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Society of Petroleum Engineers

SPE 25595
Horizontal Drilling and Completion Fluids Design Criteria
A.M. Ezzat, Saudi Aramco
SPE Member
Copyright 1993, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Middle East Oil Technical Conference & Exhibition held in Bahrain, 3-6 April 1993.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,
as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect
any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society
of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contain conspicuous acknOWledgment
. of where and by whom the paper Is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., Telex, 163245 SPEUT.
ABSJRACT
The main objective of horizontal drilling is to place a
drain-hole within the pay zone for a long distance to
enhance productivity or injectivity. In Saudi Arabia,
horizontal wells have been successfully drilled
through reservoirs with different characteristics such
as tight to highly permeable limestone, extremely
porous and permeable dolomite and dolometic
limestone, and highly permeable unconsolidated
sandstone. Based on laboratory test data, non-
damaging fresh water and salt-saturated/polymer
systems were selected for drilling the carbonate pay
zones and a special oil-based fluid was developed for
drilling the sand reservoirs. These drilling fluids
satisfied the same basic functions common to all
drilling muds and provided excellent reservoir
protection. Production rates of the completed wells
have reached several fold higher than the vertical
producing wells from these reservoirs without
stimulation treatments. This paper presents the
laboratory data generated and discusses the fluids
formulations and design criteria.
INTRODUCTION
High angle and horizontal hole drilling are difficult to
achieve, but the present state-of-the-art technology is
sufficiently well developed that each can now be
performed with a satisfactory degree of confidence.
Major drilling problems such as poor hole cleaning,
excessive torque or drag, wellbore instability, stuck
drillstring, loss of circulation, subsurface pressure
control, poor cement jobs, difficulties associated with
running electric logs and formation damage can result
if the drilling fluid is poorly designed or executed.
In order to design the best suitable drill-in fluids for
Saudi Aramco horizontal wells, the drilling problems
generally encountered in each field were studied and
similar horizontal drilling projects worldwide were
reviewed. Then, laboratory tests were planned and
conducted to study the reservoir rock and fluids
characteristics and select the most suitable and
economical fluid formulations. The effective pore
size distribution and morphology of each reservoir
rock were examined and flow tests were run on core
samples taken from each reservoir to determine the
residual damage caused by several candidate fluids.
Non-damaging clay-free, fresh water and
salt-saturated/polymer systems were deveXoped for
drilling the carbonate pay zones and a special non-
damaging oil-based fluid was formulated for drilling
the sand reservoirs. Twenty-one wells have been
successfully completed at this time. The horizontal
hole section inclination ranged between 87 to 90
(maximum inclination recorded was 96.8). The
horizontal length ranged between 1500' (591.59 m)
and 3200' (701.01 m). Thirteen wells have been
completed in carbonate reservoirs (open hole
completions - producers, injectors and disposal
wells). Eight wells have been completed in sandstone
reservoirs with liner set and cemented in the
horizontal section.
A slightly acidic clean water or brine treated with a
water wetting surfactant was used for completion and
wellbore clean-up in the carbonate reservoirs. For the
sandstone reservoirs, a clean water treated with an
anionic surfactant and mutual solvent was used as
perforating/completion fluid. This completion fluid
prevents and/or breaks emulsion, cleans the oil-based
mud residue and water wets the perforation tunnels.
645
2 HORIZONTAL DRILLING & COMPLETION FunDS DESIGN CRITERIA SPE 25595
DRILLING FLUID REQUIREMENTS
The key drilling fluid characteristics required for
drilling vertical wells are to control the subsurface
pressure, provide chemical and physical wellbore
stability and insure effective hole cleaning. While
drilling horizontal wells more attention must be
devoted to requirements such as wellbore physical
stability, cuttings transport, lubricity and formation
damage control. Failure to fulfill any of these
requirements in high angle and horizontal wells
results in costly drilling problems, increased chances
of stuck drill pipe and loss of well productivity.
Wellbore physical stability
As the hole deviation increases, the wellbore
increasingly bears the overburden vertical stress in
contrast to the horizontal stress in vertical wells.
