pre-packaged products within the meaning of Directive 79/112/EEC (11), the net weight shall be indicated, in addition to all the information provided for in the common quality standards. However, in the case of products normally sold by number, the requirement to indicate the net weight shall not apply if the number of items can be clearly seen and easily counted from the outside or, failing that, if the number is indicated on the label. Products may be presented unpackaged, provided that the retailer displays with the goods offered for sale a card showing prominently and legibly the information particulars specified in the quality standards relating to: - variety, - origin of the product, - class. Article 7 To establish whether products covered by quality standards conform to the provisions of Articles 3 to 6, checks shall be made in accordance with Title VI by sampling at all marketing stages and during transport by the authorities appointed by each Member State. These checks shall preferably be made prior to dispatch from production areas when the products are being packed or loaded. Member States shall communicate to the other Member States and to the Commission the names of the authorities which they have appointed to be responsible for checking. Article 8 1. Products covered by quality standards shall be accepted for importation from third countries only if they conform to the quality standards or to standards at least equivalent to them. 2. Articles 3 to 7 shall apply to products imported into the Community, after completion of the import formalities in accordance with current Community rules. Article 9 1. Products covered by quality standards shall be accepted for export to third countries only if they conform to those standards. Derogations may, however, be granted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 45 to suit the requirements of the intended markets. 2. Products for export to third countries shall be subject to a Check for compliance with quality standards before they leave the customs territory of the Community. Article 10 Measures to ensure uniform application of the provisions of this Title shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. For products intended to be imported into the Community, such measures may consist in approval of the official inspection authorities of the exporting third country. TITLE II Producer organizations Article 11 1. For the purposes of this Regulation, 'producer organization` means any legal entity: (a) which is formed on the own initiative of growers of the following categories of product listed in Article 1 (2): (i) fruit and vegetables

(ii) fruit (iii) vegetables (iv) products intended for processing (v) citrus fruit (vi) nuts (vii) mushrooms; (b) which has in particular the aim of: (1) ensuring that production is planned and adjusted to demand, particularly in terms of quality and quantity; (2) promoting concentration of supply and the placing on the market of the products produced by its members; (3) reducing production costs and stabilizing producer prices; (4) promoting the use of cultivation practices, production techniques and environmentally sound waste-management practices in particular to protect the quality of water, soil and landscape and preserve and/or encourage biodiversity; (c) the rules of association of which require its producer members, in particular, to: (1) apply the rules adopted by the producer organization relating to production reporting, production itself, marketing and protection of the environment; (2) belong to only one of the producer organizations referred to in point (a) in respect of a given holding's production of one of the categories of product listed in point (a); (3) market their entire production concerned through the producer organization. However, where the producer organization so authorizes and in compliance with the terms and conditions it lays down, the producer members may: - sell not more than 25 % of their production if they are members of fruit and vegetable producer organizations as referred to in point (a) (i) and not more than 20 % of their production if they are members of other types of producer organization directly on their holdings to consumers for their personal needs, and furthermore; - market themselves or through another producer organization designated by their own organization, quantities of products which are marginal in relation to the volumes marketable by their organization; - market through another producer organization designated by their own organization products which, because of their characteristics, are not normally covered by the commercial activities of the organization concerned; - in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46 be authorized for certain products to conclude by way of derogation direct contracts with processing undertakings degressively and for a transitional period until 31 December 1999; (4) provide the information requested by the producer organization for statistical purposes, in particular on growing areas, quantities cropped, yields and direct sales; (5) to pay the financial contributions provided for in its rules of association for the establishment and replenishment of the operational fund provided for in Article 15; (d) the rules of association of which provide for: (1) procedures for determining, adopting and amending the rules referred to in point (c) (1); (2) the imposition on members of financial contributions needed to finance the producer organization; (3) rules enabling the producer members democratically to scrutinize their organization and its decisions; (4) penalties for infringement of obligations under the rules of association, particularly nonpayment of financial contributions, or of the rules laid down by the producer organization; (5) rules on the admission of new members, particularly a minimum membership period; and (6) the accounting and budgetary rules necessary for the operation of the organization; (e) which has been recognized by the Member State concerned pursuant to paragraph 2. 2. Member States shall recognize as producer organizations for the purposes of this Regulation all producer groups applying for such recognition, on condition that: (a) they meet the requirements laid down in paragraph 1 and provide the relevant evidence, including proof that they have a minimum number of members and cover a minimum volume of marketable production, to be determined in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 45; (b) there is sufficient evidence that they can carry out their activities properly, both over time and

in terms of effectiveness; (c) they effectively enable their members to obtain technical assistance in using environmentallysound cultivation practices; (d) they effectively provide their members with the technical means for storing, packaging and marketing their produce and ensure proper commercial and budgetary management of their activities. 3. Member States may also recognize as producer organizations for the purposes of this Regulation producer organizations other than those referred to in paragraph 1 (a) existing before the entry into force of this Regulation and recognized under Regulation No 1035/72 before the date of application of this Regulation. Where pursuant to the previous subparagraph Member States recognize those producer organizations, the requirements laid down in paragraph 1, except for paragraph 1 (a), and, if appropriate, paragraph 1 (c) (2), and in paragraph 2 shall apply. Article 12 1. Member States shall: (a) decide whether to grant recognition to a producer organization within three months of the lodging of an application with all supporting documents; (b) carry out checks at regular intervals to ascertain that producer organizations comply with the terms and conditions for recognition, impose in the event of non-compliance the penalties to apply to such organizations and decide, where necessary, to withdraw recognition; (c) notify the Commission, within two months, of every decision to grant, refuse or withdraw recognition. 2. The terms and conditions under which and the frequency with which the Member States are to report to the Commission on the activities of producer organizations shall be laid down in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. The Commission shall check that Articles 11 and paragraph (1) (b) of this Article are complied with by carrying out checks in accordance with Title VI and in the light of such checks shall, where appropriate, call on Member States to withdraw recognition. Article 13 1. Producer organizations recognized under Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 before the entry into force of this Regulation and which are unable to qualify for recognition under Article 11 of this Regulation without a transitional period may continue to operate under the provisions of Title IV for two years after its entry into force, provided that they remain in compliance with the requirements of the said Articles of Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72. 2. The period of two years referred to in paragraph 1 may be extended to five years provided that the producer organization concerned: (a) by a set date falling before the end of the two-year period referred to in paragraph 1, presents to the relevant Member State, which must either accept or reject it, a plan of action with a view to attaining recognition under Article 11 (2); (b) can show, when presenting its plan of action, that it has set up the operational fund referred to in Article 15; (c) undertakes, on pain of penalties to be determined by the Member State, to complete the implementation of its action plan before the end of the five-year period. 3. Producer organizations which no longer meet the conditions laid down in paragraph 2, whatever the reason and at whatever moment, shall lose their status as such on the terms set out in Article 12 (1) (b). However, the first subparagraph shall apply without prejudice to any individual rights which the producer organization may have acquired in accordance with Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72. Article 14 1. New producer organizations or those which have not been recognized under Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 before the entry into force of this Regulation may be allowed a transitional period of no more than five years in which to meet the conditions for recognition laid down in Article 11. In order to qualify, they shall present a phased recognition plan to the relevant Member State, acceptance of which shall signal the start of the five-year period referred to in the first

