Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
Multitooth contact behavior of helical gear applying modified meshing equation
Jianhong Wang, Teik C Lim and Yi Ding Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 2013 227:
146 originally published online 15 March 2012 DOI: 10.1177/0954406212441752
Published by:
On behalf of:
Additional services and information for Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science can be found at:
Email Alerts: http://pic.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts
Subscriptions: http://pic.sagepub.com/subscriptions
Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav
>> Version of Record  Dec 17, 2012
OnlineFirst Version of Record  Mar 15, 2012
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
Original Article
Multitooth contact behavior of helical gear applying modified meshing equation
Jianhong Wang ^{1} , Teik C Lim ^{1}^{,}^{2} and Yi Ding ^{1}
Proc IMechE Part C:
J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1) 146–160 ! IMechE 2012 Reprints and permissions:
sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0954406212441752 pic.sagepub.com
Abstract In tooth contact analysis, the numerical process of searching for true contact lines or points is always a daunting task. The true contact lines for ideal helical gear transmission can be easily obtained through the helical gear meshing theory; however, in practice, this approach does not work well due to effect of tooth elasticity that shifts the contact lines from their ideal position. To address this problem, an approximate method to seek the true contact positions is proposed applying a modified meshing equation for a pair of helical gear with error free and no shaft deformation. First, the helical gear tooth deformation is calculated with the combination of contact mechanics and finite element method. Second, the deformed tooth flanks are fitted with Chebyshev polynomials. Third, the modified meshing equation is formulated by accounting for the influence of not only gear rigid body movement but also the gear deformation on the meshing process. Finally, the true contact points are determined by solving the correlated tooth flank equations, meshing equations, and force balance equations. The deformations of the gear and pinion teeth within the meshing plane are analyzed, and the contact load distributions along with the Von Mises stresses over a mesh cycle are examined. The study indicates that the proposed numerical method can yield true contact lines quickly while avoiding costly computational time in the trad itional true contact line searching process that searches iteratively in the whole meshed tooth flank.
Keywords Helical gear, meshing equation, multitooth contact, von Mises stress
Date received: 25 October 2011; accepted: 20 February 2012
Introduction
As one of the most widely applied gear transmissions in industry, helical gear meshing behavior, especially the multitooth contact cases, has attracted much attention in the past. Ajmi and Velex ^{1} discretized the gear bodies by applying twonoded shaft ﬁnite elements with bend ing, torsion and traction eﬀects, represented the tooth deﬂection by Pasternak’s elastic foundations model, and then used the classical approximation based on semiinﬁnite elastic spaces to calculate tooth contact stiﬀness. Using these formulations, they simulated the quasistatic and dynamic behavior of solid widefaced gear, and concluded that gear body distortions are crit ical to gear meshing behavior. Zhang and Fang ^{2} gener ated the helical gear tooth surface by a rack cutter with a parabolic proﬁle, set the contact condition through gear mesh theory and calculated the tooth surface gap between two meshing teeth. They further described a set of algebraic equations to determine the multitooth contact situations, and analyzed the meshing behavior of a pair of helical gear with small crossing angle.
