Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34


1. Crude oil washing (COW) is washing out the residue from the tanks of an oil tanker using the crude oil cargo itself, after the cargo tanks have been emptied. Crude Oil is pumped back and preheated in the slop tanks, then sprayed back via high pressure nozzles in the cargo tanks on to the walls of the tank. Due to the sticky nature of the crude oil, the oil clings to the tank walls, and such oil adds to the cargo remaining on board (the ROB). By COWing the tanks, the amount of ROB is significantly reduced, and with the current high cost of oil, the financial savings are significant, both for the Charterers and the Shipowner. If the cargo ROB is deemed as liquid and pumpable then the Charterers can claim from the owner for any cargo loss for normally between 0.3% up to 0.5%. It replaced the load on top and seawater washing systems, both of which involved discharging oil-contaminated water into the sea. MARPOL 73/78 made this mandatory equipment for oil tankers of 20,000 tons or greater deadweight. 2.Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as NOx with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, N2, and water, H2O. A gaseous reductant, typically anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia or urea, is added to a stream of flue or exhaust gas and is absorbed onto a catalyst. Carbon dioxide, CO2 is a reaction product when urea is used as the reductant. Ammonia slip is an industry term for ammonia passing through the SCR un-reacted. This occurs when ammonia is: over injected into gas stream, temperatures are too low for ammonia to react, or catalyst has degraded catalyst eg. titanium oxide.

3. Remote detection of oil spills Ionics Agar Environmental has launched Leakwise WL, a new wireless oil sheen detector and oil build-up monitor which uses Orbcomm satellite communication and cellular networks to alert operators of oil leaks and spills. Designed for installation onshore near terminal storage tanks and pipelines and at sea close to tanker jetties and offshore tanker buoys, the Leakwise WL sensors can detect the presence of as little as 0.3 mm of oil on water and monitor its build-up. The floating sensors in Leakwise WL use the latest technology of high-frequency electromagnetic energy absorption and are unaffected by dirt or oil coating or by hanges in water level, salinity and temperature. This enables reliable operation with no false alarm and very low maintenance costs, according to the manufacturer. The Leakwise offshore detector is mounted on a stable wave-rider buoy and contains a solar panel with rechargeable battery, digital signal processor, transceiver for the bidirectional data link and antennae for satellite and cellular communications. 4. What all certificate to be carried according to annex 6? International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate. Our Administration DG Shipping has not yet ratified the same, therefore, for Indian Flag Vessels they issue Statement of Compliance (SOC). Also control of emissions from ship and certificate for Volatile Organic Compounds.

5. Harmonized survey or how certification of ship is harmonized - Harmonization of certification means all the surveys are normally carried out in one go within the window period. This will ease the Owners to complete all the surveys in dry dock or during lay up of the vessel. Also any recommendation arising during the surveys can be easily dealt with. Harmonization of certificate normally done during the renewal surveys (every five yearly) 6. Container capacity- how much load a container can carry cbm or 40 cbm 7. What is dewatering? Normally 20

Process to remove water droplets from air say scavenge air. This is normally achieved by many stages fine filtering. 8. How to weld 16mm plate with 8mm plate One side to be flushed with thick plate while other side of the thick plate to be shampered at 1:3 ratio to match with 8 mm plate. 9. What is the purpose of top side tanks in bulk carriers? Top side tanks are used only when ship is loaded with high density cargoes, like steel sheets, rolls etc,, in that case centre of gravity g moves too low to make extremely large GM, (stiff ship) which in turn can break ship in any bad weather, to raise G up the TST is filled with water, other design of bulk carriers are there in which top holds of smaller sizes in mid of two holds are there to load same cargo and thus adjusting GM. 10. Why governor spring is conical? In governor measured parameter is speed and measured by the flyweights. Flyweights sense the speed by centrifugal force, so C.F is mw2r (where w is angular velocity), so since the speed is measured in power of square, the correcting action should also be in power of square. In conical spring the stiffness also behaves in power of square pattern (stiffness= force/deflection, so when u apply a unit force, the deflection is in power of square). So the springs are conical. 11. What does 3/8 or means in thread nomenclature? 3/8 or means the nominal OD of the bolt. For Course threads the TPI will be 16 and for fine threads the TPI will be 20. Actually thats according to the American standards. Metric standards define it in eg. M10 * 1.5 where, 10 is the nominal diameter and 1.5 is the pitch. If Pitch is not mentioned, then we take it as that thread is belonging to the course group. 12. What happens when all the flywheel markings are somehow erased and how will you check the timings, tappets etc? The cam shaft will give a brief idea regarding position of the engine. There will be two units which will be in TDC so just rotate the push rod to see which one is there in the power stroke because the unit which will be in TDC, the push rods will be rotating freely and thus we can check the tappet of that engine. for

timing also we have to see the cam position and marking on the pump plunger but it is very difficult to know the value exactly when fuel injection is starting and stopping as there is no marking in the flywheel. 13. PIPE SCHEDULE Pipe Schedule is the term used to describe the thickness of a pipe. The outside diameter of a pipe is the same for all Schedules in a particular nominal pipe diameter. Standard pipe schedules or pipes sizes as given by ANSI / ASME B36.10M and API 5L. These schedule numbers bear a relation to the pressure rating of the piping. There are eleven Schedules ranging from the lowest at 5 through 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 to schedule No. 160. Regardless of schedule number, pipes of a particular size all have the same outside diameter (not withstanding manufacturing tolerances). As the schedule number increases, the wall thickness increases, and the actual bore is reduced. For example: A 100 mm Schedule 40 pipe has an outside diameter of 114.30 mm, a wall thickness of 6.02 mm, giving a bore of 102.26 mm. A 100 mm Schedule 80 pipe has an outside diameter of 114.30 mm, a wall thickness of 8.56 mm, giving a bore of 97.18 mm. The schedule number is defined as the approximate value of the expression: Schedule Number = (1,000)(P/S)Where,P = the internal working pressure, psigS = the allowable stress (psi) for the material of construction at the conditions of use. For example, the schedule number of ordinary steel pipe having an allowable stress of 10,000 psi for use at a working pressure of 350 psig would be: Schedule Number = (1,000)(350/10,000) = 35 (approx. 40) Method for Determining Schedule Measure the inside diameter and divide it by the wall thickness. (Inches) R= ID/Thickness Pipe Schedule R Schedule 30 40-50 Schedule 40 29-39 Schedule 60 25-29 Schedule 80 20-23 Schedule 100 16-18 Schedule 120 13-15 Schedule 140 11-13 Schedule 160 9-11 14. As per Marpol annex II what is water performance test? Procedure- fill cargo tank with water to a depth necessary to carry out normal end of unloading procedure. cargo tank pumped and stripped with associated piping in accordance with ships approved manual. Collect water remaining in cargo tank & piping in calibrated container for measurement. Residue should be collected from - cargo tank suction and its vicinity, any entrapped area in cargo tank bottom, low point drain of cargo pump, all low point drain in piping upto manifold valve. Total quantity collected above determines stripping quantity for cargo tank. If more than one tank is using pump and piping then all drained and distributed amongst the tank if mentioned in approved manual. Condition of testing- trim (minimum) by stern and list <1 to facilitate proper drainage at suction point. and during test back pressure maintained at minimum 1 bar at cargo tank unloading manifold. 15. What does 15W40 denote? Here 40 is SAE number. SAE number like SAE 10, SAE 20 corresponds to that having kinematic viscousity at 100C. Likewise W denotes the winter grade for cold start. Thus SAE 15W40 denotes that the lube oil of this grade has kinematic viscousity of 40 cst at 100C and its winter grade is 15W ie, the cranking and pump ability of this lube oil grade has passed tests of 20W and 15W but failed test of 10W at below zero temperatures. 16. MOB marker?

The Lifebuoys come in two sizes to cover all SOLAS requirements. One weighing 2.5 kg, the standard, and one weighing 4.5 kg to comply with SOLAS-74 Chapter III, Reg. 31.1.7 which states that to operate the quick release arrangement for self-activated smoke or light, the lifebuoy should weigh min. 4 kg. (Bridge wing: Smoke and light). day and night signal attached to Lifebuoy and used in emergency to mark position of man overboard provides 15 minutes of dense orange smoke far exceeds SOLAS requirements of 2 hours at 2 candela for light output and duration safe to use on petrol or oil covered water lithium battery sealed for life - no annual replacement automatic or manual deployment universal stainless steel mounting bracket tested to survive a 60m drop into water (SOLAS 30m) ideal for use on ships or rigs with high freeboard 360 degrees all-around signal light.

