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Dog Viruses Rabies: Rhabdovirus. Species-adapted.

Pathogenesis: Introduce to tissues, replicate locally peripheral nervous ends intra-axonal spread neuronal damage saliva Clinical Signs: 38wk incubation. Increase salivation. Depressive Bite when provoked. Invasive Restlessness, snap at imaginary objects, eat strange things. Diagnosis: Ag in brain/saliva, isolate in cell culture/animal, identify rabies-neutralising Ab. Zoonotic. Canine Distemper: Paramyxoviridae. Pathogenesis: Replicate in URT tonsils and bronchial lymph nodes cell-associated viraemia other lymphoreticular tissues lymphocytolysis, leukopenia immunosuppression and secondary infection Immunosuppression: dissemination and replication in respiratory, GI, urinary, CNS and skin. Clinical Signs: During 2nd pyrexia, oculonasal discharge, pharyngitis, tonsillar enlargement, coughing, vomiting, diarrhoea, rashes on abdomen, hyperkeratosis of nose and foot. Followed by recovery and life long immunity OR neurological signs (paresis, epileptiform seizures) and death. Diagnosis: Isolate in buffy coat, immunofluorescence, rapid test, histopathology giant cells, eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine Parvovirus: Pathogenesis: Intestinal (Adult) Replicate in lymphatic tissues, necrosis of germinal epithelium of intestine diarrhoea and dehydration. Myocarditis (Puppy) Rare, acute heart failure, congestive cardiomyopathy in surviving. Clinical Signs: Depression, fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea (faeces yellow-grey with mucus and blood), panleukopenia. Diagnosis: Isolation, intranuclear inclusion bodies, rapid test, ELISA, HA, PCR, EM, WBC count. Infectious Canine Hepatitis: Adenovirus. Pathogenesis: Replicate locally in tonsils and Peyers patches. Cytopathic effects hepatocytes, kidneys, vascular endothelium, causing hepatitis, nephritis, haemorrhage and DIC. Antibody production circular or local complexes causing glomerulonephritis and corneal oedema. Clinical Signs: Subclinical mild fever, anorexia. Clinical Mortality 10-30%. 100& in puppies. Fever, anorexia, thirst, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain. Diagnosis: Signs, neutropenia, lymphopenia, prolonged clotting time, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Isolate on MDCK cell line, immunofluorescence, PCR, HI, VN. Cattle Viruses Rabies: Depressed, decrease milk, grind teeth, slalivate, increase sexual activity in males, may attack others. paralysis, cant rise coma death. Vesicular Stomatitis: Vesicles on mouth, feet, udder. FMD: Picornaviridae. Morbidity 100%. Mortality less than 1%, but euthanasia to prevent spread. Pathogenesis: Inhalation/ingestion replicate in pharynx viraemia in lymph nodes, mammary glands, epithelial cells of mouth, muzzle, teats, interdigital space vesicle formation from hydropic degeneration of keratonised epithelial cells. Clinical Signs: Incubation 2-14 days. Fever, depressed, reluctant to move, unwilling to eat, salivation, oral vesicle with painful rupture, teat lesions, hoof lesions in interdigital space and coronary band, lameness. Abortion related to pyrexia. May die from acute myocarditis. Diagnosis: Isolation from epithelium or vesicular fluid, probang test, ELISA, RT-PCR. Zoonotic. Bovine Ephermal Fever: Rhabdoviridae. Sudden fever and severe drop in milk. Stop eating, drinking, depressed, shifting lameness, refuse to move. 3 day sickness. Rinderpest: Paramyxoviridae. Morbidity up to 90%. Mortality up to 100%. Pathogenesis: Inhaled replicate in mandibular and pharyngeal lymph nodes viraemia in 3 days spread to other

