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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

Multi-tooth contact behavior of helical gear applying modified meshing equation

Jianhong Wang, Teik C Lim and Yi Ding Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 2013 227:

146 originally published online 15 March 2012 DOI: 10.1177/0954406212441752

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Original Article

Original Article
Original Article

Multi-tooth contact behavior of helical gear applying modified meshing equation

Jianhong Wang 1 , Teik C Lim 1,2 and Yi Ding 1

Proc IMechE Part C:

J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1) 146–160 ! IMechE 2012 Reprints and permissions:

sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0954406212441752 pic.sagepub.com

DOI: 10.1177/0954406212441752 pic.sagepub.com Abstract In tooth contact analysis, the numerical process

Abstract In tooth contact analysis, the numerical process of searching for true contact lines or points is always a daunting task. The true contact lines for ideal helical gear transmission can be easily obtained through the helical gear meshing theory; however, in practice, this approach does not work well due to effect of tooth elasticity that shifts the contact lines from their ideal position. To address this problem, an approximate method to seek the true contact positions is proposed applying a modified meshing equation for a pair of helical gear with error free and no shaft deformation. First, the helical gear tooth deformation is calculated with the combination of contact mechanics and finite element method. Second, the deformed tooth flanks are fitted with Chebyshev polynomials. Third, the modified meshing equation is formulated by accounting for the influence of not only gear rigid body movement but also the gear deformation on the meshing process. Finally, the true contact points are determined by solving the correlated tooth flank equations, meshing equations, and force balance equations. The deformations of the gear and pinion teeth within the meshing plane are analyzed, and the contact load distributions along with the Von Mises stresses over a mesh cycle are examined. The study indicates that the proposed numerical method can yield true contact lines quickly while avoiding costly computational time in the trad- itional true contact line searching process that searches iteratively in the whole meshed tooth flank.

Keywords Helical gear, meshing equation, multi-tooth contact, von Mises stress

Date received: 25 October 2011; accepted: 20 February 2012

Introduction

As one of the most widely applied gear transmissions in industry, helical gear meshing behavior, especially the multi-tooth contact cases, has attracted much attention in the past. Ajmi and Velex 1 discretized the gear bodies by applying two-noded shaft finite elements with bend- ing, torsion and traction effects, represented the tooth deflection by Pasternak’s elastic foundations model, and then used the classical approximation based on semi-infinite elastic spaces to calculate tooth contact stiffness. Using these formulations, they simulated the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of solid wide-faced gear, and concluded that gear body distortions are crit- ical to gear meshing behavior. Zhang and Fang 2 gener- ated the helical gear tooth surface by a rack cutter with a parabolic profile, set the contact condition through gear mesh theory and calculated the tooth surface gap between two meshing teeth. They further described a set of algebraic equations to determine the multi-tooth contact situations, and analyzed the meshing behavior of a pair of helical gear with small crossing angle.

Their results show that the helical gear with small cross- ing angles have similar mesh characteristics and load distribution compared to those of parallel-axis gears. Litvin et al. 3 established the normal and edge contact conditions by employing the gear mesh theory, formu- lated the equations of gear tooth surfaces with localized bearing contact and developed tooth contact analysis algorithms for aligned and misaligned involute helical gears. In another study by Litvin et al., 4 the modifica- tion of helical gears with double-crowned pinion and conventional involute helical gears to avoid point and edge contacts was studied. Those modifications led to substantial reduction in vibration and noise typically

1 State Key Lab for Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, PR China 2 School of Dynamic Systems, University of Cincinnati, USA

Corresponding author:

Jianhong Wang, State Key Lab for Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR China. Email: jhwang@cqu.edu.cn

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Wang et al.