Higher drilling fluid density is usually needed to
support the load imposed on the borehole wall by the
in-situ stresses and to prevent hole collapse(l). The
hydrostatic pressure must be high enough to control
the subsurface pressure, but it should not exceed the
formation fracturing pressure to avoid splitting the
formation and losing circulation.
Fortunately the Hadriya, Hanifa and the Arab"D"
carbonate formations are fairly consolidated and
sufficiently competent. The offset well logs and
fracture gradient data indicated that the fluid densities
required were below these carbonate formations
fracture gradient. On the other hand, the Khafji
sandstone is unconsolidated clean sand with shale
stringers, coal and amber near the top of the reservoir.
The Khafji loose sand and unstable shale stringers
caved in when the fluid density was not high enough
to hold them back. In some cases the fluid density
used exceeded the formation fracture gradient.
However, the sized CaC03 bridging particles
effectively minimized fluid losses and the target
depth was successfully reached.
Cuttings transport
The 12-1/4" hole section in all wells was gradually
deviated to an angle between 71
0
and 85
0
where the
9-5/8" casing was set. Lifting off the drilled cuttings
and hole cleaning was expected to be a problem in
this section
(2
). Cuttings accumulation and sliding
back down on the low side of the hole when
circulation stopS(3) was our main concern.
Maintaining the low shear rate viscosity, constant
646
turbulent flow and circulating the hole clean prior to
tripping provided satisfactory hole cleaning and in
most cases eliminated cuttings bed build-up. Also,
intermittently injecting low viscosity pills followed
by high viscosity slugs proved to be the best
technique to insure hole cleaning. The low viscosity
fluid promotes local turbulence which mechanically
disturb the cuttings bed and the high viscosity fluid
sweeps the cuttings out of the hole
(4
). Successful
recovery of the bottom hole assembly after being
twisted off in the 12-1/4" hole, was a good indication
that the drilling fluid characteristics and flow rates
were sufficient to keep the hole clean and in good
condition.
Lubricity
Torque and drag are crucial problems in drilling high
angle and horiwntal wells. Polymer-based low solids
drilling fluid systems have been found to yield the
best downhole lubricity characteristics in several
fields worldwide
Cs
. 6). All the carbonate reservoirs
were drilled with low solids polymer systems. A
drilling fluid lubricant was selected and included in
the formulation after verifying its effectiveness in
the laboratory using the lubricity tester. Fluid
formulation with 0.5 vol. % mud lubricant reduced
the torque considerably compared to the torque
generated by the same fluid without the mud
lubricant (Fig. 1). In the field the mud lubricant
provided good lubricity in both the high angle 12-
1/4" hole and the horizontal 8-1/2" section. Oil-based
fluids used for drilling the sandstone reservoirs
provided excellent lubricity.
Formation damage control
Since the main objective was to evaluate the
horizontal drain-hole completion technique for
increasing productivity and recovery or injectivity, a
clean non-damaging drill-in fluid was a logical choice
for drilling the 8-1/2" hole section through the
reservoir. Detailed study of the reservoir rock
characteristics is essential for tailoring a non-
damaging fluid formulation(7). The fluid must not
cause destruction of the rock permeability around the
wellbore. The ideal fluid should provide maximum
permeability return with minimum post-drilling
cleanup.
FIELD APPLICATIONS
Hadriya reservoir
Saudi Aramco's first horizontal well was drilled and
completed in January, 1991. A 2303' horizontal
drain-hole was placed through the different
SPE 25595 A.M.EZZAT 3
Fluid formulation
Hadriya reservoir water scaling tendencies for three
nearby wells showed positive index values for calcite
indicating that the reservoir water has the tendency to
precipitate CaC03around the wellbore.
8483.9 410 35 335 22.3 258
8484.6 549 7.84 102 19.4 28.1
8486.5 333 9.8 92 20.3 12
8504.2 196 1.96 39.2 10.6 13.9
8511.8 392 39.2 144 15.1 64.3
8512.9 392 58.8 176.4 13.4 60
100
80
60
40
20
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Hanifa reservoir
the average pore size) were effective(7). Slugging the
pipe before trips was done with NaCl and/or CaC03
instead of barite. In the laboratory prepared fluid
samples, medium and coarse CaC0
3
, with the
majority of the particles of a size ranging from 150
microns to 500 microns effectively reduced fluid loss
into the rock to 4.2 mV30 min., which was an
acceptable rate.
