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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System V100R005C00

Product Description
Issue Date 02 2011-04-15

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

Website: Email:

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

About This Document


Product Version
The following table lists the product versions applicable to this documentation. Product Name OptiX OSN 500 iManager U2000 Product Version V100R005C00 V100R003C00

Intended Audience
This document describes the OptiX OSN 500 in terms of network application, function, hardware architecture, software architecture, features, and technical specifications. This document is intended for the following engineers: l l l Network planning engineers Data configuration engineers System maintenance engineers

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

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About This Document

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Symbol

Description Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

GUI Conventions
Convention Boldface > Meaning Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 02 (2011-04-15)


This document of the V100R005C00 version is of the second release. The updated contents are as follows. l Changed the slot valid for a CSHD board from slot 1 to slot 2.

Updates in Issue 01 (2011-02-20)


Initial formal release.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document...................................................................................................................iii 1 Product Positioning and Features...........................................................................................1-1
1.1 Product Positioning and Networking Application..........................................................................................1-2 1.2 Product Features .............................................................................................................................................1-2

2 Quick Reference.........................................................................................................................2-1 3 Product Architecture.................................................................................................................. 3-1


3.1 System Architecture........................................................................................................................................3-2 3.2 Hardware Structure.........................................................................................................................................3-3 3.3 Software Architecture.....................................................................................................................................3-7 3.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture.......................................................................................................3-7 3.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces..............................................................................................3-8 3.3.3 Board Software.......................................................................................................................................3-8 3.3.4 NE Software...........................................................................................................................................3-8 3.3.5 NMS Software........................................................................................................................................3-9

4 Functions and Features..............................................................................................................4-1


4.1 Service Support...............................................................................................................................................4-2 4.1.1 Native Ethernet Services........................................................................................................................4-2 4.1.1.1 Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service..................................................................4-3 4.1.1.2 VLAN-based E-Line Services.............................................................................................................4-4 4.1.1.3 QinQ-Based E-Line Services..............................................................................................................4-5 4.1.1.4 E-LAN Services Based on the 802.1d Bridge.....................................................................................4-9 4.1.1.5 E-LAN Services Based on 802.1q Bridge.........................................................................................4-10 4.1.1.6 E-LAN Services Based on 802.1ad Bridge.......................................................................................4-11 4.1.2 ETH PWE3 Services............................................................................................................................4-13 4.1.3 CES Services........................................................................................................................................4-14 4.1.4 ATM/IMA Services..............................................................................................................................4-15 4.2 Protection Support.........................................................................................................................................4-17 4.2.1 MPLS APS...........................................................................................................................................4-17 4.2.2 PW APS................................................................................................................................................4-18 4.2.3 MSTP...................................................................................................................................................4-19 4.2.4 ERPS....................................................................................................................................................4-23 4.2.5 LPT.......................................................................................................................................................4-24 Issue 02 (2011-04-15) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. v

Contents

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description 4.2.6 LAG......................................................................................................................................................4-25

4.3 Maintenance..................................................................................................................................................4-26 4.3.1 MPLS OAM.........................................................................................................................................4-26 4.3.2 ETH-OAM...........................................................................................................................................4-27 4.3.3 ATM OAM...........................................................................................................................................4-28 4.3.4 RMON..................................................................................................................................................4-29 4.4 Synchronization.............................................................................................................................................4-30 4.4.1 Synchronous Ethernet Clock................................................................................................................4-30 4.4.2 IEEE 1588v2........................................................................................................................................4-30 4.4.3 CES ACR.............................................................................................................................................4-31

5 Operation and Maintenance....................................................................................................5-1


5.1 License Control...............................................................................................................................................5-2 5.2 DCN................................................................................................................................................................ 5-2 5.3 Equipment Maintenance..................................................................................................................................5-3 5.4 Upgrade Methods............................................................................................................................................5-5

6 Technical Specifications...........................................................................................................6-1
6.1 General Specifications.....................................................................................................................................6-2 6.2 Function/Feature Indicators.............................................................................................................................6-3 6.3 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board............................................................................................ 6-8 6.4 Optical Port Specifications..............................................................................................................................6-9 6.5 Electrical Port Specifications..........................................................................................................................6-9 6.6 Optical/Electrical Module Specifications......................................................................................................6-10 6.7 Indicator Status Explanation.........................................................................................................................6-12 6.8 Safety Certification.......................................................................................................................................6-15 6.9 Environmental Specifications.......................................................................................................................6-15 6.9.1 Storage Environment............................................................................................................................6-16 6.9.2 Transportation Environment................................................................................................................6-18 6.9.3 Operation Environment........................................................................................................................6-20

7 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection.....................................................................7-1 8 Standard Compliance................................................................................................................8-1


8.1 ITU-T Recommendations................................................................................................................................8-2 8.2 IETF Standards................................................................................................................................................8-3 8.3 IEEE Standards............................................................................................................................................... 8-5 8.4 Environment Related Standards......................................................................................................................8-6 8.5 MEF Standards................................................................................................................................................8-7 8.6 ATM Standards...............................................................................................................................................8-7

A Glossary..................................................................................................................................... A-1
A.1 Numerics........................................................................................................................................................A-3 A.2 A....................................................................................................................................................................A-3 A.3 B....................................................................................................................................................................A-5 vi Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 02 (2011-04-15)

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Contents

A.4 C....................................................................................................................................................................A-6 A.5 D....................................................................................................................................................................A-9 A.6 E...................................................................................................................................................................A-10 A.7 F...................................................................................................................................................................A-12 A.8 G..................................................................................................................................................................A-14 A.9 H..................................................................................................................................................................A-14 A.10 I..................................................................................................................................................................A-15 A.11 J..................................................................................................................................................................A-16 A.12 L.................................................................................................................................................................A-16 A.13 M................................................................................................................................................................A-18 A.14 N................................................................................................................................................................A-19 A.15 O................................................................................................................................................................A-20 A.16 P.................................................................................................................................................................A-21 A.17 Q................................................................................................................................................................A-23 A.18 R................................................................................................................................................................A-23 A.19 S.................................................................................................................................................................A-25 A.20 T.................................................................................................................................................................A-28 A.21 U................................................................................................................................................................A-29 A.22 V................................................................................................................................................................A-30 A.23 W...............................................................................................................................................................A-30

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Product positioning and typical application of the OptiX OSN 500..................................................1-2 Figure 3-1 Block diagram.....................................................................................................................................3-2 Figure 3-2 General architecture of software.........................................................................................................3-8 Figure 4-1 Typical application of service model 1...............................................................................................4-4 Figure 4-2 Model of VLAN-based E-Line services.............................................................................................4-5 Figure 4-3 Typical application of service model 1...............................................................................................4-7 Figure 4-4 Typical application of service model 2...............................................................................................4-8 Figure 4-5 Typical application of service model 3...............................................................................................4-8 Figure 4-6 Typical application of service model 4...............................................................................................4-9 Figure 4-7 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge....................................................................4-10 Figure 4-8 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge..........................................................................4-11 Figure 4-9 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge.........................................................................4-13 Figure 4-10 E-Line services carried by PWs .....................................................................................................4-14 Figure 4-11 UNI-NNI CES services..................................................................................................................4-15 Figure 4-12 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the one-to-one encapsulation mode)................................4-16 Figure 4-13 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the N-to-one encapsulation mode)...................................4-16 Figure 4-14 Application example of MPLS APS...............................................................................................4-18 Figure 4-15 Application example of PW APS...................................................................................................4-19 Figure 4-16 Diagram of the STP........................................................................................................................4-20 Figure 4-17 Limitations of the STP/RSTP.........................................................................................................4-21 Figure 4-18 Improvement in the MSTP.............................................................................................................4-22 Figure 4-19 Typical Application of the MSTP on the OptiX OSN 500.............................................................4-23 Figure 4-20 Implementation of the ERPS..........................................................................................................4-24 Figure 4-21 Typical application of LPT.............................................................................................................4-25 Figure 4-22 Link aggregation group..................................................................................................................4-26 Figure 4-23 Application of IEEE 802.1ag OAM and IEEE 802.3ah OAM.......................................................4-28 Figure 4-24 Typical application of ATM OAM.................................................................................................4-29 Figure 4-25 Time synchronization of NodeBs implemented by the IEEE 1588v2 standard.............................4-31 Figure 4-26 CES ACR clock solution................................................................................................................4-32 Figure 6-1 Typical board configurations of the OptiX OSN 500.........................................................................6-2

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Tables

Tables
Table 2-1 Overview of the OptiX OSN 500.........................................................................................................2-1 Table 2-2 OptiX OSN 500 functions and features............................................................................................... 2-3 Table 3-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 500..................................................................................................3-2 Table 3-2 Boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500............................................................................................3-4 Table 3-3 Description of labels............................................................................................................................ 3-6 Table 4-1 Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service model...........................................................4-3 Table 4-2 Models of VLAN-based E-Line services.............................................................................................4-5 Table 4-3 Models of QinQ-based E-Line Services.............................................................................................. 4-6 Table 4-4 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge........................................................................4-9 Table 4-5 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge............................................................................4-10 Table 4-6 Models of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge.........................................................................4-12 Table 5-1 Version-specific license that the OptiX OSN 500 supports.................................................................5-2 Table 5-2 DCN solutions supported by the OptiX OSN 500...............................................................................5-3 Table 5-3 Maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports...................................................................5-4 Table 5-4 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 500........................................................................... 5-6 Table 6-1 General specifications of the OptiX OSN 500.....................................................................................6-2 Table 6-2 OptiX OSN 500 functions and features............................................................................................... 6-3 Table 6-3 Power consumption and weight of boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500.....................................6-8 Table 6-4 Specifications of OptiX OSN 500's GE optical ports.......................................................................... 6-9 Table 6-5 Specifications of OptiX OSN 500's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports...................................6-10 Table 6-6 Specifications of OptiX OSN 500's Ethernet electrical ports............................................................6-10 Table 6-7 Definitions of indicators supported by the boards on the OptiX OSN 500.......................................6-12 Table 6-8 Safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 500 has passed..................................................................6-15 Table 6-9 Climate requirements for the storage environment............................................................................6-16 Table 6-10 Density requirements for mechanical active substances during storage..........................................6-17 Table 6-11 Density requirements for chemically active substances during storage...........................................6-17 Table 6-12 Limitations for mechanical stress during storage.............................................................................6-18 Table 6-13 Climate requirements for the transportation environment...............................................................6-18 Table 6-14 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation................................6-19 Table 6-15 Density limitations for chemically active substances......................................................................6-19 Table 6-16 Mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment...............................................6-20 Table 6-17 Requirements for temperature and humidity....................................................................................6-21 Table 6-18 Other climate requirements..............................................................................................................6-21 Issue 02 (2011-04-15) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xi

Tables

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description Table 6-19 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation.......................................6-21 Table 6-20 Density limitations for chemically active substances......................................................................6-22 Table 6-21 Limitations for mechanical stress during operation.........................................................................6-22 Table 8-1 ITU-T recommendations......................................................................................................................8-2 Table 8-2 IETF standards.....................................................................................................................................8-3 Table 8-3 IEEE standards.....................................................................................................................................8-5 Table 8-4 Environment related standards.............................................................................................................8-6 Table 8-5 MEF standards.....................................................................................................................................8-7 Table 8-6 ATM standards.....................................................................................................................................8-7

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1 Product Positioning and Features

Product Positioning and Features

About This Chapter


The OptiX OSN 500 is of a pure packet architecture, and supports a variety of service access modes. It completes Huawei's optical transmission system, and sharpens the competitive edges of Huawei's optical transmission products. 1.1 Product Positioning and Networking Application This section describes the product positioning and networking application. 1.2 Product Features This section describes the equipment features in terms of structure, technology, and networking.

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1 Product Positioning and Features

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

1.1 Product Positioning and Networking Application


This section describes the product positioning and networking application. The OptiX OSN 500 is used at the access layer of a transmission network, supporting the Multiprotocol label switched-transport profile (MPLS-TP) technology. For its product positioning and typical application, see Figure 1-1. Figure 1-1 Product positioning and typical application of the OptiX OSN 500
Access layer Convergence node Convergence/ Backbone layer

CES E1 FE CES E1 FE FE/GE Packet network ATM/IMA E1 FE/GE FE/GE CES E1 FE ATM/IMA E1 FE FE/GE

OptiX OSN 500

OptiX OSN 3500

NodeB

BTS

RNC

BSC

1.2 Product Features


This section describes the equipment features in terms of structure, technology, and networking.

Simple Architecture and High Integration


The OptiX OSN 500 is a type of case-shaped equipment. The dimensions of the chassis are: 44 mm (H) x 442 mm (W) x 220 mm (D) Of a simple architecture and high integration, the OptiX OSN 500 can be installed in the following ways: l l l Cabinet-mounting (ETSI cabinet and 19-inch cabinet) Wall-mounting Desk-mounting

Pure Packet Architecture and Multi-Service Transmission Support


The OptiX OSN 500 supports service bearing in the packet domain. The solution can improve based on the service changes that take place due to radio mobile network evolution. Therefore,
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1 Product Positioning and Features

this solution can meet the transmission requirements of not only 2G and 3G networks, but also the future LTE and 4G networks.

CES and ATM/IMA Service Support and Flexible Networking


The OptiX OSN 500 supports the circuit emulation service (CES) technology, allowing direct transmission of TDM E1 services in the packet domain. ATM is a connection-oriented, fast packet switching technology. Integrating the advantages of circuit switching with those of packet switching, ATM is a standard broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) transfer mode. Inverse multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is a technology that implements inverse multiplexing for ATM.

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2 Quick Reference

2
Table 2-1 lists the overview of the OptiX OSN 500. Table 2-1 Overview of the OptiX OSN 500 Item Appearan ce Description

Quick Reference

This section describes the product overview, including product photos, hardware, software, and functions and features.

Board Packet Function and Feature Switching Capacity Managem ent ports and auxiliary ports

CSHD/MD1/EM6T/EM6F/PIU/FAN See Table 2-2.

7.2 Gbit/s Interface Type Clock port Description 120-ohm external clock port, which can work in 2048 kbit/s mode or 2048 kHz mode. Connector RJ-45

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2 Quick Reference

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Item

Description Time port/Port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet The port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet and the time port share one external port. l Time port: time reference output port, which supports 1PPS (second pulse) and time information. Both the 1PPS port and time serial port adopt the RS-422 level. l Port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet: one port for connecting to an outdoor cabinet Power supply port Power supply port connecting to two -48/-60 V DC power supplies Ethernet NM port/NM serial port, which is connected to the network management system (NMS) Alarm input/output 4-pin terminal block RJ-45

Network management port

RJ-45

Alarm input/ output port

RJ-45

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Table 2-2 OptiX OSN 500 functions and features Ite m MP LS sup port capa bilit y Description The packet switching unit of the CSHD board works with a service board to implement MPLS functions. l Setup mode: static LSPs l Protection: 1:1 MPLS tunnel APS l OAM: Supports MPLS OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports LSP ping and LSP traceroute functions. l Supports a maximum of 1024 unidirectional MPLS tunnels or 512 bidirectional MPLS tunnels.
NOTE Unidirectional and bidirectional MPLS tunnels share tunnel resources. One bidirectional MPLS tunnel is equivalent to two unidirectional MPLS tunnels. The sum of PW count and MPLS tunnel count must not exceed 1024. PW count and MPLS tunnel count, however, can be 1024 simultaneously if each MPLS tunnel carries one PW. This is because if an MPLS tunnel carries PWs, the MPLS tunnel is not counted and only the carried PWs are counted.

PW E3 sup port capa bilit y

The packet switching unit of the CSHD board works with a service board to implement PWE3 functions. l Service categories CES services ATM PWE3 services ETH PWE3 services l Setup mode: static PWs l Protection: 1:1 PW APS l OAM: Supports VCCV. Supports PW OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports PW ping and PW traceroute functions. l Supports MS-PWs. l Supports configurable bandwidth. l Supports a maximum of 1024 PWs.
NOTE The sum of PW count and MPLS tunnel count must not exceed 1024. PW count and MPLS tunnel count, however, can be 1024 simultaneously if each MPLS tunnel carries one PW. This is because if an MPLS tunnel carries PWs, the MPLS tunnel is not counted and only the carried PWs are counted.

