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Kalevi Wiik

October 2012

File Wiik Haplogroup R1b, ’R1b SNP and STR 10.9.2012 b

Haplogroup R1b

This compilation of genetic data on haplogroup R1b consists of two main parts:

PART I deals with SNP (Single Nucleotide Plolymorphism) data and PART II with STR (Short Tandem Repeat) data. The illustrations in Part I are called Figures(although they in, reality are, Tables, Maps and Diagrams), while those in PART II are called sparately Tables, Mapsand Histograms. The purpose of the difference in the nomenclature of illustrations is to assist the reader to keep the two kinds of data separate throughout the material.

PART I

SNP data of haplogroup R1b

1. Geographic distribution of haplogroup R1b

Figure 1. Geographic area of haplogroup R1b. 7 Figure 2. Frequencies of R1b in Europe. 8 Figure 3. Frequencies of haplogroup R1b in various parts of Northern Africa. 8 Figure 4. Frequencies of R1b in Northern Europe. 9 Figure 5. Frequency of R1b in Finland. 10

2. Inventory of SNP mutations and subclades

Figure 6. ISOGG 2012 tree of haplogroup R1b. The tree contains 95 subclades. 11-13 Figure 7. A tree diagram constructed on the basis of Figure 6. 14 Figure 8. A tree of the most relevant mutations of haplogroup R1b according to Myres et al. 2010. 15 Figure 9. The ideolized areas of subclides V88, M73, and M269 and their phylogenetic tree. 16 Figure 10. Difference in the geographic concentrations of some R1b mutations in various parts of Eurasia. 17 Figure 11. The ”family story” of R1b. 18

3. Developmen of the brances of the R1b tree

Figure 12. Frequency zones of M259. 19 Figure 13. Frequency zone of M73. 19 Figure 14. M269 by Myres et al. 2010. 20 Figure 15. M73 by Myres et al. 2010. 20 Figure 16. L23. 20 Figure 17. L23 by Myres et al. 2010. 20 Figure 18. Distribution of subclade L23 (without M412). 20 Figure 19. M412/L51. 21 Figure 20. M412 by Myres et al. 2010. 21 Figure 21. L11. 21 Figure 22. L11 (xU106,S116). 21

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Figure 23. L11 all by Myres et al. 2010. 21 Figure 24. L11(xU106,S116) by Myres et al. 2010. 21 Figure 25. R1b mutation tree of levels ten through thirteen. 22 Figure 26. Frequency zones of U106 by Myres et al. 2010. The Atlantic North Group. 23 Figure 27. Frequency zones of S116 by Myres et al. 2010. The Atlantic South Group. 23 Figure 28. U106/S21. The Atlantic North Group. Eupedia. 23 Figure 29. The split of ”West European” subclade L11 into U106/S21 and P312/S116 or ”Atlantic North” and ”Atlantic South”. 23 Figure 30. The center and essential distribution area of U106/S21 (”Atlantic North”). 24 Figure 31. The center and essential distribution area of P312/S116 (”Atlantic South). 24 Figure 32. U152. The ”Hallstatt Group”. 24 Figure 33. M529(xM222). The ”Irish” group. 24 Figure 34. M529(xM222). The ”Irish group” without M222. Figure 35. Another distribution map of the ”Hallstatt” subgroup U152/S28. Eupedia. 25 Figure 36. Assumed routes of the subclades of R1b on levels two to ten. 26 Figure 37. U106 is without U198 in the Table. 26 Figure 38. Areas and suggested names of R1b mutations. 27 Figure 39. Frequency of M269. 27-28 Figure 40. Frequencies of V88, M269, and M73. 28-29 Figure 41. Frequencies of M269, U106, and U198. 29 Figure 42. Frequency of subclade M269 (earlier R1b3) of R1b in Sweden. Figure 43. Distribution of 95 mutations in eleven European populations. 30-32 Figure 44. Statistics on the mutations occuring in the FTDNA but not in the ISOGG tree 2012. 33 Figure 45. Combination of the preceding two Tables (ISOGG+ and ISOGG-). 34 Figure 46. The Number of subclades in various parts of Europe. 34

