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Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of EME, NUST

January 1, 2013

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Mechanical Engineering, College of EME, NUST January 1, 2013 Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

1 Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

1 Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

2 Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

1 Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

2 Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

3 Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

1 Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

2 Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

3 Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

4 Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons 4 Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Introduction History Theory of Operation

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Introduction History Theory of Operation

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction

Introduction History Theory of Operation

A geothermal heat pump, ground source heat pump (GSHP), or ground heat pump is a cen- tral heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction

Introduction History Theory of Operation

A geothermal heat pump, ground source heat

pump (GSHP), or ground heat pump is a cen- tral heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground.

It uses the earth as a heat source (in the win-

ter) or a heat sink (in the summer).

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

heat source (in the win- ter) or a heat sink (in the summer). Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction

Introduction History Theory of Operation

A geothermal heat pump, ground source heat

pump (GSHP), or ground heat pump is a cen- tral heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground.

It uses the earth as a heat source (in the win-

ter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction

Introduction History Theory of Operation

Geothermal heat pumps are quite efficient, since they use the thermal energy of the earth crust to increase energy output, while decreasing energy input.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

to increase energy output, while decreasing energy input. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction

Introduction History Theory of Operation

Geothermal heat pumps are quite efficient, since they use the thermal energy of the earth crust to increase energy output, while decreasing energy input. Geothermal heat pumps add tremendous ben- efits to your house, by increasing the energy efficiency of your heating and cooling systems by 2-3 times, and as a result decreasing your bills to heat your house in the winter and cool it in the summer by the same two to three times.

and cool it in the summer by the same two to three times. Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Introduction History Theory of Operation

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

The heat pump was described by Lord Kelvin in 1853 and developed by Peter Ritter von Rittinger in 1855.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

in 1853 and developed by Peter Ritter von Rittinger in 1855. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

The heat pump was described by Lord Kelvin in 1853 and developed by Peter Ritter von Rittinger in 1855. Robert C. Webber built the first direct ex- change ground-source heat pump in the late

1940s.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

direct ex- change ground-source heat pump in the late 1940s. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

The heat pump was described by Lord Kelvin in 1853 and developed by Peter Ritter von Rittinger in 1855. Robert C. Webber built the first direct ex- change ground-source heat pump in the late

1940s.

The first successful commercial project was in- stalled in the Commonwealth Building (Port- land, Oregon) in 1946.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

in the Commonwealth Building (Port- land, Oregon) in 1946. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

The heat pump was described by Lord Kelvin in 1853 and developed by Peter Ritter von Rittinger in 1855. Robert C. Webber built the first direct ex- change ground-source heat pump in the late

1940s.

The first successful commercial project was in- stalled in the Commonwealth Building (Port- land, Oregon) in 1946. The technology became popular in Sweden in the 1970s.

in 1946. The technology became popular in Sweden in the 1970s. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

Open loop systems dominated the market un- til the development of polybutylene pipe in 1979 made closed loop systems economically viable.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

pipe in 1979 made closed loop systems economically viable. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

Open loop systems dominated the market un- til the development of polybutylene pipe in 1979 made closed loop systems economically viable. As of 2004, there are over a million units in- stalled worldwide providing 12 GW of thermal capacity.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

in- stalled worldwide providing 12 GW of thermal capacity. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

History

Introduction History Theory of Operation

Open loop systems dominated the market un- til the development of polybutylene pipe in 1979 made closed loop systems economically viable. As of 2004, there are over a million units in- stalled worldwide providing 12 GW of thermal capacity. Each year, about 80,000 units are installed in the US (geothermal energy is used in all 50 US states today) and 27,000 in Sweden.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

is used in all 50 US states today) and 27,000 in Sweden. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Introduction History Theory of Operation

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction History Theory of Operation

Theory of Operation

During the times of the year when heating and cool- ing are required, ground tempera- tures are nearer room temperature

required, ground tempera- tures are nearer room temperature Figure: Ground-source (geothermal) heat pump in cooling

Figure: Ground-source (geothermal) heat pump in cooling mode.

than outdoor air temperatures. Thus during the summer cooling season, the ground is cooler than the air, and the ground loop is able to condense the refrigerant at lower temperatures, which means

to condense the refrigerant at lower temperatures, which means Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Introduction History Theory of Operation

that less compressor power is needed to pressurize the refrigerant vapor.