Serv ice

Service Type

Description

Maximum Receiving Capability

Service Port Description Connector

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Ite m

Description Ethernet service Supports Native ETH and ETH PWE3 services. l Format of Ethernet data frames: IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II l Jumbo frames l MTU length: 1518 bytes to 9600 bytes (1522 bytes, by default) l MPLS function support l VLAN function support. The VLAN IDs range from 1 to 4094. l Size of a MAC address table: 16 KB (including static entries) CES service l Service type: pointto-point service l Encapsulation types: CESoPSN SAToP l Compression of idle timeslots: supported (only for CESoPSN encapsulation) l Iitter compensation buffering time: 375 us to 16000 us l Packet loading time: 125 us to 5000 us l CES ACR: supported l Retiming: supported 80xE1 FE: 16 FE electrical port: 10/100BAS E-TX GE optical port: l 1000BA SE-LX l 1000BA SE-VX l 1000BA SE-ZX GE electrical port: 10/100/100 0BASE-T (X) RJ-45 RJ-45

GE: 6

LC

75/120-ohm smart E1 port

Anea 96

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Ite m

Description ATM/ IMA service l Number of ATM connections: 256 l ATM traffic management l ATM encapsulation format N-to-one VPC N-to-one VCC One-to-one VPC One-to-one VCC l Maximum number of concatenated ATM cells: 31 l ATM OAM: F4 (VP layer) and F5 (VC layer) l Maximum number of IMA groups: 32 l Maximum number of members in an IMA group: 16 80xE1 75/120-ohm smart E1 port Anea 96

Prot ectio n

MPLS APS

l Maximum number of protection groups: 32 l Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MPLS APS and PW APS share 32 protection group resources.

PW APS

l Maximum number of protection groups: 32 l Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MPLS APS and PW APS share 32 protection group resources.

MSTP ERPS LPT

Supports the MSTP protocol that generates only the CIST. The MSTP protocol provides functions equivalent to that of the RSTP protocol. Supports the ERPS function that complies with ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344. l Point-point and point-multipoint LPT l Switching duration not more than 5s

LAG

l Intra-board LAG and inter-board LAG l A maximum of 16 LAGs. Each LAG has a maximum of 8 members. l Switching duration not more than 500 ms

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Ite m Mai nten ance

Description MPLS OAM l Tunnel OAM and PW OAM l Maximum number of MPLS OAM resources: 64
NOTE MPLS OAM and PW OAM share 64 OAM resources.

ETHOAM

l Supports the following IEEE 802.1ag OAM functions: Management of OAM maintenance points Continuity check (CC) Loopback (LB) Link trace (LT) l Supports the following IEEE 802.3ah OAM functions: OAM auto-discovery Link performance monitoring Fault detection Loopback at the remote end Self-loop detection and self-looped port blocking

ATM OAM RMON Syn chro niza tion Synchrono us Ethernet clock

Maximum number of ATM connections: 256 N/A l Synchronous Ethernet that complies with ITU-T G.8261 and ITU-T G.8262. l Port receiving/transmitting synchronous Ethernet clocks: FE/GE l Input/Output of SSM packets l Clock frequency stability (hold-over mode): less than 50 ppb
NOTE Not supported by SFP electrical modules When working in 10BASE-T mode, the FE/GE port does not support synchronous Ethernet clocks.

CES ACR

l Maximum number of CES ACR clocks: 4 l The clock performance complies with the ITU-T G.823 Traffic template.

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Ite m Oth ers

Description QoS l DiffServ Supports simple traffic classification by specifying PHB service classes for service flows based on their QoS information (C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, DSCP values, or MPLS EXP values) carried by the packets. l Complex traffic classification Supports traffic classification based on C-VLAN IDs, S-VLAN IDs, C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, C-VLAN IDs + C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN IDs + S-VLAN priorities, or DSCP values carried by packets. l CAR Provides the CAR function for the traffic flows at ports. l Shaping Supports traffic shaping for a specific port, prioritized queue, or traffic flow. l Queue scheduling policies SP WRR SP+WRR

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3 Product Architecture

3
About This Chapter

Product Architecture

The chapter describes the equipment's system architecture: hardware structure and software architecture. 3.1 System Architecture The OptiX OSN 500 is a pure packet device. This section describes its function units and the relationship between these units. 3.2 Hardware Structure This section describes the structure of the chassis, available boards, and equipment labels. 3.3 Software Architecture This section describes the system's general software architecture, as well as the functions of each software module.

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3 Product Architecture

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

3.1 System Architecture


The OptiX OSN 500 is a pure packet device. This section describes its function units and the relationship between these units. The OptiX OSN 500 consists of the following function units: service interface unit, packet switching unit, control unit, clock unit, fan unit, and power supply unit. Figure 3-1 Block diagram

FE/GE E1 (TDM/CES/ATM/IMA)

Service interface unit

Ethernet signal

Ethernet switching unit

Control and overhead bus

Clock unit

Control unit

Fan unit

Power supply unit

External External clock time

NM data

-48 V/-60 V DC

Table 3-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 500 Function Unit Service interface unit Function l Transmits/Receives ATM/IMA E1 signals. l Transmits/Receives Ethernet signals. l Performs E1/ATM/Ethernet PWE3 emulation. Packet switching unit l Processes Ethernet services and forwards packets. l Processes MPLS labels and forwards packets. l Processes PW labels and forwards packets. Control unit l Performs system communication and control. l Configures and manages the system. l Collects alarms and monitors performance. l Processes overhead bytes.

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Function Unit Clock unit

Function l Traces clock sources and provides clock signals for the system. l Provides the input/output port for external clocks. l Provides the input/output port for external time. l Provides the time synchronization function.

Auxiliary interface unit Power supply unit

l Provides the external alarm input/output port. l Connects to -48 V/-60 V DC power supplies. l Provides DC power to the local NE.

Fan unit

l Cools the NE.

3.2 Hardware Structure


This section describes the structure of the chassis, available boards, and equipment labels.

Chassis Structure and Board Installation Area

Board installation area


3 2

SLOT SLOT 5 6 (PIU) (FAN)

SLOT 3(EXT) SLOT 2(CSHD)


4

SLOT 4(EXT)

1 Power supply board area 2 Fan board area

3 Extended board area 4 System control, switching, and timing board area

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Boards
Table 3-2 lists the boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500. Table 3-2 Boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500 Boar d Class ificati on Syste m contro l, switch ing, and timing board Bo ard Ac ron ym CS HD Board Name Function Service Type Port Type Vali d Slot

Hybrid system control, switching , and timing board

l Provides the packet crossconnect function. l Supports the 7.2 Gbit/s packet switching function. l Performs system communication and control. l Provides oneinput and oneoutput external clock port.

N/A

l One Ethernet NM port l One NM serial port

Slot 2

Packet proces sing board

M D1

32xSmart E1 service processin g board FE/GE processin g board

Transmits/ Receives E1 signals.

l CES E1 l ATM/IMA E1

75/120-ohm E1 port

Slots 3 to 4

EM 6T

Transmits/ Receives FE/GE service signals and works with the packet switching unit to process the received FE/GE service signals.

l Native ETH Services Pointto-Point Transpa rently Transmi tted ELine Service VLANbased ELine Service s

l Four FE electrical ports: 10/100BA SE-T(X) l Two GE electrical ports (compatibl e with FE electrical ports): 10/100/100 0BASE-T (X)

Slots 3 to 4

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Boar d Class ificati on

Bo ard Ac ron ym EM 6F

Board Name

Function

Service Type

Port Type

Vali d Slot

FE/GE processin g board

QinQBased E-Line Service s E-LAN Service s Based on the 802.1d Bridge E-LAN Service s Based on 802.1q Bridge E-LAN Service s Based on 802.1ad Bridge l ETH PWE3 Services

l Four FE electrical ports: 10/100BA SE-T(X) l Two ports by using SFP modules of any of the following types: 1000B ASELX 10/100/ 1000B ASE-T (X)

Slots 3 to 4

Power supply board Fan board

PI U

Power supply board Fan board

Provides one -48 V/-60 V DC power supply. Cools the NE.

N/A

Provides -48 V/-60 V DC power supply ports. N/A

Slot 5

FA N

N/A

Slot 6

Description of Labels
Table 3-3 lists the description of the labels on the chassis and the boards in the chassis. The actual labels may be different depending on the configurations of the chassis and boards.

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Table 3-3 Description of labels Label Label Name ESD protection label Description Indicates that the equipment is sensitive to static electricity. Indicates the grounding position of the chassis. Indicates that the fan leaves cannot be touched when the fan is rotating. Indicates that you must read the operation instructions before connecting a power cable. Indicates that the equipment is qualified. Indicates that the equipment contains certain hazardous substances specified in RoHS. The equipment needs to be recycled after the environmentfriendly use period of 50 years expires. Indicates the product name and certification.

Grounding label

Fan warning label

Power port warning label

/QUALIFICATION CARD

Qualification card

HUAWEI

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD.

MADE IN CHINA

RoHS label

50

Product nameplate label

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3.3 Software Architecture


This section describes the system's general software architecture, as well as the functions of each software module. 3.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture The software system is of a modular structure. The modules accomplish the corresponding functions and interoperate with each other. 3.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces The communication interfaces on the equipment are mainly Qx interfaces. For the description of the protocol stacks and messages on the Qx interfaces, see ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812. 3.3.3 Board Software This section describes the software architecture of the OptiX OSN 500. 3.3.4 NE Software The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running of boards in the NE. In addition, the NE software serves as the service unit for the communication between the NMS and boards. In this manner, the NMS can control and manage the NE. 3.3.5 NMS Software Like other optical transmission equipment, the OptiX OSN 500 is managed by the iManager series NMS.

3.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture


The software system is of a modular structure. The modules accomplish the corresponding functions and interoperate with each other. The software modules fall into three types: the board software that runs on a variety of functional boards, the NE software that runs on the system control and communication board, and the network management software that runs on the network management computer. The software system is of layered design. That is, each layer performs specific functions and serves its upper layer. Figure 3-2 shows the general structure of software. All the modules except the network management system and the board software are NE software.

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Figure 3-2 General architecture of software


Network Management System

High Level Communication Module Real-time multi-task operating system Network side Module Equipment Management Module Communication Module NE software Database Management Module

Board Software

3.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces


The communication interfaces on the equipment are mainly Qx interfaces. For the description of the protocol stacks and messages on the Qx interfaces, see ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812. A Qx interface mainly connects a mediation device (MD), Q adaptation (QA), or network element (NE) with an operations system (OS) through the local communication network (LCN). A QA interface is provided at the NE management layer, and an MD and OS are provided at the network management layer. As specified in the Recommendation, a Qx interface is developed in compliance with the Connectionless Network LayerService (CLNS1) based on TCP/IP. A Qx interface supports the remote access of NMS through a modem, and the IP layer uses the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) accordingly.

3.3.3 Board Software


This section describes the software architecture of the OptiX OSN 500.

3.3.4 NE Software
The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running of boards in the NE. In addition, the NE software serves as the service unit for the communication between the NMS and boards. In this manner, the NMS can control and manage the NE. In compliance with ITU-T M.3010, the NE software belongs to the element management layer in the telecommunications management network (TMN), and provides NE functions, some coordination functions, and operations system functions at the network element layer. The data
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communication function (DCF) provides communication functions between the NE and other components (including mediation devices, NMS, and other NEs). l Real-time multi-task operating system The real-time multi-task operating system of the NE software is responsible for the management of public resources and supports applications. This system provides an application execution environment that is independent of the processor hardware, to separate applications from the processor. l Communication and control module The Communication and control module is the interface module between the NE software and the board software. According to the corresponding communication protocol, the communication and control module achieves the communication between the NE software and the board software. In this manner, the information can be exchanged and the equipment can be maintained. On one hand, the communication and control module issues the maintenance operation commands of the NE software to the boards. On the other hand, it reports the status, alarms, and performance events of the boards to the NE software. l Network side (NS) module The network side (NS) module is between the communication module and equipment management module. It converts the data format between the user operation side on the application layer and the NE equipment management layer, and provides security control for the NE layer. The NS module can be subdivided into three submodules in terms of function: Qx interface module, command line interface module, and security management module. l Equipment management module The equipment management module (AM) is the kernel of the NE software. It implements NE management, and includes the Manager and the Agent. The Manager sends network management operation commands and receives event information. The Agent responds to the network management operation commands sent by the Manager, performs operations to managed objects, and reports events according to the status change of the managed objects. l Communication module This module fulfills the message communication function (MCF) of the functional blocks of the transmission network equipment. Through the hardware interface provided by the SCB board, the communication module transmits the OAM&P information and exchanges management information between the NMS and NEs, and between NEs themselves. The communication module consists of network communication module, serial communication module, and ECC communication module. l Database management module The database management module is a principal component of the NE software. It consists of the data and the programs. The data, organized by database form, consists of the network database, alarm database, performance database, and equipment database. The program manages and accesses the data in the databases.

3.3.5 NMS Software


Like other optical transmission equipment, the OptiX OSN 500 is managed by the iManager series NMS. The NMS manages the optical transport network, and maintains all the OSN, SDH, Metro, and DWDM equipment on networks.
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The NMS, which complies with the ITU-T Recommendations, adopts a standard management information model and the object-oriented management technology. The NMS exchanges information with the NE software through the communication module to monitor and manage the network equipment. The NMS software runs on a workstation or PC. It manages the equipment and the transmission network. The NMS software provides the operation and maintenance function for the transmission equipment, and also provides the management capability for the transmission network. The NMS software has the following management functions: l l Alarm management: collects, prompts, filters, browses, acknowledges, checks, clears, counts alarms in real time, inserts alarms, analyzes alarm correlation, and diagnoses faults. Performance management: sets performance monitoring; browses, analyses and prints performance data; forecasts medium- and long-term performance; resets the performance register. Configuration management: configures and manages the ports, clocks, services, trails, subnets, and time. Security management: NM user management; NE user management; NE login management; NE login lockout; NE setting lockout; and local craft terminal (LCT) access control. Maintenance management: performs loopbacks; resets boards; automatically shuts down lasers; detects fiber power; collects equipment data. In this manner, the maintenance personnel can locate and rectify equipment faults more quickly.

l l

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4
About This Chapter

Functions and Features

This section describes the equipment's functions and features pertaining to services, protection, maintenance, and synchronization. 4.1 Service Support This section describes Ethernet services, CES services, and ATM/IMA services in the packet domain. 4.2 Protection Support This section describes protection schemes including MPLS APS, PW APS, MSTP, ERPS,LPT, and LAG in the packet domain. 4.3 Maintenance This section describes the maintenance functions and features including MPLS OAM, ETHOAM, ATM OAM, and RMON in the packet domain. 4.4 Synchronization This section describes synchronization features including synchronous Ethernet clock, IEEE 1588v2, and CES ACR in the packet domain.

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4.1 Service Support


This section describes Ethernet services, CES services, and ATM/IMA services in the packet domain. 4.1.1 Native Ethernet Services Based on the packet plane, Native Ethernet services are classified into six types. 4.1.2 ETH PWE3 Services In the topology, the E-Line services are point-to-point services. The E-Line services realize the point-to-point transmission of Ethernet services. 4.1.3 CES Services CES: By using the PWE3 technology, PWE3 packet headers are added to TDM traffic to create circuit emulation services (CES). PWE3 packet headers carry the frame format information, alarm information, signaling information, and synchronization and timing information of the TDM traffic. The encapsulated PW packets are transmitted over the MPLS tunnel on the PSN. After being decapsulated at the PW egress, the TDM circuit switched service traffic is re-created. On a packet switching network, the transmit and receive ends of a CES service maintain clock synchronization by means of adaptive clock recovery (ACR). 4.1.4 ATM/IMA Services This section provides the definition of ATM PWE3 and describes its purpose.

4.1.1 Native Ethernet Services


Based on the packet plane, Native Ethernet services are classified into six types. 4.1.1.1 Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service The point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service are the basic E-Line model. Pointto-point transmission does not involve service bandwidth sharing, service isolation, or service distinguishing; instead, Ethernet services are transparently transmitted between two service access points. 4.1.1.2 VLAN-based E-Line Services VLANs can be used to separate E-Line services. With the VLAN technology, multiple E-Line services can share one physical channel. These services are VLAN-based E-Line services. 4.1.1.3 QinQ-Based E-Line Services S-VLAN tags can be used to isolate E-Line services. Therefore, multiple E-Line services can share one physical channel. These services are QinQ-based E-Line services. 4.1.1.4 E-LAN Services Based on the 802.1d Bridge In the case of E-LAN services, packets can be forwarded only based on the MAC address table. This type of E-LAN services is called the E-LAN service based on the 802.1d bridge. 4.1.1.5 E-LAN Services Based on 802.1q Bridge E-LAN services can be separated by setting VLANs. In this case, a bridge is divided into multiple sub-switching domains. Therefore, the E-LAN services separated by setting VLANs are E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge. 4.1.1.6 E-LAN Services Based on 802.1ad Bridge

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S-VLAN tags can be used to isolate E-LAN services. Therefore, a bridge is divided into multiple independent sub-switching domains. These services are E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge.

