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A Project Report On GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP Course Code: Course Title: ME 325 Refrigeration and
A Project Report On GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP Course Code: Course Title: ME 325 Refrigeration and

A Project Report On

GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP

Course Code:

Course Title:

ME 325

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Submitted By:

NS Muhammad Saqib Anwar NS Mudassir Hussain 32-Mechanical (B) Registration Number: 133 Date: January 1 st , 2013

Submitted to:

Col Dr. Syed Waheed ul Haq Professor, Head of Department Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of E&ME, NUST

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Table of Contents

Introduction

1

History

2

Theory of Operation

2

Heating Mode

3

Cooling Mode

4

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

5

Closed Loop Systems

5

Horizontal

6

Vertical

6

Pond/Lake

7

Open Loop Systems

8

Hybrid Systems

8

GHP Refrigerant Fluids

8

Environmental Impacts

9

Economics

11

Pros and Cons of Geothermal Heat Pump System

12

Pros

12

Cons

13

Conclusion

13

References

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GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP

Introduction

A geothermal heat pump, ground source heat pump (GSHP), or ground heat pump is a central heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems, and may be combined with solar heating to form a geo-solar system with even greater efficiency. Ground source heat pumps are also known as "geothermal heat pumps" although, strictly, the heat does not come from the centre of the Earth, but from the Sun. They are also known by other names, including geo-exchange, earth-coupled, earth energy systems. The engineering and scientific communities prefer the terms "geo-exchange" or "ground source heat pumps" to avoid confusion with traditional geothermal power, which uses a high temperature heat source to generate electricity. Ground source heat pumps harvest heat absorbed at the Earth's surface from solar energy. The temperature in the ground below 6 metres (20 ft) is roughly equal to the mean annual air temperature at that latitude at the surface. Depending on latitude, the temperature beneath the upper 6 metres (20 ft) of Earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 10 and 16 °C (50 and 60 °F), if the temperature is undisturbed by the presence of a heat pump. Like a refrigerator or air conditioner, these systems use a heat pump to force the transfer of heat from the ground. Heat pumps can transfer heat from a cool space to a warm space, against the natural direction of flow, or they can enhance the natural flow of heat from a warm area to a cool one. The core of the heat pump is a loop of refrigerant pumped through a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle that moves heat. Air-source heat pumps are typically more efficient at heating than pure electric heaters, even when extracting heat from cold winter air, although efficiencies begin dropping significantly as outside air temperatures drop below 5 °C (41 °F). A ground source heat pump exchanges heat with the ground. This is much more energy-efficient because underground temperatures are more stable than air temperatures through the year. Seasonal variations drop off with depth and disappear below 7 metres (23 ft) due to thermal inertia. Like a cave, the shallow ground temperature is warmer than the air above during the winter and cooler than the air in the summer. A ground source heat pump extracts ground heat in the winter (for heating) and transfers heat back into the ground in the summer (for cooling). Some systems are designed to operate in one mode only, heating or cooling, depending on climate.

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Figure 1. Mean annual earth temperature observations at individual stations, superimposed on well-water temperature

Figure 1. Mean annual earth temperature observations at individual stations, superimposed on well-water temperature contours.

History

The heat pump was described by Lord Kelvin in 1853 and developed by Peter Ritter von Rittinger in 1855. After experimenting with a freezer, Robert C. Webber built the first direct exchange ground- source heat pump in the late 1940s. The first successful commercial project was installed in the Commonwealth Building (Portland, Oregon) in 1946, and has been designated a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by ASME. The technology became popular in Sweden in the 1970s, and has been growing slowly in worldwide acceptance since then. Open loop systems dominated the market until the development of polybutylene pipe in 1979 made closed loop systems economically viable. As of 2004, there are over a million units installed worldwide providing 12 GW of thermal capacity. Each year, about 80,000 units are installed in the US (geothermal energy is used in all 50 US states today, with great potential for near-term market growth and savings) and 27,000 in Sweden.