As drilling into the reservoir proceeded, the fluid loss
came down to 4.4 mV30 min. API, which was the
programmed rate, without adding the sized CaC03to
the system. Particle size analysis of unwashed drilled
cuttings from Hadriya formation (Fig. 5) showed that
the cuttings size distribution was sufficient to seal off
the rock pores and to maintain low filtration rate.
The cuttings were also found to be 94% to 98%
soluble in acid (15% HCl). Satisfactory non-
damaging fluid characteristics were maintained
throughout the horizontal section which was realized
by quick cleanup and high production rate. The 8-
1/2" horizontal section took only nine days to drill
instead of the programmed 13 days. A slightly acidic
fresh water treated with a water wetting surfactant
was used for completion and wellbore clean-up. The
established well flow rate is about three fold higher
than the Hadriya conventional wells.
POREENTRY RADHMICRONS
PORESIZH DlSllUBunoNFORPERMEAIIILITIES PROM 200TO 1200mD
Examination of the pore size distribution, utilizing
the mercury injection pore size distribution test,
Saudi Aramco's second horizontal well was drilled
and completed in April, 1991. A 2030' horizontal
drain-hole was placed in the top 40' of the Hanifa
reservoir to drain the unswept oil and reduce water
conning. Hanifa formation is a limestone. It coarsens
upwards from nonporous, organic-rich lime mudstone
at the base to an upper porous section consisting of
skeletal wackestones, packstones, peloids and
intraclasts (Fig. 6 & Fig. 7).
Smallest Avenge Porosity Air Perm
CYml CYml (%) (rod)
Largest
(LLID)
APPARENT PORE SIZE. MICRONS
Depth
(ft)
The fluid components selected were: clean water,
defoamer, biopolymer, starch, MgO, sized CaC03,
lubricant and diesel oil. No solids such as barite
(BaS04), bentonite, lignite or lignosulfonates,
conventional lost circulation materials (mica,
vegetable fibers, walnut shells, etc.) or any other
insoluble material were used. To minimize whole
mud invasion into this rock, acid degradable bridging
particles of a size larger than 111 microns (one third
Clean fresh water drilling fluid with near neutral pH
was chosen as the compatible fluid. Several different
formulations were prepared in the laboratory. The
residual damage caused after exposing each fluid to a
properly prepared core plug was measured. These
tests were conducted at temperature and pressure
identical to the subsurface reservoir conditions.
Hadriya clean crude oil was used in the flow tests.
The residual damage caused by each fluid was
determined in terms of percent regained permeability
and filtrate loss. Mud 3 (Fig. 4) was chosen as the
least damaging formulation for the Hadriya reservoir
(92.5% permeability return and 4.2 ml fluid loss).
microporous facies of the Hadriya reservoir, to
explore the possibility of boosting oil production and
recovery from a relatively tight facies. Hadriya
formation is a limestone, laminated micrite at the top
grading downwards into chalky calcarenite with
medium to coarse grains (Fig. 2), mostly peloids well
cemented by calcite (Fig. 3). It becomes interbeded
with siliceous zones near the base with scattered
vugs. Examination of the rock pore size distribution
indicated that the largest pore diameter is 549
microns and the average pore diameter is 335
microns.
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4 HORIZONTAL DRILLING & COMPLETION FLUIDS DESIGN CRITERIA SPE 25595
indicated that the largest pore radius was about 100
microns and the median pore radius was about 10
microns as shown above. Hanifa formation water
analysis showed TDS of 153,318 mg/l. and
chemically compatible with sea water.'
Fluid formulation
A clay-free/seawater/polymer system was ,chosen as
the compatible fluid. . Several formulations were
prepared in the laboratory with differe.nt CaC03
particle size distribution and concentrations. The
residual damage caused after exposing each fluid to
core plugs was measured. Mud 2 (Fi.g. 8) was
as the least damaging formulation for Hamfa
reservoir. These tests were conducted at temperature
and pressure identical to the subsurface reservoir
conditions. New clean drilling fluid was prepared
and the fluid density was increased with NaCl to 72
Ib/cu. ft. prior to drilling out of the 9-5/8" casing.