147

induced by misalignment. Their research works focused on the geared system computerized design, its gener- ation of tooth forms, meshing simulation and then stress analysis. Kar and Mohanty 5 focused on the con- tact line variation in a helical gear system that tends to induce not only friction force variation, friction torque variation and contact force variation at the bearings, but also gear mesh stiffness and damping variations. Hedlund and Lehtovaara 6 introduced a model for hel- ical gear tooth contact analysis incorporating tooth bending, shearing, and tooth foundation flexibility. They concluded that tooth foundation flexibility plays an essential role in contact load sharing between the meshing teeth, whereas the effect of contact flexibility

is minor. Kawalec and Wiktor 7 presented a method for

the determination of equations representing cylindrical gear tooth modification. The modified tooth surface was formed with simulation of tool trajectory, and the tooth elasticity was accounted for using three- dimensional finite elements. Wang and Fong 8 analyzed the contact characteristics of a pair of double-crowned helical gear whose tooth flank was double crowned with

a cycloidal curve in the longitudinal direction and a

circle in the profile direction. The tooth bearing contact of the mating tooth surfaces under various assembly cases was studied. The results show that the proposed double-crowned helical gear set is insensitive to axis misalignments and center distance variation. Miyoshi

et al. 9 proposed a composite analysis method that can

quickly determine helical gear tooth contact load dis- tribution for any load condition applying three steps:

first, according to actual tooth flank shape, assembly error and tooth static deflection, the tooth true shape was determined; second, the static deflection distribu- tion and share load were calculated; and finally the tooth contact load distribution was obtained by inte- grating the equation consisting of bending deflection and tooth contact deformation. In a more recent study, Kolivand and Kahraman 10 proposed an algo- rithm to determine the locations and orientation of potential instantaneous contact lines between two rigid contacting tooth surfaces by constructing a new surface of roll angle. As seen from above, even though many investiga- tions have been carried out to study the contact behav- ior of helical gear, the contact characteristic still needs to be better understood. Most of challenges come from the complexity in the geometry of the helical gear invo- lute tooth surface after deformation, which complicates the prediction of the true contact line. On the other hand, the lack of the fast calculation method to deter- mine tooth deformation with high precision is also a hindrance to the investigation of the contact behavior of helical gear. This study attempts to address some of those difficulties mentioned above. In this study, the

tooth surface deformation is determined using a com- bination of finite elements and contact mechanics and then is fitted as function of tooth surface parameters. Helical gear’s meshing equation after deformation is established through inserting the fitted deformation into the meshing equation of the ideal gears. The true contact lines are gained by solving the meshing equa- tion. In addition, an improvement on Vijayakar’s 11 method to calculate the tooth surface deformation by combination of finite elements and contact mechanics is proposed through determining the circle radius of the contact area by the least square method. Finally, it may be noted that this study represents an extension of the earlier studies documented in Wang et al. 12

Formulation

The helical geared rotor system of interest as shown in Figure 1 comprises of a pair of identical helical gears supported by four bearings. The global coordinate system xyz located at the center of the bearing 1 is defined as follows: the x-axis is directed normal to both shaft axes, the y-axis is perpendicular to both the shaft axis and x-axis, and the z-axis is aligned along the center of shaft 1. Pinion position as defined by coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is supported on bearings 1 (B1) and 2 (B2) via shaft 1, and gear position as described by coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is held by bearings 3 (B3) and 4 (B4) via shaft 2. The facewidths of the pinion and gear are given by b 1 and b 2 .

Involute surface

Before proceeding any further, a transformation matrix between two coordinates should be defined. When a coordinate system of a rigid body rotates about the z-axis with an angle , the transformation matrix T 1 describing this pair of motion can be defined as 13

T 1 ð Þ ¼

2

4

cos

sin

0

sin cos

3

0 5

0

01

ð 1 Þ

For a pair of helical gear with right hand shown in Figure 1, the pinion tooth profile 1 and gear tooth

profile 2 are contact surfaces. The profile 1 within

1 0 is expressed as parameters

1 and u 1 as proposed by Litvin, 14 which is also being

the coordinate system x

0 0

1 y 1 z

applied here as

r

0

1 ¼

8

<

:

x

y

z

0

1

0

1

0

1

9

=

;

¼

8

<

:

r b1 cosð 1 þ 1 Þ þ u 1 cos b1 sinð 1 þ 1 Þ

r b1 sinð 1 þ 1 Þ þ u 1 sin b1 p 1 1

u 1 cos b1 cosð 1 þ 1 Þ

9

=

;