17. What is squatting effect? The squat effect is the hydrodynamic phenomenon by which a vessel moving quickly through shallow water creates an area of lowered pressure under its bottom that causes the ship to squat lower in the water than would otherwise be expected. This is due to a reduction in buoyancy caused by a downward hydrodynamic force created by flow-induced pressures. It is caused by similar forces as lift in aircraft, except that the low pressure area is beneath the hull. It can lead to unexpected groundings and handling difficulties. This phenomenon is caused by hydrodynamic effects between the hull of the ship and the sea floor. Squat effect is approximately proportional to the square of the speed of the ship. Thus, by reducing speed by half, the squat effect is reduced by a factor of four. Squat effect is usually felt more when the depth/draft ratio is less than four or when sailing close to a bank. The phenomenon is caused when water that should normally flow under the hull encounters resistance due to the close proximity of the hull to the seabed. This causes the water to move faster, especially under the bow of the ship, creating a low-pressure area. This counteracts the force of buoyancy, causing the vessel to dip towards the bow. The reduced pressure on the bottom of the boat sucks the boat

slightly downward until the increased displacement counteracts the force generated by the reduced pressure. 18. Hypermist systems? New IMO Requirements The IMO requires all ships constructed on and after July 1, 2002 to install water-based local fire extinguishing systems in machinery spaces accommodating machinery with a particularly high risk of fire (main engine, D/G engine, boiler, incinerator, F.O. purifier and I.G.G.) with the aim of extinguishing or suppressing fires in their early stages. This new rule was established in recognition of the importance of exitnguishing or suppressing fires while they were still small, after analyzing many on-board fire incidents from all over the world. This idea arose in response to situations in which prompt operation was difficult with previous systems (especially CO2 fire extinguishing systems), because the crews safety had to be confirmed before discharging the extinguishant, which enabled fires to expand. The HYPER MIST employs specially developed nozzles operating at high pressure (approx. 5MPa) to generate super fine particles of mist ranging from 30 to 80 microns in diameter. When sprayed on a fire, the mist offers compound effects: it absorbs radiant heat from the fire, creates a shield, reduces the temperature of the fire area by evaporating upon contact with the flame and depletes the oxygen, thereby extinguishing or suppressing the fire. Maintenance includes blowing through lines with air, operation of pump and proper solenoid operation. 19. Under which clause in ISM Safety Management System is there? (Part A: clause 1.4, part A is IMPLEMENTATION and part B is certification and verification) 20. What materials are used in LPG tanks construction? INVAR: 36% nickel steel with 64% iron or 9% nickel steel for higher temperature. 21. Actions to be taken during boiler uptake fire? Boiler uptake fire is because of wet soot deposited during low steaming and also during uptake fire do not carry out soot blow reduce the load and stop the engine , cover the m/e t/c with the canvas so that no air is supplied. 22. How much is Needle vv lift? Generally 1mm maximum for 320 bar lifting pressure. 23. Boiler corrosion how it happens and how to prevent? The most common causes of corrosion are dissolved gases (primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide), under-deposit attack, low pH, and attack of areas weakened by mechanical stress, leading to stress and fatigue cracking and pitting corrosion: scales such as calcium and magnesium salts.Many corrosion problems occur in the hottest areas of the boiler-the water wall, screen, and superheater tubes. Other common problem areas include deaerators, feedwater heaters, and economizers. Prevention:

maintenance of proper pH and alkalinity levels between 8.5 and 9.5 control of oxygen and boiler feedwater contamination (less than 7 ppb oxygen for a 900 psig boiler) reduction of mechanical stresses operation within design specifications, especially for temperature and pressure proper precautions during start-up and shutdown effective monitoring and control 24. Accumulation of pressure test in boiler? Classification Societies require that that when initially fitted to boilers safety valves must be subjected to an accumulation of pressure test to ensure the valves are of the correct discharge capacity for the boiler. To conduct such a test, all feed inlets and steam outlets to and from the boiler must be closed and maximum firing load achieved. Accumulation of pressure must then not exceed 10% of working pressure. Duration of test is not to exceed 15 minutes for cylindrical boilers and 7 minutes for water tube boilers. 25. How to reduce maintenance in exhaust valve? Good quality fuel usage, VIT adjustment, avoid running engine on low load, check fuel injection system, good scavenging, maintaining cooling water temp, check rotation of exhaust v/v. 26. Refrigeration gases how its classified according to environment hazard? Ozone depletion potential- max R11, for R22 is 0.05 and global warming potential- max is R11.and R22 is 0.365 27. How induction motor works? An induction motor or asynchronous motor is a type of alternating current motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. An electric motor turns because of magnetic force exerted between a stationary electromagnet called the stator and a rotating electromagnet called the rotor. In an induction motor, the current is induced in the rotor without contacts by the magnetic field of the stator, through electromagnetic induction. The current in the primary side creates an electromagnetic field which interacts with the electromagnetic field of the secondary side to produce a resultant torque, thereby transforming the electrical energy into mechanical energy. The induction motor does not have any permanent magnets on the rotor; instead, a current is induced in the rotor. The stator windings are arranged around the rotor so that when energized with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the rotor conductors. When current flows through a conductor a magnetic field is produced around the conductor. This current interacts with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and in effect causes a rotational motion on the rotor. 28. Contactors maintenance on starter what is the material of contactor? Check for loose, missing, broken contactors Cleaning and checking contact surfaces for improper wear or discoloration

Remove oxides from faces using fine files Main contacts are high conductivity copper because they will not heat up due to lower resistance and arcing contacts are made of sintered silver tungsten or other materials which dont weld at high temperatures. 29. How signal is carried to ECR from rpm indicator? Magnetic pick up sends signal to transducer. An output coming from a transducer is filtered, signal conditioned and chopped. Finally it is converted into square waves. The square wave is passed through Phase Lock Loop multipliers. This output is gated by a precise time base generated through piezo crystals and then counted. These counts are displayed on bright LED's. It's nothing but R.P.M. with accuracy of 1 RPM. 30. Crane jib is cracked how u r going to weld? Arrest crack by drilling holes at both ends and weld supporting plate at the back and then carry out welding on the crack. 31. Junior engineer boxed back the purifier after cleaning then its found vibrating probable causes? bowl may not be cleaned properly, lock ring not tightening properly, bowled assembled with wrong parts, gear can be in damaged condition, bowl springs not fitted correctly, top bearing springs damaged, discs not properly assembled or tightened, some external tool left inside 32. Insulation of motor is found to be 0.5 mega ohms what we can do to bring back the insulation? Disconnect motor Clean windings Dry the motor by heating lamp Check visually for any wires broken Put fast drying varnish Test insulation 33. Procedure for CWT test? 1. Fill the sample cup to the 25 ml mark with sample. 2. Slide the open end of the valve assembly over the tapered tip of the Titret1 so that it fits snugly to the reference line. 3. Snap the tip of the Titret at the

score mark. 4. Lift the control bar and insert the Titret assembly into the body of the Titrettor2. 5. With the tip of the valve assembly immersed in the sample, press the control bar firmly, but briefly, to pull in a small amount of sample. The contents will turn a green color. CAUTION: Do not press the control bar unless the tip of the valve assembly is immersed below the surface of the liquid. 6. Press the control bar again briefly to allow another small amount of sample to be drawn into the ampoule. 7. After each addition, rock the entire assembly to mix the contents of the ampoule. Watch for a color change FROM GREEN TO BRIGHT ORANGE. NOTE: Immediately before the contents turn bright orange, they will briefly turn blue. Make further additions with care. 8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until a permanent color change occurs. 9. When the color of the liquid in the ampoule changes to BRIGHT ORANGE, remove the ampoule from the Titrettor. Hold the ampoule in a vertical position and carefully read the test result on the scale opposite the liquid level. See the following chart to obtain results in ppm product. Satisfactory Ranges Scale Product Scale ppm product LIQUIDEWT 1.2-1.8 3 10,0000 -15000 ^ MAXIGARD1 1.6-3.0 19,000-36,000 ' DEWT NC .5-5.0 3,000-4,300 Titrate ampule: >85% Delonized Water, <10% Sulfuric acid, 5 % Ceric sulfate Valve assembly : >95% Diethylene Glycol, <1.5 % 1.10-Phenanthroline, <1.5% Delonized water Alternate method: Take a 5 ml sample of cooling water and dilute it with 45ml of distlled water and add 2 drops of potasium cromate indicator and titrate with suphate based reagent to obtain a colour change. 34. What is a scavenge limiter? The "scavenge air fuel limiter" is an integral part of an electronic governor and it limits the fuel according to the pressure measured on the scavenging air receiver by a transducer. The limiter curve is set according to engine makers specification. During starting when the scavenge air pressure is low it limits fuel. 35. What is singing of propeller? If tip clearance is increased, then the aft end vibration starts and noise comes due to large distance between stern and propeller tip. This is known as singing of propeller. 36. What is injection delay? In jerk type pump when spill port or spill valve and suction port or suction valve both get closed, at that time injection should start practically, but due to inertia of fluid and other moving parts of injector, injection does not start immediately, although oil is considered incompressible but it gets compressed slightly, and at the same time the high press pipe gets an expansion all way and after that injection starts. This potential energy gets released during termination of injection. 37. What is proportional control and offset control? In proportional control the output of controller is proportional to the deviation hence for output to occur a deviation has to be there ie, an offset has to be there in proportional control. While in integral control the rate of change of output of controller is proportional to the deviation so it is able to

minimize the offset. 38. What is Skin effect? Skin effect is the tendency of ac current to distribute itself within a conductor with the current densities being largest near the surface. It causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller thus reducing effective cross section of the conductor. 39. What is a Diesel Switch? Changeover from preheated HFO to cold MDO/ MGO and vice versa represents a risk of fuel pump sticking or seizure due to the very small clearances in the fuel pump. The Diesel Switch is able to do the changeover in a controlled way so that rapid temperature deviations are avoided. This tendency is likely to spread and will, for instance, be introduced in European harbours from 1 January, 2010. This means more frequent changeovers. As we find that the changeover between HFO and distillate fuels can give problems for the fuel equipment, the process will need a high degree of automation to avoid incidents. MAN Diesel now offers the Diesel Switch, which ensures the necessary the flexibility and safety when changing between HFO and MDO/MGO. The principle of the Diesel Switch- Today MAN Diesel recommends to reduce the load to 25-40% to control the changeover. The Diesel Switch ensures a controlled and safe changeover independent of the engine load. The Diesel Switch operates on a combination of the temperature at the engine and the time. If the fuel temperature at the engine inlet exceeds 2 degrees/minute the Diesel Switch will give an alarm and put the process on hold. The process will be logged in the Diesel Switch so that it can be used as documentation to port authorities after the changeover. The Diesel Switch offers: Touch screen control panel Control handle for the changeover Safety Data logging Changeover valve Magnetic coupling Integrated sensor for actual position Integrated sensors for end positions Integrated connection box Manual override