4. R1b trees of some European populations

Figure 47. R1b tree of France. 35-36 Figure 48. R1b tree of Ireland. 37-38 Figure 49. R1b tree of Scotland. 39-40 Figure 50. R1b tree of Wales. 41 Figure 51. R1b tree of Germany. 42-43 Figure 52. R1b tree of Hungary. 44 Figure 53. R1b tree of Poland. 45 Figure 54. R1b tree Russia. 46 Figure 55. R1b tree of Norway. 47 Figure 56. R1b tree of Sweden. 48 Figure 57. R1b tree of Finland. 49 Figure 58. Table ”Close relatives”. 50 Figure 59. Number of identical subclades in some pairs of populations of R1b in various areas of Europe. 51 Figure 60. ”Sameness percentage” between pairs of populations. 52 Figure 61. ”Difference percentage” between populations. 53

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Figure 62. ’R1b same subclades 47% 14’. Percentage of identical subclades. Critical percentage 47 %. 54 Figure 63. Percentage of different subclades. Critical percentage 60 %. 55 Figure 64. Five groups of related subgroups. 56 Figure 65. A map of the percentage of identical subclades. The ”bridge” between West-European and North-European R1b lies between Germany and Norway, and that between Nort-European and Central-Euopean R1b between Poland and Norway. 57 Figure 66. The Number of different subclades between pairs of populations. 58 Figure 67. The number of the subclades of R1b in various parts of Europe. 59 Figure 68. The number of levels or the depth of the phylogenetic R1b tree in various parts of Europe. 60

PART II STR data of Haplogroup R1b Tables and maps of the STR modals of European R1b populations 61 Table 0. Approximate numbers of participants in the Tables. 62 Legends for the Tables 63 Panel 1: Markers 1-12 64 Introduction 64 Table Panel 1 65 Table DYS393 66 Histogram DYS393 67 Table DYS393: West vs. East 67 Histogram DYS393 West 68 Histogram DYS393 East 68 Map DYS393: second in frequency 68

Table DYS390 69 Histogram DYS390 70 Table DYS19 71 Histogram DYS19 72 Table DYS391 73 Histogram DYS391 74 Table DYS426 76 Histogram DYS426 76 Table DYS388 77 Histogram DYS388 78 Table DYS439 79 Histogram DYS439 80 Table DYS389i 81 Histogram DYS389i 82 Table DYS392 83 Histogram DYS392 84 Table DYS389ii 85

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Histogram DYS389ii 86 Map DYS389ii second in frequency 86

Panel 2: Markers 13-25 Introduction 87 Table Panel 2 88 Table DYS458 89 Table DYS449 89 Table DYS464c 89

Map 464c 89

Panel 3: Markers 26-37 Introduction 90 Table Panel 3 90 Table DYS456 91 Table DYS456: alleles 15 and 16. 92 Histogram DYS456 93 Map DYS456-A 94 Map DYS456-B 94

Table DYSADYa 95 Histogram DYSADYa 96 Table DYSCDYb 96 Histogram DYSADYb 97

Panel 4a: Markers 38-47

Table Panel 4a 98

Panel 4b: Markers 48-60

Panel 4c: Markers 61-67

Panel 5a: Markers 68-75

Table Panel 4b 99 Table DYS413a 99

Table Panel 4c 100

Table Panel 5a 101 Table DYS710 102 Histogram DYS710 103 Table DYS714 104 Histogram DYS714 105

Panel 5b: Markers 76-85

Table Panel 5b 106 Table DYS549 107 Histogram DYS549 108 Table DYS522 109 Histogram DYS522 110

Panel 5c: Markers 86-94

Table Panel 5c 110 Table DYSYGA 111 Histogram DYSYGA 112

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Map DYSYGA 112

Table DYS712 113 Histogram DYS712 114 Map DYS712 114

Panel 5d: 95-102

Table Panel 5d 115 Table DYS650 116 Histogram DYS650 117 Map DYS650 117

Table DYS504 118 Histogram DYS504 119 Map DYS504 119

Panel 5e: 103-111

Table Panel 5e 120 STR-distances between populations Table Critical markers. 121 Table Distances 1. Mutual distances in steps between European populations. 122 Table Distances 2. The average distances of a population from the other nineteen European populations. 122 Map Distance zones. 123 Map Modal 1. Genetic distances in steps from the ”European Modal”. 124 Map Modal 2. Three zones of the distances from the ”European Modal”. 125

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PART I

In this report, oridinary text is minimized and contains only the most essential explanations nexessary to understand the essential issues. Therefore, the presentation is more like a ”compilation of data” than a ”real study”.