ð 2 Þ

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148

Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1)

Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1) Figure 1. Helical gear pair system and

Figure 1. Helical gear pair system and its coordinate systems used in the formulation.

and the unit differential with respect to 1 and u 1 are, respectively

r

r

0

1 ¼ @ r

0

1

@

1

1u ¼ @r u 0

0

1

@

1

@r 0

1

@

1

¼

@

r

0

1

@

u 1

¼

8

<

:

cos ð 1 þ 1 Þ

sinð 1 þ 1 Þ

0

9

=

;

8

< cos b1 sinð 1 þ 1 Þ

:

cos

b1

sin b1

cosð 1 þ 1 Þ

9

=

;

ð

ð

3Þ

4Þ

The unit normal to the tooth surface 1 is given by

n 1 ¼ r

r

0

1u r 1u r 0

0

0

0

1

1

¼

8

<

:

sin

sin

cos b1

b1

b1

sinð 1 þ 1 Þ cos ð 1 þ 1 Þ

9

=

;

ð

5Þ

where p 1 is the screw parameter, 1 ¼ w t1 =2r p1 inv t1 , w t1 the nominal value of space width on the pitch circle, and t1 the transverse pressure angle. Also, 1 is the pressure angle in the cross-section and b1 the helix angle.

2 0 is

The profile 2 within the coordinate system x expressed as parameters 2 and u 2

0

0

2 y 2 z

r

0

2 ¼

0

2

0

8

< x

y

z

2

0

2

:

9

=

;

¼

8

<

:

r b2 cosð 2 " 2 Þ þ u 2 cos b2 sin ð 2 " 2 Þ

r b2 sin ð 2 " 2 Þ u 2 cos b2 cos ð 2 " 2 Þ

u 2 sin b2 þ

p 2 2

9

=

;

ð 6Þ

r

r

2 ¼ @ r

0

2

@

2

2u ¼ @r u 0

0

2

@

2

0

@r 0

2

@

2

¼

@

r

0

2

@

u 2

¼

8

<

:

cosð 2 " 2 Þ sinð 2 " 2 Þ

0

9

=

;

< cos b2 sinð 2 " 2 Þ

sin b2

8

cos b2 cosð 2 " 2 Þ

:

n 2 ¼ r

r

0

2u r 2u r

0

0

2

0

0

2

¼

8

<

:

sin b2 sin ð 2 " 2 Þ sin b2 cos ð 2 " 2 Þ cos b2

9

=

;

9

=

;

ð

7Þ

ð 8Þ

ð 9Þ

The profile 1 expressed in the coordinate system

x 1 y 1 z 1 is obtained by multiplying its expressions in

the coordinate system x matrix T 1

1 0 with the transformation

0

0

1 y 1 z

0

r 1 ¼ T 1 ð 1 Þ r 1

ð 10Þ

r 1 ¼

T 1 ð1 Þr 0 1

r u1 ¼ T 1 ð1 Þr u1 0

ð 11Þ

ð 12Þ

ð 13Þ

Similarly, the profile 2 expressed in the coordinate system x 2 y 2 z 2 is

0

n 1 ¼ T 1 ð1 Þ n 1

0

r 2 ¼ T 1 ð 2 Þ r 2

ð 14Þ

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Wang et al.

149

Wang et al. 149 Figure 2. Single tooth finite element model with applied contact loads. r

Figure 2. Single tooth finite element model with applied contact loads.

r 2 ¼

T 1 ð2 Þr 0 2

r u2 ¼ T 1 ð 2 Þr u2 0

n 2 ¼ T 1 ð2 Þn 2 0

ð 15Þ

ð 16Þ

ð 17Þ

With the help of equations (10) to (13) and (14) to (17), the position and their differences with respect to profile parameters of the tooth profile 1 and 2 are deter- mined and they are foundations for the investigation of the gear’s contact behavior.