subparagraph and shall constitute a preliminary recognition. 2. During the four years following the date of preliminary recognition, Member States may grant to the producer organizations referred to in paragraph 1: (a) aid to encourage their formation and facilitate their administrative operation; (b) aid, provided either directly or through credit institutions, in the form of special loans to cover part of the investments required to attain recognition and set out in the recognition plan referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 1. 3. The aid referred to in paragraph 2 shall be reimbursed by the Community in accordance with Article 51 (2) and (3). 4. Before granting preliminary recognition, Member States shall inform the Commission of their intentions and the financial implications thereof. 5. Presentation of a recognition plan by a producer organization to a Member State shall entail a commitment by the organization to submit to national and Community checks in accordance with Title VI, in particular with regard to proper management of public funds. 6. Member States shall impose the applicable penalties on producer organizations which do not fulfil their undertakings. 7. Detailed rules for application adopted under Article 48 for the implementation of this Article shall include provisions ensuring that aid paid to Portuguese producer organizations is not less, expressed as a percentage of the value of the marketed production of the producer organization, than that resulting from Regulation (EEC) No 746/93 (12). Article 15 1. Community financial assistance shall be granted on the terms set out in this Article to producer organizations setting up an operational fund. This fund shall be maintained by financial contributions levied on member producers on the basis of the quantities or value of fruit and vegetables actually marketed and from the financial assistance referred to in the first subparagraph. 2. Operational funds as indicated in paragraph 1 shall be used to: (a) finance both market withdrawals and processing of citrus fruit on the terms set out in paragraph 3; (b) finance an operational programme submitted to the competent national authorities and approved by them under Article 16 (1). Such funds may also be used in whole or in part to finance an action plan submitted by a producer organization as referred to in Article 13. 3. Use of the operational fund to finance market withdrawals and/or the processing of citrus fruit shall be permissible only if an operational programme has been approved by the competent national authorities. Financing shall take one or more of the following forms: (a) withdrawal compensation for products not listed in Annex II which comply with the standards in force if such standards have been laid down pursuant to Article 2; (b) a supplement to the Community withdrawal compensation. Member States may set a maximum level for the compensation or supplement but the amount of the supplement thus fixed added to the amount of the Community withdrawal compensation may not exceed the maximum level of withdrawal prices applying in the 1995/1996 marketing year in accordance with Article 16 (3) (a), Article 16 (a), Article 16 (b) and the first indent of Article 18 (1) (a) of Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72. The proportion of the operational fund which may be used to finance withdrawals may not exceed 60 % in the first year, 55 % in the second, 50 % in the third, 45 % in the fourth, 40 % in the fifth and 30 % from the sixth year onwards commencing from the date of approval by the competent national authorities of the first operational programme submitted by the producer organization and approved by them. The limits laid down in Article 22 (3), (4) and (5) shall apply to the withdrawals referred to in point (a) of the first subparagraph of this paragraph. 4. Operational programmes as indicated in paragraph 2 (b) shall: (a) have several of the objectives referred to in Article 11 (1) (b) and others, including in particular: the improvement of product quality, boosting products' commercial value, promotion of the products targeted at consumers, creation of organic product lines, the promotion of integrated production or other methods of production respecting the environment and the reduction of

withdrawals; (b) include action to develop the use of environmentally sound techniques by the producer members with regard to both cultivation practices and the management of waste materials. 'Environmentally sound techniques` shall mean, in particular, those which help to achieve the aims of Article (1) (a), (b) and (c) of Regulation (EEC) No 2078/92 (13); (c) make financial provision for the technical and human resources required to ensure compliance with plant-health standards and rules, and maximum permitted levels of residues. 5. The financial assistance referred to in paragraph 1 shall be equal to the amount of the financial contributions indicated in that paragraph as actually paid but limited to 50 % of the actual expenditure incurred under paragraph 2. This percentage shall be 60 % where an operational programme or part of an operational programme is submitted by: (a) either several Community producer organizations operating in different Member States on transnational schemes, except for operations as referred to in paragraph 2 (a); (b) or one or more producer organizations engaged in schemes operated on an interbranch basis. However the financial assistance shall be capped at 4 % of the value of the marketed production of each producer organization, provided that the total amount of financial assistance represents less than 2 % of the total turnover of all producer organizations. In order to ensure that this limit is complied with, an advance payment of 2 % shall be made and the remainder of the assistance shall be granted once the total amount of aid applications is known. From 1999 onwards the figure of 4 % shall be raised to 4,5 % and the percentage of total turnover shall be raised from 2 % to 2,5 %. 6. In regions of the Community where the degree of organization of producers is particularly low, Member States may be authorized, upon duly substantiated request, to pay producer organizations national financial assistance equal to half the financial contributions of producers. This assistance shall be additional to the operational fund. For Member States less than 15 % of whose fruit and vegetable production is marketed by producer organizations and whose fruit and vegetable production represents at least 15 % of their total agricultural output, the assistance referred to in the first subparagraph may be reimbursed by the Community at the request of the Member State concerned via the Community Support Framework. Article 16 1. Operational programmes as referred to in Article 15 (2) (b) shall be submitted to the competent national authorities, who shall approve or reject them or request their modification in line with the provisions of this Regulation. Member States shall establish a national framework for drawing up the general conditions relating to the measures referred to in Article 15 (4) (b). They shall submit their proposed framework to the Commission which may request modifications within three months if it finds that the proposal does not enable the aims set out in Article 130r of the Treaty and in the Community programme of policy and action in relation to the environment and sustainable development to be attained. 2. By the end of each year at the latest, producer organizations shall communicate to the Member State the estimated amount of the operational fund for the next year and shall submit appropriate reasons based on operational programme estimates, expenditure for the current year and possible for previous years and, if necessary, on estimated production quantities for the next year. The Member State shall, before 1 January of the following year, notify the producer organization of the estimated amount of financial assistance in line with the limits set out in Article 15 (5). Financial assistance payments shall be made on the basis of expenditure incurred for the schemes covered by the operational programme. Advances may be made in respect of the same schemes subject to the provision of a guarantee or security. At the beginning of each year and by 31 January at the latest, the producer-organization shall notify the Member State of the final amount of expenditure for the previous year, accompanied by the necessary supporting documents, so that it may receive the balance of the Community financial assistance. 3. An association of producer organizations recognized by a Member State may replace its members for the purposes of managing their operational fund within the meaning of Article 15 (1) and for establishing, implementing and submitting operational programmes as referred to in Article

15 (2) (b). In such cases the association shall receive the financial assistance and make the notification referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article. 4. Operational programmes and their financing by producers and producer organizations on the one hand and by Community funds on the other shall have a minimum duration of three and a maximum duration of five years. 5. Submission of an operational programme to a Member State by a producer organization or, if the option indicated in paragraph 3 is taken up, an association of producer organizations, shall imply a commitment by the organization or association to submit to national and Community checks in accordance with Title VI, in particular as regards proper management of public resources. Article 17 Should the general instruments of the common organization of the market prove inadequate or inappropriate with regard to the products listed in Article 1 (2) which are of major local or regional importance in economic or ecological terms and which face lasting difficulties on the Community market due, in particular, to strong international competition, specific measures to improve the competitiveness of these products and to promote them may be taken in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 18 1. In cases where a producer organization or an association of producer organizations which have adopted the same rules, which operates in a specific economic area is considered, in respect of a specific product, to be representative of production and producers in that area, the Member State concerned may, at the request of the organization or association, make the following rules binding on producers established in the area who do not belong to one of the organizations referred to above: (a) the rules referred to in point (1) of Article 11 (1) (c), (b) the rules adopted by the organization or association relating to market withdrawals, on condition that the rules: - have been in force for at least one marketing year, - are included in the exhaustive list in Annex III, - are made binding for no more than three marketing years. 2. For the purposes of this Article, 'economic area` means a geographical zone made up of adjoining or neighbouring production regions in which production and marketing conditions are homogeneous. 3. A producer organization or association of organizations shall be deemed representative within the meaning of paragraph 1 where its members account for at least two thirds of the producers in the economic area in which it operates and it covers at least two thirds of the production of that area. 4. The rules which are made binding on all producers in a specific economic area: (a) must not cause any harm to other producers in the Member State or in the Community; (b) shall not apply, unless they expressly cover them, to products delivered for processing under a contract signed before the beginning of the marketing year, with the exc eption of the rules on reporting production referred to in paragraph 1 (a); (c) must not clash with Community and national rules in force. 5. Member States shall notify the Commission forthwith of the rules which they have made binding on all producers in a specific economic area. These rules shall be published in the 'C` series of the Official Journal. The Commission shall decide that a Member State must repeal an extension of the rules decided on by that Member State: (a) if it finds that the extension in question to other producers excludes competition in a substantial part of the internal market or jeopardizes free trade, or that the objectives of Article 39 of the Treaty are endangered; (b) if it finds that Article 85 (1) of the Treaty applies to the agreement, decision or concerted practice which it has been decided to extend to other producers. The Commission's decision with regard to that agreement, decision or concerted practice shall apply only from the date of such a finding; (c) where, following ex-post checks under Title VI, it finds that this Article has not been complied