Controlling an MGO cooler or chiller Data logging of temperatures and pressures Remote operation with second touch screen 40. How aluminum is welded? TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, also called a GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), is the best method of welding aluminum. Spray the aluminum with acetone Rinse the aluminum in water, just in case theres any nasty residue. The aluminum should be completely dry before welding. Use a stainless steel brush to scrub the aluminum shiny clean around the area to be welded in one direction Clamp your work to a heat sink made of copper or aluminum Preheat before welding upto 275 deg to 500 deg but optimum temp. is 350 deg. If the tungsten gets contaminated, stop welding and fix it. When the tungsten gets touches the weld pool or the filler, the arc becomes unstable and the weld quality goes way down. The best method for fixing this is to remove the tungsten, lay it on a flat surface with the contaminated part hanging over the edge, hit the contaminated part of the tungsten (it will snap right off), reinstall the tungsten, change the polarity to DCEP (direct current electrode positive), strike an arc on some scrap metal to re-ball the tungsten, switch back to AC high, and you're ready to weld again. Fit the parts together as tightly as possible leaving no gaps. The tighter the pieces are pressed together and the fewer the gaps, the easier the welding is. Use one amp per .001" of material thickness. Set the amperage a higher than the maximum you expect to use and use the foot pedal to back it down. Use pure tungsten for aluminum. Use a 1/16" pure tungsten for 30 to 80 amps Use a 3/32" pure tungsten for 60 to 130 amps Use a 1/8" pure tungsten for 100 to 180 amp Use 15 to 20 CFH Argon flow. Use a filler rod size equal to the tungsten size. Adjust the tungsten to project from the hood a distance roughly equal to the diameter of the tungsten. The arc length should be roughly equal to the diameter of the tungsten. 41. Why during rudder test we are doing 35 degree and 30 degree and why not both 35 degree? When rudder is on starboard 35 and then order is given to port 30 or 35, the variable discharge pump gets huge error signal gives maximum pumping rate but when it reaches 30 in port the error signal remains very less and it is much lesser than the error between 0 degree and 5 degree because when at 0 the error is maximum because floating lever link is at 90 to the radius. Again as the error between 30 and 35 is less, the pumping rate also becomes very less and at higher angles the travel of ram is more for each deg movement as compared to mid position. Moreover the feedback system on the steering gear gradually reduces the speed of the gear with in the last 5 degrees of the gears full rotation. If we put to 35 then the hunting gear will start to reduce the pump stroke and achieving this in a time frame of 28sec will not be possible. So the test is done from 35 to 30. 42. Why engine room valve lift is D/4? Assume that valve is like cylinder and on the top is covered so minimum lift you will get from equating the cylinder area and circumference of the cylinder. Area of cylinder is D2/4 and circumference of cylinder is DH. By equating both the equations you will get D/4. That is why valve lift is D/4 to allow uninterrupted flow when the valve is fully open. 43. What is chock fastening? At the time of engine installation, the engine is alligned and hot resin bonds are poured in the mould to take the shape and solidify. This is chock fastening. 44. What

is proximity effect? The proximity effect increases the effective resistance and is associated with the magnetic fields of two conductors which are close together. If each carries a current in the same direction, the halves of the conductors in close proximity are cut by more magnetic flux than the remote halves. Consequently the current distribution is not even throughout the cross-section, a greater proportion being carried by the remote halves. If the currents are in opposite directions, the halves in close proximity will carry the greater density of current. 45. Charging hose for refrigerant gas thread. User instructions and a set of hoses Hoses in set: 3 x 120cm 1/4" flare hoses (yellow, red, blue) Standard hose connection is 1/4" SAE with core depressor (Schrader) on system side and 1/4" SAE against the manifold 1 x 90cm 3/8" SAE flare hose (yellow) Features Optical sight glass allows visual indication of refrigerant as it flows through manifold. Piston-type valve network keeps 'O' rings from rotating and eventually leaking. Easy to use colour-coded valves and hoses. Hoses fitted with long lasting quick snap Teflon gaskets. Hoses has 1/4" Schrader connection in one end R410A manifold hoses is supplied with 1/2" 20UNF Schrader connection to fit R410A system service valves Hanging hook and holes for fixed mounting. The manifold has a built-in Schrader valve that enable easy hook-up to a vacuum gauge. Blind connections to hook up hoses, prevent moisture ingress. 80mm glycerine-filled gauges (60mm on R410A manifold). Easy to read and eliminates any vibration while compressor is running. Easy hook-up to vacuum pump gives finger-tip control and eliminates moisture ingress. Supplied in a carrying case complete with user instruction and set of hoses (yellow, red, blue) 46. What is setting for safety valves? One safety v/v is to be set at 3% of working pressure and other v/v slightly more (0.5bar) and superheater safety v/v at lesser pressure (sup v/v= blr v/v 0.35bar pr drop across superheater) 47. Differences between MC/MC-C and ME/ME-C engines The electrohydraulic control mechanisms of the ME engine replace the following components of the conventional MC engine: Chain drive for camshaft Camshaft with fuel cams, exhaust cams and indicator cams Fuel pump actuating gear, including roller guides and reversing mechanism Conventional fuel pressure booster and VIT system Exhaust valve actuating gear and roller guides Engine driven starting air distributor Electronic governor with actuator Regulating shaft Engine side control console Mechanical cylinder lubricators. The Engine Control System of the ME engine comprises: Control units Hydraulic power supply unit Hydraulic cylinder units, including: Electronically controlled fuel injection, and Electronically controlled exhaust valve activation Electronically controlled starting air valves Electronically controlled auxiliary blowers Integrated electronic governor functions Tacho system Electronically controlled Alpha lubricators 48. CRANK CASE INSPECTION (20 points) 1. Firstly check the oil condition for any smell,discolouration or degradation. 2. Turn the Engine to BDC & start checking from under stuffing box area for any signs of black oil, if so indication of stuffing box leaking. 3. Check piston rod surface for scoring marks & roughness. 4. Check Piston palm bolts & locking device for slackness & fretting. 5. Check guide & guide shoe bearing general condition & area around frame where guide is attached for any visible cracks. 6.

Check guide shoe end cover bolts in place & not slack. 7. Check cross head general bearing condition. 8. Top & Bottom end of the con rod bolt, nut & locking devices for slackness, sign of fretting etc. 9. Check sliding of bottom end bearing (floating of con rod). 10. Check for slip of web & journal by checking the reference mark. 11. Check the web in the area of stress concentration & check tie bolts (bottom side). 12. Check cross girder, area around main bearing & bearing keep for signs of cracks & check the main bearing. 13. All bearings to be checked for silvery colour, (indicates bearing wiping) 14. Check all the surrounding oil pan area of all units for any sludge deposits, bearing metal pieces etc. 15. Check crankcase relief door (wire mesh should be wet, spring tension sealing condition etc.) 16. Check the teeth of transmission gears for signs of wear. 17. Check chain drive for tightness. 18. Oil mist detector sampling pipe to be checked for clear passage. 19. Clear all foreign materials from the C.C. & tools accounted for. 20. Start L.O.p/p & X-Hd p/p & check oil flow & distribution. 21Check C.C.door sealing condition & close the door. 49. Dry Dock Chain Inspection Anchor & Anchor Chain Cable Anchors and anchor chain cable if ranged should normally first be examined as follows: Anchor heads, flukes and shanks should be surface examined for cracks. If any such defects are found they may be weld able, otherwise renewal will probably be necessary. In such cases welding may be attempted as a temporary measure pending availability of the new equipment, which may take 3 to 6 months. Anchor head crown pins and anchor shackle pins should be hammer-tested, hardened-up if slack, or renewed if excessively worn or bent .Swivels if fitted, should be closely examined so far as possible in way of the threaded connection, as many have been lost in service due to concealed wastage in this area. If in doubt the swivel should be recommended to be removed. Consideration should be given to simply eliminating any questionable swivels, they are normally not essential. Patented type detachable connecting links should be opened out and slack or corroded taper locking pins renewed their holes re-reamed and new lead keeper plugs peened in."U" type connecting shackles should be examined for excessive neck wear, slackness in the pins and for shearing of keeper pins. The pin must be a snug fit all around in these shackles, otherwise the keeper pin may shear when a strain is put on the chain. Anchor chain cable should be surface examined, hammer-tested and loose or missing studs replaced by welding at one end of the stud only, at the end of the stud opposite the link butt weld. The rest of the chain cable should be further examined for excessive wear and gauged if necessary to ensure continued compliance with the Rules. Verify that the number of shots of anchor chain as fitted port and starboard, equal the total length required by the Classification Rule Equipment Numeral. 50. Bunker delivery notes It is a requirement of Regulation 18 that any fuel oil for combustion purposes delivered to and used onboard shall be recorded by means of a Bunker Delivery Note (BDN). This implies that a bunker delivery note shall be presented for every barge delivery and every grade. Bunker Delivery Notes are required to contain all specific information as follows: -Name and IMO number of receiving ship -Bunkering Port -Date of commencement of bunkering -Name, address, and telephone number of marine fuel oil supplier -Product name -Quantity (metric tons) -Density at 15 oC (kg/m3) -Sulphur content (% m/m) -A declaration signed and certified by the fuel oil supplier's representative that the fuel oil supplied is in conformity with regulation 14 and 18 (I.e. that the fuel supplied has a sulphur level below 4.5% and that the fuel is free from inorganic acid, does not include any added substance or