Tooth deformation

The traditional block finite element with eight nodes is applied to account for the deformation of the gear. Figure 2 illustrates the discretization of a tooth in mesh with finite elements. The node is defined to pos- sess translation coordinates u, v, and w corresponding to the x, y, and z-axes, respectively, that is q i ¼ {u i , v i , w i } T for ith node, which is determined with finite elem- ents except the nodes within a half cylinder with radius of r L in the vicinity of tooth contact area denoted by symbol . According to Bathe 15 the gear deformation

q ¼ [q 1 q 2

dom) can be obtained from

q N ] T (N is the number of degree of free-

q

¼ K 1 Fð PÞ

ð 18Þ

where K is the global stiffness matrix and F the vector of external force which is the function of contact load P.

The basis for the gear pair operation is the meshing action through the contact between mating teeth to transmit torque. Finite elements can be applied to rep- resent the variation of the deformation within the elem- ent by the assumed displacement field function or also known as shape function. To facilitate the finite elem- ent calculation process, the shape function is generally constructed as linear or parabolic function. However, the gradients of the deformation and stress within the vicinity of the force action point are so dramatic that the shape function fails to represent the variation prop- erly. An easy way to deal with this problem is to increase the finite element density but this usually results in a prohibitively large number of finite elem- ents. Here, a method proposed earlier by Vijayakar 11 is applied to calculate the deformation and stress within the vicinity of the contact points, which com- bines the finite element formulation and contact mechanics. Within the half cylinder in the vicinity of con- tact point P(x i , y i , z i ) in the tooth contact area , as shown in Figure 3, the local coordinate i i i is used to define the deformation and stress around the vicinity of the point P(x i , y i , z i ) where i -axis is perpendicular to the z-axis; i -axis is normal to the surface at the point and i -axis is orthogonal to both i and i . Borrowing from the theory proposed by Johnson, 16 the deformation u i , v i and w i at generic point A( , , ) caused by contact load p i can be expressed as

u i ¼

p

i

4

G

3

i

ð1 2v Þ

i ð i þ Þ

ð 19 Þ

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150

Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1)

p

i

i ð i þ Þ

i ¼ 3p 2 i

5

i

p

3

v i ¼

w i ¼

4

G

p

i

3

ð 1 2v Þ

i

2 þ 2 ð 1 v Þ

3

i

i

ð 20Þ

ð 21Þ

ð

24Þ

4

G

where r i ¼

The deformation state and stress at the point A( , , ) are not only determined by the contact load p i , but also influenced by adjacent contact loads p i- 1 and p i þ 1 . However, it is obvious from equations (19) to (21) and (22) to (24) that the deformation state and stress drop dramatically as we move farther away from the point of interest. Therefore, it is unnecessary to integrate all the influ- ences of load on the line but just a few loads near the point of interest with a bandwidth of B. As a result,

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

2 þ 2

where G is the shear modulus, v the Poisson ratio, and

p

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

2 þ 2 þ 2 . The corresponding stress i , i ,

i , i , i and i at a generic point A caused by contact load p i are

i ¼

i ¼ p i

2

ð1 2vÞ

r

2

i

ð1 2vÞ

1

2

2

þ

2

3

2


5
i

ð 22Þ

2


5
i

ð 23Þ

 

1

i

r

2

i

2

2

3

i

2

3

written as

i ¼ p i

2

r

2

i

i

r

2

i

þ

3

i

 

00

2

6

6

0

ð 1 2v Þ

 

 

8

u

j

9

6

6

6

3

B =2

i

i B = 2 ð i B = 2 þ Þ

iþ B =2

X

j

¼ i B =2

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

:

 

>

>

>

1

6

6

6

0

 

ð 1 2v Þ

 

D 0 ¼

 

v

j

j

¼

3

B =2

i

 

w

=

>

>

>

;

4

G

6

6

6

6

 

i B = 2 ð i B = 2 þ Þ

 

6

2

þ 2 ð1 v Þ

 
 

6

0

 
 

6

6

4

3

B = 2

i

i B = 2

00

 

the general deformations at the point A( , , ) can be

0

0

00

3

i

3

i

ð1 2vÞ

i ð i þ Þ

ð 1 2v Þ

i ð i þ Þ

2 þ 2 ð 1 v Þ

3

i

i

00

3

iþ B = 2

3

iþ B = 2

ð 1 2v Þ

ð 1 2v Þ

0

i þB = 2 ð iþ B = 2 þ Þ

i þB = 2 ð iþ B = 2 þ Þ

2

þ 2 ð1 v Þ

i þB = 2

3

þ B =2

i

0

3

7

0

7

0

7

7

0 7

7

7

5

0

7

0

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

8 9
>

> >

> >

> >

> >

.

