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Efficiency of the Boiler is given by Heat Output from Boiler Boiler Efficiency = Heat input to Boiler Heat Output from Boiler = (Sp. Enthalpy of Main Steam Sp. Enthalpy of Feed Water) Steam Flow + (Sp. Enthalpy of H.R.H. Steam Sp. Enthalpy of C.R.H. Steam) R.H. Steam flow Heat Input to Boiler = Fuel fired Calorific Value of fuel However, accurate measurement of coal flow is not available. Hence this method of computing Boiler Efficiency is not used. However, Efficiency can also be determined as Boiler Efficiency = (100 - % losses from the Boiler) (1)

For monitoring the boiler performance, the losses are computed, considering Gross Calorific Value of coal, on As fired basis. Calorific value of coal is defined as follows: Calorific Value of coal: Heat energy liberated due to the combustion of I Kg of coal is called Calorific Value. Its unit is Kcal / Kg.. Gross Calorific Value, also called High Calorific value : It is the total heat liberated by complete combustion of unit quantity of coal and products of combustion cooled down to Room Temperature. GCV is measured by Bomb Calorimeter. Hydrogen in coal reacts with oxygen and forms H2O. Hence, products of combustion contain water vapors. On cooling down the products of combustion to room temperature, Water vapor condense, giving out latent heat of condensation which is also included in GCV Net or Low Calorific Value: It is the net heat liberated by complete combustion of unit quantity of coal and products of combustion are allowed to escape. Hence Net Calorific Value = Gross Calorific Value Latent Heat of Condensation of water (2) vapor produced. 1 part by weight of hydrogen, gives 9 parts by weight of water as follows: H2 + O = H2O 2Kg + 16 Kg = 18 Kg or 1 Kg + 8Kg = 9 Kg Therefore NCV or Low CV = GCV 9 H/100 587, Where 587 Kcal / Kg is the latent heat of steam and H is % Hydrogen in fuel. (3)

Air-dried basis analysis: Coal samples are in equilibrium with laboratory atmosphere, hence

results of such analysis are said to be available on Air Dried basis. Coal is analyzed by two ways, called Ultimate analysis and Proximate analysis. Proximate Analysis of coal gives information about Moisture in coal M, Ash A, Volatile matters VM and Fixed Carbon FC. Ultimate Analysis gives information on Carbon, Hydrogen, Sulphur, Oxygen and Nitrogen present in the sample. For computation of boiler losses, ultimate analysis is required. But Ultimate Analysis can not be carried out on daily basis whereas Proximate Analysis is carried out daily. Certain Empirical Relations are available for correlating the proximate analysis and Ultimate Analysis. One such relation, known as Gebhardt Formula, being used currently is as follows: Hydrogen H = FC + 0.9 (VM-14) Nitrogen N = VM { [7.35 / (VM + 10)] 0.013} Sulphur = 0.4 or from previous Ultimate Analysis Oxygen = 100 (H + N + S + C + M + A) (7) Where values of FC, VM, M and A are known by proximate analysis. Losses from the Boiler are well defined and are listed as follows: 1. Heat loss through dry flue gas 2. Loss due to moisture in air 3. Loss due to moisture in fuel 4. Loss due to Hydrogen in Coal 5. Unburnt carbon loss 6. Radiation loss 7. Unaccounted losses The method of computing these losses for a boiler is as explained below: Following tests are carried out on Boiler and results are used in the computational methods. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Flue gas analysis by Orsat Apparatus Proximate analysis of coal, for which samples are drawn from Coal feeders, at regular intervals during the test Fly Ash and Bottom ash analysis of the samples taken during the test Temperature measurement for flue gases at APH Inlet and outlet Dry bulb and wet bulb temperature of atmospheric air during the test period (4) (5) (6)

Computation of Heat loss through dry flue gas: Flue gases temperature after Air Pre Heater is approx. 130 to 140 C whereas Fuel and Air enters the furnace at ambient temperature. Heat energy required to raise the temperature of flue gases is obtained from the Heat Energy released by combustion of fuel. The energy contained by flue gases at A.P.H. outlet is thus lost and computed by: Mass of flue gases leaving APH per Kg of coal fired (Temp. of Flue Gas Temp. of ambient air) Specific Heat of flue gases. (8)


Mass of flue gases per Kg of coal fired can be computed by: Theoretical Air Required for combustion of 1 kg of coal + Excess Air supplied Loss due to dry flue gas = (WDA 30.6 (TGO- Ambient Temp) 100) Percent (4.186 G.C.V. of coal) WDA = Weight of Dry Flue Gas Kg / Kg of coal = (10)


(Carbon in coal) + (Sulphur in coal / 2.67) - (100 UC / Kg of coal at actual) (12.0 CO2) Where 30.6 is Specific heat of Flue Gases in Kj / Kg/ C TGO is Dry flue gas temperature (corrected) CO2 is measured by Orsat Apparatus 1/ 2.67 is ratio of Atomic weight of Carbon to Sulphur 1/ 4.186 is Conversion factor from kJ / Kg / C to Kcal / Kg / C UC is Unburnt Carbon in ash GCV is gross calorific value of coal Corrected is Dry flue gas temperature TGO is given by = Design Ambient Temp (TGI TGO) + TGI (TGO TAI) (TGI TAI) Where TGI = APH gas inlet temperature TGO = APH gas outlet temperature TAI = APH air inlet temperature Computation of Loss due to Moisture: Since the flue gas loss is computed on dry basis, i.e. by ignoring the moisture, the heat lost through moisture is computed separately as follows. Loss due to Moisture in air = (TMA 1.88 (TGO Ambient Temp) 100) (4.186 GCV of coal) Where TMA is total moisture in air = Weight of Moisture per Kg of dry air Excess Air Stoichiometric Dry air Weight of Moisture per Kg of dry air is known from Psychrometric charts Stoichiometric Dry air in Kg per Kg of coal fired = (2.664 Carbon + 7.996 Hydrogen + Sulphur Oxygen) / 23.2 (12) (11)




Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Sulphur indicate the contents in coal given by Ultimate Analysis TGO = APH gas outlet temperature 1/ 4.186 is Conversion factor from kJ / Kg / C to Kcal / Kg / C 1/ 23.2 is Kg of theoretical air per Kg of coal Loss due to moisture in fuel = Sensible Heat of Water Vapor moisture content in coal 4.186 GCV of coal Sensible Heat of Water Vapor = (16) (15)

1.889 (APH Gas outlet temp. 25) + Latent heat of evaporation of water + 4.2 (25 Actual ambient air temp.) Loss due to Hydrogen in Fuel = (9.0 Hydrogen content Sensible heat of water vapor) / (4.186 GCV) Loss due to unburnt Carbon (Unburnt carbon per Kg of coal 8077.8 100) / GCV Where unburnt carbon is measured, 8077.8 Kcal / Kg is the Calorific Value of Carbon. The Radiation losses, unaccounted losses are not measured and taken to be equal to those given by manufacturer. Note: Methods of operating the Boiler to keep the losses to minimum are discussed in the write up on Heat rate of thermal power plant. (18) (17)