chemical waste which either jeopardises the safety of ships, adversely affects the performance of the machinery, is harmful to personnel, or contributes overall to additional air pollution). Further, Resolution MEPC.96(47) recommends that the seal number of the associated MARPOL Annex VI fuel sample is included in the BDNs for cross-reference purposes. The BDNs are to be kept on board and readily available for inspection at all times. It shall be retained for a period of three years after the fuel oil has been delivered on board. 51. Final Inspection before Undocking :- Check paintwork is completed. Hull repair is completed. All Tank plugs are in place. All Anodes are fitted, grease/paper used to cover them during painting is removed. Echo Sounder Transducer is cleaned of paper & grease. Propeller rope guard is fitted properly in place. Oil is not leaking from stern tube. Propeller is free from paint & free from any other object. Check freedom of movement of rudder with steering gear, smooth movement. Jumping & Pintle clearances taken. Rudder plugs are in place. Sea Grids are in place & secured properly. Ensure all sea v/v's are shut. Ensure all tanks are at same level as when entry ~ to maintain same trim when re-floating. 52. What is lantern ring? Where it is located? Lantern ring are the split rings. They are provided in centrifugal pump between the packing ring so as to direct the clean fluid between gland packing and seal and lubricate the gland. 53. Why do we use compound gauge for refer system? Compound gauge is to see the system is not going into vacuum anyway. If goes to vacuum then any leak in system will take air in and that is not good for the system in any condition. Bringing suction pressure below one bar gauge is itself not good. To prevent this we have low press cut out too to prevent it from vacuum. 54. Catalytic Fines Origin: By-product from the catalytic cracking process in the refinery Catalyst consists of complex crystalline particles containing aluminum silicate Catalyst fines result from catalyst particles breaking into smaller particles Catalyst is expensive, i.e. refiners minimize loss but not 100% Effects * Severe wear of Liners * Severe wear of Rings * Wear out of Cylinder-grooves * Scuffing of liner * Abrasive Wear of Spindle-Guide & cut-off shaft & nozzles * Scuffing of Fuel Pump spindle guide Specification Variable in size ranging from sub microic to about 30 microns even seen larger Frequently considered spherical but this is not necessarily the case Hard particles Hardness not directly related to relative hardness of Al or Si Can cause abrasive wear ISO 8217 specifies the catalyst fines by Al and Si ISO 8217 limit is 80 mg/kg Al+Si for marine residual fuels Reduction: Gravitational settling Centrifuge (Note: Homogenizers will not reduce the amount of catalyst fines but might instead break them into even smaller particles) Overhaul and maintenance intervals must be kept according to manufacturers recommendation Temperature control very important

The higher the temperature the better the separation efficiency. Both density and viscosity of the oil decrease when the temperature rises, thereby increasing the settling velocity (Stokes law) (If the

separation temperature is lowered from 98C to90C the separator throughput has to be reduced by25-30% to maintain the same separation efficiency.) 55. After you have detected air ingress in a refrigeration system how do you purge it out? Collect all the gas in the receiver and let it cool and note the temp of the receiver, then check the pressure of the receiver and the corresponding temp on the gauge. Then purge the receiver till both the temp are equal. Every refrigerant will have a saturation pressure corresponding to a particular temp. Air ingress in the system will show a higher pressure on the gauge. Purging has to be carried out till it both the pressures are same on the gauge. As per regulation never purge the air and gas in open atmosphere, always collect it into gas recovery cylinder. 56. How to remove thrust pads? Remove the spray pipes, take out the nuts holding the stopper and remove the stoppers on both side, then remove each shoe, (generally there are eight) by sliding them around the holding panel. The shoe pads have a tilt and are to be mounted taking care of it. Before removal of pads, it is important to take out the temperature sensors, which are located on engine entablature, just forward side of the fly wheel. There are two sensors fitted, one in working condition, and other one remains on standby. 57. ME-GI injection system: Dual fuel operation requires the injection of both pilot fuel and gas fuel into the combustion chamber. Different types of valves are used for this purpose. Two are fitted for gas injection and two for pilot fuel. The auxiliary medium required for both fuel and gas operation is as follows: High-pressure gas supply. Fuel oil supply (pilot oil). Control oil supply for actuation of gas injection valves. Sealing oil supply. The gas injection valve design complies with traditional design principles of the compact design. Gas is admitted to the gas injection valve through bores in the cylinder cover. To prevent a gas leakage between the cylinder cover/gas injection valve and the valve housing/ spindle guide, sealing rings made of temperature and gas resistant material have been installed. Any gas leakage through the gas sealing rings will be led through bores in the gas injection valve to the space between the inner and the outer shield pipe of the double-wall gas piping system. This leakage will be detected by HC sensors. The gas acts continuously on the valve spindle at a max. pressure of about250 bar. To prevent gas from entering the control oil actuation system via the clearance around the spindle, the spindle is sealed by sealing oil at a pressure higher than the gas pressure (25-50 bar higher). The pilot oil valve is a standard ME fuel oil valve without any changes, except for the nozzle. The fuel oil pressure is constantly monitored by the GI safety system in order to detect any malfunctioning of the valve. The oil valve design allows operation solely on fuel oil up to MCR. The gas engine can be run on fuel oil at 100% load at any time, without stopping the engine. For prolonged operation on fuel oil, it is recommended to change the nozzles and gain an increase in efficiency of around 1% when running at full engine load. As can be seen in Fig. 5 (GI injection system), the ME-GI injection system consists of two fuel oil valves, two

fuel gas valves, ELGI for opening and closing of the fuel gas valves and a FIVA (fuel injection valve actuator) valve to control - via the fuel oil valve the injected fuel oil profile. Furthermore, it consists of the conventional fuel oil pressure booster, which supplies pilot oil in the dual fuel operation mode. The fuel oil pressure booster is equipped with a pressure sensor to measure the pilot oil on the high pressure side. As mentioned earlier, this sensor monitors the functioning of the fuel oil valve. If any deviation from a normal injection is found, the GI safety system will not allow opening for the control oil via the ELGI valve. In this event no gas injection will take place. 58. Persistent oils Generally, persistent oils do not dissipate quickly and will therefore pose potential threats to natural resources when released to the environment. Such threats have been evident in the past in terms of impacts to wildlife, smothering of habitats and oiling of amenity beaches. Cleanup techniques in response to persistent oils depend on the nature of the oil and the environment in which the oil has been spilled and include for example, the use of booms and skimmers for containment and recovery, the application of dispersants and manual cleanup of foreshores and coastlines. Non-persistent oils In contrast, when released to the environment, non-persistent oils will dissipate rapidly through evaporation. In light of this, spills of these oils rarely require a response but when they do, cleanup methods tend to be limited. Impacts from non-persistent oils may include, for example, effects on paint coatings in marinas and harbours and at high concentrations, acute toxicity to marine organisms 59. How anchor load testing is done? BOAT ANCHOR TEST #1 Anchor Setting and Breakout Test

Test was started with an anchor on the bottom at 5:1 scope. From idle speed, power is slowly increased to high RPM to enable anchor to set. RPM was increased to 2000 and held continuously (force 9,000lbs) for 30 seconds. Once the anchor was set, the same exercise was done at 90, 135 and 170 direction. To pass the Test #1, the boat anchor must HOLD and not drag or break out from any direction. During the tests, the anchor must rotate below the bottom surface, without pulling out and HOLD at the high RPM force 9,000lbs/4 ton. After rotation is completed, the boat must be stopped in less then 3/1M. BOAT ANCHOR TEST #2 Anchor Breakout Test Sudden Impact Test When the anchor is set, the boat will relocate above the anchor. With a slack rode (length for 5:1 and 3:1 scope), the boat is given full throttle (maximum RPM) so that the anchor would be hit by the sudden and enormous force of the boats mass/speed, simulating hurricane force wind conditions. The sudden impact test is done at 0 (the previously set direction), and at 90, 135 and 170 to the original set. To pass the Test #2, the anchor must HOLD and not drag or break out from 0 up to 135. The anchor must rotate quickly below the bottom surface, without pulling out. The vessel must be stopped in less then 3/1M. (30,000lbs/400HP/12mph). Under maximum RPM and sudden impact force, on 0 orientation, the rode should break (standard recommended nylon sized for the anchor weight for 25 lbs/12kg anchor 5/8/16mm nylon rope breaking strength 11,000lbs). The anchor should not be damaged in any way. BOAT ANCHOR TEST #3 Panic Test - Anchor Setting Under Motion - Boat Speed 3 mph @ 5:1 and 3:1

Scope This test simulates a panic situation where the vessel is in motion due to high wind. At 3MPH anchor is dropped in the sand bottom at 5:1 and 3:1 scope. To pass test #3, the anchor must set and HOLD a 5:1 scope. Once set, it must pass tests #1, 2 & 3. BOAT ANCHOR TEST #4 - 360 Maximum Load Test-5:1 and 3:1 Scope. Once the anchor is set, vessel makes full 360 circle around the anchor, under constant load (maximum RPM), at 5:1, 3:1 and 2:1 scope. To pass test #4, the anchor must HOLD at lease 5:1 and 3:1 scope. 60. How to remove broken tie rod? Take out upper part as with clamp provided by maker wd clinging bolts after loosening top nut then see wd withdrawn piece how deep is breaking part...then there cut a window in tie rod casing put a rod down from top weld it loose the bottom nut and take out..later on grind burn metal take a template and close the window in casing 61. What is the difference between static and dynamic oily water separator? Dynamic separator is like centrifuge and is not used as oily water separator. Static OWS is used as we have to separate large quantity of water from small quantity of oil using heating coil and coalescence of oil. Dynamic type OWS is hardly used however one example of it is Alfa Lavals pure bilge. 62. What is BCH? BCH is bulk chemical code or code for the construction and equipment of the ship carrying dangerous chemical in bulk, applicable to the ships build before July 1986. 63. What is blowdown ring in boiler? Blowdown rings are fitted in consolidated type safety valves and crossby safety valves only. It is a ring which is fitted to the valve seat, and this can be rotated to change the height. Now the inner surface of the valve has an angular cut. This ring serves two purposes. Firstly it gives the valve rapid and more lift and secondly, when the valve is sitting back, it cushions its seating preventing damage to the valve and seat. 64. How radio isotope or ultrasonic is used to measure the level of co2 bottles and how to check zero errors? A nuclear level measurement system basically includes following components: 1. A source of gamma radiations( cobalt 60 isotope) 2. A continuous detector and 3. A microprocessor Source emits gamma radiations. These radiation passes through the vessel walls and material gets accumulated towards the detector. The detector is installed on the other side of the vessel. In case, the vessel contains no contents, the transmitted gamma rays arrive at the detector. As soon as the level of the contents increases in the vessel, there is a decrease in the amount of gamma rays getting to the detector. Thus, this gamma energy drops in an inverse proportion to the process level. A computer processes the detector signal and transmits the process variable as 4-20 mA. This output will show the level inside the