with. 6. Where paragraph 1 is applied, the Member State concerned may decide, on scrutiny of evidence presented, that non-member producers shall be liable to the organization, or where appropriate, the association, for the part of the financial contributions paid by the producer members, insofar as these are used to cover: (a) administrative costs resulting from applying the rules referred to in paragraph 1; (b) the cost of research, market studies and sales promotion undertaken by the organization or association and benefiting all producers in the area. 7. Member States shall notify a list of economic areas as referred to in paragraph 2 to the Commission. Within one month of notification, the Commission shall approve the list or shall, after consultation with the Member State concerned, decide on the amendments which the latter must make to it. The approved list shall be published in the 'C` series of the Official Journal of the European Communities. TITLE III Interbranch organizations and agreements Article 19 1. For the purposes of this Regulation, 'recognized interbranch organizations`, hereinafter referred to as 'interbranch organizations`, means legal entities which: (a) are made up of representatives of economic activities linked to the production of and/or trade in and/or processing of the products referred to in Article 1 (2); (b) are established at the initiative of all or some of the organizations or associations which constitute them; (c) carry out several of the following measures in one or more regions of the Community, taking account of the interests of consumers: - improving knowledge and the transparency of production and the market, - helping to coordinate better the way fruit and vegetables are placed on the market, in particular by means of research and market studies, - drawing up standard forms of contract compatible with Community rules, - exploiting more fully the potential of the fruit and vegetables produced, - providing the information and carrying out the research necessary to adjust production towards products more suited to market requirements and consumer tastes and expectations, in particular with regard to product quality and protection of the environment, - seeking ways of restricting the use of plant-health products and other inputs and ensuring product quality and soil and water conservation, - developing methods and instruments for improving product quality, - exploiting the potential of and protecting organic farming as well as designations of origin, quality labels and geographical indications, - promoting integrated production or other environmentally sound production methods, - laying down rules, as regards the production and marketing rules set out in Annex III, which are stricter than Community or national rules. (d) have been recognized by the Member State concerned on the terms set out in paragraph 2. 2. If warranted by the Member State's structures, Member States may recognize as interbranch organizations within the meaning of this Regulation all organizations established on their territory which make an appropriate application, on condition that: (a) they carry out their activity in one or more regions in that territory; (b) they represent a significant share of the production of and/or trade in and/or processing of fruit and vegetables and products processed from fruit and vegetables in the region or regions in question and, where more than one region is involved, they can demonstrate a minimum level of representativeness in each region for each of the branches that they group; (c) they carry out several of the measures referred to in paragraph 1 (c); (d) they are not themselves engaged in the production or processing or marketing of fruit and vegetables or products processed from fruit and vegetables; (e) they do not carry out any of the activities referred to in Article 20 (3). 3. Before granting recognition Member States shall notify the Commission of the interbranch organizations which have applied for recognition, providing all relevant information about their representativeness and their various activities, together with all other information needed for an

assessment. The Commission may object to recognition within a time limit of two months after notification. 4. Member States shall: (a) decide whether to grant recognition within three months of the lodging of an application with all relevant supporting documents; (b) carry out checks at regular intervals to ascertain that interbranch organizations meet the terms and conditions for recognition, impose the applicable penalties to such organizations in the event of their failure to do so and, if necessary, decide to withdraw their recognition; (c) withdraw recognition if: (i) the terms and conditions for recognition laid down in this Regulation are no longer met; (ii) the interbranch organization contravenes one or other of the prohibitions imposed in Article 20 (3), without prejudice to any other penalties otherwise incurred pursuant to national law; (iii) the interbranch organizations fails to comply with the notification obligation referred to in Article 20 (2); (d) notify the Commission, within two months, of any decision to grant, refuse or withdraw recognition. 5. The terms and conditions on which and the frequency with which the Member States are to report to the Commission on the activities of interbranch organizations shall be drawn up in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. The Commission shall check that paragraphs 2 and 4 (b) are complied with by carrying out checks in accordance with Title VI and may, as a result of these checks, ask a Member State to withdraw recognition. 6. Recognition shall constitute an authorization to carry out the measures listed in point (c) of paragraph 1, consistent with the terms of this Regulation. 7. The Commission shall publish in the 'C` series of the Official Journal of the European Communities a list of the interbranch organizations recognized, indicating the economic sphere or the area of their activities and the activities carried out within the meaning of Article 21. Withdrawals of recognition shall also be published. Article 20 1. Notwithstanding Article 1 of Regulation No 26 (14), Article 85 (1) of the Treaty shall not apply to the agreements, decisions and concerted practices of recognized interbranch organizations intended to implement the measures referred to in Article 19 (1) (c). 2. Paragraph 1 shall apply only provided that: - the agreements, decisions and concerted practices have been notified to the Commission, and that - within two months of receipt of all the details required the Commission has not found that the agreements, decisions or concerted practices are incompatible with Community rules. The agreements, decisions and concerted practices may not be implemented until the period indicated in the second indent of the first subparagraph has elapsed. 3. Agreements, decisions and concerted practices which: - may lead to the partitioning of markets in any form within the Community, - may affect the sound operation of the market organization, - may create distortions of competition which are not essential in achieving the objectives of the common agricultural policy pursued by the interbranch organization measure, - entail the fixing of prices, without prejudice to measures taken by interbranch organizations in the application of specific provisions of Community rules, - may create discrimination or eliminate competition in respect of a substantial proportion of the products in question, shall in any case be declared contrary to Community rules. 4. If, following expiry of the two-month period referred to in the second indent of the first subparagraph of paragraph 2, the Commission finds that the conditions for applying this Regulation have not been met, it shall take a decision declaring that Article 85 (1) of the Treaty applies to the agreement, decision or concerted practice in question. That Commission decision shall not come into effect earlier than the date of notification to the interbranch organization concerned, unless that interbranch organization has given incorrect information or abused the exemption provided for in paragraph 1. 5. In the case of multiannual agreements, the prior notification for the first year shall be valid for