4.1.1.1 Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service


The point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service are the basic E-Line model. Pointto-point transmission does not involve service bandwidth sharing, service isolation, or service distinguishing; instead, Ethernet services are transparently transmitted between two service access points.

Service Model
Table 4-1 describes the point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service model. Table 4-1 Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service model Service Model Model 1 Encapsulation Type Null (source) Null (sink) Service Direction UNI-UNI Traffic Flow PORT (source) PORT (sink) Description The source port transparently transmits all the received Ethernet frames to the sink port. The source port processes the incoming Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then sends the processed Ethernet frames to the sink port. The sink port processes the Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then exports the processed Ethernet frames.

Model 2

802.1Q (source) 802.1Q (sink)

UNI-UNI

PORT (source) PORT (sink)

NOTE

In service model 2, ports process the received Ethernet frames according to their TAG attributes. Therefore, service model 2 is not a real transparent transmission model and is not recommended.

Typical Application
Figure 4-1 shows the typical application of service model 1.
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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Figure 4-1 Typical application of service model 1


NE 1 Port 1 Service 1 Service 2 Port 2 E-Line E-Line Port 4 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3 NE 2 E-Line E-Line Port 4 Port 2 Port 1 Service 1 Service 2

In service model 1, Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2, which carry no VLAN IDs or carry unknown VLAN IDs, are accessed to NE1 through port 1 and port 2 respectively. Port 1 and port 2 transparently transmit Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to port 3 and port 4, respectively. Port 3 and port 4 then transmit Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to NE2. Service processing on NE2 is the same as on NE1. In service model 2, Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2, which carry no VLAN IDs or carry unknown VLAN IDs, are accessed to NE1 through port 1 and port 2 respectively. Port 1 and Port 2 process the incoming packets based on their own TAG attributes. Then, Port 1 and Port 2 send Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to Port 3 and Port 4 respectively. Port 3 and Port 4 process the incoming packets based on their own TAG attributes. Then, Port 3 and Port 4 send Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to NE2. Service processing on NE2 is the same as on NE1.

4.1.1.2 VLAN-based E-Line Services


VLANs can be used to separate E-Line services. With the VLAN technology, multiple E-Line services can share one physical channel. These services are VLAN-based E-Line services.

Models of Services
Table 4-2 shows the models of VLAN-based E-Line services.

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Table 4-2 Models of VLAN-based E-Line services Type of Service VLAN-based ELine services Encapsulation Mode of Port 802.1Q (source) 802.1Q (sink) Direction of Service UNI-UNI Flow of Service PORT+VLAN (source) PORT+VLAN (sink)
NOTE The VLAN ID of the source and the VLAN ID of the sink must be the same.

Description of Service The source port processes the incoming Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then sends the Ethernet frames with a specific VLAN ID to the sink port. The sink port processes the Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then exports the processed Ethernet frames.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-2 shows the typical application of VLAN-based E-Line services. Service 1 and Service 2 carry different VLAN IDs. Therefore, after the two Ethernet services are accessed to NE1 through Port 1 and Port 2 respectively, they can share the same transmission channel at Port 3. On NE1, Port 1 and Port 2 process the incoming packets based on their own TAG attributes. Then, Port 1 and Port 2 send Service 1 and Service 2 to Port 3. Port 3 processes all the outgoing packets based on its TAG attribute, and then sends Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. Due to the different VLAN IDs, Service 1 and Service 2 can be transmitted through Port 3 at the same time. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-2 Model of VLAN-based E-Line services
NE 1 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Port 1 NE 2 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200
E-Line

E-Line
e E-Lin

Port 1

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 2

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200

E-Lin e

Service 2 Port 2 VLAN ID: 200

4.1.1.3 QinQ-Based E-Line Services


S-VLAN tags can be used to isolate E-Line services. Therefore, multiple E-Line services can share one physical channel. These services are QinQ-based E-Line services.
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NOTE

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

E-Line Services Carried on PWs describes QinQ-based E-Line services carried by PWs.

Model of Service
Table 4-3 shows the models of QinQ-based E-Line services. Table 4-3 Models of QinQ-based E-Line Services Model of Service Model 1 Encapsulation Mode of a Port Null (source) QinQ (sink) Direction UNI-NNI Flow of Service PORT (source) QinQ link (sink) Description of Service The source port adds the S-VLAN tag that corresponds to the QinQ link to all the Ethernet frames, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the sink port where the QinQ link is configured. The source port accesses only the Ethernet frames that carry C-VLAN tags. It adds the S-VLAN tag that corresponds to the QinQ link to all the Ethernet frames, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the sink port where the QinQ link is configured. The source port adds the S-VLAN tag that corresponds to the QinQ link to all the Ethernet frames that carry specific CVLAN tags, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the sink port where the QinQ link is configured.

Model 2

802.1Q (source)a QinQ (sink)

UNI-NNI

PORT (source) QinQ link (sink)

Model 3

802.1Q (source)a QinQ (sink)

UNI-NNI

PORT+C-VLAN (source) QinQ link (sink)

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Model of Service Model 4

Encapsulation Mode of a Port QinQ (sink) QinQ (sink)

Direction NNI-NNI

Flow of Service QinQ link (source) QinQ link (sink)

Description of Service The source port transmits the Ethernet frames that carry the S-VLAN tag to the sink port where the sink QinQ link is configured. The S-VLAN tag carried in the Ethernet frames corresponds to the source QinQ link. If the source and sink QinQ links correspond to different S-VLAN tags, the S-VLAN tags carried in the Ethernet frames are exchanged.

NOTE

a: Set TAG to Tag Aware.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-3 shows the typical application of service model 1. Service 1 and Service 2 include tagged frames and untagged frames. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 1, and Port 2 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 2. Then, Service 1 and Service 2 are transmitted to Port 3. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-3 Typical application of service model 1
NE 1 Port 1 Service 1 Service 2 Port 2
Strip S-VLAN Label Data( 1) Data(2)

NE 2 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3


E-Line

E-Line
e E-Lin

Port 1 Service 1 Service 2 Port 2

E-Lin e

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data(1) Data(2)

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data(1) Data(2)

Strip S-VLAN Label Data(1) Data(2)

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Figure 4-4 shows the typical application of service model 2. Service 1 and Service 2 carry different unknown C-VLAN tags. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 1, and Port 2 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 2. Then, Service 1 and Service 2 are transmitted to Port 3. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-4 Typical application of service model 2
Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN C-VLAN Data( 1) Data(2) Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN C-VLAN Data(1) Data(2)

NE 1 Service 1 Unknown CVLAN Service 2 Unknown CVLAN Port 1

NE 2 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3


E-Line

E-Line
e E-Lin

Port 1

Service 1 Unknown CVLAN Service 2 Unknown CVLAN

Port 2

E-Lin e

Port 2

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN C-VLAN Data(1) Data(2)

Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN C-VLAN Data( 1) Data(2)

Figure 4-5 shows the typical application of service model 3. Service 1 and Service 2 carry different C-VLAN tags. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 1, and Port 2 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 2. Then, Service 1 and Service 2 are transmitted to Port 3. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-5 Typical application of service model 3
Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(200) Data( 1) Data(2) Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(200) Data(1) Data(2)

NE 1 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Port 1

NE 2 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3


E-Line

E-Line
e E-Lin

Port 1

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 2

E-Lin e

Service 2 Port 2 VLAN ID: 200


Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(200) Data( 1) Data(2)

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(200) Data(1) Data(2)

Figure 4-6 shows the typical application of service model 4.


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Service 1 and Service 2 carry a same S-VLAN tag. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 changes the S-VLAN tag carried in Service 1 and Port 2 changes the S-VLAN tag carried in Service 2 so that the S-VLAN tags carried in Service 1 and Service 2 are different. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-6 Typical application of service model 4
Switching S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(100) S-VLAN(100) Data( 1) Data(2) S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data(1) Data(2)

NE 1 Service 1 S-VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 S-VLAN ID: 100 Port 1

NE 2 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3


E-Line

E-Line
e E-Lin

Port 1

Service 1 S-VLAN ID: 100

Port 2

E-Lin e

Service 2 Port 2 S-VLAN ID: 100

Switching S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data( 1) Data(2) S-VLAN(100) S-VLAN(100) Data(1) Data(2)

4.1.1.4 E-LAN Services Based on the 802.1d Bridge


In the case of E-LAN services, packets can be forwarded only based on the MAC address table. This type of E-LAN services is called the E-LAN service based on the 802.1d bridge.

Model of Service
Table 4-4 shows the model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge. Table 4-4 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge Type of Service E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge Encapsulation Mode of Port Null Tag Attribute Type of Logical Port PORT Learning Mode SVL SubSwitching Domain No division of sub-switching domains

TagTransparent

Typical Application
Figure 4-7 shows the typical application of the model of service. The transmission network needs to carry the A services accessed from NE2 and NE3. The two A services are converged at the convergence node NE1. The services need not be isolated. Therefore, an 802.1d bridge is used at NE1 to groom services.

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Figure 4-7 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge


NE 2

Port 2 NE 1 Transmission Network Port 2 Port 3 802.1d bridge Transmission Network NE 3

Port 1 User A2

Port 1 User A1

Port 2

Port 1 User A3

4.1.1.5 E-LAN Services Based on 802.1q Bridge


E-LAN services can be separated by setting VLANs. In this case, a bridge is divided into multiple sub-switching domains. Therefore, the E-LAN services separated by setting VLANs are E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge.

Model of Service
Table 4-5 shows the models of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge. Table 4-5 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge Type of Service E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge Encapsulation Mode of Port 802.1q TAG Attribute C-Awared Type of Logical Port PORT+VLAN Learning Mode IVL SubSwitching Domain Sub-switching domains are divided based on VLANs.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-8 shows the typical application of the model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge. The transport network needs to carry G and H services accessed from NE2 and NE3. Both types of services converge on NE1. G and H services adopt different VLAN planning. Therefore, 802.1q bridge is used on NEs and sub-switching domains are divided based on VLANs, differentiating and separating the two types of services.

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Figure 4-8 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge


NE 2
VLAN 100

Port 1 User G2

NE 1 Port 1 User G1
VLAN 100

Port 3
VLAN 200

Transmission Network Port 3 802.1q bridge NE 3


VLAN 100

Port 2 User H2

Port 2 User H1

VLAN 200

Port 4 Transmission Network

802.1q bridge
VLAN 200

Port 1 User G3 Port 2 User H3

Port 3

802.1q bridge

NOTE

You can configure VLAN-based E-Line Services on NE2 and NE3 for accessing services.

4.1.1.6 E-LAN Services Based on 802.1ad Bridge


S-VLAN tags can be used to isolate E-LAN services. Therefore, a bridge is divided into multiple independent sub-switching domains. These services are E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge.

Model of Service
Table 4-6 shows the models of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge.

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Table 4-6 Models of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge Type of Services E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge Encapsulation Mode of Port Null or 802.1q (UNI port) a QinQ (NNI port) Tag Attribute Type of Logical Port PORT (The encapsulation mode of the UNI port is Null.) PORT or PORT +C-VLAN (The encapsulation mode of the UNI port is 802.1q.) a PORT+SVLAN (NNI port) Learning Mode IVL SubSwitching Domain Sub-switching domains are divided based on S-VLAN tags.

S-Awared

NOTE

a: When the encapsulation mode of port is 802.1q, the tag attribute must be Tag Aware.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-9 shows the typical application of the model of service. The transmission network needs to carry G and H services accessed from NE2 and NE3. The two types of services are converged on NE1. Since G and H services have a same C-VLAN tag, you need to add different S-VLAN tags to G and H services for service isolation.

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Figure 4-9 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge


NE 2
Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data(G) Data(H) Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data( G) Data(H)

NE 2
SVLAN 300

Port 1 User G2 Port 3 NE 1


SVLAN 300 SVLAN 400 CVLAN 100

Transmission Network Port 3 802.1ad bridge

Port 2 User H2
CVLAN 100

Port 1 User G1
CVLAN 100 SVLAN 400

User H1

Port 2 Port 4 802.1ad bridge Transmission Network

NE 3
SVLAN 300

CVLAN 100

Port 1 User G3
CVLAN 100 SVLAN 400

NE 1
Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data( G) Data(H) Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data(G) Data(H)

Port 3

Port 2 User H3
CVLAN 100

802.1ad bridge NE 3
Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data( G) Data(H)

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data(G) Data(H)

NOTE

You can configure QinQ-Based E-Line Services on NE2 and NE3 for service access.

4.1.2 ETH PWE3 Services


In the topology, the E-Line services are point-to-point services. The E-Line services realize the point-to-point transmission of Ethernet services. Figure 4-10 shows the networking diagram of the E-Line services carried by PWs. The branches of Company A and Company B are located in City 1 and City 2, and need to communicate with each other. The services of Company A and Company B need to be isolated from each other. In this case, you can configure the E-Line services that are carried by PWs and from the user side to the network side, to realize the communication between the branches of Company A or Company B. In addition, different services are carried by different PWs, therefore realizing the isolation of the services of Company A from the services of Company B. The services that are accessed from the user side are encapsulated and transmitted to the PWs. Then, the services are transmitted through the tunnel.
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The E-Line services of different companies are carried by different PWs and then to the same port on the network side. In this manner, the port resources on the network side are saved and the bandwidth utilization is increased. In the uplink direction of the user side, layered QoS configuration can be performed for data packets. Figure 4-10 E-Line services carried by PWs

NE1
Company A

PSN

NE2

Company A

Company B Company B

City 1

UNI

NNI

NNI

UNI

City2

Tunnel PW

4.1.3 CES Services


CES: By using the PWE3 technology, PWE3 packet headers are added to TDM traffic to create circuit emulation services (CES). PWE3 packet headers carry the frame format information, alarm information, signaling information, and synchronization and timing information of the TDM traffic. The encapsulated PW packets are transmitted over the MPLS tunnel on the PSN. After being decapsulated at the PW egress, the TDM circuit switched service traffic is re-created. On a packet switching network, the transmit and receive ends of a CES service maintain clock synchronization by means of adaptive clock recovery (ACR).

Emulation Mode
The OptiX NG-SDH series equipment supports two types of CES services: structure-aware TDM circuit emulation service over packet switched network (CESoPSN) CES and structure-agnostic TDM over packet (SAToP) CES. In the case of CESoPSN CES: l l The equipment senses the frame format, frame alignment mode, and timeslot information in the TDM circuit. The equipment processes the overheads and extracts the payloads in TDM frames. Then, the equipment loads timeslots to the packet payload in a certain sequence. As a result, the services in each timeslot are fixed and visible in packets.

In the case of SAToP CES:

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The equipment does not sense any format in the TDM signal. Instead, it considers TDM signals as bit flows at a constant rate, and therefore the entire bandwidth of TDM signals is emulated. The overheads and payloads in TDM signals are transparently transmitted.

Service Type
CES services are classified into UNI-UNI CES services and UNI-UNI CES services by service implementation point. As shown in Figure 4-11, the OptiX OSN NEs set UNI-NNI CES services. In the case of a UNINNI CES service, the OptiX OSN NEs access customer TDM services through E1 ports; CES PWs are created between the OptiX OSN NEs to emulate end-to-end TDM services. Figure 4-11 UNI-NNI CES services
NE BTS

NE PSN BSC

NE TDM link BTS PW Tunnel

4.1.4 ATM/IMA Services


This section provides the definition of ATM PWE3 and describes its purpose.

Definition
The ATM PWE3 technology emulates the basic behaviors and characteristics of ATM services on a packet switched network (PSN) by using the PWE3 mechanism, so that the emulated ATM services can be transmitted on a PSN.