Haplogroup R1b is most common in Western Europe and it has been studied by many genetists for decades. The first representative of this haplogroup of men was called Oisin by Brian Sykes and Ruisko by Stephen Oppenheimer. I have always called him Robert to remind the reader of letters R and b in the name of this haplogroup. (In my nomenclature his ”brother” is Raul with R and a in his name).

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SNP Data of Haplogroup R1b

1. Geographic distribution of R1b The geographic distribution of haplogroup R1b is seen in Maps 1 - 5. There are small differences between the maps because of the different data they are based on. Map 1 shows that R1b has worldwide three concentrations:

(1) A primary concentration in Western Europe. (2) A secondary one in the area south of the Black Sea. (3) A third concentration in Northern Africa.

Map 2 shows that R1b is primarily a West-European or Atlantic haplogroup with its concentration in the British Isles and France. The frequencies are clinal with decreasing frequencies when departing from the Atlantic coast, and the frequency valley between the Western and Eastern concentrations runs from Eastern Finland through Central Russia (the Moscow area) to Southern Greece; cf. the black bar in Map 2.

Russia (the Moscow area) to Southern Greece; cf. the black bar in Map 2. Figure 1.

Figure 1. Geographic area of haplogroup R1b.

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8 Figure 2. Frequencies of R1b in Europe. The black bar represents the frequency valley between

Figure 2. Frequencies of R1b in Europe. The black bar represents the frequency valley between the Western and Eastern concentrations.

The African constration of R1b is situated in Nort-western Nigeria and Chad; cf. Map 3.

R1b is situated in Nort-western Nigeria and Chad; cf. Map 3. Figure 3. Frequencies of haplogroup

Figure 3. Frequencies of haplogroup R1b in various parts of Northern Africa. Source: Pericic.

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9 Figure 4. Frequencies of R1b in Northern Europe.

Figure 4. Frequencies of R1b in Northern Europe.

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10 Figure 5. Frequency of R1b in Finland. Based on the material in Lappalainen et al.

Figure 5. Frequency of R1b in Finland. Based on the material in Lappalainen et al. 2006.

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2. Inventory of SNP mutations and subclades Figure 1 is based on the R1b tree of ISOGG 2012 . It differs from the original ISOGG 2012 tree only in that the ”starred” mutations and subclades have been omitted. The most important mutations are boldfaced and underlined. The leftmost column gives the level of the mutations and subclades in the ISOG 2012 tree (the lower the number, the higher it is in the tree). To some extent, the level numbers refer to the time of mutations: the older a mutation, the higher it is in the tree.

0 R M207/Page37/UTY2, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S9 1 • R1 M173/P241/Page29,
0
R
M207/Page37/UTY2, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S9
1 •
R1
M173/P241/Page29, M306/S1, P225, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P242, P245, P286, P294
2•
R1a
M420/L146, L62/M513, L63/M511, L145/M449.
2•
R1b
M343.
3•
R1b1
L278, M415, P25.1, P25.2, P25.3.
4•
R1b1a
P297, L320.
5•
R1b1a1
M73, M478.
5•
R1b1a2
L265, M269, M520, S3, S10, S13, S17.
6•
R1b1a2a
L23/S141, L49.1.
7•
R1b1a2a1
L150.
8•
R1b1a2a1a
L51/M412/S167.
9•
R1b1a2a1a1
L11/S127, L52, L151, P310/S129, P311/S128.
10•
R1b1a2a1a1a
M405/S21/U106.
11•
R1b1a2a1a1a1
P107.
11•
R1b1a2a1a1a2
L6.
11•
R1b1a2a1a1a3
L217.
11•
R1b1a2a1a1a4
Z18, Z19.
12•
R1b1a2a1a1a4a
L257/S186.
12•
R1b1a2a1a1a4b
L325.
11•
R1b1a2a1a1a5
Z381.
12•
R1b1a2a1a1a5a
Z156.
13•
R1b1a2a1a1a5a1
L1/S26.
13•
R1b1a2a1a1a5a2
P89.2.
12•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b
Z301.
13•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b1
M467/S29/U198/U106.
13•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b2
L48/S162.
14•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b2a
L47/S170.
15•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b2a1
L44/S171, L163.
16•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b2a1a
L46/S172.
17•
R1b1a2a1a1a5b2a1a1
L45, L164, L237.