the subsequent years of the agreement; however, in that event, the Commission may, on its own initiative or at the request of another Member State, issue a finding of incompatibility at any time. Article 21 1. In cases where an interbranch organization operating in a specific region or regions of a Member State is considered to be representative of the production of and/or trade in and/or processing of a given product, the Member State concerned may, at the request of the organization, make some of the agreements, decisions or concerted practices agreed on within that organization binding for a limited period on other operators operating in the region or regions in question, whether individuals or groups, who do not belong to the organization. 2. An interbranch organization shall be deemed representative within the meaning of paragraph 1 where it accounts for at least two thirds of the production and/or trade in and/or processing of the product or products concerned in the region or regions concerned of a Member State. Where the application for extension of its rules to other operators covers more than one region, the interbranch organization must demonstrate a minimum level of representativeness for each of the branches it groups in each of the regions concerned. 3. The rules for which extension to other operators may be requested: (a) must concern one of the following aims: - production and market reporting, - stricter production rules than any laid down in Community or national rules, - drawing up of standard contracts which are compatible with Community rules, - rules on marketing, - rules on protecting the environment, - measures to promote and exploit the potential of products, - measures to protect organic farming as well as designations of origin, quality labels and geographical indications. The rules referred to in the second, fourth and fifth indents must not be other than those which appear in Annex III; (b) must have been in force for at least one marketing year; (c) may be made binding for no more than three marketing years; (d) must not cause any harm to other operators in the Member State or the Community. Article 22 1. Member States shall notify the Commission forthwith of the rules which they have made binding on all operators in one or more specific regions. Those rules shall be published in the 'C` series of the Official Journal of the European Communities. Before that publication takes place, the Commission shall inform the Committee provided for in Article 45 of any notification of the extension of interbranch agreements. The Commission shall decide that a Member State must repeal an extension of the rules decided on by that Member State in the cases referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 18 (5). 2. In cases where rules for one or more products are extended and where one or more of the activities referred to in Article 21 (3) (a) are pursued by a recognized interbranch organization and are in the general economic interest of those persons whose activities relate to one or more of the products concerned, the Member State which has granted recognition may decide that individuals or groups which are not members of the organization but which benefit from those activities shall pay the organization all or part of the financial contributions paid by its members to the extent that such contributions are intended to cover costs directly incurred as a result of pursuing the activities in question. TITLE IV Intervention arrangements Article 23 1. Producer organizations and their associations may choose not to put up for sale products listed in Article 1 (2) contributed by their members, both in quantities and for periods which they consider appropriate. 2. The destination of products withdrawn from the market under paragraph 1 must be fixed by the producer organization or association in such a way as not to disturb the normal disposal of the

products in question and must respect the environment, particularly as regards water and landscape quality. 3. Where paragraph 1 is applied to any one of the products listed in Annex II which meet the relevant standards, producer organizations and their associations shall pay their producer members the Community withdrawal compensation fixed under Article 26, up to a ceiling of 10 % of the marketed quantity. The 10 % limit set in the first subparagraph shall apply to the marketed quantity of each product of only the members of the producer organization concerned, or of another organization in cases of application of Article 11 (1) (c), withdrawals under Article 24 excluded. 4. The 10 % ceiling referred to in paragraph 3 shall apply from the sixth marketing year following the date of entry into force of this Regulation. Withdrawals carried out during the transitional period covering the five previous marketing years may not exceed the following percentages of marketed production as defined in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46: 50 % in the first marketing year, 45 % in the second, 40 % in the third, 30 % in the fourth and 20 % in the fifth. However, in the case of each citrus fruit these percentages shall be: 35 % in the first marketing year, 30 % in the second, 25 % in the third, 20 % in the fourth and 15 % in the fifth. The second subparagraph of paragraph 3 shall apply to this paragraph. 5. The figure of 10 % referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4 shall be an annual average over a threeyear period, with a 3 % annual margin of overrun. 6. For apples and pears the ceiling of 10 % referred to in paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 of this Article and in Article 24 shall be replaced by 8,5 %. For melons and water melons, the 10 % ceiling shall apply as of the 1997/1998 marketing year. Article 24 In connection with products listed in Annex II, producer organizations shall allow the benefits of Article 23 to growers who are not members of any of the collective structures provided for in this Regulation, if they so request. However, the Community withdrawal compensation shall be reduced by 10 %. In addition, the amount paid shall take account, on scrutiny of the evidence, of the overall withdrawal costs borne by the members. The compensation may not be granted on a volume greater than 10 % of the grower's marketed production. Article 25 Producer organizations and their associations shall notify full details concerning the implementation of Articles 23 and 24, and in particular the measures taken to ensure environmentally sound practice in connection with withdrawals, to their competent national authorities, which shall forward the information to the Commission. The information to be notified shall be determined, as necessary, in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Member States shall establish a national framework for drawing up the general conditions relating to the withdrawal methods which respect the environment. They shall submit their proposed framework to the Commission which may request modifications within three months if it finds that the proposal does not enable the aims set out in Article 130r of the Treaty and in the Community programme of policy and action in relation to the environment and sustainable development to be attained. Article 26 1. The Community withdrawal compensation for each product is set out in Annex V. 2. The Community withdrawal compensation shall be a single amount valid throughout the Community. Article 27 1. If the market in a product listed in Annex II is suffering or at risk of suffering from widespread structural imbalances giving or liable to give rise to too large a volume of the withdrawals referred to in Article 23, an intervention threshold shall be set before the beginning of the marketing year for that product in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46 and the consequences of any overrun, assessed for the product on the basis of withdrawals made during a marketing year or

an equivalent period or of the average of the volume of intervention over several marketing years, shall be borne financially by the producers. An overrun of the intervention threshold shall give rise to a reduction in the Community withdrawal compensation in the following marketing year. This reduction shall not be carried over to subsequent marketing years. 2. The following shall be determined in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46: (a) the implications for each product of an overrun of the threshold; (b) where necessary, the reduced Community withdrawal compensation and measures for the application of this Article. 3. This Article shall apply only during the first five marketing years following entry into force of this Regulation. Article 28 1. Member States shall notify the Commission for each marketing day during each of the relevant marketing years of the prices recorded on their representative producer markets for certain products of defined commercial characteristics such as variety or type, class, size and packaging. 2. A list of these markets and products and the frequency with which data is to be communicated shall be drawn up in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Markets in Member States on which a substantial part of the national output of a given product is marketed throughout the marketing year or during one of the periods into which the year is divided shall be regarded as representative within the meaning of paragraph 1. Article 29 1. Member States shall pay the Community withdrawal compensation fixed in Article 26 to producer organizations or their associations which have carried out withdrawals under the terms of Articles 23 and 24 and are required to pay the compensation to their members or to non- member growers. Payments shall be made in a manner to be determined in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. 2. The Community withdrawal compensation shall be paid without prejudice to any financial implications resulting from overrun of an intervention threshold. The compensation shall, in addition, be reduced by the net receipts earned by producer organizations and their associations from the products withdrawn from the market. 3. Where producer organizations and their associations are unable to direct products to one of the destinations referred to in Article 30 (1), the Community withdrawal compensation shall be granted only if the products have a destination in accordance with the instructions issued by the Member State under the other provisions of Article 30. Article 30 1. Products withdrawn from the market under Article 23 (1) which remain unsold shall be disposed of as follows: (a) all products: - free distribution to charitable organizations and foundations, approved to that effect by the Member States, for use in their activities to assist persons whose right to public assistance is recognized in national law, in particular because they lack the necessary means of subsistence, - free distribution to penal institutions and to children's holiday camps as well as to hospitals and old people's homes designated by the Member States, which shall take all necessary steps to ensure that the quantities thus distributed are additional to the quantities normally bought in by such establishments, - free distribution outside the Community, through charitable organizations approved to that effect by the Member States, to the populations of third countries in need, and, secondarily, - use for non-food purposes, - use in animal feed, either fresh or after processing by the feedingstuffs industry; (b) fruit: free distribution to school children, other than as part of the meals served in school canteens, and to pupils in schools which do not have canteens providing meals, (c) apples, pears, peaches and nectarines: processing into alcohol of a strength of more than 80 % volume by direct distillation of the product,