Purpose
Aided by the ATM PWE3 technology, conventional ATM networks can be connected by a PSN. Specifically, ATM PWE3 allows transmitting conventional ATM services over a PSN by emulating the ATM services.
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The networking type of ATM PWE3 can be one-to-one or N-to-one depending on the encapsulation type of ATM PWE3 packets. It is obvious that ATM PWE3 helps to transmit ATM services over the PSN, without adding ATM equipment or changing the configuration of the ATM CE equipment. Figure 4-12 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the one-to-one encapsulation mode)
PSN PW AC CE1 PE1 AC LSP PE2 CE2

ATM PWE3 1-to-1 ATM PWE3 service 1-to-1 ATM PWE3 service

Packet transmission equipment

NodeB

RNC

Figure 4-13 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the N-to-one encapsulation mode)

CE1 PSN PW AC CE2 PE1 AC LSP PE2 CE4

ATM PWE3 N-to-1 ATM PWE3 service N-to-1 ATM PWE3 service

CE3

Packet transmission equipment

NodeB

RNC

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The cell encapsulation modes at both ends of a PW must be the same.

4.2 Protection Support


This section describes protection schemes including MPLS APS, PW APS, MSTP, ERPS,LPT, and LAG in the packet domain. 4.2.1 MPLS APS This section provides the definition of MPLS APS and describes its purpose. 4.2.2 PW APS This section provides the definition of PW APS and describes its purpose. 4.2.3 MSTP This topic provides the definition of MSTP and describes its purpose. 4.2.4 ERPS This section provides the definition of ERPS and describes its purpose. 4.2.5 LPT This section provides the definition of LPT and describes its purpose. 4.2.6 LAG Link aggregation allows multiple links that are attached to the same equipment to be aggregated together to form a LAG so that the bandwidth increases and the reliability of the links is improved. The aggregated links can be considered as a single logical link.

4.2.1 MPLS APS


This section provides the definition of MPLS APS and describes its purpose.

Definition
MPLS APS is a function that protects MPLS tunnels based on the APS protocol. With this function, when the working tunnel is faulty, the service can be switched to the preconfigured protection tunnel. The MPLS APS function supported by the OptiX OSN 500 has the following features: l l l l The MPLS APS provides end-to-end protection for tunnels. The working tunnel and protection tunnel have the same ingress and egress nodes. The protection tunnel in the MPLS APS protection pair does not carry extra traffic. In MPLS APS, the MPLS OAM mechanism is used to detect faults in tunnels, and the ingress and egress nodes exchange APS protocol packets to achieve protection switching.

Purpose
MPLS APS improves reliability for service transmission in tunnels. As shown in Figure 4-14, when the MPLS OAM mechanism detects a fault in the working tunnel, the service is switched to the protection tunnel for transmission.
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Figure 4-14 Application example of MPLS APS


Transit

Working Tunnel Ingress Egress Protection Tunnel

Transit Protect switching Transit

Working Tunnel Ingress Egress Protection Tunnel

Transit Service Packet transmission equipment

4.2.2 PW APS
This section provides the definition of PW APS and describes its purpose.

Definition
PW APS is a function that protects PWs based on the APS protocol. With this function, when the working PW is faulty, the service can be switched to the preconfigured protection PW. The PW APS function supported by the OptiX OSN 500 has the following features: l l l
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The PW APS function provides end-to-end protection for PWs. The working PW and protection PW are carried in different tunnels but have the same local and remote PEs. The protection PW in the PW APS protection pair does not carry extra traffic.
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In PW APS, the PW OAM mechanism is used to detect faults in PWs, and the PEs exchange APS protocol packets to achieve protection switching.

Purpose
PW APS improves reliability for service transmission in PWs. As shown in Figure 4-15, when the PW OAM mechanism detects a fault in the working PW, the service is switched to the protection PW for transmission. Figure 4-15 Application example of PW APS
PE2

Working PW PE1 PE4 Protection PW

PE3 Protect switching PE2

Working PW PE1 PE4 Protection PW

PE3 Service Packet transmission equipment

4.2.3 MSTP
This topic provides the definition of MSTP and describes its purpose.

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Definition
The spanning tree protocol (STP) is used in the network loop. This protocol adopts certain algorithms to break a loop network into a loop-free tree network and thus prevents packets from increasing and cycling in an endless manner in the loop network. See Figure 4-16. Figure 4-16 Diagram of the STP
Switch A Switch A

Switch B

Switch C

Switch B Root: Switch A

Switch C

The rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP) is an optimized version of STP. Compared with the STP, the RSTP can stabilize the network topology in a shorter time. The RSTP is compatible with the STP. The STP packets and RSTP packets can be identified by the bridge that uses the RSTP for calculating the spanning tree. With the defects in the STP and RSTP fixed, the MSTP maximizes the usage of link bandwidths by setting up several independent spanning trees.

Purpose
The STP/RSTP meets the following requirements: l Any activated topology of any bridge can be configured as a single spanning tree. Redundant data loops should be removed if there is any between two stations in a network topology. The spanning tree topology can be configured in the case of a bridge fault or a route interruption. In this manner, protection is provided. Temporary data loops can be prevented by automatically accepting the bridges and ports of the bridges that are newly added into the LAN. The finally activated topology can be predicted and repeated. In addition, the topology can be selected by managing certain parameters of the algorithms. Operations to the end stations are transparent. For example, the end stations are unaware of their attachment to a single LAN or a bridged LAN. A small part of the available link bandwidths is used to create or maintain the spanning tree, and the bandwidth does not increase with the expanding network scale.

l l l

During the rapid development of the VLAN technology, the limitation of the STP/RSTP emerges. That is, after the STP/RSTP is enabled, a loop network is broken into a single spanning tree and the blocked links do not carry any traffic, which is a waste of bandwidths.
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The preceding defect in the STP and RSTP is fixed in the MSTP. That is, in addition to stabilizing the network topology in a short time, the MSTP enables the traffic of different VLANs to be transmitted over their respective trails and thus provides a good load sharing mechanism. l The MSTP classifies a switching network into different regions. Each region is called an MST region. Within each region, multiple spanning trees exist and they are independent from each other. Each spanning tree is called a multiple spanning tree instance (MSTI). In the case of the MSTP, the VLAN mapping table is configured to specify the mapping relations between VLANs and MSTIs. Within an MST region, each VLAN corresponds to one MSTI. That is, the data from the same VLAN can be transmitted only on the same MSTI. One MSTI, however, may correspond to multiple VLANs.

Consider the network in Figure 4-17 as an example. In this network, the packets of VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 are transmitted. After the STP/RSTP is enabled, a single spanning tree that uses switch A as the root switch is generated and the links between switch B and switch C are blocked. Hence, the bandwidth of this link is not utilized. Figure 4-17 Limitations of the STP/RSTP
Host A

Switch A

VLAN 1 VLAN 2

Host B

Switch B

Switch C

Host C

Blocked port Spanning tree Root switch

If this network is considered as an MST region in which the MSTP is enabled, VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 are mapped into corresponding MSTIs. Figure 4-18 shows the generated network topology. On the ring: l l MSTI 1 uses switch A as the root switch to forward packets of VLAN 1. MSTI 2 uses switch C as the root switch to forward packets of VLAN 2.

Through this method, packets of all VLANs can be forwarded correctly and packets of different VLANs are forwarded over different trails. In this manner, load sharing is achieved.
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Figure 4-18 Improvement in the MSTP


Host A

Switch A

VLAN 1 VLAN 2

Host B

Switch B

Switch C

Host C

Switch A

Switch A

VLAN 1

VLAN 1

VLAN 2

VLAN 2 Switch B MSTI 1 -> VLAN 1 Switch C Switch B Switch C

MSTI 1 -> VLAN 2

Root switch

NOTE

The OptiX OSN 500 supports only the MSTP that generates the common and internal spanning tree (CIST). Hence, the OptiX OSN 500 does not support the load sharing function that is implemented through forwarding of packets of different VLANs over different trails.

As shown in Figure 4-19, when user equipment accesses the OptiX OSN 500 through two different trails, you can configure the ports on the OptiX OSN 500 that are connected to the user network into a port group. This port group, together with the switch on the user network, can run the MSTP. Hence, if an service access link becomes faulty, the MSTP enables a reconfiguration and thus the spanning tree topology is generated to provide protection for the user network that is configured with multiple access points.

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Figure 4-19 Typical Application of the MSTP on the OptiX OSN 500

Root

Root

Port group CIST Blocked Port

4.2.4 ERPS
This section provides the definition of ERPS and describes its purpose.

Definition
Based on the automatic protection switching (APS) protocol and protection switching mechanism, ERPS defines a protocol for Ethernet ring protection. ERPS is applicable to the Ethernet ring topology at the Ethernet Layer 2, and provides protection for LAN services on an Ethernet ring.

Purpose
When a ring network is configured with ERPS, in normal cases, the main node blocks its port on one side so that all the services are transmitted through the port on the other side. In this manner, service loops can be prevented. If a segment of links fails or an NE becomes faulty, the RPL owner unblocks the preceding port and thus the services that cannot be transmitted over the faulty point can be transmitted through this port. In this manner, ring protection is achieved. The Ethernet ring network as shown in Figure 4-20 is configured with ERPS. Generally, the RPL owner (NE D) blocks the port that is connected to NE A, and all the services are transmitted over the link NE A<->NE B<->NE C<->NE D. When the link between NE A<->NE B becomes faulty, NE D unblocks the port that is blocked so that the services can be transmitted over the link NE A<->NE D<->NE C<->NE B.

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Figure 4-20 Implementation of the ERPS

NE A

NE B

NE D

NE C

Protection switching

Failure

NE A

NE B

NE D

NE C Link Ethernet service direction Blocked port

4.2.5 LPT
This section provides the definition of LPT and describes its purpose.

Definition
Link State Pass Through (LPT) detects a fault that occurs at a service access node or on a service network, and then instructs the equipment at both ends of a service network to immediately start a backup network for communication. LPT ensures proper transmission of important data. As
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shown in Figure 4-21, LPT-enabled NE1 and NE2 will disconnect their access links from router A and router B if access link 1, access link 2, or the service network becomes faulty. As a result, router A and router B will immediately detect the link fault between them, and switch to backup networks for communication. Figure 4-21 Typical application of LPT

Backup network

Service network NE1 Router A Access link 1 Working link Protection link NE2 Access link 2 Router B

Purpose
With the LPT function enabled, access equipment will immediately detect link faults and switch to backup networks timely.

4.2.6 LAG
Link aggregation allows multiple links that are attached to the same equipment to be aggregated together to form a LAG so that the bandwidth increases and the reliability of the links is improved. The aggregated links can be considered as a single logical link. A LAG aggregates multiple physical links to form a logical link that is at a higher rate to transmit data. Link aggregation functions between adjacent equipment. Therefore, link aggregation is not related to the architecture of the entire network. Link aggregation is also called port aggregation because links correspond to ports one to one on an Ethernet network. As shown in Figure 4-22, the LAG provides the following functions: l Increased bandwidth A LAG provides users with a cost-effective method for increasing the link bandwidth. Users obtain data links with higher bandwidths by combining multiple physical links into one logical link without upgrading the existing equipment. The bandwidth of the logical link is equal to the sum of the bandwidths of the physical links. The aggregation module distributes the traffic to different links by using the load sharing algorithm, therefore providing the load sharing function for links.
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Increased availability The links in a LAG dynamically back up each other. When a link fails, the other links in the LAG quickly take over. The process in which link aggregation starts the backup link is associated only with the links in the same LAG, and the links not in the LAG are not involved.

Figure 4-22 Link aggregation group


Link 1 Link 2 Ethernet packets Link 3 LAG Ethernet packets

4.3 Maintenance
This section describes the maintenance functions and features including MPLS OAM, ETHOAM, ATM OAM, and RMON in the packet domain. 4.3.1 MPLS OAM The MPLS OAM mechanism supported by the equipment includes tunnel OAM and PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer. Tunnel OAM and PW OAM both provide the complete fault detection and locating mechanism. 4.3.2 ETH-OAM ETH-OAM enhances Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance functions and it strongly supports service continuity verification, service deployment commissioning, and network fault locating. 4.3.3 ATM OAM This section provides the definition of ATM OAM and describes its purpose. 4.3.4 RMON By using the remote monitoring (RMON), you can transmit network monitoring data between different network sections.

4.3.1 MPLS OAM


The MPLS OAM mechanism supported by the equipment includes tunnel OAM and PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer. Tunnel OAM and PW OAM both provide the complete fault detection and locating mechanism.

Tunnel OAM
l Description The tunnel OAM mechanism helps to effectively detect, identify, and locate internal defects at the tunnel layer of an MPLS network. The equipment triggers the protection switching
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based on the OAM detection status. Therefore, quick fault detection and service protection can be achieved. l Objectives and benefits As a key bearer technology for the scalable next generation network (NGN), MPLS provides multi-service capabilities with ensured QoS. In addition, MPLS introduces a unique network layer (tunnel), which may cause some faults. Therefore, an MPLS network must have the OAM capability. By providing a tunnel OAM mechanism independent of any upper layer or lower layer, the tunnel OAM supports the following features: Provides query-on-demand and consecutive detections so that at any moment you can learn whether the monitored LSP has defects. Detects, analyzes, and locates any defect that occurs, and notifies the NMS of the relevant information. Triggers a protection switching immediately after a defect or fault occurs on a link. Monitors the performance events indicating packet loss ratio, delay, and jitter in real time and reports them to the NMS.

PW OAM
l Description The PW OAM mechanism helps to effectively detect, identify, and locate internal defects at the PW layer of a network. The equipment triggers the protection switching based on the OAM detection status. Therefore, quick fault detection and service protection can be achieved. l Objectives and benefits The equipment performs PW encapsulation on service packets, and then transmits the service packets over tunnels. The network consists of two layers: tunnel and PW. Tunnels use tunnel OAM for maintenance and management, and PWs use PW OAM for maintenance and management. Currently, the equipment can detect the connectivity of a certain PW through ping packets, and then reports the result to the NMS.

4.3.2 ETH-OAM
ETH-OAM enhances Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance functions and it strongly supports service continuity verification, service deployment commissioning, and network fault locating. With the continuous development of the Ethernet, especially when LANs evolve to WANs, operators pay more attention to equipment maintainability. Solutions to operations, administration and maintenance (OAM) in the transmission network are required urgently. Therefore, ETH-OAM is developed. Based on the MAC layer, the ETH-OAM protocol performs OAM operations for the Ethernet by transmitting OAM packets. This protocol is irrelevant to the transmission medium. The OAM packets are processed only at the MAC layer, having no impact on the other layers of the Ethernet. In addition, as a low-rate protocol, the ETH-OAM protocol occupies low bandwidths. Therefore, this protocol does not affect services carried on links. A comparison of ETH-OAM and existing OAM and fault locating methods is provided as follows:
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l l l

When a loopback is performed at a port, all packets on the port are looped back. Therefore, the loopback method cannot be used if only a specific service needs to be looped back. ETH-OAM can detect hardware faults. ETH-OAM can detect and locate faults automatically.

Both ITU-T and IEEE have researches on ETH-OAM. Currently, Huawei Ethernet service processing boards can implement the ETH-OAM function, which is subject to IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah. As shown in Figure 4-23, the combination of IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah provides a complete ETH-OAM solution. Figure 4-23 Application of IEEE 802.1ag OAM and IEEE 802.3ah OAM
IEEE 802.3ah IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802.3ah

P Router 1 CE1 PE1 CE2

P PE2 CE3 Router 3

Router 2

CE4

Access layer Custom layer

Access layer Core layer Custom layer OptiX NE

IEEE 802.1ag OAM focuses on the maintenance of end-to-end Ethernet links. Based on services, IEEE 802.1ag OAM implements end-to-end detection in the unit of "maintenance domain" and performs segmental management on each network segment that is involved in the same service on a network. IEEE 802.3ah OAM focuses on the maintenance of point-to-point Ethernet link between two directly-connected devices in the first mile. IEEE 802.3ah OAM does not focus on a specific service. It maintains point-to-point Ethernet links by performing OAM autodiscovery, link performance monitoring, fault detection, remote loopbacks, and self-loop check.

4.3.3 ATM OAM


This section provides the definition of ATM OAM and describes its purpose.

Definition
ATM OAM is used for detecting and locating ATM faults, and monitoring ATM performance. In this document, ATM OAM refers to OAM only at the ATM layer and implements various OAM functions by means of specific ATM OAM cells.

