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Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants

A
PROJECT
ON
DESIGN OF COOLANT RECIRCULATING PUMP
USED IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Submitted
in partial fulfillment of
the requirements of the degree of

B.TECH. IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
By
AJINKYA A. PARAB (081020070)
BHARAT SUBRAMONY (081020067)
NAKUL R. GAWATRE (081020215)
2011-2012
Under the guidance of

PROF. S.M. GUNADAL

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute
Mumbai 400 019
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Ajinkya A. Parab, Bharat Subramony and Nakul R. Gawatre students of
B.Tech (Mechanical engineering), have completed the thesis entitled, DESIGN OF
COOLANT RECIRCULATING PUMP USED IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS to our
satisfaction.




Prof. S.M. GUNADAL
Project Guide
Department of Mechanical engineering
Dr. M.A. Dharap
The Head,
Department of Mechanical engineering







Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


CERTIFICATE

The thesis, DESIGN OF COOLANT RECIRCULATING PUMP USED IN NUCLEAR
POWER PLANTS submitted by Ajinkya A. Parab, Bharat Subramony and Nakul R.
Gawatre is found to be satisfactory and is approved for the Degree of Bachelors in
Technology in Mechanical engineering.





Prof. S.M. GUNADAL
Project Guide
Department of mechanical engineering

Examiner

Date:

Place:



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Declaration of the Students

We declare that this written submission represents our ideas in our own words and where
others' ideas or words have been included, we have adequately cited and referenced the
original sources.

We also declare that we have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and
have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea / data / fact / source in our
submission.

We understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the
Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly
cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed.



Signature of the students



Ajinkya A. Parab-(081020070)


Bharat Subramony-(081020067)


Nakul R. Gawatre-(081020215)




Date: Place:



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


List of symbols

A area of flow, cross section
b
i
width of impeller at a given section i
c absolute velocity
c
s
flow velocity in suction nozzle
D,d diameter
d
b
average diameter of impeller at inlet or outlet
d
n
hub diameter
d
s
shaft diameter
d
D
shaft diameter at seal
e vane/blade thickness
F force
F
ax
axial force
H
th
theoretical manometric head
H
th
theoretical manometric head for infinite number of blades
i angle of incidence
k
n
blockage factor due to hub
n, N rotational speed in rpm.
n
q,ss
specific speed, suction specific speed
P (without subscript) power
p (with subscript) pressure
Q volumetric flow rate
Q
la
volumetric flow through impeller
q
*
volumetric flow rate at best efficiency point (q*=Q/Q
opt
)
R, r radius

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


s clearance
s
ax
axial clearance between shroud of impeller and volute casing
t
ax
sidewall clearance behind back-shroud of impeller
U, u circumferential velocity
V volume
Z
la
number of impeller blades
| angle between relative velocity and negative circumferential velocity
specific weight of liquid or slip factor
c angle in polar co-ordinate system
c
sp
wrap angle for the volute or the blade
q efficiency
angle between impeller vane and back shroud
density in kg/m
3

shear stress, blade blockage factor
flow co-efficient
pressure co-efficient
blade loading







Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


List of subscripts, superscripts and abbreviations

1 impeller inlet leading edge (low pressure)
2 impeller outlet trailing edge (high pressure)
ax axial
a, m, i outer, meridional, inner streamline
B blade angle after all corrections
BEP best efficiency point
hyd hydraulic
La impeller
m meridional component
max maximum
mano manometric
mech mechanical
min minimum
opt optimum (at best efficiency point)
o/a overall
ref reference value
r radial
s suction, shaft
sp volute
th theoretical
vol volumetric
u circumferential component


Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



List of figures

Figure 1.1 Working of a general nuclear power plant Page 14
Figure 1.2 Working of a Pressurised Water Reactor Page 3
Figure 2.1 Different pumps used in a reactor circuit Page 8
Figure 4.1 Dimensioning of mixed-flow impeller Page 17
Figure 4.2 Inlet velocity triangle Page 21
Figure 4.3 Outlet velocity triangle Page 21
Figure 4.4 Blade cross-section Page 23
Figure 4.5 Point-by-point method of plotting blade Page 24
Figure 5.1 Blade loading Page 28
Figure 6.1 Types of volute sections Page 50
Figure 6.2 Volute axis profile Page 51
Figure 6.3 Casing thickness Page 31
Figure 7.1 Free body diagram of impeller Page 36
Figure 8.1 Gaspac T type mechanical seal Page 40
Figure 8.2 Gaspac L type mechanical seal Page 41
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


List of tables and graphs

Table 4.1 Blade geometry on inner and outer streamlines Page 25
Table 5.1 Blade thickness calculation Page 28
Table 6.1 Volute cross-section geometry Page 33
Table 6.2 Stress calculation for volute Page 34
Table 6.3 Materials for volute casting Page 34

Graph 4.1 Pressure co-efficient v/s specific speed Page 16
Graph 4.2 Normalized suction specific speed v/s inlet blade angle Page 19



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................13
1.1 Scope of the project .......................................................................................................................13
1.2 General Working of a Nuclear Reactor ..........................................................................................13
1.3 Nuclear Reactor Types ...................................................................................................................15
1.3.1 Pressurized Water Reactor ..........................................................................................................15
1.3.1.1 Coolant .................................................................................................................................16
1.3.1.2 Moderator .............................................................................................................................17
1.3.1.3 Advantages ........................................................................................................................ 18
1.3.1.4 Disadvantages.................................................................................................................... 19
2. Arrangement of different pumps in PWR reactor ..................................................................21
2.1 Functions of different type of pumps in the reactor .......................................................................22
2.1.1 Primary System ...........................................................................................................................22
2.1.1.1 Primary Reactor Coolant Pump ................................................................................................22
2.1.1.2 High-pressure injection pump ..................................................................................................22
2.1.1.3 Filling pump ..............................................................................................................................22
2.1.1.4 Residual heat removal pump ...................................................................................................22
2.1.1.5 Containment spray pump.........................................................................................................22
2.1.1.6 Nuclear reactor component cooling water pump ....................................................................22
2.1.1.7 Seawater pump ........................................................................................................................23
2.1.1.8 Motor driven auxiliary feed water pump .................................................................................23
2.1.1.9 Turbine driven auxiliary feed water pump ...............................................................................23
2.1.2 Secondary system .............................................................................................................. 23
2.1.2.1 Feed water pump .....................................................................................................................23
2.1.2.2 Feed water booster pump ........................................................................................................24
2.1.2.3 Condensate booster .................................................................................................................24
2.1.2.4 Condensate booster pump .......................................................................................................24
2.1.2.5 Moisture separator drain pump ...............................................................................................24
2.1.2.6 Low pressure feed water pump ...............................................................................................24
2.1.2.7 Circulating water pump ............................................................................................................25
3. I.A.E.A. specifications for an ACR-1000 PWR .......................................................................27
4. Calculation of pump parameters ..............................................................................................29
4.1 Specific speed .................................................................................................................................29
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