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14•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b

Z9.

15•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b1

 

Z2.

16•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b1a

Z7.

17•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b1a1

Z8.

18•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b1a1a

Z1.

20•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b1a1a1a

L148/S173.

18•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b1a1b

Z1.

15•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b2

 

Z326.

 

16•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2b2a

L188.

 

14•

R1b1a2a1a1a5b2c

L200.

 

10•

P312/S116.

 

11•

M65.

 

11•

R1b1a2a1a1b • R1b1a2a1a1b1 • R1b1a2a1a1b2 • • R1b1a2a1a1b2a • • R1b1a2a1a1b2b
R1b1a2a1a1b
R1b1a2a1a1b1
R1b1a2a1a1b2
R1b1a2a1a1b2a
R1b1a2a1a1b2b

Z196.

 

12•

M153.

 

12•

L176.2/S179.2.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b2b1

M167/SRY2627.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b2b2

L165/S68.

 

11•

R1b1a2a1a1b3 • R1b1a2a1a1b3a • R1b1a2a1a1b3b • R1b1a2a1a1b3c • • R1b1a2a1a1b3c1
R1b1a2a1a1b3
R1b1a2a1a1b3a
R1b1a2a1a1b3b
R1b1a2a1a1b3c
R1b1a2a1a1b3c1

S28/U152.

M126.

M160.

 

12•

12•

12•

L2/S139.

 

13•

Z367.

14•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c1a

L20/S144.

 

15•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c1a1

M228.2.

14•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c1b

Z34.

 

15•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c1b1

 

Z35.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c2 R1b1a2a1a1b3c3
R1b1a2a1a1b3c2
R1b1a2a1a1b3c3

L196.

 

13•

Z49.

14•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c3a

Z142.

 

15•

R1b1a2a1a1b3c3a1

 

L562.

 

12•

R1b1a2a1a1b3d R1b1a2a1a1b3e
R1b1a2a1a1b3d
R1b1a2a1a1b3e

Z36.

Z56.

 

12•

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b3e1

L4/S178.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b3e2

S47.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b3e3

Z144, Z145, Z146.

 

11•

L21/M529/S145, L459.

 

12•

M37.

 

12•

M222/Page84/USP9Y+3636.

 

12•

DF1/L513/S215.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4 • R1b1a2a1a1b4a • R1b1a2a1a1b4b • R1b1a2a1a1b4c • • R1b1a2a1a1b4c1 • •
R1b1a2a1a1b4
R1b1a2a1a1b4a
R1b1a2a1a1b4b
R1b1a2a1a1b4c
R1b1a2a1a1b4c1
R1b1a2a1a1b4c2

P66.1, P66.2, P66.3.

 

13•

L193/S176.

 

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13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4c3

L705.2.

 

12•

L96.

 

12•

R1b1a2a1a1b4d R1b1a2a1a1b4e R1b1a2a1a1b4f R1b1a2a1a1b4g • R1b1a2a1a1b4g1
R1b1a2a1a1b4d
R1b1a2a1a1b4e
R1b1a2a1a1b4f
R1b1a2a1a1b4g
R1b1a2a1a1b4g1

L144/S175, L195.

L159.2/S169.2.

 

12•

12•

Z253.

 

13•

L226/S168.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4g2

L554.

 

12•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h

DF21/S192.

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h1

P314.2/S220.2.

14•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h1a

L362.

 

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h2

Z246/S280.

14•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h2a

DF25/S253.

15•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h2a1

DF5/S191.

16•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h2a1a

L627.

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h3

L720/S299.

13•

R1b1a2a1a1b4h4

S190.

 

12•

L371.

 

11•

L238/S182.

11•

DF19.