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Purpose
ATM OAM provides segment-based ATM OAM between the CE and the PE and end-to-endbased ATM OAM between CEs. As shown in Figure 4-24, ATM OAM cells are transmitted and detected between the CE and the PE, or between the CEs to monitor the ATM link. Figure 4-24 Typical application of ATM OAM

CE1 (NodeB)

PE1

PE2

CE2 (RNC)

Segment check End-to-end check

Packet transmission equipment

4.3.4 RMON
By using the remote monitoring (RMON), you can transmit network monitoring data between different network sections. Currently, the management of the Ethernet performance for transmission products is relevantly simple. In the case of the management of Ethernet ports, the management of the performance data of the ports is required. What's more, as the network is becoming complex, a method for managing network sections is required. Thus, the RMON emerges and the RMON should have the following features: l l l l l All statistics data is saved at the agent and the out-of-service operation on the manager is supported. History data is saved for the fault diagnosis. Errors are detected and reported. Detailed data is provided. Multiple management stations are supported.

Based on the preceding purposes, the RMON defines a serial of statistic formats and functions to realize the data exchange between the control stations and detection stations that complies with the RMON standards. To meet the requirements of different networks, the RMON provides flexible detection modes and control mechanism. What's more, the RMON provides error diagnosis, planning and information receiving of the performance events of the entire network.

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4.4 Synchronization
This section describes synchronization features including synchronous Ethernet clock, IEEE 1588v2, and CES ACR in the packet domain. 4.4.1 Synchronous Ethernet Clock The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology that extracts the clock from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet line, and transmits data through the extracted clock to realize the transfer of clocks. 4.4.2 IEEE 1588v2 This section provides the definition of IEEE 1588v2 and describes its purpose. 4.4.3 CES ACR This section provides the definition of CES ACR and describes its purpose.

4.4.1 Synchronous Ethernet Clock


The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology that extracts the clock from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet line, and transmits data through the extracted clock to realize the transfer of clocks.

Definition
The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology of frequency synchronization over the physical layer. The system directly extracts the clock signal from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet line, and transmits the data to each board by using the clock signal to realize the transfer of clock information.

Purpose
As the network is increasingly based on the Ethernet transfer technology, the large-scale network at the carrier-class level requires the synchronous Ethernet to transmit the clock and introduces the networkwide synchronous timing transmission idea of the SDH system to the Ethernet design. Therefore, the clock signal can be transmitted from the core to the edge by using the Ethernet physical layer, to provide ensured timing for various real-time services.

4.4.2 IEEE 1588v2


This section provides the definition of IEEE 1588v2 and describes its purpose.

Definition
The IEEE 1588v2 defines a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems. It defines the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize independent clocks running on separate nodes of a distributed measurement and control system to a high degree of accuracy and precision. The IEEE 1588v2 standard supports time synchronization accuracy in the submicrosecond range. Synchronization involves clock synchronization (also called frequency synchronization) or time synchronization. The IEEE 1588v2 standard mainly applicable to time synchronization, and it can also be used for clock synchronization.
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4 Functions and Features

Clock synchronization To achieve synchronization of clocks for two devices, the pulses of the clocks must be at the same frequency and keep a constant phase difference.

Time synchronization To achieve time synchronization, the pulses of the clocks must be at the same frequency and have a very small phase difference as required, and the times indicated by the clocks must be measured in the same timescale. The commonly used timescales include universal coordinated time (UTC) and international atomic time (TAI, from the French name Temps Atomique International).

Purpose
In the applications on transmission networks, the IEEE 1588v2 standard provides an approach to high-precision time synchronization on a network basis, with a synchronization accuracy in the microsecond range; as well, the IEEE 1588v2 standard helps in transparent transmission of high-precision time signals. As such, the IEEE 1588v2 standard, as an alternative to the global positioning system (GPS) or other complex timing systems, can be used to provide highprecision time for NodeBs or eNodeBs. Figure 4-25 illustrates an application example wherein the IEEE 1588v2 standard helps to synchronize the time of NodeBs distributed in a CDMA2000 or TD-SCDMA communication system. Figure 4-25 Time synchronization of NodeBs implemented by the IEEE 1588v2 standard
RNC BITS

NodeB PTP node

NodeB

NodeB Time synchronization

4.4.3 CES ACR


This section provides the definition of CES ACR and describes its purpose.
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Definition
CES ACR is a function that uses the adaptive clock recovery (ACR) technology to recover clock synchronization information carried by CES packets. In the standard CES ACR solution, the source end (Master) considers the local clock as the timestamp in the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) packet header and encapsulates it in the CES packet; the sink end (Slave) recovers the clock according to the timestamp in the packet. In this manner, signal impairment during the transmission is prevented. The OptiX OSN 500 adopts the enhanced timestamp clock solution. That is, clocks can be recovered based on SN in CES packets rather than timestamps in RTP packet headers. See Figure 4-26. Figure 4-26 CES ACR clock solution
Slave
SN

Master
SN

E1

Processing

CES

CES

Processing

E1

Primary reference clock

PSN
E1 CES PE2 E1

BTS

PE1

BSC

Packet transmission equipment

SN: Sequnce Number

Purpose
In the packet domain, CES ACR is mainly used to transparently transmit E1 clocks in the PSN. For details, see CES ACR Clock Transparent Transmission Solution.

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5
About This Chapter

Operation and Maintenance

The OptiX OSN 500 is of strong maintainability. 5.1 License Control Licenses grant customers permission to use a equipment version or a function/feature. The OptiX OSN 500 supports a version-specific license. 5.2 DCN Reliable network management ensures proper running of a network, and therefore transmission of network management data becomes very critical. The data communication network (DCN) is a network management data communication channel, with which users can remotely manage and maintain NEs. 5.3 Equipment Maintenance To ensure the proper running of a network, routine maintenance and troubleshooting for equipment are a must. The OptiX OSN 500 is of strong maintainability. 5.4 Upgrade Methods If the current version of the OptiX OSN 500 cannot meet customer requirements, upgrade the equipment to a higher version. The available upgrade methods are package loading and package diffusion.

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5.1 License Control


Licenses grant customers permission to use a equipment version or a function/feature. The OptiX OSN 500 supports a version-specific license. Table 5-1 lists the information about the version-specific license that the OptiX OSN 500 supports. Table 5-1 Version-specific license that the OptiX OSN 500 supports License Type Version-specific license Function The product of this version is released with a license; that is, customers can obtain corresponding permission committed by the supplier based on the license certificate. Application l At the deployment phase, you can configure or use the new functions/ features of this version only after the license file of this version is loaded. l At the maintenance phase, renew the version license after it expires.
NOTE A license's status information can be queried on the NMS.

5.2 DCN
Reliable network management ensures proper running of a network, and therefore transmission of network management data becomes very critical. The data communication network (DCN) is a network management data communication channel, with which users can remotely manage and maintain NEs. Table 5-2 lists the DCN solutions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports.

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Table 5-2 DCN solutions supported by the OptiX OSN 500 DC N Sol uti on Inb and DC N Purpose and Benefit Feature Networking Technology

NM information is transmitted through the service channels provided by managed equipment. Therefore, no extra equipment and extra DCN are required. This reduces operating cost.

Flexible networking: NM information is encapsulated into Ethernet frames and carries a fixed VLAN ID to get separated from the service data. The NM information is transmitted with services on service paths.

Identifying FE/GE service ports with VLAN IDs

5.3 Equipment Maintenance


To ensure the proper running of a network, routine maintenance and troubleshooting for equipment are a must. The OptiX OSN 500 is of strong maintainability. Table 5-3 lists the maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports.

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Table 5-3 Maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports Applica tion Scenari o Routine maintena nce Function Description

Alarm and performance management

l Provides audible and visual alarms in case of emergency, assisting the network administrator in taking prompt measures. l Provides running status indicators and alarm indicators on each board, assisting the administrator in locating and handling faults promptly. l Provides the alarm input and output function, thus facilitating the collection of equipment alarms. l Dynamically monitors the equipment operation and alarm status of all stations on the NMS. l Detects alarms and performance of a standby system control board. l As for the 15-minute monitoring period, the equipment can store sixteen 15-minute history performance, that is, four hours of 15-minute history performance. l As for the 24-hour monitoring period, the equipment can store six 24-hour history performance, that is, six days of 24-hour history performance.

RMON

l Monitors the data on a transmission network located in different network segments. RMON is a supplement to simple Ethernet performance management means, and can be used for a wide range of networks. l Supports in-service upgrades and loading of board software and NE software. l Supports remote loading of board software and field programmable gate array (FPGA). l Supports error-loading-proof and resumable loading.

Upgrade and loading of board software and NE software

Voltage check Automatic search for optical fibers Query of port impedance OAM ETH OAM

l Measures the input voltage and detects the undervoltage and overvoltage states. l Supports the fiber auto-discovery function on the NMS. l Supports the query of port impedance on the NMS. l Detects and monitors the connectivity and performance of service trails by using outband packets. During the process, services are not affected. l Complies with IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah.

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Applica tion Scenari o

Function

Description

ATM OAM MPLS OAM

l Detects and locates ATM faults, and monitors ATM performance. l Detects and locates faults within an MPLS network, and works with MPLS APS to protect services. l MPLS OAM mechanisms include tunnel OAM and PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer.

Fault locating

One-click data collection

l Provides the one-click data collection function to collect fault data, which shortens data collection time before service recovery. l Users can collect fault data selectively, and can stop a collection process manually.

Loopback

l Service boards support inloops and outloops on ports, which facilitates fault locating.

5.4 Upgrade Methods


If the current version of the OptiX OSN 500 cannot meet customer requirements, upgrade the equipment to a higher version. The available upgrade methods are package loading and package diffusion. Table 5-4 lists the upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 500.

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Table 5-4 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 500 Upgrade Method Package loading Definition With a software package description file, the software package functions as a logical package of the required software. This logical package can be uploaded to upgrade the entire NE. Application Scenario l One NE needs to be upgraded. l The system control board and other boards must support package loading. l There is a CF card on the system control board. l More than one NE needs to be upgraded. l The system control board and other boards must support package loading. l There is a CF card on the system control board. Characteristic l All the boards on an NE can be upgraded on a unified GUI. l There is no need to care about which board to upgrade or which files to update. Applicable Version The V100R005C00 version and later support this upgrade method.

Package diffusion

With a software package description file, the software package functions as a logical package of the required software. The logical package is diffused and almost synchronously loaded to all NEs on a network. This upgrade method is more efficient.

l All the boards on an NE can be upgraded on a unified GUI. l There is no need to care about which board to upgrade or which files to update. l The software package is diffused. l Network load and network bandwidth are both shared.

The V100R005C00 version and later support this upgrade method.

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6
About This Chapter

Technical Specifications

This chapter describes the equipment's general specifications, function/feature indicators, port specifications, optical module specifications, indicator status explanation, and environment indicators. 6.1 General Specifications This section describes the chassis dimensions, weight, power consumption, heat consumption, power supply performance, electromagnetic compatibility, and reliability. 6.2 Function/Feature Indicators This section describes the equipment's function/feature indicators. 6.3 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board This section describes the power consumption and weight of each board supported by the equipment. 6.4 Optical Port Specifications This section describes the specifications of OptiX OSN 500's GE optical ports. 6.5 Electrical Port Specifications This section describes the equipment's electrical port specifications. The equipment's electrical ports include CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports and Ethernet electrical ports. 6.6 Optical/Electrical Module Specifications This section describes the optical/electrical module's BOM codes, as well as corresponding information and port types. 6.7 Indicator Status Explanation This section describes the definitions of indicators supported by the OptiX OSN 500. 6.8 Safety Certification The OptiX OSN 500 has passed many safety certifications. 6.9 Environmental Specifications The OptiX OSN 500 requires proper environment for storage, transportation, and operation.

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6.1 General Specifications


This section describes the chassis dimensions, weight, power consumption, heat consumption, power supply performance, electromagnetic compatibility, and reliability. Table 6-1 lists the general specifications of the OptiX OSN 500. Table 6-1 General specifications of the OptiX OSN 500 Item Dimensions (H x W x D) Weight Power Consumpti on Description 44 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm 5.0 kg l Maximum power consumption: 75 W l Typical power consumption: 35 W Board configuration for typical power consumption: CSHD + FAN + PIU, as shown in Figure 6-1. l Maximum heat consumption: 256 BTU/h l Typical heat consumption: 120 BTU/h l Power supply mode: DC l Rated voltage: -48 V or -60 V l Voltage range: -38.4 V to -57.6 V or -48 V to -72 V Complies with EMC Class A.

Heat Consumpti on Power Supply Performanc e Electromag netic Compatibili ty Reliability

l System availability: 0.9999976 l Average annual repair rate: < 1.5% l Mean time to repair (MTTR): 2 hours l Mean time between failures (MTBF): 94.5 years

Figure 6-1 Typical board configurations of the OptiX OSN 500


SLOT SLOT 5 6 (PIU) (FAN) SLOT 2(CSHD)

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6.2 Function/Feature Indicators


This section describes the equipment's function/feature indicators. Table 6-2 lists the OptiX OSN 500's function/feature indicators. Table 6-2 OptiX OSN 500 functions and features Ite m MP LS sup port capa bilit y Description The packet switching unit of the CSHD board works with a service board to implement MPLS functions. l Setup mode: static LSPs l Protection: 1:1 MPLS tunnel APS l OAM: Supports MPLS OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports LSP ping and LSP traceroute functions. l Supports a maximum of 1024 unidirectional MPLS tunnels or 512 bidirectional MPLS tunnels.
NOTE Unidirectional and bidirectional MPLS tunnels share tunnel resources. One bidirectional MPLS tunnel is equivalent to two unidirectional MPLS tunnels. The sum of PW count and MPLS tunnel count must not exceed 1024. PW count and MPLS tunnel count, however, can be 1024 simultaneously if each MPLS tunnel carries one PW. This is because if an MPLS tunnel carries PWs, the MPLS tunnel is not counted and only the carried PWs are counted.

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Ite m PW E3 sup port capa bilit y

Description The packet switching unit of the CSHD board works with a service board to implement PWE3 functions. l Service categories CES services ATM PWE3 services ETH PWE3 services l Setup mode: static PWs l Protection: 1:1 PW APS l OAM: Supports VCCV. Supports PW OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports PW ping and PW traceroute functions. l Supports MS-PWs. l Supports configurable bandwidth. l Supports a maximum of 1024 PWs.
NOTE The sum of PW count and MPLS tunnel count must not exceed 1024. PW count and MPLS tunnel count, however, can be 1024 simultaneously if each MPLS tunnel carries one PW. This is because if an MPLS tunnel carries PWs, the MPLS tunnel is not counted and only the carried PWs are counted.

Serv ice

Service Type Ethernet service

Description

Maximum Receiving Capability FE: 16

Service Port Description FE electrical port: 10/100BAS E-TX GE optical port: l 1000BA SE-LX l 1000BA SE-VX l 1000BA SE-ZX Connector RJ-45

Supports Native ETH and ETH PWE3 services. l Format of Ethernet data frames: IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II l Jumbo frames l MTU length: 1518 bytes to 9600 bytes (1522 bytes, by default) l MPLS function support l VLAN function support. The VLAN IDs range from 1 to 4094.

GE: 6

LC

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Ite m

Description l Size of a MAC address table: 16 KB (including static entries) GE electrical port: 10/100/100 0BASE-T (X) RJ-45

CES service

l Service type: pointto-point service l Encapsulation types: CESoPSN SAToP l Compression of idle timeslots: supported (only for CESoPSN encapsulation) l Iitter compensation buffering time: 375 us to 16000 us l Packet loading time: 125 us to 5000 us l CES ACR: supported l Retiming: supported

80xE1

75/120-ohm smart E1 port

Anea 96

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Ite m

Description ATM/ IMA service l Number of ATM connections: 256 l ATM traffic management l ATM encapsulation format N-to-one VPC N-to-one VCC One-to-one VPC One-to-one VCC l Maximum number of concatenated ATM cells: 31 l ATM OAM: F4 (VP layer) and F5 (VC layer) l Maximum number of IMA groups: 32 l Maximum number of members in an IMA group: 16 80xE1 75/120-ohm smart E1 port Anea 96

Prot ectio n

MPLS APS

l Maximum number of protection groups: 32 l Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MPLS APS and PW APS share 32 protection group resources.

PW APS

l Maximum number of protection groups: 32 l Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MPLS APS and PW APS share 32 protection group resources.