> >

> >

.

> >

> >

p

1

.

> >

> >

> >

> > >
> i B =2

> >

> >

> >

.

> >

.

> >

.

> >

> >

=
>

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> > > =2

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

> >

p

>

>

>

>

> >

> >

> >

> >

< >

p

i

.

.

.

i þ B

.

.

.

p

n

> >

p

>

>

>

> >

> >

>

: > ;

>

> >

¼ N 0 i P

ð 25 Þ

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Wang et al.

151

where N 0 i is the deformation coefficient matrix for con- tact load p i and P the contact load vector. Similarly, the general stress at the point A( , , ) is

Next the half cylinder radius r L is going to be deter- mined with the least square method.

i

þB = 2

0 ¼ X

j¼ i B = 2

ð 1 2v Þ

2

r

i

ð 1 2v Þ

r 2

i

¼ C 0 i P

8

>

<

>

:

1

1

i

i

i

9

>

=

>

;

¼

1

2

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

00

0

0

0

ð1 2v Þ

r

2

i

B = 2

ð1 2v Þ

r

2

i

B = 2

"

"

1

1

2 2

r

2

i

B = 2

2 2

r

2

i

B = 2

þ

þ

2

i B = 2

3

B =2

i

2

i B = 2

3

B =2

i

3 3

5

i

B =2

00

#

3

2

5

i

B =2

# 3 2

5

i

B =2

0

0

00

2 2 þ 2 3 2

i

r

2

i

3

i

5

i

2 2 þ 2 3 2

i

r

2

i

3

i

5

i

3 3

5

i

:

00

ð 1 2v Þ

r 2

iþ B =2

ð 1 2v Þ

r 2

iþ B =2

0

" iþ B =2

" iþ B =2

1

1

2 2

r

2

iþ B = 2

2 2

2

iþ B = 2

2

iþ B = 2

þ 3

þ 3

r

2

iþ B = 2

3 3

5

iþ B =2

0

#

3 2

5

iþ B = 2

# 3 2

5

iþ B = 2

3

0

7

0 7

7

7

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

7

7
0

7

7

5

0

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

p

p

p

.

.

.

1

i B = 2

.

.

.

p i

.

.

.

i þB = 2

.

.

.

p

n

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

> =
>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;

ð 26 Þ

where C i 0 is the stress coefficient matrix for contact load p i . The transformation matrix T 2 from the local coord- inate i i i at P(x i , y i , z i ) to the gear coordinate x k y k z k (k ¼ 1 for pinion and 2 for gear) is

T 2k ðu k , k , k Þ ¼

2

6 6

4

T

k

T

r

n k

r

T

uk

uk

3

7 7

5 ðÞk ¼ 1, 2

ð 27Þ

where the vector r k , n k and r uk are defined in equations (10) to (13) and (14) to (17). Finally, the general deformation D k and stress p k at the point A( , , ) expressed in the gear coordinate are

D k ¼ T 2k ð u k , k , k ÞD 0 k ðÞk ¼ 1, 2

k ¼ T 2k ðu k , k , k Þ 0 k ðÞk ¼ 1, 2

ð

ð

28Þ

29Þ

The determination of half cylinder radius r L

The deformation state and stress in the gears are calcu- lated with different physical disciplines. As noted ear- lier, the response field within the vicinity of the contact points or lines is determined using contact mechanics

and the response on the other parts of the gear is

handled using finite elements. Vijayakar 11 proposed

the use of the least square method to establish displace-

ment compatible condition at the interface denoted by symbol L, which is adopted here in this study. However, two natural defects connect with his method: one is that the contact mechanics coverage is set artificially with random; the other the stresses at interface obtained from both disciplines are discontinuous. Here, an improved method is proposed that assumes the continua of the stress across the interface and the equivalence of the stress at the interface for both dis- ciplines. As shown in Figure 3, the interface surface L

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152

Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1)

Proc IMechE Part C: J Mechanical Engineering Science 227(1) Figure 3. Small tooth area in the

Figure 3. Small tooth area in the vicinity of the contact load pi.

of half cylinder is discretized with n section equally spaced in the axial direction and M in circumference.