(d) all products: disposal of certain classes of product to the processing industry on condition that there is no resulting distortion of competition for the industries concerned within the Community or for imported products. The implementation of this provision shall be decided in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. 2. In cases where none of the destinations referred to in paragraph 1 is possible, products withdrawn may be destined for composting or for biodegradation processes authorized by the Member State concerned. 3. The free distribution provided for in the first, second and third indents of point (a) of paragraph 1 and point (b) of paragraph 1 shall be organized by the producer organizations concerned, under the supervision of the Member States. However, with regard to the free distribution of fruit to school children, the Commission may take the initiative of and responsibility for implementing local pilot projects within the framework of research and promotion measures. 4. Member States shall help to establish contacts between producer organizations and charitable organizations and other bodies which may be interested in using products withdrawn from the market within their territory, with a view to one of the forms of free distribution referred to in points (a) and (b) of paragraph 1. 5. The disposal of products to the feedingstuffs industry shall be carried out by the most appropriate procedure by an agency designated by the Member State concerned. The distillation referred to in point (c) of paragraph 1 shall be carried out by distilleries either on their own account or on behalf of a body designated by the Member State concerned. In both cases this body shall carry out the operations in question using the most appropriate procedure. 6. The Community shall defray, on terms and conditions to be determined in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 13 of Regulation (EEC) No 729/70 (15), transport costs in connection with free distribution as provided for in point (a) of paragraph 1 and sorting and packaging costs in connection with free distribution of apples and citrus fruit where the latter is staggered under contractual agreements concluded between producer organizations and charitable organizations or establishments referred to in paragraph 3. 7. Detailed rules for the application of this Article, and in particular those relating to free distribution and the disposal of products withdrawn, and those designed to avoid disruption of the alcohol market as a result of the distillation of products withdrawn, shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. TITLE V Trade with third countries Article 31 1. Imports into the Community, or exports therefrom, of any of the products listed in Article 1 (2) may be subject to presentation of an import or export licence. Licences shall be issued by Member States to any applicant, irrespective of his place of establishment in the Community and without prejudice to measures taken for the application of Articles 36 and 37. Import and export licences shall be valid throughout the Community. The issue of such licences may be subject to the lodging of a security guaranteeing that the products are imported or exported during the term of validity of the licence; except in cases of force majeure, the security shall be forfeited in whole or in part if import or export is not carried out, or is carried out only partially, within that period. 2. The term of validity of import and export licences and other detailed rules for the application of this Article shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 32 1. Save as otherwise provided for in this Regulation, the rates of duty in the common customs tariff shall apply to the products listed in Article 1 (2). 2. Should application of the common customs tariff duty rate depend on the entry price of the imported consignment, the veracity of this price shall be checked using a flat-rate import value calculated by the Commission, by product and by origin, on the basis of the weighted average of prices for the product on Member States' representative import markets or on other markets, where appropriate.

Specific provisions may, however, be adopted for verifying the entry price of products imported primarily for processing, in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. 3. Where the declared entry price of the consignment in question is higher than the flat-rate import value, increased by a margin set in accordance with paragraph 5 which may not exceed the flatrate value by more than 10 %, the lodging of a security equal to the import duty determined on the basis of the flat-rate import value shall be required. 4. If the entry price of the consignment in question is not declared at the time of customs clearance, the common customs tariff duty rate applied shall depend on the flat-rate import value or be arrived at by application of the relevant customs legislation provisions under conditions to be determined in accordance with paragraph 5. 5. Detailed rules for the application of this Article shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 33 1. In order to prevent or counteract adverse effects on the market in the Community which may result from imports of certain products listed in Article 1 (2), imports of one or more of such products at the rate of duty laid down in the common customs tariff shall be subject to payment of an additional import duty if the conditions set out in Article 5 of the Agreement on agriculture (16) concluded in the framework of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations have been fulfilled, unless the imports are unlikely to disturb the Community market, or the effects would be disproportionate to the intended objective. 2. The trigger prices below which an additional duty may be imposed shall be those notified by the Community to the World Trade Organization. The trigger volumes to be exceeded in order to have the additional import duty imposed shall be determined in particular on the basis of imports into the Community in the three years preceding the year in which the adverse effects referred to in paragraph 1 arise or are likely to arise. 3. The import prices to be taken into consideration for imposing an additional import duty shall be determined on the basis of the cif import prices of the consignment concerned. The cif import prices shall be verified for this purpose on the basis of representative prices for the product in question on the world market or on the Community import market for the product. 4. Detailed rules for the application of this Article shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Such detailed rules shall specify in particular: (a) the products to which additional import duties may be applied under Article 5 of the Agreement on agriculture referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article; (b) the other criteria necessary for application of paragraph 1 in accordance with Article 5 of the said Agreement on agriculture. Article 34 1. Tariff quotas for the products listed in Article 1 (2) resulting from agreements concluded within the framework of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations shall be opened and administered in accordance with detailed rules adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. 2. Quotas may be administered by applying one of the following methods or a combination thereof: (a) a method based on the chronological order in which applications are lodged ('first come, first served` basis); (b) a method of allocating quotas in proportion to quantities requested when applications are lodged (using the 'simultaneous examination` method); (c) a method based on taking traditional trade flows into account (using the 'traditional importers/new arrivals` method). Other appropriate methods may be adopted. They must avoid any discrimination between the operators concerned. 3. The method of administration adopted shall, where appropriate, take account of the supply needs of the Community market and the need to safeguard the equilibrium of that market, whilst at the same time drawing on methods applied in the past to quotas corresponding to those referred to in paragraph 1, without prejudice to rights arising from agreements concluded in the framework of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. 4. The detailed rules referred to in paragraph 1 shall provide for annual quotas, suitably phased

over the year, shall determine the administrative method to be used and, where appropriate, shall include: (a) guarantees covering the nature, provenance and origin of the product; (b) recognition of the document used for verifying the guarantees referred to in (a), and (c) the conditions under which import licences are issued and their term of validity. Article 35 1. To the extent necessary to enable economically significant quantities of the products listed in Article 1 (2) to be exported on the basis of the prices of these products in international trade but within the limits resulting from agreements concluded in accordance with Article 228 of the Treaty, the difference between those prices and prices in the Community may be covered by export refunds. 2. The method to be adopted for allocation of the quantities which may be exported with a refund shall be the method which: (a) is most suited to the nature of the product and the situation on the market in question, allows the most efficient possible use of the resources available and takes due account of the efficiency and structure of Community exports, without, however, creating discrimination between large and small operators; (b) is least cumbersome administratively for operators, administration requirements taken into account; (c) avoids any discrimination between the operators concerned. 3. Refunds shall be the same for the whole Community. Where the international trade situation or the specific requirements of certain markets make this necessary, the refund for a given product may vary according to the destination of the product. Refunds shall be fixed in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Refunds shall be fixed periodically. Refunds fixed periodically may, where necessary, be adjusted in the interval by the Commission at the request of a Member State or on its own initiative. 4. The following shall be taken into account when refunds are being fixed: (a) the existing situation and likely trends with regard to: - prices and availability of fruit and vegetables on the Community market, - prices for fruit and vegetables in international trade; (b) marketing costs and minimum transport charges from Community markets to ports and other Community export points, and forwarding costs to the country of destination; (c) the economic aspect of the proposed exports; (d) the limits resulting from agreements concluded in accordance with Article 228 of the Treaty. 5. The Community market prices referred to in paragraph 1 shall be determined using the prices which are most favourable from the exportation point of view. The world market prices referred to in paragraph 1 shall be determined using: (a) prices recorded on third-country markets; (b) the most favourable prices in third countries for imports from other third countries; (c) producer prices recorded in exporting third countries; (d) free-at-Community-frontier offer prices. 6. Refunds shall be granted only on application and on presentation of the relevant export licence. 7. The refund shall be that applicable on the day of application for the licence and, in the case of a differentiated refund, that applicable on the same day: (a) for the destination indicated on the licence, or (b) for the actual destination if it differs from the destination indicated on the licence. In that case, the amount applicable may not exceed the amount applicable for the destination indicated on the licence. Appropriate measures may be taken to prevent abuse of the flexibility provided for in this paragraph. 8. Paragraphs 6 and 7 may be waived in the case of products listed in Article 1 (2) on which refunds are paid under food-aid operations, in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. 9. The refund shall be paid upon proof that the products: - have been exported from the Community,