Sized calcium carbonate was the only solids added
for wall cake buildup. Fig. 9 shows the particle size
analysis of the unwashed drill cuttings from ,Hanifa
formation. Fluid formulation and properties are
given in Appendix-A. The well was completed
successfully and the established well flow rate is
several fold higher than the Hanifa conventional
wells.
Arab "0" reservoir
The Arab "0" is a dense anhydrite at the top,
followed by thin beds of dark brown porous dolomite
and dolometic limestone. It is highly permeable and
porous. The reservoir porosity is described as
vugular and intercrystalline (Fig. 10). These vugs
can be of different sizes, ranging from very small to
large cavities and some of them are interconnected.
The Arab "0" pore entry radius was calculated from
the mercury capillary pressure test data and was
found to be in the range of 17.8 to 213 microns.
Visual examination of core samples showed vug size
of up to 2.3" was present and pore entry size up to
0.25" was common. To plug this type of rock the
bridging material size should be more than 200
microns.
Fluid formulation
Depending on the fluid density required, a water ?r
brine-based fluid was formulated as shown 10
Appendix-A. Sized CaC03 particles were, as
needed to minimize fluid losses while drilltng and
small concentration of 600 microns were introduced
regularly while drilling to seal the vugs near the
wellbore. In some wells, low density fluid was
required to maintain circulation and minimize
formation damage. Addition of oil and surfactant
emulsifier was necessary to stabilize the emulsion and
maintain water as the external phase. The electrical
properties of this fluid was found to be very close to the
standard water-based fluid and caused no problems with
the electric logs.
Khafji reservoir
The Khafji formation is primarily a sandstone with
shale stringers, shaly sand, coal/lignite/amber (plant
remains & fossilized tree resin), and iron rich
shalelsand normally concentrated near the top of the
reservoir. The main sand is unconsolidated, highly
porous and permeable and can be easily washed with
excessive annular velosity and pipe movements. The
shale can be characterized as water-sensitive with the
following clay minerals: Kaolinite up to 49 wt. %,
Chlorite up to 19 wt. %, and mixed layer
Illite/Montmorillonite up to 13 wt. %. This unstable
shale will cave in soon after penetrated if the drilling
fluid density is not sufficient to hold it back. Near
vertical wells drilled with water-based muds
encountered severe drilling problems (hole cave-in,
stuck pipe, sidetrack, liner stuck off bottom,... No
such wellbore instability problems were expenenced
when this section was drilled with an oil-based mud.
Fluid formulation
Fluid formulation and properties are given in Appendix-
B Oil-based fluids proved to be the suitable choice this
to provide the best possible wellbore stability and
lubricity while drilling these high angle wells. The mud
density was increased as hole condition
Calcium carbonate (sp.gr. 2.7) was used as welgh10g
material and bridging agent instead of barite for fluid
densities up. to 85 Ib/cu. ft. No supplementary
emulsifiers such as phospholipid (lecithin) and
degellants were used in the formulation or maintenance
of the mud while drilling through the payzone. These
oil soluble chemicals are strong oil wetting surfactants
(used for stabilizing the emulsion or r,nud and
could cause formation damage when 1Otroduced mto the
reservoir rock with the mud filtrate.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNJERED
Mechanically-induced borehole problems were handled
as follows:
Erosion of unconsolidated formation:
Reduced pump output to ensure laminar or
transitional flow and increased the yield point.
648
SPE 25595
Gas cut mud and hole fill after trip:
A.M.EZZAT
REFERENCES
5
Raised mud weight to balance formation
pressure.
Pipe whip caused excessive amount of cuttings
of different u:J!es and shapes:
Slowed rotary speed and maintained drill string
in tension.
Drillstring sticking:
Differential pressure; Reduced mud weight
as low as practical.
Key seating, deviation and ledges; Spotted
a fluid with grease-like characteristics and
applied downward force on the drillstring.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Careful pre-planning and utilization of the
laboratory test data helped in optimizing the
horizontal drilling cost and performance.
Laboratory findings and recommendations have
been successfully applied and even refmed in the
field
2. Any proposed fluids should be tested in the
laboratory under the downhole reservoir
conditions. Residual damage caused by each
fluid should be determined and an effective
method of removing that damage should be
defined prior to applying these fluids in the field.
