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Q.1 A toy company manufactures two types of dolls, a basic version doll-A and a deluxe version doll-B.

Each doll of type B takes twice as long to produce as one of type A, and the company would have time to make maximum of 1000 per day. The supply of plastic is sufficient to produce 1000 dolls per day(both A & B combined). The deluxe version requires a fancy dress of which there are only 500 per day available. If the company makes a profit of Rs 3.00 and Rs 5.. per doll, respectively on doll A and B, then how many of each doll should be produced per day in order to maximize the total profit. Formulate this problem. Ans.
F orm ula tio n :

Le t X 1 & X 2 be the num be r of dolls produc e d pe r da y of ty pe A an d B, res pe c t iv e ly . Le t t h e doll A re quire t hrs . So t ha t the doll B re quire 2t hrs . So t h e tota l tim e to m a nufa c ture X 1 & X 2 dolls s hould not e x c ee d 1000t h rs . Th e re fore , tX 1 + 2tX 2 < 1000t.

Ot h e r c ons tra ints a re s im ple . The n the line a r progra m m ing proble m be c om es : Ma x im iz e p= 3X 1 + 5X 2 Subje c t to re s tric tions X 1 + 2X 2 < 1000 ( tim e c ons tra int) X 1 + X 2 < 1000 ( plas tic c ons tra int) X 2 < 500 ( dre ss c ons tra int)
1

And non- ne ga tiv ity res tric ti ons X 1 > 0, X 2 > 0

Q.2 What

are

the

advantages

of

Linear

programming

techniques ? Ans.
Li nea r P rog ra m m ing P rob lem s ( LP P ) :

L in ea r Progra m m ing Proble m s (L PP) is a ma the ma tic a l te c h n iqu e des ign e d t o he lp m a na ge rs in the ir pla nning and de c is ion m ak in g. It is us u a lly u s e d in an orga niz a tion tha t is try ing to ma ke m os t e ffe c t iv e us e of it s res ourc e s . Re s ourc e s ty pic a lly inc lude ma c hine ry , m a n pow e r,

m on e y , t im e , wa re hous e , s pa c e or ra w m a te ria ls . A d va nta g es of Linea r P rog ra m m ing T echniq ue s : Th e a dva nta ge s of L inea r progra m m ing te c hnique s m a y be ou t lin e d as follow s : 1. L in ea r progra m m ing te c hnique he lps us in m ak ing the opt im u m

u t iliz a t ion of produc tiv e re s ourc e s . It a ls o indic a te s how a de c is ion ma k e r can e m ploy his produc tiv e fa c tors m os t e ffe c tiv e ly by

c h oos in g a nd a lloc a ting thes e re s ourc e s . 2. Th e qu a lity of de c is ions m ay als o be im prov e d by line a r progra m m in g t e c h n ique s . The us e r of this te c hnique be c om e s m ore obje c t iv e a n d les s s u bje c tiv e . 3. L in ea r progra m m ing te c hnique prov ide s pra c tic a lly a pplic a ble

s olu t ions s ince the re m ight be othe r c ons tra ints ope ra ting ou t s ide the proble m whic h m us t a ls o
2

be

tak e n

into

c ons ide ra t ion

ju s t

be ca u s e , s o m a ny units m us t be produc e d doe s not m ea n t ha t all t h os e ca n be s old. So the ne c e ss a ry m odific a tio n of its m a th em a t ic a l s olu t ion is re quire d for the sa ke of c onv e nie nc e to the de c is ion ma k e r. 4. In produc tio n proc e ss e s , high lighting of bottle ne c ks is t h e m os t s ign ific a nt a dva nta ge of this te c hnique . For e x a m ple , when

bot t le n e c k s oc c ur, s om e m a c hine s c a nnot m e e t the de ma n d w h ile ot h e rs re m a in idle for s om e tim e .

Q.3 Solve the following Assignment Problem Operations M1 01 02 03 Ans.


Soluti on :

Machines M2 15 10 16 M3 12 9 16 M4 11 12 17

10 9 15

In t rodu c ing a dum m y row a nd a pply ing Hunga ria n me thod, y ou h a v e Re duc e d row ma trix Op era tion s M1 01 02 03 10 9 15
3

Ma chine s M2 15 10 16 M3 12 9 16 M4 11 12 17

04

Optim um as s ignm e nt s olution Op era tion s M1 01 02 03 04 0 x 1 x M2 5 1 0 x Ma chine s M3 2 0 x x M4 1 3 x 0

Hu n ga ria n M e thod lea ds to m ultiple s olutions . Se le c ting a rbit ra rily .

(03, M2)

0 1 to M 1 0 2 to M 3 0 3 to M 2 0 4 to M 4

10 9 16 0 35 Tota l Wa sta ges

Th e re fore , the optim um a ss ignm e nt sc he dule is O 1 to M 1 , O 2 t o M 2 , O 3 t o M 3 , a n d O 4 to M 4 .

Q.4 What is integar programming ? Ans.