- are of Community origin, and - in the case of a differentiated refund, have reached the destination indicated on the licence or another destination for which a refund was fixed, without prejudice to point (b) of paragraph 7. Exceptions may be made to this rule in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46, provided conditions are laid down which offer equivalent guarantees. 10. Compliance with the limits on volumes arising from agreements concluded in accordance with Article 228 of the Treaty shall be ensured on the basis of the export licences issued for the reference periods provided for therein and applicable to the products concerned. With regard to compliance with the obligations arising under the agreements concluded in the Uruguay Round trade negotiations, the ending of a reference period shall not affect the validity of export licences. 11. Detailed rules for the application of this Article, including provisions for the redistribution of unallocated or unused exportable quantities, shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 36 1. Save as otherwise provided for in this Regulation or in provisions adopted pursuant thereto, the following shall be prohibited when importing the products listed in Article 1 (2) from third countries: - the levying of any charge having equivalent effect to a customs duty, - the application of any quantitative restriction or measure having equivalent effect. 2. The general rules for the interpretation of the combined nomenclature and the special rules for its application shall apply to the classification of products covered by this Regulation; the tariff nomenclature resulting from the application of this Regulation shall be incorporated in the common customs tariff. Article 37 1. Appropriate measures may be taken when trading with third countries if, by reason of imports or exports, the Community market in one or more of the products listed in Article 1 (2) is affected by, or is threatened with, serious disturbance likely to jeopardize achievement of the objectives set out in Article 39 of the Treaty. Such measures may be applied only until, depending on the case, the disturbance or threat of disturbance has ceased or the quantities withdrawn or bought in have diminished appreciably. The Council, acting on a proposal from the Commission in accordance with the voting procedure laid down in Article 43 (2) of the Treaty, shall adopt general rules for application of this paragraph and shall define in what cases and within what limits Member States may take protective measures. 2. If the situation referred to in paragraph 1 arises, the Commission shall, at the request of a Member State or on its own initiative, decide upon the necessary measures; the Member States shall be notified of these and they shall be immediately applicable. If the Commission receives a request from a Member State, it shall take a decision thereon within three working days following receipt of the request. 3. Measures decided upon by the Commission may be referred to the Council by any Member State within three working days of the day on which they were notified. The Council shall meet without delay. It may, acting by a qualified majority confirm, amend or rescind the measure in question. 4. This Article shall be applied having regard to the obligations arising from international agreements concluded in accordance with Article 228 (2) of the Treaty. TITLE VI National and Community checks Article 38 1. Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure compliance with Community rules in the fruit and vegetable sector, particularly in the fields referred to in Annex IV. 2. Where it is appropriate to carry out checks by sampling, Member States shall ensure, by their nature and frequency and on the basis of risk analysis, that the checks are appropriate to the measure concerned both in terms of their territory as a whole and in terms of the volume of fruit and vegetable sector products ma rketed or held with a view to marketing.

The recipients of public funds must be systematically checked, without prejudice to the implementation of systematic checks in other fields. 3. The Commission and the Member States shall ensure that the competent authorities have a sufficient number of suitably qualified and experienced staff to carry out the checks effectively, particularly in the fields referred to in Annex IV. Article 39 1. Without prejudice to the checks carried out by the national authorities pursuant to Article 38, the Commission may, in collaboration with the competent authorities of the Member State concerned, carry out or ask a Member State to carry out on-the-spot checks in order to ensure uniform application of Community rules in the fruit and vegetable sector, particularly in the fields referred to in Annex IV. 2. The Commission shall inform the relevant Member State in advance and in writing about the subject, purpose and location of the checks it envisages, the date on which they are to commence and the identity and status of its inspectors. Article 40 1. In order to implement the provisions of Article 39, the Commission shall establish a special corps of inspectors in the fruit and vegetable sector consisting of Commission officials with suitable qualifications, technical knowledge and experience and possibly of staff appointed at the request of the Commission and with the agreement of the Member State concerned, from the staff referred to in Article 38 (3) to take part in specific enquiries. 2. The special corps of inspectors shall, under the Commission's direction, discharge the following tasks: (a) participate in the checks planned and carried out by the competent authorities of the Member States; (b) carry out the checks referred to in Article 39 at the Commission's initiative, in which the officials of the Member State are invited to participate; (c) assess the national verification arrangements set up, the procedures followed and the results obtained; (d) ascertain the measures, legislative and otherwise, taken by the competent authorities to improve compliance with Community rules in the fruit and vegetable sector; (e) develop collaboration and the exchange of information between the competent bodies of the Member States in order to contribute to the uniform application of the rules in the fruit and vegetable sector and facilitate free movement of the products of the sector. 3. With regard to the checks to be carried out under point (b) of paragraph 2, the Commission shall, in good time before the start of operations, inform the competent authority of the Member State on whose territory these operations are to take place. 4. The Commission shall itself determine the most appropriate places for its checks to be carried out and shall, in collaboration with the Member States concerned, establish the practical arrangements. Article 41 1. The checks pursuant to Article 40 (2) (b) shall be carried out in accordance with Article 9 (2) of Regulation (EEC) No 729/70. The Commission's inspectors shall, in the course of checks, adopt an attitude compatible with the rules and professional practices which officials of the Member State must follow. They shall observe professional confidentiality. 2. The Commission shall establish appropriate links with the competent authorities of the Member States in order to draw up control programmes jointly. Member States shall collaborate with the Commission to facilitate its accomplishment of this task. 3. The Commission shall communicate the results of the visits made by its inspectors to the competent authority of the Member State concerned as soon as possible. That communication shall record any difficulties encountered and infringements noted of the rules governing the market in fruit and vegetables. 4. The Member State concerned shall inform the Commission as soon as possible of the steps it has taken to put an end to the difficulties or infringements in question.

Article 42 Any irregularity which is noted during checks and may have a financial effect on the Guarantee Section of the EAGGF shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Regulation (EEC) No 595/91 (17). The Member State on whose territory the irregularity was noted must make the declaration provided for in Article 3 of this Regulation. Any failure to comply in the application of Community rules by a Member State which is noted during Commission checks and may have a financial effect on the Guarantee Section of the EAGGF shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 (2) (c) of Regulation (EEC) No 729/70. TITLE VII General provisions Article 43 Save as otherwise provided in this Regulation, Articles 92, 93 and 94 of the Treaty shall apply to the production of and trade in the products referred to in Article 1 (2). Article 44 1. Member States and the Commission shall communicate to each other the information necessary for applying this Regulation. The data to be communicated shall be determined in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 45. Rules for the communication and distribution of such information shall be adopted in accordance with the same procedure. 2. The data referred to in paragraph 1 shall include at least information on cultivated areas and quantities harvested, marketed or not put up for sale under Article 23. This information shall be collected by: - producer organizations in the case of their members, without prejudice to Articles 11 and 19, - the relevant services of the Member States in the case of producers who do not belong to any of the collective structures provided for in this Regulation. The Member State in question may entrust this task in whole or in part to one or more producer organizations. 3. Member States shall take all measures necessary to ensure the collection of the data referred to in paragraph 2, their accuracy, their statistical processing and their regular communication to the Commission. They shall provide for penalties in cases of unjustified delays or systematic negligence in the proper performance of the tasks in question. They shall inform the Commission of those measures. 4. The Commission shall regularly communicate to the Member States by the most appropriate means the data referred to in paragraph 1 and the conclusions which it draws from such data. The rules for application shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 45 A management committee for fresh fruit and vegetables, hereinafter referred to as 'the Committee`, shall be set up, consisting of representatives of the Member States and chaired by a representative of the Commission. Article 46 1. Where reference is made to the procedure laid down in this Article, the chairman shall refer the matter to the Committee either on his/her own initiative or at the request of the representative of a Member State. 2. The representative of the Commission shall submit to the Committee a draft of the measures to be taken. The Committee shall deliver its opinion on the draft within a time limit which the chairman may lay down according to the urgency of the matter. The opinion shall be delivered by the majority laid down in Article 148 (2) of the Treaty in the case of decisions which the Council is required to adopt on a proposal from the Commission. The votes of the representatives of the Member States within the Committee shall be weighted in the manner set out in that Article. The chairman shall not vote. 3. (a) The Commission shall adopt measures which shall apply immediately. (b) However, if these measures are not in accordance with the opinion of the Committee, they shall be communicated by the Commission to the Council forthwith. In that event the Commission may