3. Non-damaging drill-in fluids formulations
properly tailored for each reservoir saved
stimulation time and cost
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to thank the Saudi Aramco management and
the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral
Resources for their permission to publish this paper.
Also, I would like to expressed my appreciation to
Jack Lynn for his input and assistance in data
development, John Pasnak for his many valuable
drilling engineering discussions and well site
observations report, Mike McGuire and Roger Lowe
for selecting the core samples and providing the
geological information, C. Polk, R. Ruzick, R. Hess,
J. Clower for their cooperation, Rick Wiginton, Les
Gregg and John Bellamy of Baroid for their
assistance. I am also grateful to WafJk Turki, Iqbal
Ahmad and Omar Esmail for their support.
649
1. Bradley, W. B.: "Failure of Inclined
Boreholes," Journal of Energy Resources
Technology (December 1979), Vo1.101
2. Zamora, M. and Hanson, P.: "Rules of Thumb
To Improve High-Angle Hole Cleaning,"
Petroleum Engineering International (January
1991) 44-51
3. Clements et al.: "Horizontal Wells Pose
Special Hydraulic Design Considerations"
Petroleum Engineering International
(November, 1989).
4. Okrajini, S. S. and Azar, J. J.: " Mud Cuttings
Transport in Directional Well Drilling" SPE
14178, 60th Annual SPE Technical
Conference & Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada,
September 22-25, 1985.
5. Bol, G. M.: "Effect of Mud Composition on
Wear and Friction of Casing and Tool joints,"
SPE/IADC 13457, SPE/IADC Drilling
Conference, New Orleans, La. (March 6-8,
1985).
6. Lowen, B. M. and Gradeen, G. D.: "Canadian
Operator Succeeds in Slant-Hole Drilling
Project," Petroleum Engineering International,
(August, 1982).
7. Ezzat, A. M., "Completion Fluids Design
Criteria and Current Technology Weaknesses",
SPE 19434, SPE Formation Damage Control
Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana (February
22-23, 1990).
6
APPENDIX-A
HORIZONTAL DRILLING & COMPLETION FLUIDS DESIGN CRITERIA
D r i l l i n ~ Fluid Formulations For The Carbonate Reservoirs
SPE 25595
Formulation & Order Of Addition (One Barrel)
64-66 IbLcu,ft 67-75IbLcu.ft 76-85 IbLcu.ft
Fresh,clean water, bbl
Defoarner, lb
Xanthan Gum, lb
Modified Starch, lb
MgO, lb
CaC0
3
Fine, lb
Salt (NaCl), lb
CaCl
2
, 94% lb
Lubricant, vol. %
Oil. If needed vol. %
0.99 - 0.98
0.05 - 0.10
0.75 - 1.50
4.00- 6.00
0.20 - 0.50
2.00 - 5.00
0.20 - 0.50
4.00 - 8.00
0.97 - 0.89
0.05 - 0.10
0.75 - 1.50
4.00 - 6.00
0.20 - 0.50
5.00- 8.00
37 -110
0.20 - 0.50
4.00- 8.00
0.93 - 0.86
0.05 - 0.10
0.75 - 1.50
4.00- 6.00
0.20- 0.50
5.00 - 8.00
99.0 -176.0
0.20 - 0.50
4.00 - 8.00
64 -85
45 - 50
12 - 18 @ 120F
10 - 15 If If If If
Averalm p1V1Jerties;
Density, lb/cu,ft
Viscosity, sec./qt
Plastic Viscosity, cp
Yield point, lb/loosq.ft
10 sec. gel, lb/loosq.ft
10 min. gel, lb/loosq,ft
Filtrate API, ml/30min.
pH,
2 - 4
6 - 8
4 - 6
8 - 9
tt It .. It
It II
APPENDIX-B
Oil-based D r i l l i n ~ Fluid Formulation For The Khafji & Safaniyah Sandstone Resryoirs
Formulation & Order Of Addition <One Barrel)
Oil, bbl
Emulsifier, lb
Lime, lb
Organophilic Colloid, lb
Water, bbl
Organophilic Clay, lb
Secondary Emulsifier, lb
CaCI
2
(78%), lb
CaC0
3
Fine, lb
0.5
6.0
4.0
8.0
0.2
2.0
2.0
61.0
113.0
Averalm prqperties:
Density,
Viscosity,
Plastic Viscosity,
Yield point,
10 sec.gel,
10 min.gel,
Filtrate(2ooF/500psi),
Electrical stability,
Water Phase Salinity,
OiVwater ratio
lb/cu.ft
sec./ qt
cp
lb/loosq.ft
lb/loosq.ft
lb/loosq.ft
ml
V.