I nteg a r P rog ra m m ing :

Th e In t e ge r Progra m m ing Prob le m ( IPP) is a spe c ia l ca s e of L in ea r Progra m m in g Prob le m ( L PP) , whe re a ll or s om e va ria ble s are c on s t ra in e d t o as s um e non- ne ga tiv e inte ge r va lue s . You c a n apply this proble m t o va riou s s it u a tions in bus ines s a nd indus try whe re dis c re te na ture of t h e va ria ble s is inv olv e d in m a ny de c is ion- m ak ing s itua tions . For ins ta n c e , in ma n u fa c t u ring, the produc tion is fre que ntly s c he dule d in t e rm s of ba t c h e s , lot s or runs ; in dis tribution, a shipm e nt m us t inv olv e a dis c re t e n u m be r of t ruc k s or a irc ra fts or fre ight ca rs . A l l a nd Mixed I nteg er P rog ra m m ing P rob lem (I P P ) : An in t e ge r progra m m ing proble m ca n be des c ribe d a s foll ows : De t e rm in e t he va lue of unk nowns x 1 , x 2 , , x n So as t o opt im is e z = c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + . . .+ c n x n Su bje c t t o t h e c ons tra ints a i 1 x 1 + a i 2 x 2 + . . . + a i n x n = b i , i = 1,2,,m an d x j 0 j = 1, 2, ,n

W he re x j be ing a n inte gra l va lue for j = 1, 2, , k

n.

If all t h e v a ria ble s a re forc e d to ta ke only inte gra l v a lue tha t is k = n , it is ca lle d an a ll ( or pure ) inte ge r progra m m ing proble m . If som e of t h e va ria ble s a re re s tric te d to ta k e inte gra l va lue a nd the re ma ining ( n k) va ria ble s t ak e any non- ne ga tiv e v a lue , the n the proble m is know n a s a m ix e d in t e ge r progra m m ing proble m .

Q.5 Explain

the

different

steps

involved

in

simulation

methodologies ? Ans.
Th e m e thodolo gy de v e lope d for s im ula tion proc e s s c on s is ts of

t h e follow in g se v e n s te ps : St e p 1 Ide ntify a nd c le a rly de fine the proble m .

St e p 2

L is t the sta te m e nt of obje c tiv e s of the proble m .

St e p 3

F orm ula te the va ria ble s tha t influe nc e the s itua tion a n d an e xa c t or proba bil is tic de s c ription of the ir pos s ible va lu e s or st a tes .

St e p 4

Obta in a c ons is te nt s e t of va lue s ( or sta tes ) for the va ria ble s , i. e ., a s am ple of proba bilis tic v a ria ble s , ra ndom sa m plin g t e c hnique m a y be us e d.

St e p 5

Us e the s am ple obta ine d in Ste p 2 to ca lc ula te the va lu e of t h e de c is ion c rite rion , by ac tua lly follow ing the re la tions hips a m on g t h e va ria ble s for ea c h of the a lte rna tiv e de c is ions .

St e p 6

Re pe a t s te p 2 and 3 until a suffic ie nt num be r of sa m ples a re av a ila ble .

St e p 7

Ta bula te the va rious v a lue s of the de c is ion c rite rion a nd c h oos e t h e bes t polic y .

Q.6 Write down the basic difference between PERT & CPM. Ans.
Ba sic D ifference b etw een P ERT a nd CP M :

Th ou gh t h e re a re no es s e ntia l diffe re nc e s be twe e n PE RT a nd C PM as bot h of t h e m sh a re in c om m on the de te rm ina tion of a c ritic a l pa th. Bot h a re ba s e d on t h e ne twork re pre se nta tion of ac tiv itie s a nd the ir sc h e du lin g t ha t de t e rm ine s the m os t c ritic a l a c tiv itie s to be c ontrol le d s o a s t o m e e t t h e c om ple t ion da te of the proje c t. P E RT Som e k e y points about PE RT a re as follows : 1. PE RT wa s de v e lope d in c onne c tion with a n R& D work . The re fore , it h a d t o c ope w it h the unc e rta intie s tha t a re a ss oc ia te d with R& D a c tiv it ie s . In

PE RT,

the

tota l

proje c t

dura tion

is

re ga rde d

as

ra ndom

v a ria ble .

Th e re fore , a ss oc ia te d proba bil itie s a re ca lc ula te d s o as to c ha ra c t e riz e it . 2. It is a n e v e nt-orie nte d ne twork be ca us e in the ana ly s is of a n e t w ork , e m pha s is is giv e n on the im porta nt s ta ge s of c om ple tion of a tas k ra t h e r t ha n t h e ac t iv itie s re quire d to be pe rform e d to re a c h a pa rtic ula r ev e n t or ta sk . 3. PE RT is n orm a lly us e d for proje c ts inv olv in g a c tiv itie s of non- re pe t it iv e na t u re in w h ic h tim e es tim a tes a re unc e rta in. 4. It h e lps in pinpointin g c ritic a l a rea s in a proje c t s o tha t n e ce ss a ry adju s t m e n t c a n be ma de to m e e t the s c he dule d c om ple tion da t e of t h e proje c t . CPM 1. C PM w as de ve lope d in c onne c tion with a c ons truc tion proje c t , w h ic h c on s is t e d of routine tas ks whos e re s ourc e re quire m e nts a nd dura t ion w e re kn ow n w it h c e rta inty . The re fore , it is ba s ic a lly de te rm inis tic . 2. C PM is s uita ble for e s ta blis hing a tra de -off for optim um ba la n c in g be t w e e n sc h e dule tim e a nd c os t of the proje c t. 3. C PM is u s e d for proje c ts inv olv ing ac tiv itie s of re pe titiv e na ture .

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