Their results show that the helical gear with small cross ing angles have similar mesh characteristics and load distribution compared to those of parallelaxis gears. Litvin et al. ^{3} established the normal and edge contact conditions by employing the gear mesh theory, formu lated the equations of gear tooth surfaces with localized bearing contact and developed tooth contact analysis algorithms for aligned and misaligned involute helical gears. In another study by Litvin et al., ^{4} the modiﬁca tion of helical gears with doublecrowned pinion and conventional involute helical gears to avoid point and edge contacts was studied. Those modiﬁcations led to substantial reduction in vibration and noise typically
^{1} State Key Lab for Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, PR China ^{2} School of Dynamic Systems, University of Cincinnati, USA
Corresponding author:
Jianhong Wang, State Key Lab for Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR China. Email: jhwang@cqu.edu.cn
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
Wang et al.
147
induced by misalignment. Their research works focused on the geared system computerized design, its gener ation of tooth forms, meshing simulation and then stress analysis. Kar and Mohanty ^{5} focused on the con tact line variation in a helical gear system that tends to induce not only friction force variation, friction torque variation and contact force variation at the bearings, but also gear mesh stiﬀness and damping variations. Hedlund and Lehtovaara ^{6} introduced a model for hel ical gear tooth contact analysis incorporating tooth bending, shearing, and tooth foundation ﬂexibility. They concluded that tooth foundation ﬂexibility plays an essential role in contact load sharing between the meshing teeth, whereas the eﬀect of contact ﬂexibility
is minor. Kawalec and Wiktor ^{7} presented a method for
the determination of equations representing cylindrical gear tooth modiﬁcation. The modiﬁed tooth surface was formed with simulation of tool trajectory, and the tooth elasticity was accounted for using three dimensional ﬁnite elements. Wang and Fong ^{8} analyzed the contact characteristics of a pair of doublecrowned helical gear whose tooth ﬂank was double crowned with
a cycloidal curve in the longitudinal direction and a
circle in the proﬁle direction. The tooth bearing contact of the mating tooth surfaces under various assembly cases was studied. The results show that the proposed doublecrowned helical gear set is insensitive to axis misalignments and center distance variation. Miyoshi
et al. ^{9} proposed a composite analysis method that can
quickly determine helical gear tooth contact load dis tribution for any load condition applying three steps:
ﬁrst, according to actual tooth ﬂank shape, assembly error and tooth static deﬂection, the tooth true shape was determined; second, the static deﬂection distribu tion and share load were calculated; and ﬁnally the tooth contact load distribution was obtained by inte grating the equation consisting of bending deﬂection and tooth contact deformation. In a more recent study, Kolivand and Kahraman ^{1}^{0} proposed an algo rithm to determine the locations and orientation of potential instantaneous contact lines between two rigid contacting tooth surfaces by constructing a new surface of roll angle. As seen from above, even though many investiga tions have been carried out to study the contact behav ior of helical gear, the contact characteristic still needs to be better understood. Most of challenges come from the complexity in the geometry of the helical gear invo lute tooth surface after deformation, which complicates the prediction of the true contact line. On the other hand, the lack of the fast calculation method to deter mine tooth deformation with high precision is also a hindrance to the investigation of the contact behavior of helical gear. This study attempts to address some of those diﬃculties mentioned above. In this study, the
tooth surface deformation is determined using a com bination of ﬁnite elements and contact mechanics and then is ﬁtted as function of tooth surface parameters. Helical gear’s meshing equation after deformation is established through inserting the ﬁtted deformation into the meshing equation of the ideal gears. The true contact lines are gained by solving the meshing equa tion. In addition, an improvement on Vijayakar’s ^{1}^{1} method to calculate the tooth surface deformation by combination of ﬁnite elements and contact mechanics is proposed through determining the circle radius of the contact area by the least square method. Finally, it may be noted that this study represents an extension of the earlier studies documented in Wang et al. ^{1}^{2}