Theory of Operation

A geothermal heat pump moves heat into or out of the earth using water wells or a network

of high density polyethylene pipes buried in horizontal trenches or vertical boreholes.

The pipes carry a heat transfer fluid usually comprised of water and antifreeze, which is

pumped through the ground loop and geothermal heat pump units within the building. The heat

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transfer fluid extracts heat (heating mode) from the earth surrounding the ground loop.

The refrigeration system in the geothermal heat pump unit upgrades the heat, which is then

distributed throughout the building by way of ductwork or a hydronic (hot water space heating) system. In a heat pump, the refrigeration system can also work in reverse and provide cooling.

A geothermal heat pump system requires the following three components to provide heating

and cooling for your building: a ground loop (buried piping system); heat pump furnace units (inside the building); and a heating and cooling distribution system.

building); and a heating and cooling distribution system. Figure 2. Illustration of ground source heating Heating

Figure 2. Illustration of ground source heating

Heating Mode

In the winter, an expanded and cold vapor refrigerant circulated within highly heat conductive copper tubing and absorbs the approximate 55° F (13° C) heat naturally supplied by the earth. This 55° F (13° C) heated refrigerant vapor is compressed, and the resulting now hot vapor is circulated within an air handler, where the cold return air from your house or business is also circulated by means of an electric fan. An air handler is simply a box within with finned tubing and a fan. The cold interior ―return‖ air from your home or business is blown across the finned tubing by the electric fan. In the heating mode, the finned copper tubing is hot, containing the refrigerant vapor that has been compressed by the system’s vapor compressor. The heat from the hot vapor circulating within the finned tubing inside the air handler is naturally absorbed by the colder air. (Remember the principal that heat will always travel to cold). The now warmed air is blown into your home or business through ―supply‖ air ductwork via the electric fan within the air handler.

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Thus, the heat supplied for your interior air is supplied by the natural and renewable temperature of the earth’s crust, for free. Your only expense is the cost to operate a compressor to raise the temperature of the free heat, and the cost to operate a fan to transfer the heat into your interior air.

operate a fan to transfer the heat into your interior air. Figure 3. Ground-source (geothermal) heat

Figure 3. Ground-source (geothermal) heat pump in heating mode.

Cooling Mode

In the cooling mode, the refrigerant vapor is circulated in a reverse direction, with the hot compressed vapor being sent in the earth, where the excess heat is naturally absorbed and taken away by the much cooler sub-surface temperature. For example, you may have a hot vapor with a temperature of 120° F (49° C) leaving the compressor unit and traveling into the underground copper ground source heat exchanger. This 120° F (49° C) is much hotter than the 55° F (13° C) ground. If we again apply the principal that heat will always travel to cold, we can understand that the ground will remove the heat and begin to cool down the hot refrigerant vapor. With the excess heat in the refrigerant vapor removed by the earth, the cooled refrigerant actually condenses into a liquid. The cooled liquid refrigerant is then expanded, by means of an expansion device, into a lower pressure, which causes the temperature of the refrigerant to drop even lower. The now cold refrigerant is next circulated through the finned tubing within the air handler. The cold refrigerant absorbs the excessive heat from your interior air, as the heat in your air naturally travels to the colder refrigerant. Your now cooled air is circulated back into your home or business. The refrigerant that has absorbed the excessive heat from you interior air now expands back into a vapor. The warmed vapor, having absorbed the exceed heat from your interior air, is compressed by the vapor compressor, and the temperature of the refrigerant vapor is greatly increased.

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This resulting hot vapor is sent into the ground where the excess heat is removed and the process is repeated. Again, your home/business is cooled via the simple expenditure of energy that is only necessary to operate a compressor and the fan in your air handler.

to operate a compressor and the fan in your air handler. Figure 4. Ground-source (geothermal) heat

Figure 4. Ground-source (geothermal) heat pump in cooling mode.

Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

There are four basic types of ground loop systems. Three of these -- horizontal, vertical, and pond/lake -- are closed-loop systems. The fourth type of system is the open-loop option. Which one of these is best depends on the climate, soil conditions, available land, and local installation costs at the site. All of these approaches can be used for residential and commercial building applications.

Closed Loop Systems

Most closed-loop geothermal heat pumps circulate an antifreeze solution through a closed loop -- usually made of plastic tubing -- that is buried in the ground or submerged in water. A heat exchanger transfers heat between the refrigerant in the heat pump and the antifreeze solution in the closed loop. The loop can be in a horizontal, vertical, or pond/lake configuration. One variant of this approach, called direct exchange, does not use a heat exchanger and instead pumps the refrigerant through copper tubing that is buried in the ground in a horizontal or vertical configuration. Direct exchange systems require a larger compressor and work best in moist soils (sometimes requiring additional irrigation to keep the soil moist), but you should avoid installing in soils corrosive to the copper tubing. Because these systems circulate refrigerant through the ground, local environmental regulations may prohibit their use in some locations.

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Horizontal This type of installation is generally most cost-effective for residential installations, particularly for new construction where sufficient land is available. It requires trenches at least four feet deep. The most common layouts either use two pipes, one buried at six feet, and the other at four feet, or two pipes placed side-by-side at five feet in the ground in a two-foot wide trench. The Slinky™ method of looping pipe allows more pipe in a shorter trench, which cuts down on installation costs and makes horizontal installation possible in areas it would not be with conventional horizontal applications.

it would not be with conventional horizontal applications. Horizontal Loop Slinky Loop Figure 5. Horizontal Closed

Horizontal Loop

with conventional horizontal applications. Horizontal Loop Slinky Loop Figure 5. Horizontal Closed Loop Systems

Slinky Loop

Figure 5. Horizontal Closed Loop Systems

Vertical

Large commercial buildings and schools often use vertical systems because the land area required for horizontal loops would be prohibitive. Vertical loops are also used where the soil is too shallow for trenching, and they minimize the disturbance to existing landscaping. For a vertical system, holes (approximately four inches in diameter) are drilled about 20 feet apart and 100 to 400 feet deep. Into these holes go two pipes that are connected at the bottom with a U-bend to form a loop. The vertical loops are connected with horizontal pipe (i.e., manifold), placed in trenches, and connected to the heat pump in the building.

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Figure 6. Vertical Closed Loop Systems. Pond/Lake If the site has an adequate water body,

Figure 6. Vertical Closed Loop Systems.

Pond/Lake

If the site has an adequate water body, this may be the lowest cost option. A supply line pipe is run underground from the building to the water and coiled into circles at least eight feet under the surface to prevent freezing. The coils should only be placed in a water source that meets minimum volume, depth, and quality criteria.

that meets minimum volume, depth, and quality criteria. Figure 7. A Pond Loop System being sunk

Figure 7. A Pond Loop System being sunk to the bottom of a pond.

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Open Loop System

This type of system uses well or surface body water as the heat exchange fluid that circulates directly through the GHP system. Once it has circulated through the system, the water returns to the ground through the well, a recharge well, or surface discharge. This option is obviously practical only where there is an adequate supply of relatively clean water, and all local codes and regulations regarding groundwater discharge are met.

and regulations regarding groundwater discharge are met. Figure 8. An Open Loop System. Hybrid Systems Hybrid

Figure 8. An Open Loop System.

Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems using several different geothermal resources, or a combination of a geothermal resource with outdoor air (i.e., a cooling tower), are another technology option. Hybrid approaches are particularly effective where cooling needs are significantly larger than heating needs. Where local geology permits, the "standing column well" is another option. In this variation of an open-loop system, one or more deep vertical wells is drilled. Water is drawn from the bottom of a standing column and returned to the top. During periods of peak heating and cooling, the system can bleed a portion of the return water rather than reinjecting it all, causing water inflow to the column from the surrounding aquifer. The bleed cycle cools the column during heat rejection, heats it during heat extraction, and reduces the required bore depth.