defer application of the measures which it has decided for a period of not more than one month from the date of such communication. The Council, acting by a qualified majority, may take a different decision within one month. Article 47 The Committee may consider any other question referred to it by its chairman either on his/her own initiative or at the request of the representative of a Member State. Article 48 The detailed rules for the application of this Regulation, including financial or non-financial administrative penalties, shall be adopted in the light of the specific requirements of the sector in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 49 This Regulation shall be so applied that appropriate account is simultaneously taken of the objectives set out in Articles 39 and 110 of the Treaty. Article 50 Member States shall take all appropriate measures to penalize infringements of the provisions of this Regulation and to forestall and bring to an end any fraud. Article 51 The laws, regulations and administrative provisions adopted by Member States for the application or in application of this Regulation shall be communicated to the Commission no later than one month after their adoption. The same shall apply to any modification of the said provisions. Article 52 1. Expenditure relating to the payment of the Community withdrawal compensation and to Community financing of the operational fund, the specific measures referred to in Article 17 and Articles 53, 54 and 55 and checks by experts of the Member States made available to the Commission in application of Article 40 (1) shall be deemed to be intervention to stabilize the agricultural markets within the meaning of point (b) of Article 1 (2) of Regulation (EEC) No 729/70. 2. The aid granted by the Member States in accordance with Article 14 and the second subparagraph of Article 15 (6) shall be considered a common measure within the meaning of Article 2 (1) of Regulation (EEC) No 4256/88 (18). It shall be covered by the annual expenditure forecasts referred to in Article 31 (1) of Regulation (EEC) No 2328/91 (19). Article 1 (3) of Regulation (EEC) No 2328/91 shall apply to the aid provided for in this paragraph. Aid shall be paid in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EEC) No 4253/88. However, payment of the balance or reimbursement shall, in addition to the requirements specified in paragraph 4 of that Article, be based on: (a) a declaration of expenditure incurred by the Member States during the calendar year, and (b) a report on the application of the measures during the calendar year concerned, drawn up in accordance with Article 25 (4) of that Regulation, to be presented to the Commission before 1 July of the following year. 3. The Commission shall adopt rules for the application of paragraph 2 of this Article after consulting the committee referred to in Article 29 of Regulation (EEC) No 4253/88 (20). 4. The provisions of Title VI shall apply without prejudice to the application of Regulation (EEC) No 4045/89 (21). Article 53 Any rights acquired by producer organizations before the entry into force of this Regulation in application of Article 14 and Title IIa of Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 shall be maintained until exhausted. Article 54 1. The Community shall contribute 50 % of the financing of measures to develop and improve the consumption and use in the Community of nuts.

2. The aim of the measures referred to in paragraph 1 shall be to: - encourage product quality, in particular by carrying out market studies and seeking new uses, including ways of adapting production accordingly, - develop new methods of packaging, - disseminate marketing advice to the various economic operators in the sector, - organize and participate in fairs and other trade events. 3. The Commission shall, following the procedure in Article 46, specify the measures referred to in paragraph 2 or define new measures. Article 55 For hazelnuts harvested during the 1997/1998, 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 marketing years, aid of ECU 15/100 kg shall be granted to producer organizations, recognized pursuant to Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 or to this Regulation, which implement a quality improvement plan within the meaning of Article 14d of Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 or an operational plan within the meaning of this plan in 1997. Article 56 By 31 December 2000 the Commission shall send the Council a report on the operation of this Regulation, accompanied by any proposals that may be required. Article 57 If measures are needed to facilitate the transition from the previous arrangements to those established by this Regulation, such measures shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 46. Article 58 1. This Regulation shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Communities. It shall apply from 1 January 1997. However, Title IV shall apply only, for each of the products referred to in Annex I, from the beginning of the 1997/1998 marketing year. 2. Regulations (EEC) No 1035/72, (EEC) No 3285/83, (EEC) No 1319/85, (EEC) No 2240/88, (EEC) No 1121/89 and (EEC) No 1198/90 are hereby repealed as from the date of applic ation of the corresponding provisions of this Regulation. References to the repealed Regulations shall be understood as references to this Regulation and are to be read in conjunction with the correlation tables in Annex VI. This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States. Done at Luxembourg, 28 October 1996. For the Council The President I. YATES (1) OJ No C 52, 21. 2. 1996, p. 1. (2) OJ No C 96, 1. 4. 1996, p. 269. (3) OJ No C 82, 19. 3. 1996, p. 21. (4) OJ No L 325, 22. 11. 1983, p. 8. Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EEC) No 220/92 (OJ No L 24, 1. 2. 1992, p. 7). (5) OJ No L 137, 27. 5. 1985, p. 39. Regulation as amended by Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 (OJ No L 47, 25. 2. 1993, p. 1). (6) OJ No L 198, 26. 7. 1988, p. 9. Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 1327/95 (OJ No L 128, 13. 6. 1995, p. 8). (7) OJ No L 118, 29. 4. 1989, p. 21. Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 1327/95 (OJ No L 128, 13. 6. 1995, p. 8). (8) OJ No L 119, 11. 5. 1990, p. 59. (9) Regulation (EEC) No 1035/72 of the Council of 18 May 1972 on the common organization of the market in fruit and vegetables (OJ No L 118, 20. 5. 1972, p. 1). Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 1363/95 (OJ No L 132, 16. 6. 1995, p. 1).

