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1.

Deposition rate measurements


A quartz crystal monitor (at a distance of 100mm from the source aperture) was used to measure the deposition rate of the clusters (note for Cu, 1Hz = 0.11). The deposition rate was measured as a function of the magnetron power for various Ar flow rates and a set aggregation length of 205 mm.
200

Deposition rate (Hz/min)

150

Ar 25 sccm Ar 20 sccm Ar 15 sccm Ar 10 sccm

100

50

0 0 50 100 150 200 250

Power (W)

Figure 2: Deposition rate as a function of magnetron power for various flows

The deposition rate was measured as a function of the Ar gas flow rate for various aggregation lengths and a fixed power of 25Watts.
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Deposition rate (Hz/min)

Distance 205 mm Distance 195 mm Distance 155 mm Distance 85 mm

Ar flow (sccm)

Figure 3: Deposition rate as a function of Ar gas flow rate for various aggregation lengths

Note that the deposition rate drops at higher Ar flow and magnetron power. This is due to the increased number of collisions between particles and thus a reduction in the mean free path of the clusters.

2. Cluster mass measurements


Cluster mass with Ar flow rate The Ar flow rate was varied for a fixed power and aggregation length. The resulting mass spectra (taken using the QMF200) are shown below of negatively charged Cu clusters. Power: 38W, Agg length: minimum, He: 0 sccm, Apertures 5mm inner, 4mm outer.
9

Cu Mass Spectra with Ar Flow Rate 10sccm 30sccm 50sccm 70sccm 90sccm

Cluster Ion Current (x10 A)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1x10
5

10

2x10

3x10

4x10

5x10

6x10

Mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 4.

From these spectra the mean cluster mass can be plotted as a function of the Ar flow. This is shown below in figure 2.

2.4x10 2.2x10 2.0x10

Relationship between mean cluster mass and Ar gas flow for Cu clusters

Cluster Mass (amu)

1.8x10 1.6x10 1.4x10 1.2x10 1.0x10 8.0x10 6.0x10

4.0x10

20

40

60

80

100

Ar Flow (sccm)

Figure 5

Cluster mass with He flow rate The He flow rate was varied for a fixed power, aggregation length and Ar flow rate. The resulting mass spectra (taken using the QMF200) are shown below of negatively charged Cu clusters. Power: 37W, Agg length: minimum, Ar: 20 sccm, Apertures 5mm inner, 4mm outer.
Cu mass spectra with He flow rate
10

Cluster Ion Current (x10 A)

0sccm 10sccm 30sccm 50sccm 70sccm 90sccm

10

0 0 1x10
5

2x10

3x10

4x10

5x10

6x10

7x10

Mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 6

From these spectra the mean cluster mass can be plotted as a function of the He flow. This is shown below in figure 4.

Relationship between mean cluster mass and He flow for Cu clusters


1.6x10
5

Cluster Mass (a.m.u.)

1.4x10

1.2x10

1.0x10

8.0x10

6.0x10

20

40

60

80

100

He Flow (sccm)

Figure 7

Cluster mass with magnetron power The magnetron power was varied for a fixed aggregation length, Ar and He flow rates. The resulting mass spectra (taken using the QMF200) are shown below of negatively charged Cu clusters. Agg length: minimum, Ar: 40 sccm, He: 60sccm, Apertures 5mm inner, 4mm outer.

7 6

Cu mass spectra with power 35W 30W 25W 20W 15W

Cluster Ion Current (x10 A)

10

5 4 3 2 1 0 0.0 5.0x10
4

1.0x10

1.5x10

2.0x10

2.5x10

3.0x10

3.5x10

Mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 8

From these spectra the mean cluster mass can be plotted as a function of the power. This is shown below in figure 6.

Relationship between mean cluster mass and power for Cu clusters


9x10 8x10 7x10
4

Mass (a.m.u.)

6x10 5x10 4x10 3x10

2x10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Power (Watts)

Figure 9

Cluster mass with aggregation length The aggregation length was varied for a fixed power, Ar and He flow rates. The resulting mass spectra (taken using the QMF200) are shown below of negatively charged Cu clusters. Power: 35W, Ar: 15 sccm, He: 0sccm, Apertures 5mm inner, 4mm outer.
Cu mass spectra with aggregation length
8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5

Cluster Ion Current (x10 A)

6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 1x10
5

65mm 95mm 125mm 155mm

10

2x10

3x10

4x10

5x10

6x10

Cluster mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 10

Large clusters Large clusters can be acquired with the NC200U using high powers and relatively high Ar gas flows. The graph below shows such a spectrum which goes beyond the range of the QMF200. These clusters are positively charged. Power : 95W, Ar flow: 65sccm, He:0, Aggregation length: maximum.

3.0

Large Cu clusters from the NC200U source

2.5

Ion Current (nA)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 0.0 5.0x10


5

1.0x10

1.5x10

2.0x10

2.5x10

3.0x10

Mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 11

Small clusters Small clusters can be acquired with the NC200U using low powers and high He gas flows. The graph below shows spectra of negatively charged clusters for two different He flows. Individual cluster peaks can just be resolved. Power : 10W, Ar flow: 35sccm, He flow:110sccm, 90sccm Aggregation length: minimum QMF: f=100kHz, U/V =0.15, Sit=0, External Keitherly nanometer input.

1.6 1.4

110sccm He 90sccm He

Cluster Ion Current (x10 A)

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

10

Mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 12

From the above graph the value of k (the correction factor) can be calculated. The value k is used in the calculation of the mass: M=7x107(kV/f2d2) Where M is the mass, V is the AC voltage, f is the frequency and d is the diameter of the quadrupole poles. On the graph the peaks A and B lie at 500amu and 793amu. There are five distinct peaks between these peaks giving an average separation of 48.8amu. For Cu clusters this value should be 63.5 (the atomic weight of Cu). The correction factor is therefore: k= 63.5/48.8 = 1.30 This value is comparable with the result calculated by Baker et al1. (1.25) who determined the constant by using ionised Ar. The corrected mass spectrum is shown in figure 10. The number of atoms per cluster has been added.
11 1.5 10 9 8 1.0 7 12 13 14 15

16

17

110sccm He 90sccm He

Cluster Ion Current (x10 A)

10

0.5

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Mass (a.m.u.)

Figure 13

S.H.Baker et al. Rev.Sci.Instrum. 68(4) p 1853, 1997.

3. Other measurements
Beam size from cluster source The beam diameter was measured for different aperture plate arrangements at a distance of 100mm.
NC200U Beam profiles with different aperture arrangements at a distance of 100mm
1.0 Black - 4mm inner, 10mm skimmer
Blue - 8mm inner, 10mm skimmer Red - 4mm inner, 5mm skimmer

Deposition rate (normalised)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Distance (mm)

Figure 14