GHP Refrigerant Fluids

The refrigerant working fluid used in geothermal heat pumps is R22, which also is the most popular refrigerant for packaged air conditioners and air-source heat pumps. R22 was developed in the early 1900s as a substitute for R12. It can produce more cooling capacity from the same size compressor

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with no significant power penalty. Because R-22 contains some chlorine, it is classified as an HCFC (hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbon). The ozone depletion potential of R22 is only 5.5% compared with the depletion potential of R11 and R12 (CFC-11 and CFC-12), which are the two refrigerants thought to be most responsible for atmospheric ozone layer depletion.

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments call for R22 production (not use) to be phased out by the year 2030. This could be extended at a later date if continuing atmospheric tests so indicate. Regardless, R22 will be available over the useful life of any geothermal heat pumps installed within the next two decades.

A long-term substitute for R22 is R410a, a chlorine-free blend of two HFC refrigerants (R32 and

R125), which is safe and easy to use, with no ozone-depletion potential. R410a has up to 6% greater refrigeration capacity than R22 and its Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) is 5-6% higher, offering improved performance in addition to its environmental benefits.

It is important to note, however, that R410a is not a "drop-in" replacement for R22. Its operating

pressures are nearly 50% higher than R22, requiring a redesign of the compressor as well as other components. In addition, there are compatibility issues with the lubricants, cleaners and other fluids used in the heat pump manufacturing process.

A leading geothermal heat pump manufacturer, WaterFurnace of Fort Wayne, Indiana, introduced an

R410a GHP unit with its Premier E Series in 2002. The company plans to have its entire GHP

product line converted to R410a by 2006.

Environmental Impacts

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called ground source heat pumps the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available. Heat pumps offer significant emission reductions potential, particularly where they are used for both heating and cooling and where the electricity is produced from renewable resources.

Ground-source heat pumps have unsurpassed thermal efficiencies and produce zero emissions locally, but their electricity supply includes components with high greenhouse gas emissions, unless the owner has opted for a 100% renewable energy supply. Their environmental impact therefore depends on the characteristics of the electricity supply and the available alternatives.

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Country Canada Russia US China
Country
Canada
Russia
US
China

Electricity CO 2 Emissions Intensity

223

ton/GWh

351

ton/GWh

676

ton/GWh

839

ton/GWh

GHG savings relative to

natural gas heating oil 2.7 ton/yr 5.3 ton/yr 1.8 ton/yr 4.4 ton/yr -0.5 ton/yr 2.2
natural gas
heating oil
2.7 ton/yr
5.3
ton/yr
1.8 ton/yr
4.4
ton/yr
-0.5 ton/yr
2.2
ton/yr
-1.6 ton/yr
1.0
ton/yr

3.4

ton/yr

5.4

ton/yr

10.3

ton/yr

12.8

ton/yr

Table 1: Annual greenhouse gas savings from using a ground source heat pump instead of a high-efficiency furnace in a detached residence (assuming no specific supply of renewable energy).

Ground-source heat pumps always produce less greenhouse gases than air conditioners, oil furnaces, and electric heating, but natural gas furnaces may be competitive depending on the greenhouse gas intensity of the local electricity supply. In countries like Canada and Russia with low emitting electricity infrastructure, a residential heat pump may save 5 tons of carbon dioxide per year relative to an oil furnace, or about as much as taking an average passenger car off the road. But in cities like Beijing or Pittsburgh that are highly reliant on coal for electricity production, a heat pump may result in 1 or 2 tons more carbon dioxide emissions than a natural gas furnace. For areas not served by utility natural gas infrastructure, however, no better alternative exists.