vessel. 65. Difference between Product carrier & Crude Oil Tanker? A. Crude Oil tanker: COW must be there, only one grade of fuel is to be carried B. Product Carrier: Carriage of refined petroleum products, special coatings for tanks, Tankers above 20000 DWT must have COW, lesser ones may not. IG not required below 20000 tonnes (If COW is present IG is mandatory). 66. Steering Gear Safeties? A. Alarms: Overload, Hydraulic Tank Low level, Power Failure Alarm, Relief v/v, Bypass v/v, Auto Change over 35 deg : Telemotor limit switch 36 deg : Telemotor Stopper 36.2 deg : Rudder Angle Limit switch 37 deg : Rudder Stop 39 deg : Mechanical Stoppers 67. What is sledge hammer, material, where it is used? Sledge hammer is made up of high carbon heat treated steel and used for heavy duty purpose. 68. What is metal lock? METALOCK is the process of making cold repairs in cracked, broken or weakened machine parts or pressure vessels of cast or forged metals. METALOCK is a custom formed lock or key made of special alloys. The size and number of METALOCKS vary with conditions and the amount of strength to be restored to the fractured metal. Slots are cut transverse to the fracture and METALOCKS are inlaid by cold working into the parent metal. Thus, the locks hold cracked or broken pieces together and restore strength to fractured sections. Various steps for carrying out repair are as under. The fracture is positioned, realigned and firmly held together by special fixtures and clamps. Jigs are used to drill groups of holes across the line of fracture to the depth of the casting and the holes are joined to form shape of Metalock Key. Individual layers of Keys are inserted in the apertures and peened into a metal to metal condition, which becomes almost integral with the parent metal of the component under repair. Holes are then drilled along the line of the fracture, tapped and filled with studs. Each stud is fitted biting into its predecessor resulting in a pressure tight joint. This is the main part of the process in which the crack is replaces by the stitching studs. The surface is then peened and excess material is removed. 69. What is metal lace? METALACE designates the method of sealing cracks against leakage. Holes are drilled and tapped and METALOY * studs or dowels are inserted tangent to each other along the line of fracture. The studs are cold worked to ensure tightness and complete filling of the crack with new metal. METALACE is used in conjunction with METALOCKS to accomplish a pressure tight joint and to lend rigidity to all METALOCK repairs. 70. Welding of Cast Iron? Gray cast iron can usually be welded without loss of essential properties. For fusion welding, preheating

of the casting is absolutely essential. Since a higher level of preheat is required for oxy-acetylene welding then for arc welding, arc welding is likely to be chosen where fusion welding is essential (as it is whenever good color match is desired). For many repair jobs, however, oxy-acetylene braze welding is the ideal method. Much less preheating is required; in many cases, preheating can be done with the torch. If the work is properly done, the braze-welded joint will have a strength equal to that of the base metal, and excellent machinability. Welding of gray iron castings which have chilled white iron surfaces is seldom attempted, since the desirable properties of white iron will always be affected by welding temperatures. Welding of white iron generally is limited to malleable iron foundries, where castings may be reclaimed by welding before conversion to malleable iron takes place. 71. Importance of drill bit point angle and lip angle? The point angle, or the angle formed at the tip of the bit, is determined by the material the bit will be operating in. Harder materials require a larger point angle, and softer materials require a sharper angle. The correct point angle for the hardness of the material controls wandering, chatter, hole shape, wear rate, and other characteristics. The lip angle determines the amount of support provided to the cutting edge. A greater lip angle will cause the bit to cut more aggressively under the same amount of point pressure as a bit with a smaller lip angle. Both conditions can cause binding, wear, and eventual catastrophic failure of the tool. The proper amount of lip clearance is determined by the point angle. A very acute point angle has more web surface area presented to the work at any one time, requiring an aggressive lip angle, where a flat bit is extremely sensitive to small changes in lip angle due to the small surface area supporting the cutting edges.

72. Why ME foundation bolts have long sleeve? Long sleeve bolts have high resilience. Also they have higher value of elastic strain when in tension. Owing to the length bending moment is reduced in the bolt because radius of curvature of the bolt will be much larger when bend.

73. ME main bearing removal? Top Main bearing clearance: max- 0.58mm, min- 0.40mm. The procedure for opening of the main bearing is as follows: 1) Inform company and take permission. 2) Take immobilization certificate from port state Authority stating that the main engine will not be available for a particular period of time. 3) Read the manual and have a toll box meeting with everyone involved in the job. Discuss the procedure. 4) Prepare important tools and spares to be used in operation. 5) Prepare risk assessment with the personnel involved in operation. 6) Shut starting air valve for main engine. 7) Open indicator cocks of all the units.

8) Engage turning gear and put it in remote control. The remote control switch to be operated by in charge of the operation. 9) Stop main lube oil pump.

10) Open crank case doors. 11) Put blower and ventilate it thoroughly. 12) Prepare enclosed space entry checklist. 13) After sufficient ventilation, wearing proper PPE enter the C/C. 14) Make sure that the main bearing measuring tool (depth gauge) is calibrate and set to 0. 15) Open the screws of lube oil pipe connection and insert the depth gauge and measure the clearance between upper bearing keep and journal. 16) Compare this reading with the earlier reading in the record or the new bearing reading.

17) Now disconnect the lube oil pipe line. 18) Turn the crank throw so that it is towards the exhaust side. 19) Now mount the hydraulic jacks and loosen the main bearing stud nuts. 20) Mount the lifting tool for main bearing keep and lift the keep using a pulley and a wire rope. 21) Note the marking on the main bearing keep before lifting for correct direction of the keep. 22) Guide the keep safely outside with a help of another chain block and place it on a wooden base once it is out. 23) Mount the tool for lifting the upper bearing shell and place it safely outside. 24) Place the strong back (cross piece) support on the bed plate so that its ends rest on the cross girders. 25) Mount the hydraulic jack on the cross piece placing it such that it lies beneath the crank webs.

26) Mount a dial gauge on the adjacent main bearing so that the lift of the crank shaft can be recorded. 27) Now with hydraulic pressure (1500-1650 bar) lift the crankshaft corresponding to the main bearing clearance to the adjacent main bearing, and check the lift with the help of a dial gauge. 28) Remove the lock screws from the lower shell. 29) Place the dismantling tool on the lower bearing shell such that the flap enters the oil groove.


Pull the bearing shell round and up so that it lies on the journal and take it out safely.

74. What is the advantage of sleeve bearing in turbocharger in man b&w engine? Sleeve type bearings are provided in man b&w engines. They are lengthier and have a stabilizing influence on shaft alignment and long vibration. They have a face machined to take the thrust similar to thrust pad type. These are supplied by external oil feed and emergency lube oil supply tank. 75. How to order hydraulic pipes? For ordering hydraulic pipe, we need working pressure, symbol of standard ( ost1/ost2). schedule 80120, manufacturing process s-c, e-c, outside diameter, thickness and length is optional because standard length is 4 metres and sold by weight, and made of carbon steel. 76. Difference between ship side v/v and overboard v/v? SHIP SIDE VALVE IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE I.E, sea suction valve, where as overboard valve is a screw down non return globe valve, as per the classification society requirements and overhauling procedure is same like checking for corrosion and pitting marks and checking the rubber lining in case of butterfly valve. Material is copper nickel alloy or monel metal for disc and seat and body is nickel alloy. 77. What is delamination? Delamination is the peeling off of layers of the bearing. It is not a slow, steady process like wear - instead whole layers of the bearing break off, causing uneven and excessive clearance. 78. How does delamination occur? Laminated bearings are manufactured in layers, with a fiber or cloth reinforcement. As wear at the bearing surface occurs, water penetrates the exposed micro-channels that are formed by the cloth. Swelling occurs along these surfaces, causing weakness between the layers of the laminate. The result is that the surface layers of the bearing material start peeling off.

79. Three Requirements for Dry Dock Stability is the most important requirement for getting a ship safely into a dry dock. The three important parameters which must be ensured before entering the dry dock are:

1) Adequate Initial G.M: When the ship touches the blocks, there is a reaction at the point of contact which raises the centre of gravity G and reduces the metacentric height G.M so that adequate initial metacentric height is required to compensate the same.

2) Vessel to be Upright: While entering the dock the vessel needs to be upright which means there should be no port or starboard list when the ship touches the blocks, the point of contact will be outside the centre line of vessel, which may force the vessel to tip over.

3) Small or Moderate Trim Aft: The slight trim allows the accenting of stern and bow in tandem rather than simultaneously as it will reduce the load and pressure on hull and the keel of vessel.