(10) OJ No L 349, 31. 12. 1994, p. 105. Regulation as amended by Regulation (EC) No 1193/96 (OJ No L 161, 29. 6. 1996, p. 1). (11) Council Directive 79/112/EEC of 18 December 1978 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs (OJ No L 33, 8. 2. 1979, p. 1). Directive as last amended by the 1994 Act of Accession. (12) Council Regulation (EEC) No 746/93 of 17 March 1993 on the granting of aid to encourage the formation and facilitate the operation of producer organizations as provided for in Regulations (EEC) No 1035/72 and (EEC) No 1360/78 in Portugal. (13) Council Regulation (EEC) No 2078/92 of 30 June 1992 on agricultural production methods compatible with the requirements of the protection of the environment and the maintenance of the countryside (OJ No L 215, 30. 7. 1992, p. 85). Regulation as last amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 2722/95 (OJ No L 288, 1. 12. 1995, p. 35). (14) Regulation No 26 applying certain rules of competition to production of and trade in agricultural products (OJ No 30, 20. 4. 1962, p. 993/62). Regulation as amended by Regulation No 49 (OJ No 53, 1. 7. 1962, p. 1571/62). (15) Regulation (EEC) No 729/70 of the Council of 21 April 1970 on the financing of the common agricultural policy (OJ No L 94, 28. 4. 1970, p. 13). Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 1287/95 (OJ No L 125, 8. 6. 1995, p. 1). (16) OJ No L 336, 23. 12. 1994, p. 22. (17) Council Regulation (EEC) No 595/91 of 4 March 1991 concerning irregularities and the recovery of sums wrongly paid in connection with the financing of the common agricultural policy and the organization of an information system in this field (OJ No L 67, 14. 3. 1991, p. 11). (18) Council Re gulation (EEC) No 4256/88 of 19 December 1988, laying down provisions for implementing Regulation (EEC) No 2052/88 as regards the EAGGF Guidance Section (OJ No L 374, 31. 12. 1988, p. 25). Regulation as amended by Regulation (EEC) No 2085/93 (OJ No L 193, 31. 7. 1993, p. 44). (19) Council Regulation (EEC) No 2328/91 of 15 July 1991 on improving the efficiency of agricultural structures (OJ No L 218, 6. 8. 1991, p. 1). Regulation as last amended by Commission Regulation No 2387/95 (OJ No L 244, 12. 10. 1995, p. 50). (20) Council Regulation (EEC) No 4253/88 of 19 December 1988, laying down provisions for implementing Regulation (EEC) No 2052/88 as regards coordination of the activities of the different Structural Funds between themselves and with the operations of the European Investment Bank and the other existing financial instruments (OJ No L 374, 31. 12. 1988, p. 1). Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 3193/94 (OJ No L 337, 24. 12. 1994, p. 11). (21) Council Regulation (EEC) No 4045/89 of 21 December 1989 on scrutiny by Member States of transactions forming part of the system of financing by the Guarantee Section of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (OJ No L 388, 30. 12. 1989, p 18). Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 3235/94 (OJ No L 338, 28. 12. 1994, p. 16).

ANNEX I Products which are to be supplied fresh to the consumer and are subject to standards Almonds Apples and pears Apricots Artichokes Asparagus Aubergines Avocados Beans Brussels sprouts Cabbage Carrots Cauliflowers Celery

Cherries Citrus fruit Courgettes Cucumbers Garlic Hazelnuts Kiwis Leeks Lettuce, curly and escarole chicory Melons Onions Peaches and nectarines Peas for shelling Plums Spinach Strawberries Sweet peppers Table grapes Tomatoes Walnuts Water melons Witloof chicory

ANNEX II List of products eligible for Community withdrawal compensation under Article 23 (3) Cauliflowers Tomatoes Aubergines Apricots Peaches Nectarines Lemons Pears (other than perry pears) Table grapes Apples (other than cider apples) Satsumas Mandarins Clementines Oranges Melons Water melons

ANNEX III Exhaustive list of rules applied by producer organizations that may be extended to non- member producers Article 18 (1) 1. Rules on production information (a) notification of growing intentions, by product and where appropriate variety; (b) notification of sowings and plantings; (c) notification of total areas grown, by product and if possible variety; (d) notification of anticipated tonnages and probable cropping dates by product and if possible variety;

(e) periodic notification of quantities cropped and available stocks, by variety; (f) information on storage capacities. 2. Production rules (a) choice of seed to be used according to intended destination (fresh market/industrial processing); (b) thinning in orchards. 3. Marketing rules (a) specified dates for commencement of cropping, staggering of marketing; (b) minimum quality and size requirements; (c) preparation, presentation, packaging and marking at first marketing stage; (d) indication of product origin. 4. Rules on the protection of the environment (a) use of fertilizer and manure; (b) use of plant-health products and other crop protection methods; (c) maximum residue content in fruit and vegetables of plant-health products and fertilizers; (d) rules on disposal of by-products and used material; (e) rules on destruction of products withdrawn from the market. 5. Withdrawals - rules adopted under Article 23 in accordance with the terms of Article 25.

ANNEX IV Non-exhaustive list of matters that may be covered by national and Community inspection Conformity with product standards (Articles 7 and 8) Compliance with terms of recognition of producer organizations (Article 12) Implementation of action plan (Article 13) Implementation of recognition plan and utilization of aid (Article 14) Management of operational fund and implementation of operational programme (in particular close scrutiny of use of public funds) (Article 15) Compliance with terms governing the extension of rules to non-producers (Article 18) Compliance with terms governing interbranch organizations and agreements and extension of rules (Articles 19, 20 and 21) Withdrawal operations (Articles 23 et seq.) Proper payment of Community withdrawal compensation (Article 29) Disposal of products withdrawn from market (Article 30) Application of rules on trade with third countries (Articles 31 et seq.).

QUALITY AND MARKETING STANDARDS FOR FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Commission Regulation (EEC) No 1292/81 of 12 May 1981 laying down quality standards for leeks, aubergines and courgettes Commission Regulation (EEC) No 2213/83 of 28 July 1983 laying down quality standards for onions and witloof chicory Commission Regulation (EEC) No 899/87 of 30 March 1987 laying down quality standards for cherries and strawberries Commission Regulation (EEC) No 1591/87 of 5 June 1987 laying down quality standards for

cabbages, Brussels sprouts, ribbed celery, spinach and plums Commission Regulation (EEC) No 1677/88 of 15 June 1988 laying down quality standards for cucumbers Commission Regulation (EEC) No 410/90 of 16 February 1990 setting quality standards for kiwifruit Commission Regulation (EC) No 831/97 of 7 May 1997 laying down marketing standards applicable to avocados Commission Regulation (EC) No 1093/97 of 16 June 1997 laying down marketing standards applicable to melons and watermelons Commission Regulation (EC) No 2288/97 of 18 November 1997 laying down marketing standards for garlic Commission Regulation (EC) No 963/98 of 7 May 1998 laying down marketing standards for cauliflowers and artichokes Commission Regulation (EC) No 1168/1999 of 3 June 1999 laying down marketing standards for plums Commission Regulation (EC) No 1455/1999 of 1 July 1999 laying down the marketing standard for sweet peppers Commission Regulation (EC) No 2335/1999 of 3 November 1999 laying down marketing standards for peaches and nectarines Commission Regulation (EC) No 2377/1999 of 9 November 1999 laying down the marketing standard for asparagus Commission Regulation (EC) No 2789/1999 of 22 December 1999 laying down the marketing standard for table grapes Commission Regulation (EC) No 790/2000 of 14 April 2000 laying down the marketing standard for tomatoes Commission Regulation (EC) No 851/2000 of 27 April 2000 laying down the marketing standard for apricots Commission Regulation (EC) No 912/2001 of 10 May 2001 laying down the marketing standard for beans Commission Regulation (EC) No 1148/2001 of 12 June 2001 on checks on conformity to the marketing standards applicable to fresh fruit and vegetables Commission Regulation (EC) No 1508/2001 of 24 July 2001 laying down the marketing standard for onions and amending Regulation (EEC) No 2213/83 Commission Regulation (EC) No 1543/2001 of 27 July 2001 laying down the marketing standard for lettuces and curled-leaved and broad-leaved (Batavian) endives Commission Regulation (EC) No 1615/2001 of 7 August 2001 laying down the marketing standard for melons and amending Regulation (EC) No 1093/97 Commission Regulation (EC) No 1619/2001 of 6 August 2001 laying down the marketing standard for apples and pears and amending Regulation (EEC) No 920/89

Commission Regulation (EC) No 1799/2001 of 12 September 2001 laying down the marketing standard for citrus fruit Commission Regulation (EC) No 2396/2001 of 7 December 2001 laying down the marketing standard applicable to leeks