During

ter heating sea- son, the ground is warmer than the air,and the ground loop is able to

win-

the

ground l o o p i s a b l e t o win- the Figure:

Figure: Ground-source (geothermal) heat pump in heating mode.

evaporate the refrigerant at higher temperatures, which again means that less compressor power is needed, since the pressure drop through the ex- pansion valve can be less and still vaporize the refrigerant liquid.

valve can be less and still vaporize the refrigerant liquid. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

There are four basic types of ground loop sys- tems. Three of these – horizontal, vertical, and pond/lake – are closed-loop systems. The fourth type of system is the open-loop option.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

systems. The fourth type of system is the open-loop option. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

There are four basic types of ground loop sys- tems. Three of these – horizontal, vertical, and pond/lake – are closed-loop systems. The fourth type of system is the open-loop option. Which one of these is best depends on the climate, soil conditions, available land, and local installation costs at the site.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

available land, and local installation costs at the site. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

There are four basic types of ground loop sys- tems. Three of these – horizontal, vertical, and pond/lake – are closed-loop systems. The fourth type of system is the open-loop option. Which one of these is best depends on the climate, soil conditions, available land, and local installation costs at the site. All of these approaches can be used for resi- dential and commercial building applications.

used for resi- dential and commercial building applications. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems

Most cost-effective for residential installations.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Systems Most cost-effective for residential installations. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems

Most cost-effective for residential installations. Requires trenches at least four feet deep

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

installations. Requires trenches at least four feet deep Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems

Most cost-effective for residential installations. Requires trenches at least four feet deep Most common layouts either use two pipes, one buried at six feet, and the other at four feet, or two pipes placed side-by-side at five feet in the ground in a two-foot wide trench.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

at five feet in the ground in a two-foot wide trench. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems

Most cost-effective for residential installations. Requires trenches at least four feet deep Most common layouts either use two pipes, one buried at six feet, and the other at four feet, or two pipes placed side-by-side at five feet in the ground in a two-foot wide trench. The Slinky TM method of looping pipe allows more pipe in a shorter trench, which cuts down on installation costs and makes horizontal in- stallation possible in areas it would not be with conventional horizontal applications.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

it would not be with conventional horizontal applications. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion Figure: Horizontal Closed Loop Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

Figure: Horizontal Closed Loop

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: A Slinky Loop College

Figure: A Slinky Loop

Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: A Slinky Loop College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Vertical Closed Loop Systems

Used in large commercial buildings and schools.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Loop Systems Used in large commercial buildings and schools. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Vertical Closed Loop Systems

Used in large commercial buildings and schools. Vertical loops are also used where the soil is too shallow for trenching.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

are also used where the soil is too shallow for trenching. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Vertical Closed Loop Systems

Used in large commercial buildings and schools. Vertical loops are also used where the soil is too shallow for trenching. Holes are drilled about 20 feet apart and 100 to 400 feet deep. Into these holes go two pipes that are connected at the bottom with a U- bend to form a loop.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

are connected at the bottom with a U- bend to form a loop. Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Vertical Closed Loop Systems

Used in large commercial buildings and schools. Vertical loops are also used where the soil is too shallow for trenching. Holes are drilled about 20 feet apart and 100 to 400 feet deep. Into these holes go two pipes that are connected at the bottom with a U- bend to form a loop. The vertical loops are connected with horizon- tal pipe (i.e., manifold), placed in trenches, and connected to the heat pump in the build- ing.

in trenches, and connected to the heat pump in the build- ing. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: A Vertical Loop Closed System Muhammad Saqib

Figure: A Vertical Loop Closed System

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: A Vertical Loop Closed System Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems

If the site has an adequate water body, this may be the lowest cost option.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

an adequate water body, this may be the lowest cost option. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems

If the site has an adequate water body, this

may be the lowest cost option.

A supply line pipe is run underground from

the building to the water and coiled into cir-

cles at least eight feet under the surface to prevent freezing.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

at least eight feet under the surface to prevent freezing. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems

If the site has an adequate water body, this

may be the lowest cost option.