lymphatic tissue and mucosae of respiratory and digestive tracts necrosis in lymphatic tissues, leukopenia and immunosuppression. Clinical Signs: Fever, anorexia, depression, mucosal erosion in mouth and nose (5 days), salivation, oculonasal discharge, severe diarrhoea (mucus and blood). Collapse and die in 12 days. Rift Valley Fever Virus: Bunyaviridae. Pathogenesis: Direct/indirect transmission viraemia liver, other major organs cell necrosis. Clinical Signs: icterus, abortion, fever. Mortality 40% (up to 60% in sheep) Diagnosis: Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA. Zoonotic. Akabane Disease: Pathogenesis: Insect bite infect pregnant cow subclinically foetus from maternal circulation. Clinical Signs: Arthrogyposis, abortion, sensory, motor and optical nerve damage. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: Herpesviridae. Pathogenesis: Respiratory Aerosols replicate in URT shed in nasal secretions viraemia. Virus local nerves trigeminal ganglia latency. Lymphocyte-associated viraemia in pregnant cows abortion. Genital Localise in vagina/prepuce latency in sacral ganglia. Clinical Signs: Morbidity 100%. Mortality up to 10%. Respiratory High temperature, oculonasal discharge, anorexia, conjunctivitis, lachrymal discharge, abortion, buccal and nasal ulcers. Genital Genital discharge with ulcers in vagina/prepuce, fever, frequent urination. Diagnosis: Isolation, immunofluorescence, PCR, serum neutralisation (paired samples), ELISA. Using Nasal/genital swabs. Sheep Viruses Small Ruminants Pest: Paramyxoviridae. High morbidity and mortality. Resembles rinderpest. Differential diagnosis: FMD, bluetongue disease, contagious ecthyma. Contagious Ecthyma: Poxviridae. Release of endothelial growth factor in keratinocytes epithelial cell proliferation. Clinical Signs: Wart-shaped wounds in commisures of lips and muzzle. Lesions in buccal cavity no eating, decrease condition, death. FMD: Clinical Signs: Mild if any. Fever, oral lesions, lameness. Sheep-pox: Pathogenesis: Replicate locally in skin/lung regional lymph nodes viraemia generalised disease. Clinical Signs: Fever, oedema of eyelids, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge. Macules papules on skin and external mucus membranes scabs of necrotic papules. Mortality up to 50%. 100% in young. Diagnosis: Pathognomonic signs, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, isolation in cell cultures, EM, ELISA, Western blot. Scrapie: Prion. PrPsc = aggregates, resist proteolysis, beta-sheet, cytoplasmic vesicle. Pathogenesis: Accumulates in cytoplasm of CNS and lymphoreticular cells vacuolation of brain cells and changing normal prion proteins to abnormal. Long incubation time associated with neuronal loss, failure to induce inflammation and immune response. Clinical Signs: Itching, incoordination, difficulty standing, hypersensitivity to light and sound, excessive licking, death. Diagnosis: Post mortem. Conjunctival biopsy, microscopic examination of brain and spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry, ELISA, Western blot. Cat Viruses Rabies: See signs for dogs! Feline Parvovirus: Pathogenesis: Ingestion/inhalation replicate in oropharynx and lymphatic tissues in 2 days viraemia seek out rapidly dividing cells (intestinal epithelium, bone marrow,

lymphopoietic cells) and cause lysis. Invade nervous system in kittens. Clinical Signs: Subclinical Mild fever, leukopenia, immunity. Sub-acute Fever, leukopenia, depression, recovery. Acute Depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Mortality 2590%. Diagnosis: Acute diarrhoea in young, unvaccinated cats. WBC = <7000/mL + dominant neutropenia. Electron microscopy. Intranuclear inclusion bodies. Necrosis in crypt cells. Ag detection using rapid tests, ELISA, HA. Ab detection using HI or VN. Pig Viruses Swine Vesicular Disease: Picornaviridae. Pathogenesis: Ingestion/wound replicate locally spread to blood via lymph nodes. Clinical Signs: Transient fever, vesicular lesions on feet, lips, tongues. Diagnosis: ELISA. Differential Diagnosis: Vesicular stomatitis, Vesicular exanthema, FMD. Vesicular Stomatitis: See cattle viruses! FMD: Picornaviridae. Clinical Signs: Hoof lesions in coronary band, heel, interdigital space causing lameness. Snout vesicles.