MSTP ERPS LPT

Supports the MSTP protocol that generates only the CIST. The MSTP protocol provides functions equivalent to that of the RSTP protocol. Supports the ERPS function that complies with ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344. l Point-point and point-multipoint LPT l Switching duration not more than 5s

LAG

l Intra-board LAG and inter-board LAG l A maximum of 16 LAGs. Each LAG has a maximum of 8 members. l Switching duration not more than 500 ms

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Ite m Mai nten ance

Description MPLS OAM l Tunnel OAM and PW OAM l Maximum number of MPLS OAM resources: 64
NOTE MPLS OAM and PW OAM share 64 OAM resources.

ETHOAM

l Supports the following IEEE 802.1ag OAM functions: Management of OAM maintenance points Continuity check (CC) Loopback (LB) Link trace (LT) l Supports the following IEEE 802.3ah OAM functions: OAM auto-discovery Link performance monitoring Fault detection Loopback at the remote end Self-loop detection and self-looped port blocking

ATM OAM RMON Syn chro niza tion Synchrono us Ethernet clock

Maximum number of ATM connections: 256 N/A l Synchronous Ethernet that complies with ITU-T G.8261 and ITU-T G.8262. l Port receiving/transmitting synchronous Ethernet clocks: FE/GE l Input/Output of SSM packets l Clock frequency stability (hold-over mode): less than 50 ppb
NOTE Not supported by SFP electrical modules When working in 10BASE-T mode, the FE/GE port does not support synchronous Ethernet clocks.

CES ACR

l Maximum number of CES ACR clocks: 4 l The clock performance complies with the ITU-T G.823 Traffic template.

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Ite m Oth ers

Description QoS l DiffServ Supports simple traffic classification by specifying PHB service classes for service flows based on their QoS information (C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, DSCP values, or MPLS EXP values) carried by the packets. l Complex traffic classification Supports traffic classification based on C-VLAN IDs, S-VLAN IDs, C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, C-VLAN IDs + C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN IDs + S-VLAN priorities, or DSCP values carried by packets. l CAR Provides the CAR function for the traffic flows at ports. l Shaping Supports traffic shaping for a specific port, prioritized queue, or traffic flow. l Queue scheduling policies SP WRR SP+WRR

6.3 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board


This section describes the power consumption and weight of each board supported by the equipment. Table 6-3 lists the power consumption and weight of the boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500. Table 6-3 Power consumption and weight of boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500 Board CSHD MD1 EM6T EM6F PIU FAN Power Consumption (W) 32.2 12.2 10.4 11.3 0.5 l Room temperature (25C): 2.3 l High temperature (55C): 17.0 Weight (kg) 1.00 0.50 0.37 0.40 0.12 0.20

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6.4 Optical Port Specifications


This section describes the specifications of OptiX OSN 500's GE optical ports.

Specifications of GE Optical Ports


The GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 500 comply with IEEE 802.3. Table 6-4 lists the main specifications. Table 6-4 Specifications of OptiX OSN 500's GE optical ports Item Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Optical port type Optical fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 1000 1000BASE-LX Single-mode LC 10 1270 to 1355 -9 to -3 -20 1000BASE-VX Single-mode LC 40 1270 to 1355 -5 to 0 -23 1000BASE-ZX Single-mode LC 80 1500 to 1580 -2 to +5 -23

-3 9

-3 9

-3 9

NOTE

With different SFP modules, the equipment provides GE optical ports with different types and transmission distances.

6.5 Electrical Port Specifications


This section describes the equipment's electrical port specifications. The equipment's electrical ports include CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports and Ethernet electrical ports.

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CES/ATM/IMA Service Electrical Ports


Table 6-5 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 500's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports. Table 6-5 Specifications of OptiX OSN 500's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports Item Standard compliance Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Code pattern Impedance (ohm) Pair in each direction Port type Performance ITU-T G.703/G.823 2048 HDB3 75 One coaxial pair Anea 96 120 One symmetrical pair

Ethernet Electrical Ports


Table 6-6 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 500's Ethernet electrical ports. Table 6-6 Specifications of OptiX OSN 500's Ethernet electrical ports Service Port GE/FE electrical port GE/FE electrical port GE electrical port Port Rate 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T Code Pattern Manchester coding signals MLT-3 coding signal 4D-PAM5 coding signal Port Type RJ-45

6.6 Optical/Electrical Module Specifications


This section describes the optical/electrical module's BOM codes, as well as corresponding information and port types.

Introduction to SFP/Electrical Optical Modules


The CSHD and EM6F boards on the OptiX OSN 500 support small form-factor pluggable (SFP) optical /electrical modules, and the CSHD board also supports SFP electrical modules. To change the type of receive services or replace a faulty optical/electrical module, all you need to do is directly change the pluggable optical/electrical module rather than the board.

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Usage Small form-factor pluggable optical/ electrical transceiver, which is mainly used for Ethernet data communication

Appearance In the example of an SFP optical module:

Dimensions (H x W x D) 8.5 mm x 13.4 mm x 56.5 mm

BOM Code The BOM code of a pluggable optical/electrical module identifies different types of optical/electrical modules. A BOM code can be printed on a label that is attached to a pluggable optical/electrical module.

SFP/eSFP optical modules supported by the OptiX OSN 500


BOM Code 34060473 Optical Module Name 1.25 Gbit/s eSFP optical module Optical Module Specifications Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1310 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -9 dBm to -3 dBm, -20 dBm, LC, single-mode, 10 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1310 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -5 dBm to 0 dBm, -23 dBm, LC, single-mode, 40 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1550 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -2 dBm to +5 dBm, -23 dBm, LC, single-mode, 80 km Single-fiber bidirectional module, eSFP, Tx 1310 nm/Rx 1490 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -9 dBm to -3 dBm, -19.5 dBm, LC, single-mode, 10 km Applicable Board CSHD, EM6F

34060298

1.25 Gbit/s eSFP optical module

CSHD, EM6F

34060360

1.25 Gbit/s eSFP optical module

CSHD, EM6F

34060470

1.25 Gbit/s singlefiber bidirectional eSFP optical module

CSHD, EM6F

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BOM Code 34060475

Optical Module Name 1.25 Gbit/s singlefiber bidirectional eSFP optical module

Optical Module Specifications Single-fiber bidirectional module, eSFP, Tx 1490 nm/Rx 1310 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -9 dBm to -3 dBm, -19.5 dBm, LC, single-mode, 10 km

Applicable Board CSHD, EM6F

NOTE

"Optical Module Specifications" are name, encapsulation form, operating wavelength, rate, minimum output optical power, maximum output optical power, receiver sensitivity, optical port type, optical fiber type, transmission distance.

SFP electrical modules supported by the OptiX OSN 500


BOM Code 34100052 Electrical Module Name 1000BASE-T RJ-45 electrical interface SFP module Electrical Module Specifications 1000BASE-T, (RJ-45) SFP electrical module, auto negotiate, 100 m Applicable Board CSHD

6.7 Indicator Status Explanation


This section describes the definitions of indicators supported by the OptiX OSN 500.
NOTE

There is no indicator on the OptiX OSN 500 chassis.

Table 6-7 lists the definitions of indicators supported by the boards on the OptiX OSN 500. Table 6-7 Definitions of indicators supported by the boards on the OptiX OSN 500 Indicator STAT State On (green) On (red) Meaning The board is working properly. The board hardware is faulty. Applicable Board CSHD/MD1/EM6T/ EM6F

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Indicator

State Off

Meaning l The board is not working or created. l There is no power supplied to the system.

Applicable Board

PROG

Blinks on (green) and off at 100 ms intervals Blinks on (green) and off at 300 ms intervals

When the board is being powered on or reset, the software is being loaded. When the board is being powered on or reset, the board software is in BIOS boot state. When the board is being powered on or being reset, the BOOTROM selfcheck fails. The upper layer software is being initialized. l When the board is being powered or being reset, the memory selfcheck fails or loading upper layer software fails. l When the board is running, the logic file or upper layer software is lost. l The pluggable storage card is faulty.

CSHD/EM6T/EM6F

Blinks on (red) and off at 100 ms intervals

On (green)

On (red)

Off SYNC On (green) On (red)

The software is running normally. The clock is normal. The clock source is lost or is switched. CSHD

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Indicator SRV

State On (green) On (red)

Meaning The system/service is working properly. A critical or major alarm occurs in the system/service. A minor or remote alarm occurs in the system/service. l For the CSHD board, there is no power supplied to the system. l For the service board, no service is configured.

Applicable Board CSHD/EM6T/EM6F

On (yellow)

Off

ACT1/ACT2

On or blinking (yellow) Off

The GE1/GE2 port is receiving or transmitting data. The GE1/GE2 port is not receiving or transmitting data. The GE1/GE2 port is connected correctly, and is not receiving or transmitting data. The GE1/GE2 port is receiving or transmitting data. GE1/GE2 port is connected correctly or is abnormal. The GE1/GE2 port is connected correctly. The GE1/GE2 port is disconnected. Power is being supplied. Power is off or power supplies are connected incorrectly.

CSHD

LINK1/LINK2 (EM6F)

On (green)

EM6F

Blinking (yellow)

Off

LINK1/LINK2 (CSHD)

On (green) Off

CSHD

PWRA/PWRB

On (green) Off

PIU

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Indicator FAN

State On (green) On (red) Off

Meaning The fan board is working properly. The fan board is faulty. The fan board is not powered on or is not installed. The NE has critical/ major/minor alarms. The NE has critical/ major/minor alarms.

Applicable Board FAN

CRIT/MAJ/MIN

On (red) Off

FAN

6.8 Safety Certification


The OptiX OSN 500 has passed many safety certifications. Table 6-8 lists the safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 500 has passed. Table 6-8 Safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 500 has passed Item Electromagnetic compatibility Standard l CE certification l ETSI EN 301 489-1 l ETSI EN 301 489-4 l CISPR 22 l EN 55022 Surge protection l ITU-T K.27 l ETSI EN 300 253 Safety l CE certification l ETSI EN 60215 l ETSI EN 60950 l IEC 60825 l GB 4943 Environmental protection l RoHS

6.9 Environmental Specifications


The OptiX OSN 500 requires proper environment for storage, transportation, and operation.
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6.9.1 Storage Environment This section provides the requirements on the storage environment for the OptiX OSN 500. 6.9.2 Transportation Environment This section provides the requirements on the transportation environment for the OptiX OSN 500. 6.9.3 Operation Environment This section provides the requirements on the operation environment for the OptiX OSN 500.

6.9.1 Storage Environment


This section provides the requirements on the storage environment for the OptiX OSN 500.

Climate
Table 6-9 lists the climate requirements for the storage environment. Table 6-9 Climate requirements for the storage environment Item Altitude Atmospheric pressure Temperature Temperature change rate Relative humidity Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa -40C to +70C 1C/min 5% to 100% 1120 W/s2 600 W/s2 30 m/s

Waterproofing Requirements
Requirements for storing equipment on site: Generally, the equipment must be stored indoors. No water should remain on the floor or leak into the equipment crate. The equipment should be placed away from areas where water leakage is possible (for example, do not place near automatic fire-fighting extinguishing and heating systems. Ensure all the following four conditions if the equipment is stored outdoors: l l l l
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The crate is intact. Proper rain-proofing measures are taken to prevent water from entering the crate. No water is on the ground where the crate is placed and water is not seeped into the crate. The carton is not exposed to direct sunlight.
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Biological Environment
l l Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Control and exclude rodents (such as mice).

Air Cleanliness
l l The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 6-10 lists the density limitations for mechanically active substances during storage.

Table 6-10 Density requirements for mechanical active substances during storage Mechanical Active Substance Suspended dust Precipitable dust Sand particles Content 5.00 mg/m3 20.0 mg/mh 300 mg/m3

Table 6-11 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances.

Table 6-11 Density requirements for chemically active substances during storage Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2S NO2 NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 Content 0.30 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 0.05 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 6-12 lists the limitations for mechanical stress during storage.

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Table 6-12 Limitations for mechanical stress during storage Item Sinusoidal vibration Sub-Item Displacement Acceleration Frequency range Static load Static pressure Range 1.5 mm 5 m/s2 2-9 Hz 9-200 Hz

Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum number of stacked layers that is specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

NOTE Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is stacked in the specified manner.

6.9.2 Transportation Environment


This section provides the requirements on the transportation environment for the OptiX OSN 500.

Climate
Table 6-13 lists the climate requirements for the transportation environment. Table 6-13 Climate requirements for the transportation environment Item Altitude Aire pressure Temperature Temperature change rate Relative humidity Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa -40C to +70C 1C/min 5% to 100% 1120 W/s2 600 W/s2 30 m/s

Waterproofing Requirement
Ensure the following conditions are met when transporting the equipment: l
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The crate is intact.


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l l

Proper rain-proofing measures are taken on the vehicle to prevent water from entering the crate. No water is present in the vehicle.

Biological Environment
l l Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

Air Cleanliness
l l The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 6-14 lists the density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation.

Table 6-14 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation Mechanically Active Substance Suspended dust Precipitable dust Sand particles Content No requirement 3.0 mg/m2h 100 mg/m3

Table 6-15 lists the density limitations for chemically active substances.

Table 6-15 Density limitations for chemically active substances Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2S NOx NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 Content 1.00 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 3.00 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 6-16 lists the mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment.
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Table 6-16 Mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment Item Random vibration Sub-Item Acceleration spectral density Frequency range Impact Response spectrum I (weight of sample > 50 kg) Response spectrum II (weight of sample 50 kg) Drop Weight (kg) < 10 < 15 < 20 < 30 < 40 < 50 < 100 > 100 Static load Static pressure Range 1 m2/s3 5-20 Hz -3 dBA 20-200 Hz

100 m/s2, 11 ms, 100 times for each panel

180 m/s2, 6 ms, 100 times for each panel

Height (m) 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.1 Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum number of stacked layers that is specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

NOTE Impact response spectrum: maximum acceleration response curve that the equipment generates when struck with the stipulated impact. Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is stacked in the specified manner.

6.9.3 Operation Environment


This section provides the requirements on the operation environment for the OptiX OSN 500.

Climate
Table 6-17 and Table 6-18 list the climate requirements for the operation environment of the OptiX OSN 500.

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Table 6-17 Requirements for temperature and humidity Working Temperature 0C to 45C Relative Humidity 5% to 95%

NOTE The temperature and humidity values are tested at 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m in front of the equipment.

Table 6-18 Other climate requirements Item Altitude Air pressure Temperature change rate Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa 30C/h 700 W/s2 600 W/s2 5 m/s

Biological Environment
l l Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

Air Cleanliness
l l The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 6-19 lists the density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation.

Table 6-19 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation Mechanically Active Substance Dust particle Suspended dust Precipitable dust Sand particles Content 3x105/m3 0.2 mg/m3 1.5 mg/mh 20 mg/m3

l
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Table 6-20 lists the density limitations for chemically active substances.
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Table 6-20 Density limitations for chemically active substances Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2S NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 NOx Content 0.30 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 0.05 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 6-21 lists the limitations for mechanical stress during operation. Table 6-21 Limitations for mechanical stress during operation Item Sinusoidal vibration Sub-Item Velocity Acceleration Frequency range Non-steady impact Impact response spectrum Range 5 mm/s 5-62 Hz 2 m/s 62-200 Hz

Half-sine wave, 30 m/s2, 11 ms, three times for each panel

NOTE Impact response spectrum: maximum acceleration response curve that the equipment generates when struck with the stipulated impact.

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7 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection

7
Energy Conservation
l l l l

Energy Saving and Environmental Protection

The OptiX 500 complies with RoHS directive (2002/96/CE) and WEEE directive (2002/95/CE)

The OptiX OSN 500 adopts a variety of technologies to reduce equipment energy. Uses an easy scheme for board design. Replaces ordinary chips with ASIC chips that require low power consumption. Uses highly efficient power modules. Replaces linear power supplies with switched power supplies.

Environmental Protection
The is designed according to the requirements of environmental protection. The product complies with RoHS directive. l The equipment is amply packaged while materials as conserved. The size of the package containing the equipment and accessories is at most three times the size of the net equipment. The product is also designed for easy unpacking. All hazardous substances contained in the packaging decompose easily. Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO 11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4. All components and packages of the equipment are provided with standard labels for recycling. Plugs and connectors are easy to find, and the associated operations can be performed by using simple tools. All the attached materials, such as labels, are easy to remove. Certain types of identifying information, such as silkscreens, are printed on the front panel or subrack.

l l l l l l

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8
About This Chapter

Standard Compliance

This section provides the standards which the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. 8.1 ITU-T Recommendations This section provides the ITU-T Recommendations that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. 8.2 IETF Standards This section provides the IETF standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. 8.3 IEEE Standards This section provides the IEEE standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. 8.4 Environment Related Standards This section provides the environment related standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. 8.5 MEF Standards This section provides the MEF standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. 8.6 ATM Standards This section provides the ATM standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with.