80. What is COLD IRONING? Its also called alternate marine power (AMP), where in ships especially cruise ships can shut off their engine while at berth and make use of port power supply to reduce emissions. LA was first port to offer this. 81. Testing Criteria for Low Expansion Foam Freezing & Thawing the Sample : The Foam Concentration. should show no signs of Statification & Sedimentation Procedure : 1. Set the temp of freezing chamber to a temperature which is 10 deg below the freezing temperature of the sample. 2. Place the sample in the cylinder, cool & maintained at the required temperature for 24 hrs. .At the end of this period thaw the sample for not less than 24 hrs. & not more than 96 hrs. @ 20 25 deg C 3. Repeat 3 times to give 4 cycles 4. Examine the sample for statification & sedimentation 5. Condition the sample for 7 days @ 60 deg C followed by one day @ room temp. 82. Green House Effect; Ozone Depletion Relation? Effect produced by gases such as CO2 , Water vapour, & other gases which form an envelop around the earth's atmosphere, does not allowing the heat radiation from the earth to escape back, thus causing global warming this effect is called Green house Effect. Ozone Depletion is directly proportional to Green house Effect. 83. Advantage of a Keyless Propeller 1. The Stress raisers at the fwd end of the shaft keyway do not exist. The shaft is stronger & has greater resistance to Fatigue Failure. 2. An increase in the coefficient of friction available for Torque Transmission. 3. A controlled Degree of Interference Fit 4. A reduction in the allowance required for temperature as coefficient of expansion for C.I. sleeve is same as that of the shaft. 5. Fitting & Bedding is easy. 84. Advantage of Rhapson Slide Mechanism. 1. It converts the linear motion of the rams to rotary motion of the rudder stock. 2. Rudder Drop Allowance is included so that the drop of rudder along with the tiller does not effect the rams , same way jumping of the rudder is also included 3. Maximum Torque is available at maximum angle when Torque requirement is greatest. 85. Procedure for Hull Testing? Before fitting: Hose Test: 2kg/cm2 @ 1.5m Bend Test, Tensile Test, Impact Test Hammer Test Water head test: 2.45m

After fitting: Hose Test, Hammer Test Air test: 0.14 - 0.2 bar Drill test: 20 mm hole ND Tests. 86. Stainless steel Cutting Problems? Gas Cutting of S.S. Plate: Oxidising & Blowing Away of the Oxidised metal. If large amount of Chromium is present, then oxidising the S.S. becomes difficult. Iron rich powder is used in the cutting area to enhance the oxidising capacity. 87. Windlass Safety? Electrical: Electromagnetic Brake Motor overload Short Circuit Protection Restart delay timer Remote Stop Mechanical: Manual Mechanical Brake Cable Stopper Slipping Clutch Relief V/V 88. Windlass Load Test? Brake Test: The Hydraulic Jack applies Load to winch Brake through winch drum using a fixture. Amount of Force depends on brake holding capacity specified by winch manufacturer in 2 minutes. Load Test: (1 cable length = 27.5m : 1 Fathom = 6 feet) Brake is applied after every 15 fathoms (white link) should hold in 2 sec.

89. Windlass Speeds? Let go speed : 5.75 m/s Lifting : 0.12 ~ 0.2 m/s (9~15 m/min) {at 4 ~ 6 times load of the anchor} When Mooring light : 0.75 ~ 1.0 m/s 90. What is Slipping Clutch? Commonly fitted on Electrically Driven Windlass either between the motor & the gearbox or incorporated in the gear box. This avoids the inertia of the driving motor being transmitted through the gear system in the event of shock loading on the cable. Such shock can occur when the anchor is pulled hard into the Hawse pipe when being housed. 91. Properties required in the Propeller material? 1. Corrosion Fatigue Resistance 2. Resistance to Cavitation erosion 3. General Corrosion Resistance 4. High strength / weight ratio 5. Good repairability 6. Good Castability 92. Ship is going to sub-zero temperature ~ Precautions Required? 1. Anti freeze is added to water systems (J.C.W. & P.C.W.) 2. Close skylight 3. Hydraulic system ~ Heaters

on 4. Draining fire main line / anti freeze in sprinkler system. 5. Blow through the sea chest with steam 6. Emergency Generator & Life boat ~ Anti freeze 7. Lifeboat Drinking Water: do not keep in Lifeboat 8. D.B. tank F.O. Tank Heating Lines 9. Recirculation of S.W. 10. P.V. Breaker, Deck Seal- Anti Freeze 11. Standby Motor ~ External Heating on 12. Winches to be operated. 93. Ballast Water Regulation? 1. Should not pass through Cargo Tanks 2. Line should not go from 1/5 th of the breadth of the ship from ship side 3. Sounding pipes / Vent Pipes should not pass than cargo Tanks (very short length with extra protection) 4. It should have an omega loop for thermal expansion also sagging & hogging 95. Important Clearances Jumping Clearance :- 6 mm At Rhapson slide :- 16 ~ 19 mm Propeller Drop :- 1 mm / 160 mm diameter of shaft Pintle Clearance :1.1 ~ 3.3 m 96.How vertical movement of Rudder is Restricted ? The vertical movement of rudder is restricted by welding a small flat bar to the bottom of the horn. The clearance between the rudder & the flat bar should be less than the X-Head clearance. Any vertical force on the rudder will hence be transmitted to the stern frame & not to the steering gear. 97. Battery rooms Safeties? a. Provision for Ventilation: - In Case of Lead Acid batteries during charging process Hydrogen & Oxygen is evolved / generated. The rate of evolution of these gases is high in case of overcharging. This H2 & O2 mixture is highly flammable over a wide range of 4% to 74% . Hence the possibility of explosion or fire in battery room is quite high. It is necessary that the accumulation of such gases is avoided & must be extracted from battery room so exhaust fan is provided. H2 being light extraction must be from the top of the room. * Fan should be fitted outside the battery room. * Material of fan blade should be spark proof in case it may come in contact with the casing. * Outlet of the battery room duct (exh. fan) should be above accomodation level & it should be at the aft of the Engine room blower suction. b. Lighting :- * All Lighting should be explosion proof. * Main Switch for Lighting should be outside the battery room * It should have 2 independent circuits. Each circuit cabin door is interlocked, If we open the cabin door the power is put 'OFF' & it is not possible to remove the key & same key is used for opening the fitting. Two keys for two cicuits are not interchangeble. c. Distilled water Container :- * Mostly PVC containers are used (Polystyrine or Polyvinyl chloride) * Glass Containers are not used as they may break & also electrolyte in distilled water may attack glass. * Steel Containers are not used DW attacks steel. * If steel containers will get loosened & they will may fall & produce spark. d. Use of Tools & Replacement of Batteries :- * Tools should be insulated type so there will not be sparking & short circuiting if accidentally released from hand. * Aluminium tools are not used as it may produce sparking. * Electrical instruments should be intrinsically safe. * Before carrying out any maintainence it is necessary to check the atmosphere of the battery room 98. Rudder Repair procedures? Slot Welding to be carried out. Plates, Welding rods, welders Qualification & procedure of repairing must be approved by class surveyor. Second plate is called Wrapping Plate / Cover Plate. Plate is prepared by marking of the frames on it & then slots are cut. Then the plate is bend on the framework & is welded to the frames. Slots are filled with the weld. These welds are ground & made smooth. * Pressure Testing of Rudder : 1. Gravity method : Fill water in rudder upto 2.46m above top of rudder & observe it. Water level should not drop. * Hose Test : Drain plug has to removed & hose is applied on the slot welds & observe if water is coming from the drain plug. This is to be done before gravity method. * Coating : Open top plug , put bottom plug with cock. Fill 50 % water

inside & 20 % with paint. Drain water slowly by cock. This is called float coat painting. 99. Dry Dock Inspections of rudder? Rudder: 1. When Docking is taking place observe rudder if any water is coming out. 2. After completion of docking remove top & bottom plug & check for water. 3. Hammer rudder plate to check sound & condition of rudder plates. 4. If ship is more than 5 yrs. old Class Surveyor may insist on Guaging report 5. Check condition of Zn block fitted on the rudder. If completely worned out add few more than last time. 6. Coupling between Rudder & Rudder Stock cement to be checked , chip off the cement & check condition of Palm Bolts. 7. Put Rudder in midship position & see actual position of the rudder w.r.t. ship this will help identify twisting of rudder stock. 8. Pintle clearance to check. 9. Jumping Clearance 10. Weardown & Rudder drop to be checked in Dry Dock. 11. Visual inspection for rudder corrosion, pitting, cracks etc. Shell Plating: 01. Check for Buckling, Corrosion, Dents & Cracks. 02. Check condition of Anodes : If completely worn out ~ more is required / If not worn ~ not connected properly 03. Check Sea growth : If high ~ Anti fouling paint was ineffective. 100. Hull Repair procedures? A Cracked weld: 01. Inform Class surveyor & seek his opinion. 02. Trace the length ok crack by DP Test 03. One inch from both sides drill crack arresting holes. 04. Gas free the tank from inside 05. Gauging of Crack to be carried out by gauging electrode till bottom of the crack is reached 06. Welding electrode, welder & procedure to be class approved. Low Hydrogen Electrodes are used. 07. The affected portion to be heated to 200 deg C by flame torch & temp to be noted by IR sensor. 08. Carry out welding from either side 09. The weld is again to be heated by flame to relieve stress & covered with insulation tapes to reduce cooling rate. 10. Weld to be inspected & arrest holes to be welded 11. Radiography test is to be carried out. 12. Hose test to be carried out 13. Primer & paint to be applied. Severe indentation in way of frame: 01. It cannot be tolerated so has to be cropped off alongwith bend frame & renewed. 02. Put 2 small size plates & weld it to frame (tag) with actual size plate. 03. Heating & stress re-releasing to be carried out. 04. Radiography & Hose test of the weld to be carried out. Surfaces suffering from general Corrosion: 01. Gauging to be carried out & if 20 % is eaten away plate needs to be renewed.(decided by class surveyor) 02. Only thing to be done is clean the surface, coat with primer, anti fouling & anti corrosive paints. 03. Add Zinc Anodes. Bilge Keel Fractured: 01. Crop the damaged part & renew.

101. What is Rudder locking? To bring the steering gear to rest speedily all hydraulic ,line valves are closed , thus ensuring Hydraulic lock. Rudder is locked when the ship is being towed. Rudder is locked in midship position to avoid turning due to wake of towing ship.

102. What is Rate Shaping Nozzle? The Stanadyne Rate Shaping Nozzle is a unique approach to providing fuel injection rate shaping for

direct injection engines. In contrast to two stage injectors and other more costly methods that have been used for this purpose, the RSN injector offers a greatly simplified and more compact alternative. The RSN accomplishes the fuel flow throttling necessary for injection rate control by hydraulic regulation of a throttling area preceding the spray holes. This eliminates the need for two springs and associated hardware without affecting injector size or capability

103. How turbocharger rpm measuring device is mounted on shaft? On the compressor shaft the compressor wheel tightening nut has a projection with a magnet mounted onto it. This rotates with the shaft and rotation is then picked up by 2 magnetic pick up sensors which are just like a pair of tongs. The projection rotates between the tongs cutting flux thereby inducing a current which is calibrated to give the rpm. Eddy current probes, magnetic pickups, optical tachometers and TTL output devices are usually installed in a hole drilled through the bearing cap and are held in place by either a bracket or a probe holder. Module accepts input from two tachometers of any standard type and measures speed, rotor acceleration and peak speed and is capable of detecting zero speed, locked rotor and reverse rotation. The module may also serve as a component of an Electronic Overspeed Detection System. The sensors are non-contacting eddy-current type transducers that measure the dynamic and/or static displacement of the target relative to the mounting fixture.