4.2 Efficiencies .....................................................................................................................................29
4.3 Shaft diameter ds ............................................................................................................................30
4.4 Semi-axial impeller design .............................................................................................................31
4.4.1 Pressure co-efficient ....................................................................................................................31
4.4.2 Impeller outlet diameter d
2a
.........................................................................................................32
4.4.3 Mean Impeller outlet diameter d
2m
& diameter of inner streamline d
2i
.......................................32
4.4.4 Impeller inlet velocity .................................................................................................................32
4.4.5 Flow co-efficient ...................................................................................................................33
4.4.6 Normalized suction specific speed & suction specific speed ...................................33
4.4.7 Outlet width ...........................................................................................................................34
4.4.8 Axial extension () ....................................................................................................................35
4.4.9 Blade angles at inlet and outlet of the impeller at outer, meridional and inlet streams ...........36
4.4.10 Blade thickness e and angle of incidence i...........................................................................37
4.4.11 Blade leading edge profile .........................................................................................................37
4.5 Impeller blade shape (profile) ........................................................................................................38
5. Blade loading and stress analysis ..............................................................................................43
6. Volute casing design ...................................................................................................................46
6.1 Wrap angle of partial volutes .........................................................................................................47
6.2 Casing design flow rate Q
Le
...........................................................................................................47
6.3 Inlet velocity ...................................................................................................................................47
6.4 Cutwater diameter d
z
......................................................................................................................47
Shape of the volute cross sections ........................................................................................................48
6.5 Casing thickness .............................................................................................................................50
7. Determination of axial thrust ....................................................................................................54
8. Bearing and Seal selection .........................................................................................................57
8.1 Bearing specifications: ...................................................................................................................57
Selection of seals .................................................................................................................................58
8.2 Bi-directional face pattern: .............................................................................................................58
8.3 Uni-directional face pattern: ...........................................................................................................59
8.4.1 Gaspac T ...............................................................................................................................59
8.4.2 Gaspac L ...............................................................................................................................60


Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants








Chapter 1
Introduction
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


1. Introduction

1.1 Scope of the project

The primary objective of the project is to design the primary coolant re-circulating
pump of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The project aims at designing the basic
components of a pump i.e., Impeller, shaft, blades, volute, bearing and seals. The design
procedures followed are mostly based on empirical relations (which are observed to be true in
a number of experiments performed with varying parameters) and geometrical constraints.
The project does not address the problems arising due to flow separation, eddy losses,
vibrations, etc. The pump is designed for specific operating conditions as referred from the
I.A.E.A manual.

1.2 General Working of a Nuclear Reactor

Large electrical generating plants which provide most of our electricity all work on the
same principle - they are giant steam engines. Power plants use heat supplied by a fuel to boil
water and make steam, which drives a generator to make electricity. A generating plant's fuel,
whether it is coal, gas, oil or uranium, heats water and turns it into steam. The pressure of the
steam spins the blades of a giant rotating metal fan called a turbine. That turbine turns the
shaft of a huge generator. Inside the generator, coils of wire and magnetic fields interact - and
electricity is produced.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Figure 1.1
The reactor in a nuclear power plant does the same thing that a boiler does in a fossil
fuel plant - it produces heat. The basic parts of a reactor are the core, a moderator, control
rods, a coolant, and shielding. The core of a reactor contains the uranium fuel. For a light
water reactor with an output of 1,000 megawatts, the core would contain about 75 tonnes of
uranium enclosed in approximately 200 fuel assemblies.
The neutrons produced by fission are travelling at great speeds, and in most reactors,
are deliberately slowed down by a material known as a moderator. Slow neutrons are much
more likely, when they collide with the nuclei of U-235, to cause fission and keep the reaction
going. A moderator is composed of light atoms and the materials most commonly used are
carbon in the form of graphite, and water. For more precise control of the chain
reaction, control rods are inserted into the core of the reactor. Pushed in, they absorb neutrons
and slow down the reaction, when pulled out, they allow the reaction to speed up again. In
this way the chain reaction is controlled. Fissions occurring in the reactor generate an
enormous amount of heat. A liquid or gas coolant carries this heat away from the reactor to a
boiler where steam is made. Shielding, typically made of steel and concrete about two meters
thick, is an outer casing that prevents radiation from escaping into the environment.

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


1.3 Nuclear Reactor Types

Many different reactor systems have been proposed and some of these have been
developed to prototype and commercial scale. Several types of reactor (Magnox, AGR, PWR,
BWR, CANDU and RBMK) have emerged as the designs used to produce commercial
electricity around the world. A further reactor type, the so called fast reactor, has been
developed to the full-scale demonstration stage.

1.3.1 Pressurized Water Reactor


Figure 1.2

Design of PWR
Nuclear fuel in the reactor vessel is engaged in a fission chain reaction, which
produces heat, heating the water in the primary coolant loop by thermal conduction through
the fuel cladding. The hot primary coolant is pumped into a heat exchanger called the steam
generator, where it flows through hundreds or thousands of tubes (usually 3/4 inch in
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


diameter). Heat is transferred through the walls of these tubes to the lower pressure secondary
coolant located on the sheet side of the exchanger where it evaporates to pressurized steam.
The transfer of heat is accomplished without mixing the two fluids, which is desirable since
the primary coolant might become radioactive. Some common steam generator arrangements
are u-tubes or single pass heat exchangers.
In a nuclear power station, the pressurized steam is fed through a steam turbine, which
drives an electrical generator connected to the electric grid for distribution. After passing
through the turbine the secondary coolant (water-steam mixture) is cooled down and
condensed in a condenser. The condenser converts the steam to a liquid so that it can be
pumped back into the steam generator, and maintains a vacuum at the turbine outlet so that
the pressure drop across the turbine, and hence the energy extracted from the steam, is
maximized. Before being fed into the steam generator, the condensed steam (referred to as
feed water) is sometimes preheated in order to minimize thermal shock.
Two things are characteristic for the pressurized water reactor (PWR) when compared
with other reactor types: coolant loop separation from the steam system and pressure inside
the primary coolant loop.
In a PWR, there are two separate coolant loops (primary and secondary), which are
both filled with de-mineralized or de-ionized water. A boiling water reactor, by contrast, has
only one coolant loop, while more exotic designs such as breeder reactors use substances
other than water for coolant and moderator (e.g. sodium in its liquid state as coolant or
graphite as a moderator).
The pressure in the primary coolant loop is typically 1516 Mega Pascal (150
160 bar), which is notably higher than in other nuclear reactors, and nearly twice that of a
boiling water reactor (BWR). As an effect of this, only localized boiling occurs and steam will
recondense promptly in the bulk fluid. By contrast, in a boiling water reactor the primary
coolant is designed to boil.