Formulation
The helical geared rotor system of interest as shown in Figure 1 comprises of a pair of identical helical gears supported by four bearings. The global coordinate system xyz located at the center of the bearing 1 is deﬁned as follows: the xaxis is directed normal to both shaft axes, the yaxis is perpendicular to both the shaft axis and xaxis, and the zaxis is aligned along the center of shaft 1. Pinion position as deﬁned by coordinates x _{1} y _{1} z _{1} is supported on bearings 1 (B1) and 2 (B2) via shaft 1, and gear position as described by coordinates x _{2} y _{2} z _{2} is held by bearings 3 (B3) and 4 (B4) via shaft 2. The facewidths of the pinion and gear are given by b _{1} and b _{2} .
Involute surface
Before proceeding any further, a transformation matrix between two coordinates should be deﬁned. When a coordinate system of a rigid body rotates about the zaxis with an angle ’, the transformation matrix T _{1} describing this pair of motion can be deﬁned as ^{1}^{3}
T _{1} ð ’ Þ ¼
2
4
cos ’
sin ’
0
sin ’ cos ’
3
0 5
0
01
ð 1 Þ
For a pair of helical gear with right hand shown in Figure 1, the pinion tooth proﬁle _{1} and gear tooth
proﬁle _{2} are contact surfaces. The proﬁle _{1} within
_{1} 0 is expressed as parameters
_{1} and u _{1} as proposed by Litvin, ^{1}^{4} which is also being
the coordinate system x
0 0
1 ^{y} 1 ^{z}
applied here as
r
0
1 ^{¼}
8
<
:
x
y
z
0
1
0
1
0
1
9
=
;
¼
8
<
:
r _{b}_{1} cosð _{1} þ _{1} Þ þ u _{1} cos _{b}_{1} sinð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
r _{b}_{1} sinð _{1} þ _{1} Þ þ u _{1} sin _{b}_{1} p _{1} _{1}
u _{1} cos _{b}_{1} cosð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
9
=
;
ð 2 Þ
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
148
Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1)
Figure 1. Helical gear pair system and its coordinate systems used in the formulation.
and the unit diﬀerential with respect to _{1} and u _{1} are, respectively
r
r
0
1 ^{¼} ^{@} ^{r}
0
1
@
1
1u ^{¼} ^{@}^{r} u 0
0
1
@
1
@r ^{0}
1
@
_{1}
^{¼}
@
r
0
1
@
u _{1}
^{¼}
8
<
:
cos ð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
sinð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
0
9
=
;
8
< cos _{b}_{1} sinð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
:
cos
_{b}_{1}
sin _{b}_{1}
cosð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
9
=
;
ð
ð
3Þ
4Þ
The unit normal to the tooth surface _{1} is given by
n _{1} ¼ ^{r}
r
0
1u ^{} ^{r} 1u ^{} ^{r} ^{0}
^{0}
0
0
1
1
^{¼}
8
<
:
sin
sin
cos _{b}_{1}
_{b}_{1}
_{b}_{1}
sinð _{1} þ _{1} Þ cos ð _{1} þ _{1} Þ
9
=
;
ð
5Þ
where p _{1} is the screw parameter, _{1} ¼ w _{t}_{1} =2r _{p}_{1} inv _{t}_{1} , w _{t}_{1} the nominal value of space width on the pitch circle, and _{t}_{1} the transverse pressure angle. Also, _{1} is the pressure angle in the crosssection and _{b}_{1} the helix angle.
_{2} 0 is
The proﬁle _{2} within the coordinate system x expressed as parameters _{2} and u _{2}
0
0
2 ^{y} 2 ^{z}
r
0
2 ^{¼}
0
2
0
8
< x
y
z
2
0
2
:
9
=
;
¼
8
<
:
r _{b}_{2} cosð _{2} " _{2} Þ þ u _{2} cos _{b}_{2} sin ð _{2} " _{2} Þ
r _{b}_{2} sin ð _{2} " _{2} Þ u _{2} cos _{b}_{2} cos ð _{2} " _{2} Þ
u _{2} sin _{b}_{2} þ
p _{2} _{2}
9
=
;
ð 6Þ
r
r
2 ^{¼} ^{@} ^{r}
0
2
@
2
2u ^{¼} ^{@}^{r} u 0
0
2
@
2
0
@r ^{0}
2
@
_{2}
^{¼}
@
r
0
2
@
u _{2}
^{¼}
8
<
:
cosð _{2} " _{2} Þ sinð _{2} " _{2} Þ
0
9
=
;
< cos _{b}_{2} sinð _{2} " _{2} Þ
sin _{b}_{2}
8
cos _{b}_{2} cosð _{2} " _{2} Þ
:
n _{2} ¼ ^{r}
r
0
2u ^{} ^{r} 2u ^{} ^{r}
0
0
2
0
0
2
^{¼}
8
<
:
sin _{b}_{2} sin ð _{2} " _{2} Þ sin _{b}_{2} cos ð _{2} " _{2} Þ cos _{b}_{2}
9
=
;
9
=
;
ð
7Þ
ð 8Þ
ð 9Þ
The proﬁle _{1} expressed in the coordinate system
x _{1} y _{1} z _{1} is obtained by multiplying its expressions in
the coordinate system x matrix T _{1}
_{1} 0 with the transformation
0
0
1 ^{y} 1 ^{z}
0
r _{1} ¼ T _{1} ð ’ _{1} Þ r _{1}
ð 10Þ
r _{} _{1} ¼
T _{1} ð’ _{1} Þr _{} ^{0} _{1}
r _{u}_{1} ¼ T _{1} ð’ _{1} Þr _{u}_{1} ^{0}
ð 11Þ
ð 12Þ
ð 13Þ
Similarly, the proﬁle _{2} expressed in the coordinate system x _{2} y _{2} z _{2} is
0
n _{1} ¼ T _{1} ð’ _{1} Þ n _{1}
0