A supply line pipe is run underground from

the building to the water and coiled into cir-

cles at least eight feet under the surface to prevent freezing. The coils should only be placed in a water source that meets minimum volume, depth, and quality criteria.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

source that meets minimum volume, depth, and quality criteria. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: A Pond Loop System being sunk to

Figure: A Pond Loop System being sunk to the bottom of a pond

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Figure: A Pond Loop System being sunk to the bottom of a pond Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Open Loop Systems

This type of system uses well or surface body water as the heat exchange fluid that circu- lates directly through the GHP system.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

fluid that circu- lates directly through the GHP system. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Open Loop Systems

This type of system uses well or surface body water as the heat exchange fluid that circu- lates directly through the GHP system. Once it has circulated through the system, the water returns to the ground through the well, a recharge well, or surface discharge.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

through the well, a recharge well, or surface discharge. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Open Loop Systems

This type of system uses well or surface body water as the heat exchange fluid that circu- lates directly through the GHP system. Once it has circulated through the system, the water returns to the ground through the well, a recharge well, or surface discharge. This option is obviously practical only where there is an adequate supply of relatively clean water, and all local codes and regulations re- garding groundwater discharge are met.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

and regulations re- garding groundwater discharge are met. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: An Open Loop System Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

Figure: An Open Loop System

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems Figure: An Open Loop System Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems using a combination of a geother- mal resource with outdoor air (i.e., a cooling tower), are another technology option.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

air (i.e., a cooling tower), are another technology option. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems using a combination of a geother- mal resource with outdoor air (i.e., a cooling tower), are another technology option. Particularly effective where cooling needs are significantly larger than heating needs.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

cooling needs are significantly larger than heating needs. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Hybrid Systems

Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems using a combination of a geother- mal resource with outdoor air (i.e., a cooling tower), are another technology option. Particularly effective where cooling needs are significantly larger than heating needs. During periods of peak heating and cooling, the system can bleed a portion of the return water rather than reinjecting it all, causing water inflow to the column from the surround- ing aquifer.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

water inflow to the column from the surround- ing aquifer. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Environmental Impact

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called ground source heat pumps the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost- effective space conditioning systems available.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

and cost- effective space conditioning systems available. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Environmental Impact

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called ground source heat pumps the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost- effective space conditioning systems available. Heat pumps offer significant emission reduc- tions potential, particularly where they are used for both heating and cooling.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

particularly where they are used for both heating and cooling. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Environmental Impact

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called ground source heat pumps the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost- effective space conditioning systems available. Heat pumps offer significant emission reduc- tions potential, particularly where they are used for both heating and cooling. Ground-source heat pumps always produce less greenhouse gases than air conditioners, oil fur- naces, and electric heating.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

than air conditioners, oil fur- naces, and electric heating. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Environmental Impact

Country

Electricity CO 2 Emissions Intensity

 

GHG savings relative to

 

natural gas

heating oil

electric heating

Canada

223

ton/GWh

2.7

ton/yr

5.3

ton/yr

3.4

ton/yr

Russia

351

ton/GWh

1.8

ton/yr

4.4

ton/yr

5.4

ton/yr

US

676

ton/GWh

0.5

ton/yr

2.2

ton/yr

10.3

ton/yr

China

839

ton/GWh

1.6

ton/yr

1.0

ton/yr

12.8

ton/yr

Table: Annual greenhouse gas savings from using a ground source heat pump instead of a high-efficiency furnace in a detached residence.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

instead of a high-efficiency furnace in a detached residence. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Environmental Impact

Country

Electricity CO 2 Emissions Intensity

 

GHG savings relative to

 

natural gas

heating oil

electric heating

Canada

223

ton/GWh

2.7

ton/yr

5.3

ton/yr

3.4

ton/yr

Russia

351

ton/GWh

1.8

ton/yr

4.4

ton/yr

5.4

ton/yr

US

676

ton/GWh

0.5

ton/yr

2.2

ton/yr

10.3

ton/yr

China

839

ton/GWh

1.6

ton/yr

1.0

ton/yr

12.8

ton/yr

Table: Annual greenhouse gas savings from using a ground source heat pump instead of a high-efficiency furnace in a detached residence.