104. What is function of EGR valve on ME exhaust valve? The EGR stands for Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Exhaust gas is routed back into the combustion chamber because the exhausted air is much hotter than the intake air. By sending warmer gas into the combustion chamber, the air/fuel mix does not have to do as much work to heat up, and engine runs more efficiently reducing NOx emissions.

105. Function of puncture valve in exhaust valve? During the starting sequence in astern direction, the exhaust valve will start to open while the cylinder is still being supplied with starting air. The puncture valve will delay the opening of the exhaust valve until the starting air sequence has finished.

106. In T/C which type of bearing is used? There are two types: 1. For the older versions, VTR Types, Ball bearings were used both the sides, having a small gear pump and an oil bath for lubrication. This is common now also.

2. In the MET Types, which is the latest design, Shell type white metal bearing is used in the centre of the shaft. The lubrication is by the main system itself and there is a header connection also for the lub oil to flow when the Engine is stopped/Lub oil pump stopped. The thrust Bearings for both sides are slotted bearings and the replacement criteria for the same is the dye check and assesing the percentage area of contact worn out for each slot. These are the bearings in the turbocharger.

107. Battery Capacity test Capacity test is the only way to get an accurate value on the actual capacity of the battery. While used regularly it can be used for tracking the batterys health and actual capacity and estimating remaining life of the battery. When the battery is new its capacity might be slightly lower than specified. This is normal. There are rated capacity values available from the manufacturer. All batteries have tables telling the discharge current for a specified time and down to a specific end of discharge voltage. Common test times are 5 or 8 hours and common end of discharge voltage for a lead acid cell is 1.75 or 1.80 V. During the test it is measured how much capacity (current x time expressed in Ah) the battery can deliver before the terminal voltage drops to the end of discharge voltage x number of cells. The current shall be maintained at a constant value. It is recommended to select a test time that is approximately the same as the batterys duty cycle. Common test times are 5 or 8 hours and common end of discharge voltage for a lead acid cell is 1.75 or 1.80 V. It is recommended to use the same testing time during the batterys lifetime. This will improve accuracy when trending how batterys capacity changes. If the battery reaches the end of discharge voltage at the same time as the specified test time the batterys actual capacity is 100% of the rated capacity. If it reaches the end of discharge at 80% (8 h) or before of the specified 10 h it is shall be replaced. Procedure for capacity test of vented lead acid battery 1. Verify that the battery has had an equalizing charge if specified by the manufacturer 2. Check all battery connections and ensure all resistance readings are correct 3. Record specific gravity of every cell 4. Record the float voltage of every cell 5. Record the temperature of every sixth cell in order to get an average temperature 6. Record the battery terminal float voltage 7. Disconnect the charger from the battery 8. Start the discharge. The discharge current should be corrected for the temperature obtained at point 5 (not if capacity is corrected afterwards) and maintained during the entire test. 9. Record the voltage of every cell and the battery terminal voltage in the beginning of the discharge test 10. Record the voltage of every cell and the battery terminal voltage one or several times at specified intervals when the test is running 11. Maintain the discharge until the battery terminal voltage has decreased to the specified end of discharge voltage (for instance 1.75 x number of cells) 12. Record the voltage of every cell and the battery terminal voltage at the end of the test. The cell voltages at the end of the test have special importance since weak cells are indicated here. 13. Calculate the actual battery capacity

108. Difference between welding transformer and lighting transformer? A welding transformer is a step down transformer that reduces the voltage from the source voltage to a lower voltage that is suitable for welding, usually between 15 and 45 volts. The secondary current is

quite high. 200 to 600 amps would be typical, but it could be much higher. The secondary may have several taps for adjusting the secondary voltage to control the welding current. The taps are typically connected to a several high-current plug receptacles or to a high-current switch. For welding with direct current (DC) a rectifier is connected to the secondary of the transformer. There may also be a filter choke (inductor) to smooth the DC current. The entire transformer and rectifier assembly may be called a transformer or welder, but "welding power supply" would be more appropriate term. LIGHTING TRANSFORMER In a category of various types of transformers, the lighting Transformers are designed to supply power to lighting equipments in residential, public services, commercial and industrial undertakings. The primary supply in lighting Transformers is connected to higher voltage source and secondary supply is connected to load. Lighting transformers work as isolation between primary and secondary and restrict any high voltage spikes coming with the raw mains incoming power as also restricts short circuit current in the load and saves fatal adversities. The lighting transformers for power house consist of electrolytic copper heavy duty super enameled winding wires and are made with CRGO laminations. The applications with low voltage lighting systems have become gradually trendier over the past many years. The lighting systems installed with low voltage xenon and low voltage halogen using MR16 12-volt light bulbs are found in almost every type of setting. Carrying a voltage of app. 1.1 Kv, these transformers available to customized specifications and requirements, are mostly used in thermal power plants, nuclear plants, shopping complexes, theaters, bars, retail stores and shops, chemical plants, hotels, housing societies, museums and art galleries, hospitals and high rise office and residential buildings in metropolitan areas. The usual output of lighting transformer is 6V, 12V and 24V and would differ according to different areas, such as 100V,110V, 120V, 220Vand 240V with added requirements of size, temperature rise and security protection. Neon lighting transformers run on alternating current. In the transformer's core, the power is run through a primary coil, magnetically linking it to a secondary coil which is located close by. This prompts a current to run through the secondary coil which outputs the electrical power generated into the neon tube. Depending upon the number of turns on the secondary coil, it is determined as to how much voltage the current will deliver. Lighting Transformers are used to limit the Fault level in the Bus of main LT panel by varying the impedance of the Transformer. If any major fault is occurs, its effect is affecting only up to the lighting Transformers breaker and it trip itself and prevent the main panel from tripping. As well as big industries, single phase is not using for MCC & other equipments. So Neutral is absent in main LT panel. For lighting purpose we need neutral. So we are using isolation Transformer for lighting in big industries.

109. In dual fuel engine when running diesel is injected with gas why? When the gas pressure falls below 10% during normal running, during starting and during manoeuvring diesel will be injected to produce flame for gas to burn/ignite. Also the compression effect for gas is not enough to raise the temperature of it to ignite so diesel is injected to attain the self ignition


110. Reefer system meat room solenoid coil burnt... no spares...how to maintain meat room temp? There will be a bypass v/v, if it is there then bypass the v/v, if not then close the main v/v before that and open the solenoid v/v and take out v/v assembly with the spring, put back the cover and open the main v/v,after achieving the desired temp close the main v/v, after some hours when the temp. is up again open the v/v and regain the temp.

111. One unit liner ovality is more reasons? Reasons for liner ovality can be less lubrication, improper matching of lub oil with fuel oil, worn out piston rings or rings wrongly fitted, Overloading/unbalanced engine, clover leafing, injector malfunction causing the oil to spread on d liner walls and burn on it. The reason can also be the clearance of the crosshead sliding guides of the particular unit is more disrupting the centering of piston.

112. How sac volume helps in NOx reduction? The increased mean effective pressure ratings of modern engines require increased flow areas throughout the fuel valve, which, in turn, leads to increased sac volumes in the fuel nozzle itself and a higher risk of after-dripping. Consequently, more fuel from the sac volume may enter the combustion chamber and contribute to the emission of smoke and unburnt HC as well as to increased deposits in the combustion chamber. The relatively large sac volume in a standard design fuel nozzle thus has a negative influence on the formation of soot particles and HC. The so-called mini-sac fuel valve introduced by MAN Diesel incorporates a conventional conical spindle seat as well as a slide inside the fuel nozzle. The mini-sac leaves the flow conditions in the vicinity of the nozzle holes similar to the flow conditions in the conventional fuel nozzle. But its much reduced sac volumeonly about 15 per cent that of the conventional fuel valvehas demonstrated a positive influence on the cleanliness of the combustion chamber and exhaust gas outlet ducts. Such valves also reduce the formation of NOx during combustion. A new type of fuel valveessentially eliminating the sac volumewas subsequently developed and introduced by MAN Diesel as standard to its larger low-speed engines.

113. Why boiler gauge glass appears shiny? Reflex glass is used due to the fact that light falling on the glass is reflected by the steam but not by water, and so the glass appears bright where there is steam and dark where there is water.

114. Reason for boiler gauge glass cock blockage? 1.Due to the evaporation of water leaking through the cock joints a build up of deposits can occur. This leads to restriction and eventual blockage of the passage. If this occurs on the steam side then the level tends to read high as the steam condenses. 2. Another reason for blockage is the cock twisting, hence the cocks are all arranged so that in their normal working positions, i.e. steam/water open, drain shut, the handles are all pointing downwards. Possibility of the sleeving rotating on the cock has led to the use of ribbed asbestos sleeves which must be carefully aligned when fitting.

115. What is the function of reefer compressor head spring? The spring in the reefer compressor: There is a spring just underneath the cylinder cover and on top of the suction valve seat. This is to prevent the liquid refrigerant to enter the compressor and causing damage, or oil entering the compressor. So when liquid is returned to the compressor, then this spring will force the VALVE SEAT to be raised preventing any damage to the head. Further, when the difference between the internal cylinder pressure and high pressure increases more than 3 Kg/cm2, this spring lifts up the VALVE SEAT.

116. What is advantage of contra flow over normal flow? One of the main reasons is that the temperature difference is almost constant throughout the flow, in the case of oil cooler initially when the sea water enters its temperature is low and the oil temp when it comes in contact is also low, as the sea water reaches the exit its temp is higher than before and at that point oil which is in contact with the cooling surface of sea water is also high. For an efficient heat exchange the temp diff between the 2 liquids should be as high as possible. Another point is when there is a contra flow liquid there is always turbulence associated with it, so a turbulent flow will give a better heat transfer.