r _{2} ¼ T _{1} ð ’ _{2} Þ r _{2}
ð 14Þ
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
Wang et al.
149
Figure 2. Single tooth finite element model with applied contact loads.
r _{} _{2} ¼
T _{1} ð’ _{2} Þr _{} ^{0} _{2}
r _{u}_{2} ¼ T _{1} ð ’ _{2} Þr _{u}_{2} ^{0}
n _{2} ¼ T _{1} ð’ _{2} Þn _{2} ^{0}
ð 15Þ
ð 16Þ
ð 17Þ
With the help of equations (10) to (13) and (14) to (17), the position and their diﬀerences with respect to proﬁle parameters of the tooth proﬁle _{1} and _{2} are deter mined and they are foundations for the investigation of the gear’s contact behavior.
Tooth deformation
The traditional block ﬁnite element with eight nodes is applied to account for the deformation of the gear. Figure 2 illustrates the discretization of a tooth in mesh with ﬁnite elements. The node is deﬁned to pos sess translation coordinates u, v, and w corresponding to the x, y, and zaxes, respectively, that is q _{i} ¼ {u _{i} , v _{i} , w _{i} } ^{T} for ith node, which is determined with ﬁnite elem ents except the nodes within a half cylinder with radius of r _{L} in the vicinity of tooth contact area denoted by symbol . According to Bathe ^{1}^{5} the gear deformation
q ¼ [q _{1} q _{2}
dom) can be obtained from
q _{N} ] ^{T} (N is the number of degree of free
q
¼ K ^{} ^{1} Fð PÞ
ð 18Þ
where K is the global stiﬀness matrix and F the vector of external force which is the function of contact load P.
The basis for the gear pair operation is the meshing action through the contact between mating teeth to transmit torque. Finite elements can be applied to rep resent the variation of the deformation within the elem ent by the assumed displacement ﬁeld function or also known as shape function. To facilitate the ﬁnite elem ent calculation process, the shape function is generally constructed as linear or parabolic function. However, the gradients of the deformation and stress within the vicinity of the force action point are so dramatic that the shape function fails to represent the variation prop erly. An easy way to deal with this problem is to increase the ﬁnite element density but this usually results in a prohibitively large number of ﬁnite elem ents. Here, a method proposed earlier by Vijayakar ^{1}^{1} is applied to calculate the deformation and stress within the vicinity of the contact points, which com bines the ﬁnite element formulation and contact mechanics. Within the half cylinder in the vicinity of con tact point P(x _{i} , y _{i} , z _{i} ) in the tooth contact area , as shown in Figure 3, the local coordinate _{i} _{i} _{i} is used to deﬁne the deformation and stress around the vicinity of the point P(x _{i} , y _{i} , z _{i} ) where _{i} axis is perpendicular to the zaxis; _{i} axis is normal to the surface at the point and _{i} axis is orthogonal to both _{i} and _{i} . Borrowing from the theory proposed by Johnson, ^{1}^{6} the deformation u _{} _{i} , v _{} _{i} and w _{} _{i} at generic point A( , , ) caused by contact load p _{i} can be expressed as
u i ¼
^{p}
^{i}
4
G
^{3}
i
ð1 2v Þ
_{i} ð _{i} þ Þ
ð 19 Þ
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
150
Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1)
^{p}
^{i}
_{i} ð _{i} þ Þ
i ¼ ^{3}^{p} 2 ^{i}
5
i
p
^{3}
v i ¼
w i ¼
4
G
^{p}
^{i}
^{3}
ð 1 2v Þ
i
^{2} _{þ} 2 ð 1 v Þ
^{3}
i
i
ð 20Þ
ð 21Þ
ð
24Þ
4
G
where r _{i} ¼
The deformation state and stress at the point A( , , ) are not only determined by the contact load p _{i} , but also inﬂuenced by adjacent contact loads p _{i}_{} _{1} and p _{i} _{þ} _{1} . However, it is obvious from equations (19) to (21) and (22) to (24) that the deformation state and stress drop dramatically as we move farther away from the point of interest. Therefore, it is unnecessary to integrate all the inﬂu ences of load on the line but just a few loads near the point of interest with a bandwidth of B. As a result,
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
^{2} þ ^{2}
where G is the shear modulus, v the Poisson ratio, and
p
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
^{2} þ ^{2} þ ^{2} . The corresponding stress _{} _{i} , _{} _{i} ,
_{} _{i} , _{}_{} _{i} , _{}_{} _{i} and _{}_{} _{i} at a generic point A caused by contact load p _{i} are
_{i} ¼
i ¼ ^{p} ^{i} 2
ð1 2vÞ r 2 i ð1 2vÞ 