1.3.1.1 Coolant
Light water is used as the primary coolant in a PWR. It enters the bottom of the
reactor core at about 275 C (530 F) and is heated as it flows upwards through the reactor
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


core to a temperature of about 315 C (600 F). The water remains liquid despite the high
temperature due to the high pressure in the primary coolant loop, usually around 155 bar
(15.5 MPa 153 atm, 2,250 psig).
Pressure in the primary circuit is maintained by a pressurizer, a separate vessel that is
connected to the primary circuit and partially filled with water which is heated to the
saturation temperature (boiling point) for the desired pressure by submerged electrical heaters.
To achieve a pressure of 155 bar, the pressurizer temperature is maintained at 345 C, which
gives sub-cooling margin (the difference between the pressurizer temperature and the highest
temperature in the reactor core) of 30 C. Thermal transients in the reactor coolant system
result in large swings in pressurizer liquid volume; total pressurizer volume is designed
around absorbing these transients without uncovering the heaters or emptying the pressurizer.
Pressure transients in the primary coolant system manifest as temperature transients in the
pressurizer and are controlled through the use of automatic heaters and water spray, which
raise and lower pressurizer temperature, respectively.
To achieve maximum heat transfer, the primary circuit temperature, pressure and flow
rate are arranged such that sub-cooled nucleate boiling takes place as the coolant passes over
the nuclear fuel rods.
The coolant is pumped around the primary circuit by powerful pumps, which can
consume up to 6 MW each. After picking up heat as it passes through the reactor core, the
primary coolant transfers heat in a steam generator to water in a lower pressure secondary
circuit, evaporating the secondary coolant to saturated steam in most designs 6.2 MPa
(60 atm, 900 psia), 275 C (530 F) for use in the steam turbine. The cooled primary
coolant is then returned to the reactor vessel to be heated again.

1.3.1.2 Moderator

Pressurized water reactors, like all thermal reactor designs, require the fast fission
neutrons to be slowed down (a process called moderation or thermalization) in order to
interact with the nuclear fuel and sustain the chain reaction. In PWRs the coolant water is
used as a moderator by letting the neutrons undergo multiple collisions with light hydrogen
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


atoms in the water, losing speed in the process. This "moderating" of neutrons will happen
more often when the water is denser (more collisions will occur). The use of water as a
moderator is an important safety feature of PWRs, as an increase in temperature may cause
the water to expand, giving greater 'gaps' between the water molecules and reducing the
probability of thermalization; thereby reducing the extent to which neutrons are slowed down
and hence reducing the reactivity in the reactor. Therefore, if reactivity increases beyond
normal, the reduced moderation of neutrons will cause the chain reaction to slow down,
producing less heat. This property, known as the negative temperature coefficient of
reactivity, makes PWR reactors very stable. This process is referred to as 'Self-Regulating',
i.e. the hotter the coolant becomes, the less reactive the plant becomes, shutting itself down
slightly to compensate and vice versa. Thus the plant controls itself around a given
temperature set by the position of the control rods.

1.3.1.3 Advantages
1. The water, which is used as coolant, moderator and reflector, is cheap and available in
plenty.
2. The reactor is compact and has high power density (65 KW/ liter).
3. PWR reactors are very stable due to their tendency to produce less power as temperatures
increase; this makes the reactor easier to operate from a stability standpoint.
4. It allows to reduce the fuel cost extracting more energy per unit weight of fuel as PWR is
ideally suited to the utilization of fuel designed for higher burn-ups.
5. PWR turbine cycle loop is separate from the primary loop, so radioactive materials do not
contaminate water in the secondary loop.
6. PWRs can passively scram the reactor, in the event that offsite power is lost, to
immediately stop the primary nuclear reaction. The control rods are held by
electromagnets and fall by gravity when current is lost; full insertion safely shuts down
the primary nuclear reaction.


Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


1.3.1.4 Disadvantages
1. The coolant water must be highly pressurized to remain liquid at high temperatures. This
requires high strength piping and a heavy pressure vessel and hence increases construction
costs. The higher pressure can increase the consequences of a loss-of-coolant accident. The
reactor pressure vessel is manufactured from ductile steel but, as the plant is operated,
neutron flux from the reactor causes this steel to become less ductile. Eventually
the ductility of the steel will reach limits determined by the applicable boiler and pressure
vessel standards, and the pressure vessel must be repaired or replaced. This might not be
practical or economic, and so determines the life of the plant.
2. Following shutdown of the primary nuclear reaction, the fission products continue to
generate decay heat at initially roughly 7% of full power level, which requires 1 to 3 years
of water pumped cooling. If cooling fails during this post-shutdown period, the reactor
can still overheat and meltdown.
3. Additional high pressure components such as reactor coolant pumps, pressurizer, steam
generators, etc. are also needed. This also increases the capital cost and complexity of a
PWR power plant.











Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Chapter 2
Arrangement of
different pumps
in a reactor

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


2. Arrangement of different pumps in PWR reactor



Figure 2.1


Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


2.1 Functions of different type of pumps in the reactor

2.1.1 Primary System
2.1.1.1 Primary Reactor Coolant Pump
Pump for continuous re-circulation of nuclear reactor coolant (light water) to the
steam generator to cool the thermal energy generated by the nuclear power
2.1.1.2 High-pressure injection pump
At the time of the trouble of the primary cooling water loss or when the main
steam pipe is broken, the reactor core is urgently cooled and boric acid is urgently
injected. As a result, the reactor core is cooled and the fuel rod is kept in the
allowable temperature.
2.1.1.3 Filling pump
This pump supplies make-up water to maintain the volume when the primary
reactor coolant has contracted due to decrease of load. Also it supplies sealing
water to the sealed part of the primary reactor coolant pump.
2.1.1.4 Residual heat removal pump
This pump removes the heat of the primary reactor coolant after the reactor is
stopped and lowers its temperature. Also, it prevents expansion of the trouble at
the time of the trouble of the coolant loss by injecting boric acid of the fuel
replacement water pump into the reactor core.
2.1.1.5 Containment spray pump
This pump has the role of minimizing the leakage of the radioactive material from
the containment vessel at the time of the accident of nuclear power. At the time of
such accident the pump sprays boric acid water into the vessel and eliminates
contamination of the fissionable material.
2.1.1.6 Nuclear reactor component cooling water pump
This pump has the intermediate characteristics of two lines, the primary reactor
coolant and the seawater pump, and even if the primary reactor coolant leaks, it
prevents radioactive water from being discharged outside.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


2.1.1.7 Seawater pump
This pump sends water to each of the following equipment and cools them.
1. Nuclear reactor component cooler
2. Diesel generator
3. Refrigerating machine for air-conditioning

2.1.1.8 Motor driven auxiliary feed water pump
This is the horizontal type turbine driven pump for sending water of the
condensing tank (or the de-aerator storage tank) to the steam generator to remove
the heat of nuclear reactor cooling line when starting or stopping. Since it is
necessary to supply feed water even when electricity stops, two pumps are
provided; one is the motor driven pump that can be operated from the electric
source of the diesel generator and the other is the turbine driven pump that can be
operated with main steam.
2.1.1.9 Turbine driven auxiliary feed water pump
This is the horizontal type turbine driven pump for sending water of the
condensing tank (or the de-aerator storage tank) to the steam generator to remove
the heat of nuclear reactor cooling line when starting or stopping. Since it is
necessary to supply feed water even when electricity stops, two pumps are
provided; one is the motor driven pump that can be operated from the electric
source of the diesel generator and the other is the turbine driven pump that can be
operated with main steam.