The fluids used in closed loops may be designed to be biodegradable and non-toxic, but the refrigerant used in the heat pump cabinet and in direct exchange loops was, until recently, chlorodifluoromethane, which is an ozone depleting substance. Although harmless while contained, leaks and improper end-of-life disposal contribute to enlarging the ozone hole. For new construction, this refrigerant is being phased out in favor of the ozone-friendly but potent greenhouse gas R410A. The EcoCute water heater is an air-source heat pump that uses Carbon Dioxide as its working fluid instead of Chlorofluorocarbons.

Open loop systems that draw water from a well and drain to the surface may contribute to aquifer depletion, water shortages, groundwater contamination, and subsidence of the soil. A geothermal heating project in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany, is suspected to have caused considerable damage to buildings in the city center. The ground has subsided by up to eight millimetres under the city hall while other areas have been uplifted by a few millimetres.

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Economics

Ground source heat pumps are characterized by high capital costs and low operational costs compared to other HVAC systems. Their overall economic benefit depends primarily on the relative costs of electricity and fuels, which are highly variable over time and across the world. Based on recent prices, ground-source heat pumps currently have lower operational costs than any other conventional heating source almost everywhere in the world. Natural gas is the only fuel with competitive operational costs, and only in a handful of countries where it is exceptionally cheap, or where electricity is exceptionally expensive. In general, a homeowner may save anywhere from 20% to 60% annually on utilities by switching from an ordinary system to a ground-source system. However, many family size installations are reported to use much more electricity than their owners had expected from advertisements. This is often partly due to bad design or installation: Heat exchange capacity with groundwater is often too small, heating pipes in house floors are often too thin and too few, or heated floors are covered with wooden panels or carpets.

Capital costs and system lifespan have received much less study, and the return on investment is highly variable. One study found the total installed cost for a system with 10 kW (3 ton) thermal capacity for a detached rural residence in the US averaged $8000$9000 in 1995 US dollars. More recent studies found an average cost of $14,000 in 2008 US dollars for the same size system. The US Department of Energy estimates a price of $7500 on its website, last updated in 2008. Prices over $20,000 are quoted in Canada, with one source placing them in the range of $30,000-$34,000 Canadian dollars. The rapid escalation in system price has been accompanied by rapid improvements in efficiency and reliability. Capital costs are known to benefit from economies of scale, particularly for open loop systems, so they are more cost-effective for larger commercial buildings and harsher climates. The initial cost can be two to five times that of a conventional heating system in most residential applications, new construction or existing. In retrofits, the cost of installation is affected by the size of living area, the home's age, insulation characteristics, the geology of the area, and location of the property. Proper duct system design and mechanical air exchange should be considered in the initial system cost.

The lifespan of the system is longer than conventional heating and cooling systems. Good data on system lifespan is not yet available because the technology is too recent, but many early systems are still operational today after 2530 years with routine maintenance. Most loop fields have warranties for 25 to 50 years and are expected to last at least 50 to 200 years. Ground-source heat pumps use electricity for heating the house. The higher investment above conventional oil, propane or electric systems may be returned in energy savings in 210 years for residential systems in the US. If

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compared to natural gas systems, the payback period can be much longer or non-existent. The payback period for larger commercial systems in the US is 15 years, even when compared to natural gas. Additionally, because geothermal heat pumps usually have no outdoor compressors or cooling towers, the risk of vandalism is reduced or eliminated, potentially extending a system's lifespan.

Country

Payback period for replacing

Canada

13 years

3 years

6 years

US

12 years

5 years

4 years

Germany

net loss

8 years

2 years

Table 2. Payback period for installing a ground source heat pump in a detached residence.

Ground source heat pumps are recognized as one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems on the market. They are often the second-most cost effective solution in extreme climates, (after co- generation), despite reductions in thermal efficiency due to ground temperature. (The ground source is warmer in climates that need strong air conditioning, and cooler in climates that need strong heating.)

Pros and Cons of Geothermal Heat Pump System

Pros

Geothermal heat pumps are more efficient than conventional heat pumps Geothermal heat pumps are similar to conventional heat pumps, except they use heat from earth, rather than from the air. This is more energy efficient because the ground maintains a constant temperature just a few feet below the surface. Winter: the heat is moved from the earth into your house. Summer: geothermal pump pull the heat from your home and discharge it into the earth.