1 

2
2 þ 

2 

3 
2
ð 22Þ 2
ð 23Þ 

1 

i
r 2 i 2
2 
3 i
2 

3 
written as 

i ¼ ^{p} ^{i} 2
r 
2 i 


i

r 
2 i 
þ 

3 i 



00 

2 6 6 0 

ð 1 2v Þ 


8 
u 
j 
9 
6 6 6 
^{3} B =2 i 
i B = 2 ð i B = 2 þ Þ 

iþ B =2 ^{X} j ¼ i B =2 > > > < > > > : 
> > > 
^{1} 
6 6 6 0 

ð 1 2v Þ 


D ^{0} ¼ 
v 
j j 
¼ 
^{3} B =2 i 

w 
= > > > ; 4 G 6 6 6 6 
i B = 2 ð i B = 2 þ Þ 

6 
^{2} 
_{þ} 2 ð1 v Þ 

6 0 

6 6 4 ^{3} B = 2 i i B = 2 00 
the general deformations at the point A( , , ) can be
0
0
00
^{3}
i
^{3}
i
ð1 2vÞ
_{i} ð _{i} þ Þ
ð 1 2v Þ
_{i} ð _{i} þ Þ
^{2} _{þ} 2 ð 1 v Þ
^{3}
i
i
00
^{3}
iþ B = 2
^{3}
iþ B = 2
ð 1 2v Þ
ð 1 2v Þ
0
i þB = 2 ð iþ B = 2 þ Þ
i þB = 2 ð iþ B = 2 þ Þ
^{2}
_{þ} 2 ð1 v Þ
i þB = 2
^{3}
þ B =2
i
0
3
7
0
7
0
7
7
0 7
7
7
5
0
7
0
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8 9
>
> >
> >
> >
> >
.
> >
> >
.
> >
> >
p
1
.
> >
> >
> >
> > >
> i B =2
> >
> >
> >
.
> >
.
> >
.
> >
> >
=
>
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > > =2
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
p
>
>
>
>
> >
> >
> >
> >
< >
p
i
.
.
.
i þ B
.
.
.
p
n
> >
p
>
>
>
> >
> >
>
: > ;
>
> >
¼ N ^{0} _{i} P
ð 25 Þ
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
Wang et al.
151
where N ^{0} _{i} is the deformation coeﬃcient matrix for con tact load p _{i} and P the contact load vector. Similarly, the general stress at the point A( , , ) is
Next the half cylinder radius r _{L} is going to be deter mined with the least square method.
i
þB = 2
^{0} ¼ ^{X}
j¼ i B = 2
ð 1 2v Þ
^{2}
r
i
ð 1 2v Þ
r ^{2}
i
¼ C ^{0} i ^{P}
8
>
<
>
:
1
1
i
i
i
9
>
=
>
;
¼
^{1}
2
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
00
_{0}
_{0}
0
ð1 2v Þ
r
^{2}
i
B = 2
ð1 2v Þ
r
^{2}
i
B = 2
"
"
1
1
^{}
^{} ^{2} ^{2}
r
^{2}
i
B = 2
^{} ^{2} ^{2}
r
^{2}
i
B = 2
þ
þ
^{2}
i B = 2
^{}
^{3}
B =2
i
^{2}
i B = 2
^{3}
B =2
i
^{3} ^{} ^{3}
5
i
B =2
00
^{#} _{}
3
^{2}
5
i
B =2
^{#} _{} 3 ^{2}
5
i
B =2
0
0
00
^{} ^{2} ^{2} _{þ} ^{2} ^{} _{} 3 ^{2}
^{}
i
r
^{2}
i
^{3}
i
5
i
^{} ^{2} ^{2} _{þ} ^{2} ^{} _{} 3 ^{2}
^{}
i
r
^{2}
i
^{3}
i
5
i
_{} 3 ^{3}
5
i
_{:}
00
ð 1 2v Þ
r ^{2}
iþ B =2
ð 1 2v Þ
r ^{2}
iþ B =2
0
" iþ B =2
" iþ B =2
1
1
^{}
^{} ^{2} ^{2}
r
^{2}
iþ B = 2
^{} ^{2} ^{2}
^{2}
iþ B = 2
^{2}
iþ B = 2
^{}
þ ^{3}
þ ^{3}
r
^{2}
iþ B = 2
^{3} ^{} ^{3}
5
iþ B =2
0
^{#} _{}
3 ^{2}
5
iþ B = 2
^{#} _{} 3 ^{2}
5