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8.1 ITU-T Recommendations


This section provides the ITU-T Recommendations that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. Table 8-1 ITU-T recommendations Recommendatio n ITU-T G.664 ITU-T G.702 ITU-T G.703 ITU-T G.704 ITU-T G.706 ITU-T G.773 ITU-T G.7710 ITU-T G.781 ITU-T G.810 ITU-T G.811 ITU-T G.812 ITU-T G.813 ITU-T G.7043/Y. 1343 ITU-T G.8010 ITU-T G.8011 ITU-T G.8011.1 ITU-T G.8011.2 ITU-T G.8012 ITU-T G.8021 ITU-T G.8110 ITU-T G.8110.1
8-2

Description Optical safety procedures and requirements for optical transport systems Digital hierarchy bit rates Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces Synchronous frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44,736 kbit/s hierarchical levels Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy check(CRC) procedures relating to basic frame structures defined in Recommendation G.704 Protocol suites for Q-interfaces for management of transmission systems Common equipment management function requirements Synchronization layer functions Definitions and terminology for synchronization networks Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in synchronization networks Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks(SEC) Virtual concatenation of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) signals Architecture of Ethernet layer networks Ethernet over Transport - Ethernet services framework Ethernet private line service Ethernet virtual private line service Ethernet UNI and Ethernet over transport NNI Characteristics of Ethernet transport network equipment functional blocks MPLS layer network architecture Application of MPLS in the transport network
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Recommendatio n ITU-T G.8121 ITU-T G.8112 ITU-T G.8131 ITU-T G.8261 ITU-T G.8262 ITU-T G.8264 ITU-T Y.1541 ITU-T Y.1710 ITU-T Y.1730 ITU-T Y.1731 ITU-T G.8032 ITU-T Y.1711 ITU-T Y.1720 ITU-T I.610 ITU-T Y.1291

Description Characteristics of transport MPLS equipment functional blocks Interfaces for the transport MPLS (T-MPLS) hierarchy Protection switching for transport MPLS (T-MPLS) networks Timing and synchronization aspects in packet networks Timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment slave clock (EEC) Timing distribution through packet networks Network performance objectives for IP-based services Requirements for OAM functionality for MPLS networks Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet based networks and Ethernet services OAM functions and mechanisms for Ethernet based networks Ethernet Ring Protection Switching Operation & Maintenance mechanism for MPLS networks Protection switching for MPLS networks B-ISDN operation and maintenance principles and functions An architectural framework for support of quality of service (QoS) in packet networks

8.2 IETF Standards


This section provides the IETF standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. Table 8-2 IETF standards Standard RFC 2819 draft-ietf-l2vpn-oam-reqfrmk-05 RFC 4664 RFC 3031 RFC 3469 Description Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base L2VPN OAM requirements and framework Framework for layer 2 virtual private networks (L2VPNs) MPLS architecture Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)based recovery
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Standard RFC 3811 RFC 3813 RFC 3814

Description Definitions of textual conventions for multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) label switching router (LSR) management information base Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) forwarding equivalence class to next hop label forwarding entry (FECTo-NHLFE) management information base Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management overview Operations and management (OAM) requirements for multi-protocol label switched (MPLS) networks A framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) operations and management (OAM) MPLS label stack encoding Time to live (TTL) processing in multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) networks Requirements for pseudo-wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) Pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) architecture Requirements for edge-to-edge emulation of time division multiplexed (TDM) circuits over packet switching networks Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over an MPLS PSN IANA allocations for pseudowire edge to edge emulation (PWE3) Ethernet address resolution protocol Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services Encapsulation methods for transport of Ethernet over MPLS networks Structure-agnostic time division multiplexing (TDM) over packet (SAToP) Pseudo wire virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) Structure-Aware Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN)

RFC 4221 RFC 4377 RFC 4378 RFC 3032 RFC 3443 RFC 3916 RFC 3985 RFC 4197

RFC 4385 RFC 4446 RFC 0826 RFC 3270 RFC 4448 RFC 4553 RFC 5085 RFC 5086

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Standard RFC 4717 RFC 4816

Description Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over MPLS Networks Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Transparent Cell Transport Service Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over an MPLS PSN Requirements for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Segmented pseudo wire Requirements for inter domain pseudo-wires An architecture for multi-segment pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge Policy quality of service (QoS) Information model Specification of guaranteed quality of service Definition of the differentiated services field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 headers An architecture for differentiated services Assured forwarding PHB group A two rate three color marker An expedited forwarding PHB (Per-hop behavior) Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services

RFC 4385 RFC 5254 draft-ietf-pwe3-segmentedpw-03 draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-pwrequirements-03 draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-pw-arch-02 RFC 3644 RFC 2212 RFC 2474 RFC 2475 RFC 2597 RFC 2698 RFC 3246 RFC 3270

8.3 IEEE Standards


This section provides the IEEE standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. Table 8-3 IEEE standards Standard IEEE 802.1D IEEE 802.1Q IEEE 802.1ad
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Description Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges
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Standard IEEE 802.3ah

Description Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Amendment: Media Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks - Amendment 5: Connectivity Fault Management Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications Type 100BASE-T MAC parameters, Physical Layer, MAUs, and Repeater for 100 Mb/s Operation Full Duplex Operation and Type 100BASE-T2

IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3u IEEE 802.3x

8.4 Environment Related Standards


This section provides the environment related standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. Table 8-4 Environment related standards Standard CISPR 22 EN 60950-1 UL 1950-1 IEC 60825-1 IEC 60825-2 IEC 60950-1 IEC 61000-4-2 Description Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of information Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1:General requirements Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1:General requirements Safety of laser products-Part 1:Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide Safety of laser products-Part 2:Safety of optical fiber communication systems(OFCS) Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1:General requirements Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 2:Testing and measurement techniques Section 2:Electrostatic discharge immunity test Basic EMC Publication Electromagnetic compatibility; Part 3:Testing and measurement techniques Section 3 radio frequency electromagnetic fields; immunity test. Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 4:Testing and measurement techniques Section 4:Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test Basic EMC publication

IEC 61000-4-3

IEC 61000-4-4

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Standard IEC 61000-4-5 IEC 61000-4-6

Description Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 5:Testing and measurement techniques Section 5:Sruge immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 6:Testing and measurement techniques: Section 6 conducted disturbances induced by radiofrequency fields; immunity test Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Equipment Engineering (EE);Acoustic noise emitted by telecommunications equipment Safety of laser products Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series

ETSI EN 300 019-1-3 ETS 300 753 IEC 60825 IEC 60297

8.5 MEF Standards


This section provides the MEF standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. Table 8-5 MEF standards Standard MEF 2 MEF 4 MEF 9 MEF 10 MEF 14 Description Requirements and framework for Ethernet service protection in metro Ethernet networks Metro Ethernet network architecture framework - Part 1: generic framework Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI Ethernet services attributes phase 1 Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1

8.6 ATM Standards


This section provides the ATM standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with. Table 8-6 ATM standards Standard AFPHY-0086.001 AFTM-0121.000
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Description AF-PHY-0086.001 Inverse Multiplexing for ATM Specification Version 1.1 Traffic Management Specification

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A Glossary

A
Terms and abbreviations are listed in an alphabetical order. A.1 Numerics A.2 A A.3 B A.4 C A.5 D A.6 E A.7 F A.8 G A.9 H A.10 I A.11 J A.12 L A.13 M A.14 N A.15 O A.16 P A.17 Q A.18 R A.19 S A.20 T A.21 U A.22 V
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A.23 W

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A.1 Numerics
1+1 protection An architecture that has one normal traffic signal, one working SNC/trail, one protection SNC/trail and a permanent bridge. At the source end, the normal traffic signal is permanently bridged to both the working and protection SNC/trail. At the sink end, the normal traffic signal is selected from the better of the two SNCs/trails. Due to the permanent bridging, the 1+1 architecture does not allow an extra unprotected traffic signal to be provided. IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer specification for a 100 Mb/s CSMA/CD local area network. IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer specification for a 100 Mb/s CSMA/CD local area network over two pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or shielded twisted-pair (STP) wire. Defined in IEEE 802.3, it is an Ethernet specification that uses the twist pair with the maximum length of 100 meters at 10 Mbit/s for each network segment. A 1:N protection architecture has N normal service signals, N working SNCs/trails and one protection SNC/trail. It may have one extra service signal. Pulse per second, which, strictly speaking, is not a time synchronization signal. This is because 1PPS provides only the "gauge" corresponding to the UTC second, but does not provide the information about the day, month, or year. Therefore, 1PPS is used as the reference for frequency synchronization. On certain occasions, 1PPS can also be used on other interfaces for high precision timing. Reshaping, Retiming, Regenerating.

100BASE-T 100BASE-TX

10BASE-T 1:N protection 1PPS

3R

A.2 A
ABR AC ACAP Active/Standby switching of crossconnect board Available Bit Rate Alternating Current The Adjacent Channel Alternate Polarization (ACAP) operation provides orthogonal polarizations between two adjacent communication channels. If there are two cross-connect boards on the SDH equipment, which are in hot back-up relation of each other, the operation reliability is improved. When both the cross-connect boards are in position, the one inserted first is in the working status. Unplug the active board, the standby one will run in the working status automatically. When the active cross-connect board fails in self-test, the board is pulled out, the board power supply fails or the board hardware operation fails, the standby cross-connect board can automatically take the place of the active one. A network element that adds/drops the PDH signal or STM-x (x < N) signal to/from the STM-N signal on the SDH transport network. See add/drop multiplexer See optical add/drop multiplexing

add/drop multiplexer ADM ADM

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Administrative Unit

The information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. It consists of an information payload (the higher order VC) and a AU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start. One or more Administrative Units occupying fixed, defined positions in an STM payload are termed an Administrative Unit Group (AUG).An AUG-1 consists of a homogeneous assembly of AU-3s or an AU-4. A user who has authority to access all the Management Domains of the EMLCore product. He has access to the whole network and to all the management functionalities. N/A Alarm Indication Signal A means of alerting the operator that specified abnormal condition exists. When an alarm is generated on the device side, the alarm is reported to the N2000. Then, an alarm panel prompts and the user can view the details of the alarm. The cable for generation of visual or audio alarms. The alarms are reported to the N2000 BMS, which decides whether to display and save the alarms according to the filtering states of the alarms. The filtered alarms are not displayed and saved on the N2000 BMS, but still monitored. On the cabinet of an NE, there are four indicators in different colors indicating the current status of the NE. When the green indicator is on, it indicates that the NE is powered on. When the red indicator is on, it indicates that a critical alarm is generated. When the orange indicator is on, it indicates that a major alarm is generated. When the yellow indicator is on, it indicates that a minor alarm is generated. The ALM alarm indicator on the front panel of a board indicates the current status of the board. (Metro)

Administrative Unit Group Administrator aging time AIS Alarm Alarm automatic report alarm cable alarm filtering

alarm indication

Alarm indication signal A code sent downstream in a digital network as an indication that an upstream failure has been detected. It is associated with multiple transport layers. Alarm inversion For the port that has already been configured but has no service, this function can be used to avoid generating relevant alarm information, thus preventing alarm interference. The alarm report condition of the NE port is related to the alarm inverse mode (not inverse, automatic recovery and manual recovery) setting of the NE and the alarm inversion status (Enable and Disable) setting of the port. When the alarm inversion mode of NE is set to no inversion, alarms of the port will be reported as usual no matter whatever the inversion status of the port is. When the alarm inversion mode of the NE is set to automatic recovery, and the alarm inversion state of the port is set to Enabled, then the alarm of the port will be suppressed. The alarm inversion status of the port will automatically recover to "not inverse" after the alarm ends. For the port that has already been configured but not actually loaded with services, this function can be used to avoid generating relevant alarm information, thus preventing alarm interference. When the alarm inverse mode of the NE is set as "not automatic recovery", if the alarm inversion status of the port is set as Enable, the alarm of the port will be reported. Alarms are detected and reported to the N2000 UMS, and whether the alarm information is displayed and stored is decided by the function of alarm masking. These alarms masked are not displayed and stored on the N2000 UMS. Alarm severity is used to identify the impact of a fault on services. According to ITU-T recommendations, the alarm is classified into four severities: Critical, Major, Minor, Warning.

Alarm Masking

Alarm Severity

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Alarm suppression ALS APS asynchronous Asynchronous Transfer Mode

When alarms of various levels occur at the same time, certain lower-level alarms are suppressed by higher-level alarms, and thus will not be reported. See Automatic laser shutdown See Automatic Protection Switching Pertaining to, being, or characteristic of something that is not dependent on timing. A data transfer technology based on cell, in which packets allocation relies on channel demand. It supports fast packet switching to achieve efficient utilization of network resources. The size of a cell is 53 bytes, which consist of 48-byte payload and 5-byte header. See Asynchronous Transfer Mode See Automatic Transmit Power Control Reduction of signal magnitude or signal loss, usually expressed in decibels. See Administrative Unit See Administrative Unit Group A mechanism that enables devices to negotiate the SPEED and MODE (duplex or halfduplex) of an Ethernet Link. A function that enables the shutdown of the laser when the optical interface board does not carry services or the fiber is faulty. The automatic laser shutdown (ALS) function shortens the working time of the laser and thus extends the service life of the laser. In addition, the ALS prevents human injury caused by the laser beam. Automatic Protection Switching (APS) is the capability of a transmission system to detect a failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby facility to recover the traffic. A method of automatically adjusting the transmit power at the opposite end based on the transmit signal detected at the receiver.

ATM ATPC attenuation AU AUG auto-negotiation Automatic laser shutdown

Automatic Protection Switching Automatic Transmit Power Control

A.3 B
backplane A backplane is an electronic circuit board containing circuitry and sockets into which additional electronic devices on other circuit boards or cards can be plugged; in a computer, generally synonymous with or part of the motherboard. A periodic operation performed on the data stored in the database for the purposes of database recovery in case that the database is faulty. The backup also refers to data synchronization between active and standby boards. A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate. Backward Defect Indicator See Bit Error Rate A component installed on two sides of the cabinet for binding various cables. The binding strap is 12.7 mm wide, with one hook side (made of transparent polypropylene material) and one mat side (made of black nylon material).

backup

bandwidth

BDI BER Binding strap binding strap

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

BIP

BIP-X code is defined as a method of error monitoring. With even parity an X-bit code is generated by the transmitting equipment over a specified portion of the signal in such a manner that the first bit of the code provides even parity over the first bit of all X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal, the second bit provides even parity over the second bit of all X-bit sequences within the specified portion, etc. Even parity is generated by setting the BIP-X bits so that there is an even number of 1s in each monitored partition of the signal. A monitored partition comprises all bits which are in the same bit position within the X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal. The covered portion includes the BIP-X. An error that occurs in some bits in the digital code stream after being received, judged, and regenerated, thus damaging the quality of the transmitted information Bit error rate. Ratio of received bits that contain errors. BER is an important index used to measure the communications quality of a network. See Building Integrated Timing Supply Binding several seriel paths into a parallel path, thus improving the data throughput capacity. Bridge Protocol Data Unit A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges operate at the physical network level. Bridges differs from repeaters because bridges store and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP addresses. The process of sending packets from a source to multiple destinations. All the ports of the nodes in the network can receive packets. A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is determined by the broadcast address. Base Station Controller Base Station Subsystem A function which integrates some simple WDM systems into products that belong to the OSN series . That is, the OSN products can add or drop several wavelengths directly. A building timing supply that minimizes the number of synchronization links entering an office. Sometimes referred to as a synchronization supply unit. Backbone WDM System

bit error Bit Error Rate BITS bound path BPDU bridge

broadcast Broadcast BSC BSS Build-in WDM Building Integrated Timing Supply BWS

A.4 C
cabling cabling aperture Cabling frame cabling trough The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled or twisted together. A hole which is used for cable routing in the cabinet. The frame which is used for cable routing over the cabinet. The trough which is used for cable routing in the cabinet.