A

series of intersection points are selected and indicated

as

B i,m (i ¼ 1,

, n, m ¼ 1,

, M), the stresses on those

points are used to represent the stress state on the whole surface. To facilitate the calculation, those points are selected within the gear cross-section of contact load P,

which means that at the p i cross-section, the points are

B i,m (m ¼ 1,

In the following development, the stress at B i,m

, M) on the interface L is calculated. First,

(m ¼ 1,

the intersection between the half cylinder and cross- section at p i within the coordinate x k y k z k in a half circle can be expressed as

, M).

ðx x i Þ 2 þ ð y y i Þ 2

2

¼ r L

ð 30Þ

With the help of the above equation, the coordinates

of point B i,m are determined by equally discreting the half circle. Obviously, the coordinates of point B i,m are linear function of radius r L

8

<

¼ f 1 ð r L Þ

y i,m ¼ f 2 ðr L Þ

x

i,m

: z i,m ¼ z i

ð 31Þ

where f 1 and f 2 are function relating the r L and x i,m and y i,m . Then, the stresses L fe at those points are obtained

i,m

by finite elements with the given element nodal dis- placement q e

15

L fe i,m

¼ Bð r i,m ,s i,m ,t i Þ q e ði ¼ 1,

, n, m ¼ 1,

, MÞ

 

ð

32Þ

where within the symbol L fe , the superscript L-fe

i,m

means at the interface L and is calculated by finite elem- ent while subscript i,m refers to the corresponding point B i,m . Also, B(r i,m , s i,m ,t i ) is the strain–displacement matrix in which the rows of B are obtained by appro- priately differentiating and combining the finite element

shape function H, r i,m , s i,m and t i are the local finite element coordinates determined with x i,m , y i,m and z i , and thus they are also the linear function of r L

8

>

>

<

>

>

:

¼ f 3 ðr L Þ

s i,m ¼ f 4 ðr L Þ

r

i,m

t i ¼ f 5 ðr L Þ

ð 33Þ

On the other hand, the stress L cm at point B i,m on

i,m

the interface L can be derived from equation (29) as follows

L cm i,m

¼

k ð u k , k , k ,r L Þ ð i ¼ 1

n,m ¼ 1

M Þ

 

ð

34Þ

where the superscript L_cm refers to the interface L and calculated by applying contact mechanics. This pro- posed method assumes that the stresses at the point

, M) are equal, which is not

B i,m (i ¼ 1,

generally true in practice. Therefore, the least square method is applied to minimize their differences

, n, m ¼ 1,

n

s ¼ X

i

¼ 1

M

X

m

¼ 1

ð L fe i,m

L cm i,m

Þ 2

ð 35Þ

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Wang et al.

153

Then, differentiating with respect to r L and set it to be zero yields

n

L X

@

r

i

¼1

@

M

X

m

¼ 1

ð L fe L cm

i,m

i,m

Þ 2 ¼ 0

ð 36Þ

The above problem represents a set of nonlinear algebraic equations that can be solved with numerical method such as Newton–Raphson method to obtain the optimal value of r L .

Tooth flank displacement

To calculate the displacement of a generic point at the tooth flank relative to the gear coordinate system, the radius R L of half cylinder should be determined first. Using this approach, the absolute displacements D A of a point inside the half cylinder relative to the gear coordinate system can be shown to be

D A ¼ D

cm

A

þ

1

N X

i

X

m

ð

D

L fe

B

i,m

D

L cm

B

i,m