iþ B = 2
3
0
7
0 7
7
7
7
7
7
0 7
7
7
7
7
0
7
7
5
0
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
p
p
p
.
.
.
1
i B = 2
.
.
.
p i
.
.
.
i þB = 2
.
.
.
p
n
9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> =
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;
ð 26 Þ
where C _{i} ^{0} is the stress coeﬃcient matrix for contact load p _{i} . The transformation matrix T _{2} from the local coord inate _{i} _{i} _{i} at P(x _{i} , y _{i} , z _{i} ) to the gear coordinate x _{k} y _{k} z _{k} (k ¼ 1 for pinion and 2 for gear) is
T _{2}_{k} ðu _{k} , _{k} , ’ _{k} Þ ¼
2
6 6
4
T
k
T
r
n k
r
^{T}
uk
3
7 7
_{5} ðÞk ¼ 1, 2
ð 27Þ
where the vector r _{} _{k} , n _{k} and r _{u}_{k} are deﬁned in equations (10) to (13) and (14) to (17). Finally, the general deformation D _{k} and stress p _{k} at the point A( , , ) expressed in the gear coordinate are
D _{k} ¼ T _{2}_{k} ð u _{k} , _{k} , ’ _{k} ÞD ^{0} _{k} ðÞk ¼ 1, 2
_{k} ¼ T _{2}_{k} ðu _{k} , _{k} , ’ _{k} Þ ^{0} _{k} ðÞk ¼ 1, 2
ð
ð
28Þ
29Þ
The determination of half cylinder radius r _{L}
The deformation state and stress in the gears are calcu lated with diﬀerent physical disciplines. As noted ear lier, the response ﬁeld within the vicinity of the contact points or lines is determined using contact mechanics
and the response on the other parts of the gear is
handled using ﬁnite elements. Vijayakar ^{1}^{1} proposed
the use of the least square method to establish displace
ment compatible condition at the interface denoted by symbol L, which is adopted here in this study. However, two natural defects connect with his method: one is that the contact mechanics coverage is set artiﬁcially with random; the other the stresses at interface obtained from both disciplines are discontinuous. Here, an improved method is proposed that assumes the continua of the stress across the interface and the equivalence of the stress at the interface for both dis ciplines. As shown in Figure 3, the interface surface L
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
152
Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1)
Figure 3. Small tooth area in the vicinity of the contact load pi.
of half cylinder is discretized with n section equally spaced in the axial direction and M in circumference.
A 
series of intersection points are selected and indicated 