2.1.2 Secondary system
2.1.2.1 Feed water pump
This pump takes from the de-aerator storage tank feed water pressured up by the
booster pump and pushes it into the steam generator through the high-pressure
heater. Accordingly, the main feed pump must be high temperature and high-
pressure pump since it requires the head larger than the pressure inside the steam
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


generator. Also, from the viewpoint of assuring feed water of the steam generator,
this is one of the important auxiliary machinery of the plant.
2.1.2.2 Feed water booster pump
This pump takes feed water from the de-aerator storage tank and increases NPSHa
(net positive suction head). Namely, the purpose of installation of this pump is to
assist suction of the main feed water pump. In the case of the plant in which the
de-aerator is not installed, the feed water booster pump is not required and not
installed since the head of the condensate pump is designed very high.
2.1.2.3 Condensate booster
This booster takes condensate from the condenser hot well and sends it to the
condensate booster pump through the grand condenser and the condensate de-
mineralizer.
2.1.2.4 Condensate booster pump
The purpose of installation of this pump is to pressure up the condensate sent from
the condensate pump and to send it to the de-aerator through the low-pressure
heater. This pump is not installed in the plant in which the condensate de-
mineralizer is not provided.
2.1.2.5 Moisture separator drain pump
This pump is installed to suction seawater from the intake, to exchange heat while
passing through the condenser and to discharge water to sea from the water
discharge outlet. Usually two units are installed and there is no spare. It is
determined from the viewpoint of the construction cost and economy whether the
pump should be of the fixed pitch vane type or the variable pitch vane type.
2.1.2.6 Low pressure feed water pump
This pump has the hydraulic variable pitch vane structure. Its merits are smaller
consumption of motive power and smooth start of operation (start of operation
with the vane fully closed). Whether the pump should be of the fixed pitch vane
type or the variable pitch vane type is determined from the viewpoint of
construction cost and economy.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


2.1.2.7 Circulating water pump
The steam discharged from the high-pressure turbine is condensed to drain. Drain,
after collected in the drain tank, is sent to the de-aerator by the moisture separator
drain pump.











Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants




Chapter 3
I.A.E.A.
Specifications
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


3. I.A.E.A. specifications for an ACR-1000 PWR
1. Circulation type : Forced
2. Pump type : Vertical, Centrifugal, Single suction, Double
discharge
3. Number of pumps : 4
4. Pump speed : 1785 rpm
5. Rated head : 226m
6. Flow at rated head : 4.3 m
3
/s
7. Pump suction pressure : 11.9 MPa
8. Pump delivery pressure : 13.1 MPa
9. Pump operating temperature: 275
o
C
10. Motor : Squirrel cage Induction motor
Inferred parameters
Density of water at operating temperature is 760 kg/m
3
[refer any steam table]










Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants





Chapter 4
Design of
Impeller

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


4. Calculation of pump parameters
4.1 Specific speed

Specific speed (n
q
) is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar
pump which consumes 1 kW and develops 1 m of total head, the pumping liquid being
water under normal temperature of 4C & at atmospheric pressure of 1.03325 bar.

Type of Impeller
Radial

Semi-axial

Axial

Specific Speed
n
q
= n *


10 40 40 - 110
110 onwards


~ 2 2.5 ~ 1.15 1.5
~ 0.5 0.8

n
q
=

= 63.5

As n
q
is in the range (40 rpm - 110 rpm) using, the pump impeller is of a mixed flow
& centrifugal type, single stage (helicoidal). Semi-axial impellers are superior to pumps with
radial impellers since the discharge flow from radial impellers becomes more non-uniform
with increasing specific speed due to the flow deflection in the flow in the meridional section
& rowing blade span. Hence the ratio d
2
/d
1
= 1.3 to 1.5.
4.2 Efficiencies
Theoretically, all the energy supplied to the pump by the prime mover, in the form of
mechanical energy, should be converted into fluid energy. Owing to manufacturing
inaccuracies and entirely different flow conditions prevailing in pump, entire energy input
(mechanical energy) is not converted into fluid energy.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants

mech
= 0.900
Hydraulic efficiency (
h
) is the ratio between, actual head to the theoretical head.

hydr
= 0.920

Volumetric efficiency (
h
) is the ratio between actual quantity and theoretical quantity.

vol
= 0.950

overall
=
mech
x
hydr
x
vol
= 0.787

4.3 Shaft diameter ds
Motor capacity [P] required is determined by the following equation,
[P] =


= 9.75 MW
Assuming an overload of 30% for safety, [P] = 9.75 x 1.3 = 12.68 MW.
The nearest motor capacity available is 14 MW manufactured by ABB, hence we proceed by
taking a motor of 14MW capacity and speed 1785 rpm.
The pump shaft is a stressed member for during operation it can be in tension,
compression, bending, and torsion. As these loads are cyclic in nature, the shaft failure is
likely due to fatigue. The shaft design depends on the evaluations of either the torsion shear
stress at the smallest diameter of the shaft or a comprehensive fatigue evaluation taking into
consideration the combined loads, the number of cycles, and the stress concentration factors.

Selecting shaft material as AISI-329 stainless steel having the following mechanical
properties:
1. Density = 7970 Kg/


2.

= 724 MPa
3.

= 560 MPa
Power (P) transmitted by shaft = 14 MW.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


T =

=74.896 kNm
Hence

[] = T
[] =


= 70 MPa [by M.S.S.T & FOS (factor of safety) =4]
Therefore, d
s min
= 175.97 mm
As the application demands we shall use spline shaft of specification 20 x 180mm x 200mm
and stepped to 240mm at the conjunction with the mechanical seal.

4.4 Semi-axial impeller design

4.4.1 Pressure co-efficient

= 0.742 [n
q
,ref =
100]
Where

is the pressure coefficient, the optimum value is selected using the


pressure coefficient against the specific speed n
q
curve. Using this graph as a reference,
appropriate value of

is selected.

is a function of the specific speed & is always


based on the outlet diameter

at the outer
streamline.


Graph 4.1

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


4.4.2 Impeller outlet diameter d
2a

84.6 = / t
= 827.15 mm
Using the above equation as obtained from Ref.No.1; the impeller outlet diameter is
calculated which also matches with that calculated from the equations given in Ref.No.2.