In countries like Canada and Russia with low emitting electricity infrastructure, a residen- tial heat pump may save 5 tons of CO 2 per year relative to an oil furnace.

save 5 tons of CO 2 per year relative to an oil furnace. Muhammad Saqib Anwar,

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Ground source heat pumps are characterized by high capital costs and low operational costs compared to other HVAC systems.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

and low operational costs compared to other HVAC systems. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Ground source heat pumps are characterized by high capital costs and low operational costs compared to other HVAC systems. Their overall economic benefit depends pri- marily on the relative costs of electricity and fuels.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

pri- marily on the relative costs of electricity and fuels. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Ground source heat pumps are characterized by high capital costs and low operational costs compared to other HVAC systems. Their overall economic benefit depends pri- marily on the relative costs of electricity and fuels. Based on recent prices, ground-source heat pumps currently have lower operational costs than any other conventional heating source al- most everywhere in the world.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

conventional heating source al- most everywhere in the world. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

In general, a homeowner may save anywhere from 20% to 60% annually on utilities by switch- ing from an ordinary system to a ground-source system.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

switch- ing from an ordinary system to a ground-source system. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

In general, a homeowner may save anywhere from 20% to 60% annually on utilities by switch- ing from an ordinary system to a ground-source system.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

switch- ing from an ordinary system to a ground-source system. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

In general, a homeowner may save anywhere from 20% to 60% annually on utilities by switch- ing from an ordinary system to a ground-source system.

Country

 

Payback period for replacing

natural gas

heating oil

electric heating

Canada

13

years

3

years

6

years

US

12

years

5

years

4

years

Germany

net loss

8

years

2

years

Table: Payback period for installing a ground source heat pump in a detached residence.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

installing a ground source heat pump in a detached residence. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

The lifespan of the system is longer than con- ventional heating and cooling systems.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

is longer than con- ventional heating and cooling systems. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

The lifespan of the system is longer than con- ventional heating and cooling systems. Many early systems are still operational today after 25–30 years with routine maintenance.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

today after 25–30 years with routine maintenance. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Economics

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

The lifespan of the system is longer than con- ventional heating and cooling systems. Many early systems are still operational today after 25–30 years with routine maintenance. Additionally, because geothermal heat pumps usually have no outdoor compressors or cool- ing towers, the risk of vandalism is reduced or eliminated, potentially extending a system’s lifespan.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

or eliminated, potentially extending a system’s lifespan. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

1

2

3

4

Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Pros of the Geothermal Heat Pump

More efficient than conventional heat pumps

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Heat Pump More efficient than conventional heat pumps Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Pros of the Geothermal Heat Pump

More efficient than conventional heat pumps Cost effective

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

More efficient than conventional heat pumps Cost effective Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Pros of the Geothermal Heat Pump

More efficient than conventional heat pumps Cost effective Can heat household water

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

heat pumps Cost effective Can heat household water Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Pros of the Geothermal Heat Pump

More efficient than conventional heat pumps Cost effective Can heat household water Small size and low maintenance

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Can heat household water Small size and low maintenance Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Pros of the Geothermal Heat Pump

More efficient than conventional heat pumps Cost effective Can heat household water Small size and low maintenance Reliability

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

household water Small size and low maintenance Reliability Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Pros of the Geothermal Heat Pump

More efficient than conventional heat pumps Cost effective Can heat household water Small size and low maintenance Reliability Environmental benefits

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

size and low maintenance Reliability Environmental benefits Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME, NUST

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Cons of the Geothermal Heat Pump

Initial Installation Cost

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Cons of the Geothermal Heat Pump Initial Installation Cost Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Cons of the Geothermal Heat Pump

Initial Installation Cost Geothermal heat system needs a wide space

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Installation Cost Geothermal heat system needs a wide space Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons

Cons of the Geothermal Heat Pump

Initial Installation Cost Geothermal heat system needs a wide space Use of refrigerants

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

Geothermal heat system needs a wide space Use of refrigerants Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Contents

1 Geothermal Heat Pump Introduction History Theory of Operation

2 Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Horizontal Closed Loop Systems Vertical Closed Loop Systems Pond/Lake Closed Loop Systems Open Loop Systems Hybrid Systems

3 Environmental Impact and Economics Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion

4

Environmental Impact Economics Pros and Cons Conclusion 4 Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

College of EME, NUST

Contents Geothermal Heat Pump Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Environmental Impact and Economics Conclusion

Conclusion

All in all, geothermal technology is a cost effective, environmentally friendly method of providing heating and cooling. It is a clean and smart energy source right under our feet. Already widely accepted around the world, this technology continues to grow in popularity. It is clear that many factors impact the design of the most efficient and cost- effective geothermal system for any given application. Proper design requires the use of experienced professionals familiar with the applica- tion desired. Drillers can view the geothermal industry as an oppor- tunity for growth and expansion if they become knowledgeable about this exciting field.

Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain

if they become knowledgeable about this exciting field. Muhammad Saqib Anwar, Mudassir Hussain College of EME,

College of EME, NUST