 

8•

• • • • • • • • R1b1a2a1a1b4i • • • • • •
R1b1a2a1a1b4i
R1b1a2a1a1b5
R1b1a2a1a1b6
R1b1a2a1b
L584.
R1b1b
M335.
R1b1c
V88.
R1b1c1
M18.
R1b1c2
V8.
R1b1c3
V35.
R1b1c3a
V7.
R1b1c4
V69.
 

4•

4•

5•

5•

5•

6•

5•

Figure 6. ISOGG 2012 tree of haplogroup R1b. The tree contains 95 subclades.

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14

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Figure 7 (preceding page). A tree diagram constructed on the basis of Figure 6.

page). A tree diagram constructed on the basis of Figure 6. Figure 8. A tree of

Figure 8. A tree of the most relevant mutations of haplogroup R1b according to Myres et al. 2010 2010. Notice that S116 = P312 and M529 = L21.

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16 Figure 9 . The idealized areas of subclides V88, M73, and M269 and their phylogenetic

Figure 9. The idealized areas of subclides V88, M73, and M269 and their phylogenetic tree.

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17 Figure 10 . Difference in the geographic concentrations of some R1b mutations in various parts

Figure 10. Difference in the geographic concentrations of some R1b mutations in various parts of Eurasia.

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18 Figure 11. The ”family story” of R1b.

Figure 11. The ”family story” of R1b.

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Developmen of the brances of the R1b tree From the poin of view of the emergence of new subclades, following conclusions can be made on the basis of the ISOGG 2012 tree:

On level two, haplogroup R1b was characterised by mutation M343. The group lived somewhere in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. I call it ”the General Group”. On level three, the haplogroup experienced mutation P25.1 but remained practically unchanged. I keep the name unchanged; I call it still ”the General Group”. On level four, the General Group (P25.1) experienced two essential mutations: The southern part of the General Group was influenced by mutation V88 while the main portion of it was under the influence of mutation P297. I call the former ”Southern” and the latter ”Northern”. The R1b men of the Southern Group live today (a) in the Near East (e.g. Lebanon) and on the Mediterranean coast and islands (e.g. Sardinia), and (b) in Norhern Africa. On level five, the Southern Group developed into the ”Mediterranian Group” by mutation M18. The geographic distribution of this group covers today, for example, Sardinia and Lebanon. The African branch of the Southern Group developed into the ”African Group” that had at least three subclades: V6, V35, and V69. On the same level (and therefore ”simultaneously”) the Northern Group was also split because in the Northeastern part of it occured mutation M73 and in the rest of it mutation M269. The result was the ”Northeastern Group” to the south of the Ural Mountains and the ”Euroasian Group” elsewhere.

the Ural Mountains and the ”Euroasian Group” elsewhere. Figure 12 . Frequency zones of M269. Figure

Figure 12. Frequency zones of M269.

and the ”Euroasian Group” elsewhere. Figure 12 . Frequency zones of M269. Figure 13 . Frequency

Figure 13. Frequency zones of M73.

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20 Figure 14. M269 by Myres et al. 2010. Figure 15. M73 by Myres et al.

Figure 14. M269 by Myres et al. 2010.

20 Figure 14. M269 by Myres et al. 2010. Figure 15. M73 by Myres et al.

Figure 15. M73 by Myres et al. 2010.

The development of the subclades of haplogroup R1b continued on the lower levels as follows:

On levels six and seven, no essential change occured. Euroasian group M269 experienced two successive mutations L23 and L150, and the ”name of group M269 was changed” accordingly: first (on level six) to L23 and then (on level seven) to

L150.

(on level six) to L23 and then (on level seven) to L150. Figure 16. L23. Figure

Figure 16. L23.

to L23 and then (on level seven) to L150. Figure 16. L23. Figure 17 . L23

Figure 17. L23 by Myres et al. 2010

L150. Figure 16. L23. Figure 17 . L23 by Myres et al. 2010 Figure 18. Distribution

Figure 18. Distribution of subclade L23 (without M412).

On level eight, R1b had two subclades, L51/M412 in Western Europe and L584 (= L23(x412)) in the Kaspian-Uralic region. The two subclades were ”brothers” to each other and their common ”father” was L23 and ”grandfather” M269.

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21 Figure 19. M412/L51. Figure 20. M412 by Myres et al. 2010 On level nine ,

Figure 19. M412/L51.