4.4.3 Mean Impeller outlet diameter d
2m
& diameter of inner streamline d
2i



= 0.9563

. Figure 4.1
The above formulae are referred from Ref.No.1. pg 375.
4.4.4 Impeller inlet velocity

= 0.23 x [Ref.No.3: pg. 134]


= 15.31 m/s

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


4.4.5 Flow co-efficient

= (0.18 to 0.27)(

[Ref.No.1: pg. 375]


= 0.2542 [n
q,ref
= 200]
The impeller inlet properties are calculated according the required suction specific
speed. The blade inlet angles are generally in the range of 12 to 18. The flow co-efficient in
the design point may be selected using the above equation.
Also,

= 59.4 m/s

= 636.26 mm
Again,

)

Where

is the hub diameter.


= 205.73 mm
Let

= 330 mm
Now,

= 1.3, which should be in the range 1.15 to 1.5. Also

hence the design is


correct.
The standard factor,

= 0.89544
4.4.6 Normalized suction specific speed

& suction specific speed

= 233.106
Referring to the graph for normalized suction specific speed

as a function of the
approach flow angle (

) at

at the outer streamline (flow rate referred to flow rate at


best efficiency point i.e.

); n
q,ref
= 27. The following relation is applicable to
pumps with semi-axial impellers in the range n
q
= 10 to 160. The standard deviation is +14%.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Graph 4.2

233.106 =

[n
q,ref
= 27]

= 260
Now,

= 14.26
This is verified from the Graph 4.2 for normalized suction specific speed

as a
function of the approach flow angle (

) at

at the outer streamline (flow rate referred


to flow rate at best efficiency point i.e.

).

4.4.7 Outlet width


With given values of outlet angle & the blade number, the head increases with the
outlet width & the Q-H curve becomes flatter. The outlet recirculation intensifies with
increasing

& consequently, the power consumption rises as well.


A sufficiently large outlet width is required to achieve a stable Q-H curve. Conversely,
the non-uniformity of the flow at the impeller outlet grows with the width of the impeller,
increasing the turbulent dissipation losses in the collector as well as pressure pulsations &
excitation forces. It should also be ensured to maintain

.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


The relative outlet width

is commonly selected from empirical data. To


render the impeller discharge flow at the best efficiency point as uniform as possible & to
avoid unnecessary turbulent dissipation losses,

should be selected as low as is


permissible with respect to the stability of the Q-H curve, which is given by:

= (

) (

[n
q,ref
= 100]

= 0.153

126.55 mm
Now,

= 215.265 mm >


Thus the design is acceptable.

4.4.8 Axial extension (

)
Favorable flow conditions are achieved by moving the leading edge forward into the
impeller eye. In this way low blade loadings and correspondingly moderate low-pressure
peaks are obtained and cavitation is reduced.

) (

[n
q,ref
=74]
= 162.05 mm
The selection of the blade number Z
La
depends on various criteria:
1. To reduce pressure pulsations and hydraulic excitation forces,
2. The hydrodynamic blade loading should be in an optimum range. If the loading is too
low, unnecessarily high friction losses must be expected. If the loading is too high, the
turbulent dissipation losses increase due to uneven flow distribution. The blade
loading can only be verified after completing the impeller design.
3. Less than 5 blades are unfavorable for high heads per stage since the impeller outlet
flow becomes very non-uniform over the circumference due to the large blade spacing.
The consequence would be unnecessarily high pressure pulsations, noise and
vibrations.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


4. In case of even number of blade i.e. 6 or 8, the wrap angle c for the twin volute, would
have to be reduced from 180
o
to about 165
o
, in order to avoid the pulsating effect.
5. To avoid further complications in design, and reduce the effect of pulsations, we
choose the optimum number of blades to be,


C
m2

= 0.18 * = 12 m/s [For K


m2,
Ref.No.3, pg 375]

= 77.30 m/s

= H
th

) = 226 x (1+

)
where = 0.55 + 0.6sin(|
2m
) , r = r
2m
, z = Z
la
, M
st
= 0.5 ( r
2
2
-r
1
2
)

[Plfeiderers semi-empirical relation]


[Ref.No.3 pg.94]

= 38.07 m/s

= 39.23 m/s

Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3
4.4.9 Blade angles at inlet and outlet of the impeller at outer, meridional and inlet streams

The incidence should be selected between 0 and 4. The flow rate of shock-less entry
according to is thus commonly slightly above the best efficiency point. The highest
efficiencies are obtained when the blade outlet angle on the mean streamline is selected as

2B,m
= 20 to 26.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants

) = 17


With specific speeds above n
q
40 to 60 the blade outlet angle should not be made
constant over the impeller outlet width. The outer streamline is unloaded so that

2B,a
<
2B,m
<
2B,i
. The head is calculated on the basis of the mean angle
2B,m
.

4.4.10 Blade thickness e and angle of incidence i

Requirements in terms of casting ability and mechanical strength determine the blade
thickness. Experience shows that these requirements are met when e/d2 = 0.016 to 0.022 is
selected. The upper range applies to high pressure impellers with more than 600 m of head per
stage. The lower range applies to low heads and low specific speeds. With increasing blade
width (i.e. also with growing specific speed) the blade stresses rise at given head; the blade
inlet angle is obtained by adding the incidence i
1
to the flow angle
1
(with blade blockage)
from following equation.

)
-1

e = 0.022 x d
2a
= 18.85 mm
And
1B
=
1
+ i
1

Substituting the values as derived and solving, by trial and error, we select the angle of
incidence to be 1 for



4.4.11 Blade leading edge profile

Unfavorable leading edge profiling generates local excess velocities and a
correspondingly intense low-pressure peak which impairs the cavitation behavior and may
even affect the efficiency. Designing the leading edge as a semi-circle is very unfavorable in
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


this regard and only acceptable for small pumps or applications with low requirements.
Elliptical inlet profiles provide favorable pressure distributions.

Let e
1


denote the thickness of blade at inlet,
e
1
= 0.75 * e = 14.14 mm
The blade leading edge and trailing edge profile width be e
2
= 0.5 x e in order to
reduce the width of the wake, turbulent dissipation losses and pressure pulsations
e
1
= 14.14 mm and e
2
= 7.07 mm Figure 4.4


4.5 Impeller blade shape (profile)

Two consecutive blades define the shape of an impeller passage. The length of the
blade and hence the passage length, can be different for same diameters d
1
and d
2
, the same
angles |1 and |2 and same number of blades. In short passages the angle of divergence may
be excessively large, which increases separation and forms harmful eddies. If the passages are
very long, and the angle of divergence small, the losses due to separation are reduced, while
the frictional losses are increased. The sum of the losses should be minimum for highest
efficiency. Hence it is necessary to make some compromises. We apply the point by point
method of drawing a single curvature blade.
It is based on the assumption that the transition of
1
into
2
depends on the radius r
and the central anglev, for a given r. The values of r and v constitute polar co-ordinates
for a given point on the blade. After determining a series of points, a smooth curve is drawn
through them giving the central line of the blade.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Let us consider an elementary right angle triangle as shown. For an infinitesimally
small angle , it can be derived that,




Figure 4.5
The following table, Table 4.1 constitutes different radii at its corresponding central angle.
The different velocity components are also computed.