117. How to carry out brake testing of e/r crane, procedure and load? Load test of the engine room crane is carried out by actually loading the crane by dynamometer spring loaded balance which is attached between the hook & strong point on the e/r floor or deck. The tension reading is noted down. Load test is carried out once in 5 years. Lifting gear is tested at 1.5 times the safe working load. Lift a load through lifting gear which is 1.5 times the safe working load & then switch off the power, crane hook should not come down. This confirms the brake test of e/r crane.

118. How hydraulic power pack works?

Under normal operating conditions, the motor driven hydraulic oil supply to the main system, when the system reaches the rated pressure, pressure sensors control the implementation of one-way valve to close packing functions. Solenoid valve by a hydraulic actuator to open, close, or power to exercise control, with the accumulator in the hydraulic power packs, hydraulic control at the same time, the energy storage device has also been released, the executive body of the packing into the synchronization function, but also to ensure the system security and reliability.

119. What are self locking nuts? Where used? Self-locking nuts provide tight connections that will not loosen under vibrations. They meet critical specifications as to strength, corrosion resistance, and heat-resistant temperatures. New self-locking nuts must be used each time components are installed. There are two general types of self-locking nuts. They are the all metal nuts and the metal nuts with a nonmetallic insert to provide the locking action. The elastic stop and the nonmetallic insert lock nut are examples of the nonmetallic insert type. All metal self-locking nuts are constructed either of two ways. The threads in the load-carrying portion of the nut that is out of phase with the threads in the locking portion is one way. The second way is with a saw-cut top portion with a pinched-in thread. The locking action of these types depends upon the resiliency of the metal.

120. Adv. of thin shell bearings? Advantages of thin shell bearings are as follows: 1) increased fatigue resistant 2) bedding not required 3) conformability 4) embedability 5) load carrying capacity 6) mechanical properties 7) easy storage,fitting-light weight 8) better heat transfer due to reduced thickness & uniformity of the contact with the bearing housing.

121. What happens in gas cutting? Chemical reaction taking place inside the metal? During gas cutting the metal is heated upto 800 deg C. On such high temp the particles r already mobile

and when a charge of oxygen is given they form oxides. These oxides have melting pt. much lower than the parent metal and hence the material is cut rapidly after that. The sparks that we see flying around are actually oxides.

122. Dry Liners Dry cylinder liners are among the basic piston protectors. They must withstand extremely high temperatures and guard against impurities, so they are constructed of high-grade materials, such as cast iron and ceramic-nickle plating. Dry liners are much thinner than their counterpart, wet liners. They do not interact with the engine coolant but instead provide a very close fit with the jacket in the cylinder block to protect the piston from heat and impurities. The coolant circulates through passages in the block and does not come in contact with the liner. 123. Oil Whirl and Whip Instabilities - Within Journal Bearings? Oil whirl is probably the most common cause of subsynchronous instability in hydrodynamic journal bearings. Typically, the oil film itself flows around the journal to lubricate and cool the bearing. This develops an average speed slightly less than 50 percent of the journal surface speed (Figure 1). Normally, the shaft rides on the crest of an oil pressure gradient, rising slightly up the side of the bearing somewhat off vertical at a given, stable attitude angle and eccentricity. The amount of rise depends on the rotor speed, rotor weight and oil pressure. With the shaft operating eccentrically relative to the bearing center, it draws the oil into a wedge to produce this pressurized load-carrying film. Figure 1. Oil Film Within a Journal 1 Just After Startup; Followed by Oil Whip from 9,200 to 12,000 RPM 3 Figure 2. Development of Oil Whirl

If the shaft receives a disturbing force such as a sudden surge or external shock, it can momentarily increase the eccentricity from its equilibrium position. When this occurs, additional oil is immediately pumped into the space vacated by the shaft. This results in an increased pressure of the load-carrying film, creating additional force between the oil film and shaft. In this case, the oil film can actually drive the shaft ahead of it in a forward circular motion and into a whirling path around the bearing within the bearing clearance. If there is sufficient damping within the system, the shaft can be returned to its normal position and stability. Otherwise, the shaft will continue in its whirling motion, which may become violent depending on several parameters. Oil Whirl Instability Oil whirl demonstrates the following characteristics: 1. Oil whirl can be induced by several conditions including:

light dynamic and preload forces excessive bearing wear or clearance

a change in oil properties (primarily shear viscosity) an increase or decrease in oil pressure or oil temperature; improper bearing design (sometimes an over design for the actual shaft loading) fluid leakage in the shroud of blades and shaft labyrinth seals (so-called Alford force or aerodynamic force) change in internal damping (hysteretic, or material damping, or dry (coulomb) friction) gyroscopic effects, especially on overhung rotors with excessive overhang. Any of these conditions can induce oil whirl after a disturbing force induces an initial rotor deflection. 2. Sometimes machines exhibit oil whirl intermittently due to external vibratory forces transmitting into the unit or from sources within the machinery itself. In these cases, these vibratory forces have the same frequency as the oil whirl frequency of that bearing and can contribute just the right magnitude of disturbing force at just the right tuned frequency to set the shaft into the whirl motion. This vibration transmits from other machinery through attached structures such as piping and braces, or even through the floor and foundation. If this occurs, it may be necessary to either isolate this machine from surrounding machinery, or to isolate the offending machine itself. 3. Oil whirl is easily recognized by its unusual vibration frequency which is generally 40 percent to 48 percent of shaft RPM. (Reference 2 states that pure oil whirl occurs at 43 percent of shaft speed, but that the instability may occur at the first critical speed.) 4. Figure 2 shows the development of oil whirl just after the shaft is brought up to speed. Note that the shaft went into whirl at a machine speed of approximately 1,800 RPM and remained in whirl until about 4,000 RPM. At this point, note that the shaft 1X RPM speed entered resonance, which actually generated sufficient force to overcome oil whirl. However, once the machine passed through resonance, whirl once again occurred just above 5,200 RPM.

5. Oil whirl is considered severe when vibration amplitudes reach 40 to 50 percent of the normal bearing clearance. At this point, corrective action must be taken. 6. Temporary corrective measures include changing the temperature of the oil (thus, the oil viscosity), purposely introducing a slight unbalance or misalignment to increase the loading, temporarily shifting the alignment by heating or cooling support legs, scraping the sides of or grooving the bearing surface to disrupt the lubricant wedge, or changing the oil pressure. 7. Permanent corrective steps to resolve the oil whirl problem include installing a new bearing shell with proper clearances, preloading the bearing by an internal oil pressure dam, or completely changing the bearing type to oil film bearings that are less susceptible to oil whirl (including axial-groove bearings, lobed bearings or tilting pad bearings). The tilting pad bearing is a good choice because each segment or

pad develops a pressurized oil wedge tending to center the shaft in the bearing, thereby increasing the system damping and overall stability. Oil Whip Instability Oil whip occurs on those machines subject to oil whirl when the oil whirl frequency coincides with and becomes locked into a systems natural frequency (often a rotor balance or critical speed frequency). For example, refer to Figure 2. When the rotor speed increased to just above 9,200 RPM, its speed increased to 2X its first balance natural frequency. At this time the oil whirl which was approximately 43 percent of RPM, was brought into coincidence with this critical speed. The oil whirl was suddenly replaced by oil whip - a lateral forward precessional subharmonic vibration of the rotor. At this point, the oil whip frequency remains the same, independent of the rotor RPM. Note that the oil whip frequency never changed even though the machine continued up in speed to 12,000 RPM. When a shaft goes into oil whip, its dominant dynamic factors become mass and stiffness in particular; and its amplitude is limited only by the bearing clearance. Left uncorrected, oil whip may cause destructive vibration resulting catastrophic failure often in a relatively short period of time. Dry Whip Dry whip occurs in journal bearing machines subjected to either a lack of lubrication or the use of the wrong lubricant. When this occurs, excessive friction is generated between the stationary bearing and rotating journal. This friction can excite vibration in the bearing and other components. This kind of vibration is called dry whip. Dry whip can also be caused by journal bearings having excessive clearance as well as those having insufficient clearance. The dry whip condition is similar to rubbing a moistened finger over a dry pane of glass. It will generate a frequency specifically dependent upon the shaft and construction materials, geometries and lubricant properties. Normally, this frequency will produce a high squealing noise similar to that generated by dry rolling element bearings. The frequency content itself will not be an integer multiple of the machine speed. When dry whip is suspected, it must be taken care of quickly in order to prevent a potential catastrophic failure. And when dry whip is suspected, both the lubricant itself and the lubrication system should be closely inspected and the bearings should be checked to ensure they have proper clearances. 124.What is ovality of auxiliary engine crank pin? Combined effect of reduced effectiveness of L.O and directional thrust of the con rod. This is maximum at around 45 degree ATDC Uneven loading of units and overloading Max Allowed: 1/4th of the bearing clearance Removed By: Insitu Grinding and polishing Reference: Fillet of crank web Max. Allowed Grinding: 2mm, because after grinding 2mm or more surface hardness reduces drastically. Due to this maximum allowable grinding is 2mm. Bottom bearing damage reason is the ovality, bearing clearance and condition of L.O supply

125.Why are concentric springs fitted for A/E cylinder head valves? If the frequency of the natural vibration of air or exhaust valve springs is a harmonic of the camshaft speed, then the spring may vibrate axially and are said to surge. Surge can be avoided by modifying the sizes of springs by arranging the springs in pairs and fitting one inside the other. If one spring fails the valve is held up and is not damaged by striking the piston. The thickness of individual springs can be reduced as against original thickness. Normally two springs of different vibration characteristics are chosen. Moreover, the stiffness requirements and the space congestion at this place warrants a concentric springs arrangement. The net stiffness is equal to the sum of individual stiffness.