as 
B _{i}_{,}_{m} (i ¼ 1, 
, n, m ¼ 1, 
, M), the stresses on those 
points are used to represent the stress state on the whole surface. To facilitate the calculation, those points are selected within the gear crosssection of contact load P,
which means that at the p _{i} crosssection, the points are
B _{i}_{,}_{m} (m ¼ 1,
In the following development, the stress at B _{i}_{,}_{m}
, M) on the interface L is calculated. First,
(m ¼ 1,
the intersection between the half cylinder and cross section at p _{i} within the coordinate x _{k} y _{k} z _{k} in a half circle can be expressed as
, M).
ðx x _{i} Þ ^{2} þ ð y y _{i} Þ ^{2}
2
¼ r _{L}
ð 30Þ
With the help of the above equation, the coordinates
of point B _{i}_{,}_{m} are determined by equally discreting the half circle. Obviously, the coordinates of point B _{i}_{,}_{m} are linear function of radius r _{L}
8
<
¼ f _{1} ð r _{L} Þ
y i,m ¼ f 2 ðr L Þ
x
_{i}_{,}_{m}
: z i,m ¼ z i
ð 31Þ
where f _{1} and f _{2} are function relating the r _{L} and x _{i}_{,}_{m} and y _{i}_{,}_{m} . Then, the stresses ^{L} ^{f}^{e} at those points are obtained
i,m
by ﬁnite elements with the given element nodal dis placement q _{e}
15
_{} L fe i,m
¼ Bð r _{i}_{,}_{m} ,s _{i}_{,}_{m} ,t _{i} Þ q _{e} ði ¼ 1, 
, n, m ¼ 1, 
, MÞ 

ð 
32Þ 
where within the symbol ^{L} ^{f}^{e} , the superscript Lfe
i,m
means at the interface L and is calculated by ﬁnite elem ent while subscript i,m refers to the corresponding point B _{i}_{,}_{m} . Also, B(r _{i}_{,}_{m} , s _{i}_{,}_{m} ,t _{i} ) is the strain–displacement matrix in which the rows of B are obtained by appro priately diﬀerentiating and combining the ﬁnite element
shape function H, r _{i}_{,}_{m} , s _{i}_{,}_{m} and t _{i} are the local ﬁnite element coordinates determined with x _{i}_{,}_{m} , y _{i}_{,}_{m} and z _{i} , and thus they are also the linear function of r _{L}
8
>
>
<
>
>
:
¼ f _{3} ðr _{L} Þ
s i,m ¼ f 4 ðr L Þ
r
_{i}_{,}_{m}
t _{i} ¼ f _{5} ðr _{L} Þ
ð 33Þ
On the other hand, the stress ^{L} ^{c}^{m} at point B _{i}_{,}_{m} on
i,m
the interface L can be derived from equation (29) as follows
_{} L cm i,m
¼ 
_{k} ð u _{k} , _{k} , ’ _{k} ,r _{L} Þ ð i ¼ 1 
n,m ¼ 1 
M Þ 

ð 
34Þ 
where the superscript L_cm refers to the interface L and calculated by applying contact mechanics. This pro posed method assumes that the stresses at the point
, M) are equal, which is not
B _{i}_{,}_{m} (i ¼ 1,
generally true in practice. Therefore, the least square method is applied to minimize their diﬀerences
, n, m ¼ 1,
n
s ¼ ^{X}
i
¼ 1
M
X
m
¼ 1
_{ð} _{} L fe i,m
_{} _{} L cm i,m
Þ ^{2}
ð 35Þ
Downloaded from pic.sagepub.com at Gazi University on January 2, 2013
Wang et al.
153
Then, diﬀerentiating with respect to r _{L} and set it to be zero yields
n
L X
@
r
i
¼1
@
M
X
m
¼ 1
_{ð} _{} L fe _{} _{} L cm
i,m
i,m
Þ ^{2} ¼ 0
ð 36Þ
The above problem represents a set of nonlinear algebraic equations that can be solved with numerical method such as Newton–Raphson method to obtain the optimal value of r _{L} .
Tooth flank displacement
To calculate the displacement of a generic point at the tooth ﬂank relative to the gear coordinate system, the radius R _{L} of half cylinder should be determined ﬁrst. Using this approach, the absolute displacements D _{A} of a point inside the half cylinder relative to the gear coordinate system can be shown to be
D _{A} ¼ D
cm
A
þ
1
N X
i
X
m
ð
D
L fe
B
i,m
D
L cm
B
i,m
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.