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Sample calculation
The values of r, and C
m
are linearly interpolated as initial and ending values are
known. Interpolation ensures that the flow velocity changes gradually with minimum losses.
The rest of the values are computed as follows.
Considering the 3
rd
point of outer stream:
1. u=

= 63 m/s
2. tan() =


tan(14.707) =


w
u
= 55.38 m/s
3. c
u
= u w
u
= 63 55.38 = 7.614 m/s
4. w =

= 57.2645 m/s
5.


6. I
n
=


= 11.3037
7. I
n-1
=


= 11.83
8.

= 0.0095 ( 11.3037 + 11.83)/2 = 0.10988


9. Cumulative sum of upto the current location = 0.22489
10. v



The point 3 is plotted at a distance of 0.337m and at an angle of 12.883 with the reference
axis.
The other points are plotted accordingly.








Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants





Chapter 5
Blade analysis
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


5. Blade loading and stress analysis
The blades are supported at one end, fixed to the back shroud, the blades act as
cantilever beams under a uniformly distributed load starting from the inlet of the blade at
static pressure of 11.9 MPa and goes up to the outlet of the blade at 13.1 MPa. The blade can
thus be divided into equally spaced congruent beams by forming suitable number of elements.
For sake of convenience, we shall divide the entire blade into 10 equal parts.
Assuming the pressure is uniformly increasing over the face of the blade, the
elemental blade can be assumed to be under an average constant load. Hence we shall now
proceed to test the previously calculated blade thickness for its strength under the moment of
the force. The length of the blade is found to be 429.95 mm at the inner streamline and 261.43
mm at outer streamline. Refer figure 5.1.
Elemental dimensions
1. Cross-section of cantilever beam = 42.995(b) x 18.85(d) x 26.14(h) mm
2. Length of the beam at exit of the impeller (2x) = 130.14 mm
3. Effective force on the blade F = (13.04 -11.96) N/mm
2
x (130.14 x 26.14) = 3674
N
4. Moment of force M = F x x = 239068.6 Nmm
5. Section modulus for the beam Z = bd
2
/6 = 2546.18 mm
3

6. Bending stress induced o
b
=

= 93.89 N/mm
2

Based on the above calculations, we can see that the blade thickness is sufficient to
sustain the bending moment due to the pressure developed. However, we shall formulate a
table to determine the thickness required at different points on the blade to sustain the bending
moment, as shown in Table 5.1. The tensile strength of the Stainless Steel is 140 N/mm
2
.
Let the section modulus be Z = bd
2
/6, where b = 42.995mm. Now for the beam to have
sufficient strength to sustain the bending moment,
o

= 4.201 mm

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Table 5.1
l1 l2 h Area avg p force x M d min e
design
125.66 134.62 26.14 3401.86 0.08 272.149 65.070 17708.7 4.201 7.07
134.62 143.58 26.14 3636.09 0.18 654.496 69.550 45520.5 6.735 10.99
143.58 152.54 26.14 3870.32 0.3 1161.09 74.030 85956.6 9.255 14.92
152.54 161.50 26.14 4104.54 0.42 1723.9 78.510 135345.7 11.614
18.85
161.50 170.46 26.14 4338.77 0.54 2342.93 82.991 194443.1 13.921 18.85
170.46 179.42 26.14 4573.00 0.72 3292.56 87.471 288005.0 16.942 18.85
179.42 188.38 26.14 4807.23 0.6 2884.33 91.951 265219.6 16.258 18.85
188.38 197.34 26.14 5041.45 0.48 2419.9 96.431 233355.5 15.250 18.85
197.34 206.30 26.14 5275.68 0.36 1899.24 100.912 191657.0 13.821 16.49
206.30 215.26 26.14 5509.91 0.24 1322.37 105.392 139368.7 11.785 14.14
mm mm mm mm
2
N/mm
2
N mm N-mm thk of blade (mm)
Thus it is clear that the design by using the empirical formulae provides feasible
results in practice.
Figure 5.1

A
x
P
d
b
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants




Chapter 6
Design of
Volute Casing


Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


6. Volute casing design
In the volute casing the kinetic energy present at the impeller outlet is converted into
static pressure with as few losses as possible. The volute casing then directs the fluid into the
discharge nozzle or, in multistage pumps, into the following stage.

Single volutes are the least expensive solution in terms of manufacturing costs; they
are best accessible for the dressing of the cast channels. The radial forces generate bearing
loads, bending stresses in the shaft and shaft deflection which can threaten the reliability of
the machine. The heads up to which single volutes can be sensibly used depends on the
specific speed, the design of the pump (especially of the bearing housing), the shaft thickness
and the bearing span or the overhung of the impeller. When pumping water, the limit is about
H
opt
= 80 to 120 m at n
q
< 40. At high specific speeds a double volute may be indicated
already for heads above H
opt
= 60 to 80 m. When pumping liquids with densities considerably
lower than water, the limit is correspondingly higher since the radial forces are proportional to
gH.

Double volutes are employed when bearing loads, shaft stresses and shaft deflection
become impermissibly high without measures for radial thrust reduction so that their control
would require an excessively high design effort and cost. The rib between the inner volute and
the outer channel also reduces the casing deformation under internal pressure, which
facilitates the casing design at high specific speeds.

Twin volutes differ from double volutes mainly in that both partial volutes end in
separate channels and not in a common discharge nozzle as is the case with double volutes.
Apart from special designs they are found in multistage volute pumps or vertical pumps
where the partial volutes end in a central column pipe.
Hence we shall design a double discharge twin volute, to suit our requirements of low
velocity of discharge, and high capacity.



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Parameters to be considered for designing the volute

6.1 Wrap angle of partial volutes
In the case of double or twin volutes the wrap angle of the partial volutes generally
amounts to
sp
= 180. In this case an even impeller blade number should be avoided in order
to reduce pressure pulsations.

6.2 Casing design flow rate Q
Le

To ensure that the actual best efficiency flow coincides with the design flow rate, the
volute must be designed for Q
opt
. The design flow rate must be augmented by possible
leakages which may flow through the volute, note that the leakage losses at the impeller inlet
do not flow through the volute.
Q
Le
= Q
opt
(1.05 ~ 1.10) [Assuming 5 ~ 10 % leakage losses]

6.3 Inlet velocity
The circumferential component of the absolute velocity at the impeller outlet is
calculated. Downstream of the impeller it develops in accordance with the conservation of
angular momentum as per c
3u
=

. With some types of pumps, a diffuser or stay vanes can


arranged between the impeller and the volute. In this case the circumferential velocity c
4u
at
the outlet of these components must be used as inlet velocity to the volute.

