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TENSION TEST EXPERIMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................4 Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. If a material is to be used as part of an engineering structure that will be subjected to a load, it is important to know that the material is strong enough and rigid enough to withstand the loads that it will experience in service. As a result engineers have developed a number of experimental techniques for mechanical testing of engineering materials subjected to tension, compression, bending or torsion loading......................................................................................................................4 The most common type of test used to measure the mechanical properties of a material is the Tension Test. Tension test is widely used to provide a basic design information on the strength of materials and is an acceptance test for the specification of materials. The major parameters that describe the stress-strain curve obtained during the tension test are the tensile strength (UTS), yield strength or yield point (y), elastic modulus (E), percent elongation (L%) and the reduction in area (RA%). Toughness, Resilience, Poissons ratio() can also be found by the use of this testing technique.............................................4 REQUIREMENTS FOR TENSION TEST:....................................................................................5 1- Testing machine:..............................................................................................................5 2- Standard test specimen:...................................................................................................6 PROCEDURE THE EXPERIENCE...............................................................................................7 SUMMARY.....................................................................................................................................9 APPENDIX....................................................................................................................................10 REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................11

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

INTRODUCTION Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. If a material is to be used as part of an engineering structure that will be subjected to a load, it is important to know that the material is strong enough and rigid enough to withstand the loads that it will experience in service. As a result engineers have developed a number of experimental techniques for mechanical testing of engineering materials subjected to tension, compression, bending or torsion loading. The most common type of test used to measure the mechanical properties of a material is the Tension Test. Tension test is widely used to provide a basic design information on the strength of materials and is an acceptance test for the specification of materials. The major parameters that describe the stress-strain curve obtained during the tension test are the tensile strength (UTS), yield strength or yield point (y), elastic modulus (E), percent elongation (L%) and the reduction in area (RA%). Toughness, Resilience, Poissons ratio() can also be found by the use of this testing technique.

REQUIREMENTS FOR TENSION TEST: 1- Testing machine: Model Capacity Accuracy class Load range Load accuracy Load resolution Extension measurement range Extension measurement accuracy Extension resolution Displacement measurement accuracy Displacement resolution Loading speed range Loading speed accuracy Extension speed range Extension speed accuracy Crosshead speed Crosshead speed accuracy Power supply CMT5105 100kN 1 0.2%-100%FS Better than 1% of reading 1/300000 of capacity, stepless 0.02%-100%FS Better than 0.5% of reading 1/300000 of capacity Better than 0.5% of reading 0.025 m 0.01-10%FS/s Better than 1% of setting 0.02-5%FS/s better than 0.5% of setting 0.001-500mm/min Speed<0.01mm/min, better than 1% of setting Speed0.01mm/min, better than 0.2% of setting Three phase, 380V 10% ,50/60Hz, confirm with the customer. Table1: machine properties

Figure1: test machine

2- Standard test specimen: Material of specimen: mild steel. Lo= 80 mm D= 8mm

Figure2: circular specimen

PROCEDURE THE EXPERIENCE 1- Holding the specimen between the two machine jaws. 2- Switching on the machine. 3- Recording the loads and elongation values.
Loa d (kg) 150 1500 800 1200 1700 2200 2700 3000 3100 3200 3250 3300 3200 3000 2900 2600 2200 Elongatio n (mm) 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5

4- Determining stress () and strain ()

Table1

Stress (N/mm2) 2.985669 29.85669 15.92357 23.88535 33.83758 43.78981 53.74204 59.71338 61.70382 63.69427 64.68949 65.68471 63.69427 59.71338 57.72293 51.75159 43.78981

Strain 0.00625 0.0125 0.01875 0.025 0.03125 0.0375 0.04375 0.05 0.05625 0.0625 0.06875 0.075 0.08125 0.0875 0.09375 0.1 0.10625

Table2

5- Drawing stress-strain diagram. (using Microsoft Excel program)

stress-strain diagram
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0.00625 0.0125 0.01875

0.025

0.03125 0.0375 0.04375

0.05

0.05625 0.0625 0.06875

0.075

0.08125 0.0875 0.09375

0.1

0.10625

Figure 3: stress-strain diagram 6- Determining and specify the properties of specimen material: Modulus of elasticity: From the origin O to the point called proportional limit, the stress-strain curve is a straight line. This linear relation between elongation and the axial force causing was first noticed by Sir Robert Hooke in 1678 and is called Hookes Law that within the proportional limit, the stress is directly proportional to strain or

or =k
The constant of proportionality k is called the Modulus of Elasticity E or Youngs Modulus and is equal to the slope of the stress-strain diagram from O to P. Then

=E
Elastic Limit The elastic limit is the limit beyond which the material will no longer go back to its original shape when the load is removed, or it is the maximum stress that may e developed such that there is no permanent or residual deformation when the load is entirely removed. Elastic and Plastic Ranges 8

The region in stress-strain diagram from O to P is called the elastic range. The region from P to R is called the plastic range. Yield Point Yield point is the point at which the material will have an appreciable elongation or yielding without any increase in load. Ultimate Strength The maximum ordinate in the stress-strain diagram is the ultimate strength or tensile strength. Modulus of Resilience Modulus of resilience is the work done on a unit volume of material as the force is gradually increased from O to P, in Nm/m3. This may be calculated as the area under the stressstrain curve from the origin O to up to the elastic limit E (the shaded area in the figure). The resilience of the material is its ability to absorb energy without creating a permanent distortion. Modulus of Toughness Modulus of toughness is the work done on a unit volume of material as the force is gradually increased from O to R, in Nm/m3. This may be calculated as the area under the entire stress-strain curve (from O to R). The toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy without causing it to break. SUMMARY The results is near than the typical stress-strain diagram for mild steel (in Appendix).

APPENDIX Typical stress-strain diagram for mild steel

Source: Prof. SATISH C . SHARMA , Strength of Materials , lecture notes , NPTEL internet site.

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REFERENCES 1. SHARMA, SATISH C., Strength of Materials , lecture notes , NPTEL internet site. 2- 2002

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