21 Figure 19. M412/L51. Figure 20. M412 by Myres et al. 2010 On level nine ,

Figure 20. M412 by Myres et al. 2010

On level nine, the dominant group L51/M412 developed into L11.

level nine , the dominant group L51/M412 developed into L11. Figure 21. L11. Figure 22. L11
level nine , the dominant group L51/M412 developed into L11. Figure 21. L11. Figure 22. L11

Figure 21. L11.

dominant group L51/M412 developed into L11. Figure 21. L11. Figure 22. L11 (xU106,S116) Figure 23. L11

Figure 22. L11 (xU106,S116)

into L11. Figure 21. L11. Figure 22. L11 (xU106,S116) Figure 23. L11 all by Myres et

Figure 23. L11 all by Myres et al. 2010.

2010.

The total distribution of total subclade L11 on the left and that of L11 without the influence of U106 and S116 on the right.

On the next lower levels ten, eleven, twelve, and thirteen, the most essential subclades of the R1b are represented by the following tree:

Figure 24. L11(xU106,S116) by Myres et al.

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22 Figure 25 . Levels from ten to thirteen of the SNP mutations of FR1b. On

Figure 25. Levels from ten to thirteen of the SNP mutations of FR1b.

On level eleven, a significant development took place as group L11, which already had reached Western Europe split into two. The result was (a) L106 in the northern half of Western Europe and (b) P312 (= S116) in its southern half. I call the subclades ”Atlantic South” and ”Atlantic North”. Cf. Maps 26 and 27.

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23 Figure 26. U106/S21 by Myres et al. 2010 . The ”Atlantic North Group”. Figure 27.
23 Figure 26. U106/S21 by Myres et al. 2010 . The ”Atlantic North Group”. Figure 27.

Figure 26. U106/S21 by Myres et al. 2010. The ”Atlantic North Group”. Figure 27. S116/S312 by Myres et al. 2010. The ”Atlantic South Group”.

by Myres et al. 2010. The ”Atlantic South Group”. Figure 28. The ”Atlantic North Group” U106/S21

Figure 28. The ”Atlantic North Group” U106/S21 according to Eupedia.

On level twelve subclade P312 (the ”Atlantic South Group”) developed into U152 and L21/M529. The split is seen graphically in the following three Maps.

The split is seen graphically in the following three Maps. Figure 29 The split of ”West

Figure 29 The split of ”West European” subclade L11 into U106/S21 and P312/S116 or ”Atlantic North” and ”Atlantic South”.

24

24 Figure 30 The center and essential distribution area of U106/S21 (”Atlantic North”). Figure 31 The
24 Figure 30 The center and essential distribution area of U106/S21 (”Atlantic North”). Figure 31 The

Figure 30 The center and essential distribution area of U106/S21 (”Atlantic North”). Figure 31 The center and essential distribution area of P312/S116 (”Atlantic South). Subgroup U106/S21 is a ”brother group” of P312/S116 and their ”father” is L11.

On level twelve another relevant split took place: According to ISOGG 2012 subclade P312/S166 (the ”Atlantic South”) split into six subclades: M66, Z196, U152, M529/L21, L238, and DF19. Of these U152 and L21 were more important than others. I call the former ”Hallstatt” and the latter ”Irish”. The ”Hallstatt” group stayed largely on the continent while the ”Irish” one moved to the British Isles; cf. the following Maps.

one moved to the British Isles; cf. the following Maps. Figure 32. U152. The ”Hallstatt Group”

Figure 32. U152. The ”Hallstatt Group”

following Maps. Figure 32. U152. The ”Hallstatt Group” Figure 33. M529. The ”Irish Group”. Figure 34.

Figure 33. M529. The ”Irish Group”.

Group” Figure 33. M529. The ”Irish Group”. Figure 34. M529(xM222). The ” Irish group ” without

Figure 34. M529(xM222). The ”Irish groupwithout M222.

25

25 Figure 35. A distribution map of the ”Hallstatt Group” U152/S28 by Eupedia. The maps above

Figure 35. A distribution map of the ”Hallstatt Group” U152/S28 by Eupedia.