ppm
650
75 - 85
45 - 55
15 - 25 @ 120F
10 - 20 If If If If
4 - 6 "" It II
8 - 15 If If If If
1 - 2 (all oil)
800 - 1000
300 - 350 (X 1000) - Ca02
65/35 - 75{l.5
SPE 25595 A.M.EZZAT 7
TORQJJE, OUNCE.INCH
2000 1500 1000
40 .
30
20
10
OL----------L.---------L----------I
600
80 r--------------------------.
70
60
50
POUNDS
~ BASE MUD -eo- LUBRICANT 0.5 1(.
Figure 1
Adding 0.5 vol. % lubricant to the base mud reduced torque by 25-30%
Figure 3
Hadriya chalky calcarenite, mostly peloids
Hadriya chalky calcarenite, non-connected pore
structure
651
80
80
8 HORIZONTAL DRILLING & COMPLETIONFLUIDS DESIGN CRITERIA
% Regained Permeability Fluid loss, ml
100 60
00 .6

70 36
80 30
60 26
.0 20
30 16
10
10 6
o 0
MUD 1 MUD 2 MUD 3 MUD 4 MUD 5 MUD 6 MUD 7
MUD SAMPLE NUMBER
_ .. REGAINED PERM. FLUID LOSS m1
Figure 4
Residual damage and fluid loss caused by different fluids
Mud 3 was chosen as the least damaging formulation
Mud 1,2, 3 and 4 were clay free formulations
Mud 5, 6 and 7 were conventional clay base muds
% Cumulative
100 r--;-....,-..."'!""!l..
. . . . . ....:.1 :.;j:.: ..

1
.:. : ::
f f f

20 """""'!'I'I+I"I[! """"""""""""""""111," """""""':"""::"""[1,1'
SPE25595
o
10
Figure 5
100 1000
CUTTINGS SIZE, MICRONS
10000
Sieve analysis for unwashed dry cuttings from Hadriya formation
652
SPE25595 A.M.EZZAT 9
Figure 6 Figure 7
Hanifa formation, scattered vugs Hanifa formation, pore space filled with dolomite
crystals
4(LO-PERM) 3 2 1
% Regained Permeability Fluid loss, ml
100 . . , - - - - - ~ - - - ~ - - - - r - - - - - r - - - - . . . . , . . . 6 0
~ ~
~ ~
ro ~
eo 30
~ H
~ ~
30 1&
20 10
10 &
o 0
4(HI-PERM)
MUD SAMPLE NUMBER
_ .. REGAINED PERM. ~ FLUID LOSS ml
Figure 8
Clay free fluids with different CaC0
3
particle size distribution and concentrations.
Mud No.2 was chosen as the least damaging formulation.
653
10 HORIZONTAL DRILLING & COMPLETION FLUIDS DESIGN CRI1ERIA SPE25595
% Cumulative
100
. .
............ .....!....L.L.j.!..
, ' :::
+- 10010 .
i ":"'(':":- ............ ......10.. j'j' ..
, ..
............... ... ..:.... \ ::
-t
-4- ..O:
. .... ......1i.. '111&Q"':'
th an :
$1;7: 537: , .. .
.... _. . :.. .. : . : .. ':' =' ,
........................... "'j" .. 7;
...............i.. .. :.... :..:+.. '..n ..
20
80
80
40
10000 100 1000
CUTTINGS SIZE, MICRONS

10
Figure 9
Sieve analysis for unwashed dry cuttings from Hanifa formation.
&r
.' I' . '.
'w
, '.
---.---:-"
..... '"0
-, .
.:..-:'......
'-,,:.

'." - ," .... . .. ,.
',-
. ..' "oil

Figure 10
Arab "0" vagular and intercrystalline porosity.
654