6.4 Cutwater diameter d
z

Between impeller and cutwater a minimum clearance (gap B) must be maintained to
limit pressure pulsations and hydraulic excitation forces to allowable levels. The ratio of the
cutwater diameter d
z
* =

is calculated from the formula below.


[Ref.No.1. Pg.567]
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


= 1.20 [n
q,ref
=40;
ref
=1000 kg/m
3
; H
ref
= 1000m]
d
z
= 1.0201 m [some extra allowance is added for alignment of impeller inside the
casing]

Shape of the volute cross sections
The shapes must be selected so as to suit the pump type, taking into account casing stresses
and deformations as applicable. Figure shows some design options for the volute cross
section. When designing the casing, also the requirements of economic manufacture of
patterns and castings must be taken into account. With the rectangular and trapezoidal basic
shapes, for instance, all corners must be well rounded for casting reasons.

Figure 6.1

In practice it is found that constant velocity design gives higher efficiency than free
vortex design for pumps and vice versa for hydraulic turbines, due to increase in area of flow
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Constant velocity of flow through all volute sections C
V
is determined as C
V
R = C
u2
R
2
, where
R is the radius of the centre of gravity of the last volute cross-section.
The moment of all surface forces acting on the elementary volume of fluid in the spiral casing
is zero i.e., Mz = 0.
Thus the moment of momentum remains constant in the elementary fluid


With the increase in radius R in spiral passage the tangential velocity decreases,
correspondingly the pressure energy increases.
Applying equation for a circular cross section volute design with C
u,r
=constant.
0

) for 180
o
half of a twin volute
Where Mm = C
u3
r
2
= 19.4176 m
2
/s and Q = 2.278 m
3
/s
Uncorrected radius of volute is given by,
=

where C =

= 9640.82 units
At v =15
o
, =

= 0.037431 m = 37.431 mm
And correction due to hydraulic resistance is given by,

= 0.0008571 m = 0.8571 mm
The total radius of the circular cross-section of the volute is therefore,

tot
= + = 38.2883 mm
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


So we can now substitute different values of angle 0 and generate a table for interpolated
values and then interpolate the steps by drawing the curve path using a suitable CAD package.




Figure 6.2
Table 6.1
0
final = +
15 37.431 0.857 38.2883
30 53.847 1.714 55.5613
45 66.805 2.572 69.3769
60 77.974 3.429 81.4027
75 87.999 4.286 92.2848
90 97.211 5.143 102.3545
105 105.808 6.001 111.8085
120 113.917 6.858 120.7751
135 121.628 7.715 129.3434
150 129.006 8.572 137.5783
165 136.099 9.429 145.5286
180 142.946 10.287 153.2324
Degrees Mm mm mm

6.5 Casing thickness

The pressure inside the volute casing is 13.1 MPa, hence we shall proceed to
determine the casing thickness by principle for thick cylinder by Lamis Equation. According
to Lamis equation, there will be two important principle stresses for every elemental ring.
a. Radial pressure p
x

b. Hoop stress f
x


Radius
final
r
z
+
final

0
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Where by derivation, it is seen that
Radial pressure p
x
=


And Hoop stress f
x
=


The parameter x will vary from r
1
to r
2
across the thickness of the cylinder r
2
- r
1
= t
cylinder
.
Here p
x
at r
2
is atmospheric pressure and p
x
at r
1
is 13.1 MPa i.e. 13.1 N/mm
2

By computing the value of constants a and b for different radii and the corresponding
thicknesses, we formulate a table to compute the value of hoop stresses at the radii r
1
and r
2
.
Figure 6.3











Table 6.2
thk
cylinder
f
x
at r
1
f
x
at r
2
b a
40 42.6654 16.4724 50470.7 8.24
45.4545 48.9235 22.7240 115961.0 11.36
50.9090 52.3242 26.1216 188984.9 13.06
56.3636 54.3018 28.1032 266725.2 14.05
61.8181 55.4968 29.2986 347871.5 14.65
67.2727 56.1979 30.0002 431607.2 15
72.7272 56.6002 30.3981 517550.1 15.2
78.1818 56.7746 30.5770 605120.5 15.29
83.6363 56.8058 30.6081 694381.9 15.3
89.0909 56.7610 30.5614 785143.7 15.28
94.5454 56.6421 30.4408 877262.4 15.22
100 56.4632 30.2643 970513.1 15.13
mm N/mm
2
N/mm
2



r
2
r
1
p
x
f
x
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


As the pump is of critical application, we shall select the casting material for the volute casing
to be High Grade Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron 600/3 or 700/2, having mechanical properties
as follows.
Table 6.3
Material EN-GJS-600-3
EN-GJS-700-2
Tensile Strength N/mm
2
600
700
Proof Stress N/mm
2
370
420
Hardness BHN 190-270
230-300






Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants




Chapter 7
Axial Thrust
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


7. Determination of axial thrust
The unbalanced axial thrust

on the back shroud is expressed by:


Where,

is the area corresponding to the diameter

of the impeller wearing ring in mm


2

is the area of shaft sleeve through the stuffing box, in mm


2

is the head acting over the whole unbalanced area

is the peripheral velocity at the impeller wearing ring diameter

is the peripheral velocity at shaft sleeve diameter


is the specific weight of the fluid
A
1
= 0.31769m
2
at D
r
= 0.636m H
L
= 160.95m U
s
= 22.43m/s at d
D
= 240mm
A
s
= 0.04524m
2
at D
s
= 0.240m U
r
= 93.46D
r
= 7455.6 kg/m
2
s
2

The pressure distribution in the space between the impeller shrouds is based on the
assumption that the angular velocity of rotation of the liquid in this space is equal to one half
that of the impeller.
To balance the axial thrust

, radial ribs are provided on the back shroud. With these


ribs closely fitted to the casing walls the liquid will rotate approximately with full impeller
angular velocity. This will further reduce the pressure on the impeller back shroud over the
area

, determined by the diameter of the radial ribs

.


Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


The reduction of the axial forces on the back shroud is given by


For a complete balance,

. From this relationship, the diameter of the radial ribs can


be determined. The number of ribs varies from four for small pumps to six for large pumps.
Frequently, radial ribs are used to reduce the pressure on the stuffing box.
First we consider a 100% balance of the unbalance using radial ribs,
By appropriate calculations, we get,


But as the D
r
, is greater than the outer diameter of the impeller d
2i
, it is not geometrically
possible. Hence, we shall balance the axial thrust force partially, therefore for a 75% balance,
we get,

+ F
weight


Axial load on the shaft due to static pressure acting on the hub is

F
ax
+


Hence F
ax
= 412kN, where d = d
hub
= 0.21m Figure 7.1
Balancing the forces on a free body diagram Figure 6.1 of the impeller and shaft as a single
body,
F
res
= F
ax
+ F
hyd unbalance
+ F
weight
= 412.17kN - 251.38 +188. 54 - 3.2kN = 346.13 kN
Therefore the resultant axial force has to be borne by the bearings.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Chapter 8
Bearing
and
Seals

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


8. Bearing and Seal selection

As the load on the shaft is purely axial in nature, and the operating temperature is
275
o
C, it is only appropriate to choose heavy duty tapered roller thrust bearings for usage. We
referred to a commercial bearing manufacturer RBC bearings catalogue for the data, and
worked out the following calculation.
8.1 Bearing specifications:
1. Static Capacity C
o
= 4427000 lbf
2. Dynamic capacity C = 1304000 lbf
3. Inner diameter D
i
= 9.25
4. Outer cage diameter D
o
= 21.5
5. Width of bearing = 5

C = 1,304,000 lbf = 591484.45048 kgf
Load P = (XF
r
+ YF
a
) S
f
k
t

= Y F
a
S
f
[Let K
t
= 1.2 and S
f
= 1, as it is heavy duty brg]
F
a
= 346.13 kN
Therefore,
P = 1346.1310
3
1.2
= 415356 N
= 41535.6 kgf
C = P


L
90
= (


= 3775.41 m-r
L
90
=


L
h
= 35251.28 hrs
= 1470 days = 4.1 years

Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


Selection of seals

The seal is subjected to following conditions and has the given dimensional
constraints:
1. Temperature = 275C
2. Pressure = 2 x P
op
= 262 bar
3. Shaft outer diameter = 240 mm
4. Speed at the surface of the shaft = 22 m/s
Considering the above requirements the most suitable seals are Gas-packed tandem seals
which have the following features,
1. High pressure services with 425 bar (6200 psi) dynamic and static pressure ratings.
2. Suitable for high speed applications with peripheral velocity up to 250 m/s and speeds
up to 50,000 rpm.
3. High reliability with more than five years means time between repairs or overhaul.
4. Narrow and short axial designs for small seal chambers with greater ease of retrofit
and reduced influence on rotor dynamics.
5. Interchangeability seal parts and test fixture.
6. Ease of serviceability.
The gas-packed tandem seals are designed using either the bi-directional T-Groove
technology or the Advanced Pattern Groove (AGP) technology. Both these proven lift-off
patterns have high film stiffness and damping capabilities that maintain the gas film under
slow roll conditions as well as high speeds up to 250 m/s.
8.2 Bi-directional face pattern:
The T- groove provides increased protection with unique bi-directional T-groove face
design and can operate in clockwise as well as counter-clockwise direction of rotation. This
attribute provides optimum protection from reverse rotation.
During shaft rotation in either direction, gas flows into the symmetrical T-grooves and
is pumped circumferentially toward the edge of the groove. Stagnation of the gas flow at the
edge builds pressure and results in hydrodynamic lift-off, even at low peripheral velocities.
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


The unique design of the T-groove provides lower leakage than the conventional designs
patterns.

8.3 Uni-directional face pattern:
The APG incorporates specially designed tapered grooves that progressively more
shallow as they reach the circumferential groove. The APG design outperforms traditional
spiral groove designs allowing lift-off at lower speeds, low-pressure hydrostatic lift, and
better film stiffness performance.
During dynamic operation, any face pattern creates additional pressure to separate
faces so they are non-contacting. The APG extend farther across the face than conventional
uni-directional patterns, providing early lift-off and better performance at lower speeds. The
tapered groove depth of the APG design allows the faces to rapidly adjust, providing stable
operation during changing process conditions. The deeper grooves at the face periphery pump
the sealed medium toward the centre dam, developing pressure to cause hydrodynamic lift.
The APG operates with non-contacting seal faces, thus keeping parasitic horsepower
requirements low.
Considering the above requirements and features, there are two options available.
Their commercial names and specifications are as follows.
1. Gaspac T
2. Gaspac L

8.4.1 Gaspac T
This tandem seal provides full pressure breakdown across the primary seal faces. The
secondary seal faces normally operate under low pressure. In the event of primary seal failure,
the secondary seal acts as an installed spare. The process gas has controlled leakage across
both sets of seal faces.
The standard operating limits are:
- Pressure = 250 bar / 3600 psi
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


- Temperature = -100C to 230C
- Speed = 1 to 250 m/s
- Shaft size = 40 mm to 360 mm
Figure 8.1


8.4.2 Gaspac L
These are the tandem seals with inter-stage labyrinth used to eliminate process gas
leakage to the atmosphere. This is accomplished by introduction of an inert buffer gas to the
secondary seal. With slightly higher inert buffer gas pressure, labyrinth keeps the process gas
from migrating to the secondary seal faces. The inter-stage labyrinth provides a low pressure
solution to controlling emissions across a gas seal.
The standard operating limits are:
- Pressure = 250 bar / 3600 psi
- Temperature = -100C to 230C
- Speed = 1 to 250 m/s
- Shaft size = 40 mm to 360 mm
Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


As both seals mentioned above have the same standard operating limits, the Gaspac L
type is selected considering its added feature that is the elimination of the process gas leakage
to the atmosphere.

Figure 8.2






Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


9. Conclusion
The coolant re-circulating pump is the heart of a nuclear reactor. The failure of the
pump can cause immediate shut down of the reactor or even a fatal accident. Keeping this in
mind, the pump is designed for a high factor of safety and longer life than usual, causing
some of the dimensions of components to look inflated. However, the final dimensions of the
pump obey the general thumb rules of hydraulic design. The geometrical model of the pump
shows no signs of interference. It is thus assured that the pump is geometrically correct. As far
as the achievement of actual discharge or head or practical application of the pump is
concerned; the model that has been generated may be analyzed in software like CFX. The
fluid dynamic analysis of the pump model by generation of dynamic mesh is beyond our
B.Tech. curriculum, which is why we have excluded it in this work.





















Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants



Design of Coolant Re-circulating Pump used in Nuclear Power Plants


10. References

1. Guilich, Johann Friedrich (2010), Centrifugal pumps, Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht,
London & New York.
2. Lobanoff, Val. S., Ross, Robert. R. (1992), Centrifugal Pumps Design and
Application, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
3. Lazarkiewicz, S. and Troskolanski, A. T. (1965), Impeller Pumps, ISBN 0080111726,
Elsevier.
4. Status Report No.69, for Advanced CANDU Reactor, International Atomic Energy
Agency, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer Strasse 5, 1400 Vienna, Austria.
5. ACR-1000 Technical Description (January 2010), Atomic Energy of Canada Limited,
2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5K 1B2.
6. RBC Bearings Catalogue.
7. Flowserve Company Catalogue on Mechanical Seals.

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