The maps above show the geographic regions of development M269 > L51 > L11 and the split of L11 into U106 and P312/S116. The areas of populations M269, L51, and L11 (and most probably also those of L23 and L150 between L51 and L11) were similar if not identical. They covered entire Western Europe. The West European area split into two when after L11 there was a more western subclade in Iberia, France, Ireland and Sardinia, and a more eastern one in England, Benelux, Germany, and Southern Norway.

”Family story” of West-European R1b men To simplify things, there was a man called Michel (M269) who was the forefather of all the West-European R1b men. Generations later there was a man called Leo (L11) belonging to the same fatherline. He lived in the area of modern France and had two sons, Ulf (U106) and Pierre (P312). Ulf moved to the area of Netherlands and Pierre to the Basque area. Later, Ulf’s male descendants spread to the coasts of the North Sea, and those of Pierre to Iberia, France and Ireland. I call the southern West- European group (U106) ”Atlantic South” and the northern one ”Atlantic North”. In the next phase, the center of the ”Atlantic South” subclade P312/S116 developed into many new subgroups, the most important of them being U152 and L21/M529. The men of subgroup U152 moved to Switzerland and formed a new group I call ”Hallstatt”. Subgroup L21/M529 moved to Ireland and formed a group I call ”Irish”. Later a new subgroup M222 of the ”Irish” subgroup emerged in Northern Ireland. I call this ”North-Irish”.

26

26 Figure 36. Assumed routes of the subclades of R1b on levels two to ten. Population

Figure 36. Assumed routes of the subclades of R1b on levels two to ten.

Population

U106

n

Austria

22.70%

22

Czech Republic

13.90%

36

Denmark

16.80%

113

Eastern Europe

0.00%

44

England

20.30%

138

France

7.10%

56

Germany

18.70%

332

Ireland

5.90%

102

Italy

3.50%

284

Netherlands

35.10%

94

Poland

8.20%

110

Russia

5.40%

56

Slovenia

3.80%

105

Spain

7.70%

164

Switzerland

13.30%

90

Turkey

0.40%

523

Ukraine

9.40%

32

Figure 37. U106 without U198. Source: the 2007 articles of Myres et al. 2010 and Sims et al.

27

Mutation

Main area

Potential name

M343

Origin: SW Asia; Eurasia+parts of Africa

Euroasian-African

M18

Lebanon, Sardinia

Libanon-Sardinian

V88

North Africa, Central Sahel Region

North African

P297

Eurasia

Eurasian

M73

Anatolia, Caucasus, Ural, Hazara

East European

M269

Eurasia; center: Bashkiria+Permic

Eurasian

L23*

Origin: Circum-Uralic+Turkic

East European

L23

Europe

European

M412

Western Europe

West European

L11/P301

Western Europe

West European

U106*

Norther Poland & Southern England

Pomeranian-Devonish

U106

Eastern Rhine river basin

East-Germanic?

S116*/P312*

   

S116/P312

Western Rhine river basin

West-Germanic?

U152

Switzerland, Italy, France and Western Poland, parts of England and Germany; north Bashkortostan

Cenral European&Bashkirian

M126

?

 

M160

?

 

M529*

England+Ireland?

English-Irish

M222

Scotland+Ireland

Scottish-Irish

M65

   

M153

Basque-Garcon

M167/SRY2627

Basques&Catalanians

Basque-Calanian

Figure 38. Areas and suggested names of R1b mutations.

Country

R-M269

Sample

Source

Wales

92.3%

65

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Basques, Spain

87.1%

116

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Ireland

85.4%

796

Moore et al. (2006)

Spain, Catalonia

81.3%

80

Balaresque et al. (2009)

France, Ile et Vilaine

80.5%

82

Balaresque et al. (2009)

France, Haute-Garonne

78.9%

57

Balaresque et al. (2009)

England, Cornwall

78.1%

64

Balaresque et al. (2009)

France, Loire-Atlantique

77.1%

48

Balaresque et al. (2009)

France, Finistère

76.0%

75

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Basques in France

75.4%

61

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Spain, East Andalucia

72.0%

95

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Spain, Castilla La Mancha

72.0%

63

Balaresque et al. (2009)

France, Vendée

68.0%

50

Balaresque et al. (2009)

France, Baie de Somme

62.8%

43

Balaresque et al. (2009)