Geothermal heat pumps are efficient and cost effective Being energy efficient means less electricity costs and this, in turn, leads to savings. Additionally, this is around 70 percent cheaper than heating a home using electric heating, oil or liquefied petroleum gas.

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Geothermal heat pumps can heat household water Geothermal heat pumps can come with a desuperheater device that can circulate into the regular water heater tank. In the summer time, the heat that is taken from the house would be expelled into the loop and will heat the water for free.

In the winter, the desuperheater can reduce your water heating bills by half. Use your regular water

heater for your other household needs in the spring and fall, to provide hot water. Ground-source

heat pumps also maintain a comfortable humidity level inside the home because they don’t rely on outside air for combustion.

Geothermal heat pump small size and low maintenance

A big benefit of a geothermal heat pump is its compact size. Another advantage is its low

maintenance. No regular servicing or yearly checks are required.

Geothermal heat pump Environmental benefits

Obtaining energy from the earth and dispersing it using minimal electrical energy is an efficient use

of a clean, renewable energy. Reduces energy consumption and cuts down on greenhouse gases and

other pollutants created by the burning of fossil fuelsas well as with the processing and transporting of these fuels.

Cons

Geothermal heat pump prices

The initial geothermal heat pump cost is rather high. The marginal cost of systems in new construction is substantially less since the new home would require ductwork (a major component of the cost) whether the home was equipped with a geothermal or conventional system. As a result, payback periods are often under ten years.

Geothermal heat system needs a wide space

Wide space and long pipes are needed to lay the pipe system in trenches which means it is not ideal

for suburban neighborhoods which are densely populated. The pipes may prove difficult to repair as they’re underground.

Use of refrigerants

One of the disadvantages of this system is use of refrigerants. Refrigerants as well as the electricity

to power the heat pump are not totally eco-friendly.

Conclusion

All in all, geothermal technology is a cost effective, environmentally friendly method of providing heating and cooling. It is a clean and smart energy source right under our feet. Already widely

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accepted around the world, this technology continues to grow in popularity. It is clear that many factors impact the design of the most efficient and cost-effective geothermal system for any given application. Proper design requires the use of experienced professionals familiar with the application desired. Drillers can view the geothermal industry as an opportunity for growth and expansion if they become knowledgeable about this exciting field.

References

[1]. Egg, J. and Howard, B.C. (2011). Geothermal HVAC. (1st ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

[2]. Ewings, S.K. (2008). Geothermal Heat Pumps: Installation Guide . Retrieved. December 30,

2012.

[3]. Whitman, W. C. et al. (2009). Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology (6th ed.). USA:

Delmar International, Inc. [4]. Geothermal heat pumps. (2012, 06 24). Retrieved from http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/geothermal-heat-pumps [5]. Geothermal heat pump (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved December 30, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_heat_pump [6]. Eta geothermal: How it works. (n.d.). Retrieved December 30, 2012 from http://www.earthtoair.com/how-geothermal-heating-and-cooling-works.php [7]. Geothermal heating-pros and cons. (n.d.). Retrieved December 30, 2012 from http://howtobuildahouseblog.com/geothermal-heating-pros-and-cons/ [8]. Heat pumps. (n.d.). Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Retrieved from

[9]. Earth temperature and site geology. (n.d.). Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Retrieved from

[10]. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP). (n.d.). Retrieved December 30, 2012 from http://www.proenviro.com/UK/services/renewables/ground_source_heat_pumps_gshp.htm [11]. Manitoba Hydro’s Commercial Earth Power Program. (2010). Geothermal heat pumps. [Brochure]. [12]. Geothermal hvac systems an in depth overview. (2012). Retrieved December 30, 2012 from http://www.earthrivergeo.com/geothermal-hvac-loop-systems-information.php

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