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GATES

Advanced Load Analysis Module V 4.6


History And Overview

27th April 2012

Dontyne Systems Limited 2008 Dontyne Systems Limited 2012


Dontyne Systems Limited is a company registered in England and Wales with company number 05973058 Registered office: 1 Simonside, Prudhoe, Northumberland, ENGLAND, NE42 6LJ VAT Registration Number: 902 9027 45

27th April 2012

Introduction
Background Application Experimental

& Development Validation Program

Analysis Features Advantages of GATES Summary

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Introduction
GATES Gear Analysis for Transmission Error and Stress It is an FE based analysis package that calculates;
Transmission

Error (T.E.) Load sharing between teeth Surface Contact Stress and Root Bending Stress Efficiency
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

1990- 1992 The Design Unit (Newcastle Upon Tyne U.K.) identify the need for a sophisticated loaded tooth contact analysis for gears 1992- 1997 A large number of different gears tested at many torques and alignments. Some of the results of which have been published 1997- 2006 Program is implemented using FEA by project founders and collaborators 2006- 2007 Dontyne Systems take over the development and marketing of GATES calculation as part of Load Analysis Model 2007- 2009 Development programs defined and implemented for the expansion of the GATES analysis and scope
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Background

Application
Initial Development in Marine propulsion systems

GATES has been used to design gears for British Royal Navy

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Contact Model
Link To ISO6336 Design and Rating

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

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Contact Model
Flexible Profile and Lead Definition of 2D and 3D Surface Topography

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Contact Model
Links To Metrology Equipment To Define Surface From Measured Data

3D Surface Measurement
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Measured Data Allows Effect of Bias on Measured Surface to be Examined

Contact Model

Designed topology
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

3D Measured Topology inc bias


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Contact Model
Operating Conditions
Misalignment due to assembly or deflection

Bearing Compliance

Case Compliance

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

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Analysis Options
Analysis Types:
Contact stress Contact load Bending stress
Tensile and compressive

Transmission error
Geometric / Total

Power Loss

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Analysis Options
Graphic Presentation:
2D chart / 3D chart / Gear surface

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Analysis Options
Multiple Load Levels:

Detailed Tooth-To-Tooth
(Plot can be used to derive FFT Spectrum)
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Harris Map Plot


(Illustrates Change in Amplitude through load to identify optimum)
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Analysis Options
Power Loss On Tooth:

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

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Analysis Options
Variant #1 : Spur

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

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Analysis Options
Variant #2 : Helical

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

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Analysis Options
Variant #3 : Double Helical

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Advantages of GATES Program


FEM calculation of tooth stiffness Takes into account effect of increases of stress at gear tip Exhibits change in behaviour due to twist of tooth Extended contact that increases effective EAP and contact ratio Effect of manufacturing on root stress Gear power loss and efficiency Link to measured data Validated results
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Examples
Case #1 - Analyse increased stress at entry and exit

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Examples
Case #2 - Tip Stresses (Inadequate Tip Relief)

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Examples
Case #3 - Twist (dependent on where torque applied)

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Examples
Case #4 - Increase efficiency with surface modifications

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Examples
Case #5 Effect of manufacturing on root strength
Same 20 spur gear cut with different pressure angle hob (short lead hob)

20 degree

11 degree

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Examples
Case #6 Extended contact for tip loaded gears
End of active profile Actual end of active profile Theoretical end of active profile

Un-deflected position Deflected tooth Contact continues beyond end of active profile off line of action as tooth releases load and rolls round on tip

Contact Stress

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 1
The following data is from an experimental study to validate the application of the GATES contact model:

Marking patterns on actual gears are shown compared to predicted bearing load from GATES Good correlation is shown

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 1
Gear Centres Gear Ratio Wheel Ref Diameter Pinion Ref Diameter Face Width Pinion Torque 91.5 mm 1.5:1 108.08 72.05 ~ 25 mm 100 373 Nm

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 1
Pinion 100 Nm Wheel 100 Nm

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 1
Pinion 213 Nm Wheel 213 Nm

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 1
Pinion 373 Nm Wheel 373 Nm

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2
The following data is from an experimental study to validate the application of the GATES Transmission error model:

The aim was to reduce noise levels that arise from the transmission error (T.E.) at the gear mesh The T.E. Causes forces that propagate through the system and radiate noise A comparison is provided between single, double helical gears and optimised gears using the GATES program
Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2
Gear Centres Gear Ratio Wheel Ref Diameter Pinion Ref Diameter Face Width Max Pinion Speed Max Pinion Torque Max Power
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

400mm 3:1 600 200 ~ 200mm 6000rpm 15000rpm 8 MW


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Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2
Pinion No of teeth, z Normal Module, mn Ref Pressure Angle, n Ref. Helix Angle, n Face Width, b Ref. Diameter, d Tip Diameter, da Root Diameter, df Centre Distance, a Specified Accuracy ISO 1328-1/95 Grade 29 6.05 17.5 28.7 200 199.946 222 183.15 400 3 Wheel 87 6.05 17.5 28.7 200 599.839 612 573.15 400 3

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2
Flank A Flank B Pinion Profile Tip Relief 10mx10.5mm extent Root Relief - none 20m Crowning Wheel Tip Relief 10mx10.5mm extent Root Relief - none None Pinion Tip Relief 10mx5mm extent Root Relief none 15m Crowning Wheel Tip Relief 10mx5mm extent Root Relief none None

Lead

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2
Pinion Bearing Load [N]rms

Flank A
Single Helical

DoubleHelical Optimised Pinion Speed (rpm)


GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Experimental data courtesy of:

Validation 2
Pinion Bearing Load [N]rms

Flank B

Single Helical

Double Helical Optimised Pinion Speed (rpm)


GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Summary

Experimentally validated FE model FE analysis is a practical development tool - Graphical view of analysis - Integration to other Dontyne software design tools - Integration to metrology equipment for increased accuracy - Failure investigation and reverse engineering Proven results for noise and vibration reduction Significant advantages over other calculation methods Continued development and experimental validation
Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Summary Published literature


- Ultra-Low Noise Gearbox
Hofmann D. & Haigh J, Transactions of INEC 2000, Atkins, Hamburg, 14-16 March 2000

- High Speed Gears for Extreme Applications in Industrial and Marine Fields
Weiss T. & Hoppe F., Gear Technology, Sep-Oct 2007 p 68-74

- Practical Production of Low Noise Gears,


Penning G., BGA Congress 2008, 20 November 2008

- Optimisation of Gear Performance Through Surface Engineering,


Aylott C., BGA Congress 2008, 20 November 2008

- Optimizing Gear Geometry for Minimum Transmission Error, Mesh Friction Losses and Scuffing Risk Through Computer Aided Engineering,
Fraser R., Shaw B, Palmer D. & Fish M. AGMA FTM09, 13-15 September 2009

- Evaluation of Methods for Calculating Effects of Tip Relief on Transmission Error, Noise and Stress in Loaded Spur Gears,
Palmer D. & Fish M. AGMA FTM10, 2010
GATES 4.6 - History and Overview Dontyne Systems Limited 2012

Contact Us
Europe +44 1661 833 828 Asia +61 35 975 0816 www.dontyne.com

GATES 4.6 - History and Overview

Dontyne Systems Limited 2012