England, Leicestershire

62.0%

43

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Italy, North-East (Ladin)

60.8%

79

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Spain, Galicia

58.0%

88

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Spain, West Andalucia

55.0%

72

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Portugal, South

46.2%

78

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Italy, North-West

45.0%

99

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Denmark

42.9%

56

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Netherlands

42.0%

84

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Italy, North East

41.8%

67

Battaglia et al. (2008)

Bashkirs, Russia

34.4%

471

Lobov (2009)

Germany, Bavaria

32.3%

80

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Italy, West Sicily

30.3%

122

Di Gaetano et al. (2009)

Poland

22.7%

110

Myres et al. 2010 (2007)

28

Slovenia A

21.3%

75

Battaglia et al. (2008)

Slovenia B

20.6%

70

Balaresque et al. (2009)

Turkey, Central

19.1%

152

Cinnioğlu et al. (2004)

Albanians in Makedonia

18.8%

64

Battaglia et al. (2008)

Italy, East Sicily

18.4%

114

Di Gaetano et al. (2009)

Crete

17.0%

193

King et al. (2008)

Italy, Sardinia

17.0%

930

Contu et al. (2008)

Iran, North

15.2%

33

Regueiro et al. (2006)

Moldova

14.6%

268

Varzari (2006)

Greece

13.5%

171

King et al. (2008)

Turkey, West

13.5%

163

Cinnioğlu et al. (2004)

Romania

13.0%

54

Varzari (2006)

Turkey, East

12.0%

208

Cinnioğlu et al. (2004)

Algeria, Northwest (Oran area)

11.8%

102

Robino et al. (2008)

Russia, Roslavl

11.2%

107

Balanovsky et al. (2008)

Iraq

10.8%

139

Al-Zahery et al. (2003)

Nepal, Newar

10.60%

66

Gayden et al. (2007)

Serbia

10.0%

100

Belaresque et al. (2009)

Tunisia, Tunis

7.2%

139

Adams et al. (2008)

6.5%

46

Adams et al. (2008)

Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina

6.2%

81

Marjanovic et al. (2005)

Iran, South

6.0%

117

Regueiro et al. (2006)

Russia, Repievka

5.2%

96

Balanovsky et al. (2008)

UAE

3.7%

164

Cadenas et al. (2007)

Bosniaks in Bosnia-Herzegovina

3.5%

85

Marjanovic et al. (2005)

Pakistan

2.8%

176

Sengupta et al. (2006)

Russia, Belgorod

2.8%

143

Balanovsky et al. (2008)

Russia, Ostrov

2.7%

75

Balanovsky et al. (2008)

Russia, Pristen

2.2%

45

Balanovsky et al. (2008)

Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina

2.2%

90

Marjanovic et al. (2005)

Qatar

1.4%

72

Cadenas et al. (2007)

China

0.8%

128

Sengupta et al. (2006)

India

0.5%

728

Sengupta et al. (2006)

Croatia, Osijek

0.0%

29

Battaglia et al. (2008)

Yemen

0.0%

62

Cadenas et al. (2007)

Tibet

0.0%

156

Gayden et al. (2007)

Nepal, Tamang

0.0%

45

Gayden et al. (2007)

Nepal, Kathmand

0.0%

77

Gayden et al. (2007)

Japan

0.0%

23

Sengupta et al. (2006)

Figure 39. Frequency of M269. Source: Wikipedia.

Population

R-V88

R-M269

R-M73

Total%

N

Northern Africa

5.2%

0.7%

0.0%

5.9%

691

Central Sahel Region

23.0%

0.0%

0.0%

23.0%

461

Western Africa

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

123

Eastern Africa

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

442

Southern Africa

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

105

Western Europeans

0.0%

57.8%

0.0%

57.8%

465

North western Europeans

0.0%

55.8%

0.0%

55.8%

43

Central Europeans

0.0%

42.9%

0.0%

42.9%

77

North Eastern Europeans

0.0%

1.4%

0.0%

1.4%

74

Russians

0.0%

6.7%

0.0%

6.7%

60

Eastern Europeans

0.0%

20.8%

0.0%

20.8%

149

Balkanians

0.2%

12.9%

0.0%

13.1%

510

Western Asians