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

captive nut

Captive nuts (or as they are more correctly named, 'tee nuts') have a range of uses but are more commonly used in the hobby for engine fixing (securing engine mounts to the firewall), wing fixings, and undercarriage fixing. See committed access rate Channel Associated Signaling See Constant Bit Rate Committed Burst Size Co-Channel Dual Polarization Continuity Check Message Clock and Data Recovery See Cell Delay Variation Tolerance This parameter measures the tolerance level a network interface has to aggressive sending (back-to-back or very closely spaced cells) by a connected device, and does not apply to end-systems. The system that gathers all the information about alarms into a certain terminal console. Connectivity Fault Management One type of network that all network nodes are connected one after one to be in series. A telecommunication path of a specific capacity and/or at a specific speed between two or more locations in a network. The channel can be established through wire, radio (microwave), fiber or a combination of the three.The amount of information transmitted per second in a channel is the information transmission speed, expressed in bits per second. For example, b/s (100 bit/s), kb/s (103 bit/s), Mb/s (106 bit/s), Gb/s (109 bit/s), and Tb/s (1012 bit/s). Committed Information Rate The circuit of the service port on the access device. Common and Internal Spanning Tree Class of service (CoS) is a technology or method used to classify services into different categories according to the service quality. Class of Service is abbreviated to CoS. CoS is a rule for queuing. It classifies the packets according to the service type field or the tag in packets, and specifies different priorities for them. All the nodes in DiffServ domain forwards the packets according to their priorities. A device that sends requests, receives responses, and obtains services from the server.

CAR CAS CBR CBS CCDP CCM CDR CDVT Cell Delay Variation Tolerance Centralized alarm system CFM Chain network channel

CIR Circuit CIST class of service Class of Service

client

Clock Synchronization Also called frequency synchronization, clock synchronization means that the signal frequency traces the reference frequency, but the start point need not be consistent. Clock tracing CLP CM The method to keep the time on each node being synchronized with a clock source in a network. Cell Loss Priority See Configuration Management

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

committed access rate

A traffic control method that uses a set of rate limits to be applied to a router interface. CAR is a configurable method by which incoming and outgoing packets can be classified into QoS (Quality of Service) groups, and by which the input or output transmission rate can be defined. A process that combines multiple virtual containers. The combined capacities can be used a single capacity. The concatenation also keeps the integrity of bit sequence. A command file for an NE which defines the configuration of the NE hardware. With the file, the NE can coordinate with other NEs in the entire network. Configuration data is the key factor for the normal running of the entire network. In a network, a system for gathering current configuration information from all nodes in a LAN. To set the basic parameters of an operation object. An extra intra-network or inter-network traffic resulting in decreasing network service efficiency. A reference point where the output of a trail termination source or a connection is bound to the input of another connection, or where the output of a connection is bound to the input of a trail termination sink or another connection. The connection point is characterized by the information which passes across it. A bidirectional connection point is formed by the association of a contradirectional pair. constant bit rate. A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. CBR transfers cells based on the constant bandwidth. It is applicable to service connections that depend on precise clocking to ensure undistorted transmission. It refers to the speed and capability for a group of networking devices to run a specific routing protocol. It functions to keep the network topology consistent. A process in which multiple channels of low-rate signals are multiplexed into one or several channels of required signals. A service that provides enhancements to an underlying service in order to provide for the specific requirements of the convergence service user. In the context of message handling, a transmittal event in which an MTA transforms parts of a message content from one encoded information type to another, or alters a probe so it appears that the described messages were so modified. N/A See class of service See Class of Service Central Processing Unit See Cyclic Redundancy Check An alarm in unrecovered and unacknowledged state, unrecovered and acknowledged state, or recovered and unacknowledged state. Treatment measures must be taken on these alarms. Performance data stored in the current register. An NE provides two types registers for each performance parameter of the performance monitoring entity. The registers are 15minute register and 24-hour register, which are used to accumulate the performance data within the current monitoring period.

Concatenation Configuration Data

Configuration Management Configure congestion Connection point

Constant Bit Rate

convergence Convergence Convergence service Conversion

corrugated tube CoS CoS CPU CRC current alarm

Current Performance Data

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

Cyclic Redundancy Check

A procedure used in checking for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending device performs the calculation before transmission and includes it in the packet that it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device repeats the same calculation after transmission. If both devices obtain the same result, it is assumed that the transmission was error free. The procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values. Communications protocols such as XMODEM and Kermit use cyclical redundancy checking.

A.5 D
DC DCC DCD DCE DCN DDF DDN Defect demultiplexing Direct Current Data Communication Channel Data Carrier Detect Data Circuit-terminal Equipment Data Communication Network See Digital Distribution Frame Digital Data Network A limited interruption in the ability of an item to perform a required function. To separate from a common input into several outputs. Demultiplexing occurs at many levels. Hardware demultiplexes signals from a transmission line based on time or carrier frequency to allow multiple, simultaneous transmissions across a single physical cable. It is an aggregate of multiple managed equipments. Device set facilitates the authority management on devices in the management domain of the U2000. If some operation authorities over one device set are assigned to a user (user group), these operation authorities over all devices of the device set are assigned to the user (user group), thus eliminating the need to set the operation authorities over these devices respectively. It is suggested to design device set according to such criteria as geographical region, network level, device type, etc. Values for a 6-bit field defined for the IPv4 and IPv6 packet headers that enhance class of service (CoS) distinctions in routers.

Device set

differentiated services code point

Differentiated Services Differentiated Services CodePoint. A marker in the header of each IP packet using bits Code Point 0-6 in the DS field. Routers provide differentiated classes of services to various service streams/flows based on this marker. In other words, routers select corresponding PHB according to the DSCP value. DiffServ Digital Distribution Frame Differentiated Services Digital Distribution Frame. A frame which is used to transfer cables.

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

digital signal

A signal in which information is represented by a limited number of discrete states-for example, high and low voltages-rather than by fluctuating levels in a continuous stream, as in an analog signal. In the pulse code modulation (PCM) technology, the 8 kHz sampling frequency is used and a byte contains 8 bits in length. Therefore, a digital signal is also referred to as a byte-based code stream. Digital signals, with simple structures and broad bandwidth, are easy to shape or regenerate, and are not easily affected by external interference. The distributed link aggregation group (DLAG) is a board-level port protection technology used to detect unidirectional fiber cuts and to negotiate with the opposite end. In the case of a link down failure on a port or a hardware failure on a board, the services can automatically be switched to the slave board, thus realizing 1+1 protection for the inter-board ports. See Distributed Link Aggregation Group See Dual Node Interconnection A logical subscriber group based on which the subscriber rights are controlled. Distributed Queue Dual Bus See differentiated services code point See Differentiated Services Code Point Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer Data Set Ready Data Terminal Equipments Data Terminal Ready DNI provides an alternative physical interconnection point, between the rings, in case of an interconnection failure scenario. Digital Video Broadcast- Asynchronous Serial Interface Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Distributed Link Aggregation Group

DLAG DNI domain DQDB DSCP DSCP DSL DSLAM DSR DTE DTR Dual Node Interconnection DVB-ASI DVMRP DWDM

A.6 E
E-AGGR E-LAN E-LAN Ethernet-Aggregation Ethernet LAN A L2VPN service type that is provided for the user Ethernet in different domains over the PSN network. For the user Ethernet, the entire PSN network serves as a Layer 2 switch. Ethernet line. An point-to-point private service type that is provided for the user Ethernet in different domains. A component on the side of the subrack. It is used to install the subrack into a cabinet. See Embedded Control Channel

E-Line Ear bracket ECC

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

EFM Embedded Control Channel EMS encapsulation Enterprise System Connection Entity

Ethernet in the First Mile An ECC provides a logical operations channel between SDH NEs, utilizing a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer. Element Management System The technique used by layered protocols to add header information and possibly tail information to the protocol data unit. A path protocol which connects the host with various control units in a storage system. It is a serial bit stream transmission protocol. The transmission rate is 200 Mbit/s. A part, device, subsystem, functional unit, equipment or system that can be individually considered. For ETH-OAM, an OAM entity generally refers to a specified system or subsystem that supports the OAM protocol. For example, a Huawei Ethernet service processing board is an OAM entity. Ethernet over Dual Domains See Ethernet Private Line Ethernet Private LAN Service See Enterprise System Connection See ElectroStatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge jack. A hole in the cabinet or shelf, which connect the shelf or cabinet to the insertion of ESD wrist strap. A technology complemented in LAN. It adopts Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/ s or 10000 Mbit/s. The Ethernet network features high reliability and easy maintaining..

ElectroStatic Discharge A sudden flow of electric current through a material that is normally an insulator.

EoD EPL EPLAN ESCON ESD ESD jack Ethernet

Ethernet Alarm Group The Ethernet alarm group periodically obtain the statistics value to compare with the configured threshold. If the value exceeds the threshold, an event is reported. Ethernet Private LAN Ethernet Private Line Both a LAN service and a private service. Transport bandwidth is never shared between different customers. A point-to-point interconnection between two UNIs without SDH bandwidth sharing. Transport bandwidth is never shared between different customers.

ethernet virtual private An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over shared line service bandwidth, point-to-point connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. ETSI EVPL Exercise Switching Exerciser - Ring European Telecommunications Standards Institute See ethernet virtual private line service An operation to check if the protection switching protocol functions normally. The protection switching is not really performed. This command exercises ring protection switching of the requested channel without completing the actual bridge and switch. The command is issued and the responses are checked, but no working traffic is affected. The number of the subnet that an NE belongs to, for identifying different network segments in a WAN. The extended ID and ID form the physical ID of the NE.

Extended ID

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

extra traffic

The traffic that is carried over the protection channels when that capacity is not used for the protection of working traffic. Extra traffic is not protected.

A.7 F
Failure If the fault persists long enough to consider the ability of an item with a required function to be terminated. The item may be considered as having failed; a fault has now been detected. For any link specified in a ring network, if the data packets transmitted by the source node are constrained by the fairness algorithm, the source node is provided with certain bandwidth capacities. This feature of RPR is called fairness. An algorithm designed to ensure the fair sharing of bandwidth among stations in the case of congestion or overloading. An accidental condition that causes a functinal unit to fail to perform its required function. Fiber Channel See frequency diversity See fiber distributed data interface Forward Defect Indicator Fast Ethernet Code(s) used to select/activate a service feature (e.g. forwarding, using two or three digit codes preceded by * or 11 or #, and which may precede subsequent digit selection). See forwarding equivalence class See Forward Error Correction A kind of fiber used for connections between the subrack and the ODF, and for connections between subracks or inside a subrack. A new generation connection protocol which connects the host with various control units. It carries single byte command protocol through the physical path of fiber channel, and provides higher rate and better performance than ESCON. A device installed at the end of a fiber, optical source or receive unit. It is used to couple the optical wave to the fiber when connected to another device of the same type. A connector can either connect two fiber ends or connect a fiber end and a optical source (or a detector). A standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for highspeed fiber-optic local area networks (LANs). FDDI provides specifications for transmission rates of 100 megabits (100 million bits) per second on networks based on the token ring network.

Fairness

fairness algorithm fault FC FD FDDI FDI FE feature code FEC FEC fiber Fiber Connect.

Fiber Connector

fiber distributed data interface

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

fiber/cable

Fiber & Cable is the general name of optical fiber and cable. It refers to the physical entities that connect the transmission equipment, carry transmission objects (user information and network management information) and perform transmission function in the transmission network. The optical fiber transmits optical signal, while the cable transmits electrical signal. The fiber/cable between NEs represents the optical fiber connection or cable connection between NEs. The fiber/cable between SDH NEs represents the connection relation between NEs. At this time, the fiber/cable is of optical fiber type. See Fiber Connect First In First Out An aggregation of packets that have the same characteristics. On the T2000 or NE software, flow is a group of classification rules. On boards, it is a group of packets that have the same quality of service (QoS) operation. At present, two flows are supported: port flow and port+VLAN flow. Port flow is based on port ID and port+VLAN flow is based on port ID and VLAN ID. The two flows cannot coexist in the same port. This function forces the service to switch from the working channel to the protection channel, with the service not to be restored automatically. This switch occurs regardless of the state of the protection channels or boards, unless the protection channels or boards are satisfying a higher priority bridge request. A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end.

FICON FIFO Flow

Forced switch

Forward Error Correction

forwarding equivalence A term used in Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to describe a set of packets with class similar or identical characteristics which may be forwarded the same way; that is, they may be bound to the same MPLS label. FPGA frame Field Programmable Gate Array A frame, starting with a header, is a string of bytes with a specified length. Frame length is represented by the sampling circle or the total number of bytes sampled during a circle. A header comprises one or a number of bytes with pre-specified values. In other words, a header is a code segment that reflects the distribution (diagram) of the elements prespecified by the sending and receiving parties. An operating condition of a clock, the output signal of which is strongly influenced by the oscillating element and not controlled by servo phase-locking techniques. In this mode the clock has never had a network reference input, or the clock has lost external reference and has no access to stored data, that could be acquired from a previously connected external reference. Free-run begins when the clock output no longer reflects the influence of a connected external reference, or transition from it. Free-run terminates when the clock output has achieved lock to an external reference. A diversity scheme that enables two or more microwave frequencies with a certain frequency interval are used to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. File Transfer Protocol The system that can transmit information in both directions on a communication link.On the communication link, both parties can send and receive data at the same time.

Free-run mode

frequency diversity

FTP Full duplex

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A.8 G
Gain The ratio between the optical power from the input optical interface of the optical amplifier and the optical power from the output optical interface of the jumper fiber, which expressed in dB. When an NE accesses a remote network management system or NE, a router can be used to enable the TCP/IP communication. In this case, the IP address of the router is the gateway IP. Only the gateway NE requires the IP address. The IP address itself cannot identify the uniqueness of an NE. The same IP addresses may exist in different TCP/IP networks. An NE may have multiple IP addresses, for example, one IP address of the network and one IP address of the Ethernet port. Gateway NE refers to the NE that communicates with the NMS via Ethernet or serial port line. The non-gateway NE communicates with the gateway NE via ECC and communicates with the NMS via the gateway NE. The gateway NE is a communication route that the U2000 must pass through when managing the entire network. The communication status between the gateway NE and the U2000 can be:(1) Normal: The current communication is efficient; (2) Connecting: The destination gateway responds, and the communication is interrupted but is being connected; (3) Disconnected: The destination gateway does not respond (Maybe the network cable is disconnected or not within the same network segment), and the communication is unreachable or the gateway is disabled manually. Gigabit Ethernet Generic Framing Procedure GFP is a framing and encapsulated method which can be applied to any data type. It has been standardized by ITU-T SG15. See Gateway Network Element Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile Communications Generic Traffic Shaping Graphic User Interface

Gateway IP

Gateway Network Element

GE GFP GFP GNE GPS GSM GTS GUI

A.9 H
half-duplex handle Hardware loopback HDLC HEC History alarm
A-14

An operation mode of the Ethernet port. In half-duplex mode, a port can only send or receive data at a time. A component of the panel. It is used to insert or remove boards and RTMs in and out of slots. A connection mode in which a fiber jumper is used to connect the input optical interface to the output optical interface of a board to achieve signal loopback. High level Data Link Control Header Error Control The confirmed alarms that have been saved in the memory and other external memories.
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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

History Performance Data HP HPT

The performance data that is stored in the history register or that is autoreported and stored in the NMS. Higher Order Path Higher Order Path Termination

A.10 I
IC IDU IEEE IETF IF IGMP IGMP Snooping Integrated Circuit Indoor Unit Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Intermediate Frequency See Internet Group Management Protocol IGMP proxy means that in some network topologies, the device does not set up the multicast routes, but to learn the information about the accessed multicast group members and forward it to the upstream multicast router. The upstream multicast router sets up the multicast routes. The IMA frame is used as the unit of control in the IMA protocol. It is a logical frame defined as M consecutive cells, numbered 0 to M-l, transmitted on each of the N links in an IMA group. The maximum amplitude of sinusoidal jitter at a given jitter frequency, which, when modulating the signal at an equipment input port, results in no more than two errored seconds cumulative, where these errored seconds are integrated over successive 30 second measurement intervals. The factors such as fiber cut, degradation of equipment, and removal of connectors may result in the loss of the optical power signals. The function of intelligent power adjusting (IPA) enables the ROP laser and booster amplifier (BA) of a section to be shut down automatically. In this way, the maintainers, their eyes in particular, can be protected for the exposed optical fibers when they are performing the repairs. The area for the interface boards on the subrack. The cables and optical fibers which are used for interconnecting electrical interfaces and optical interfaces within the cabinet. The protocol for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups among the TCP/IP protocols. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain multicast group memberships. Internet Protocol In the TCP/IP protocol, it is used to uniquely identify the 32-bit address of the communication port, An IP address consists of a network ID and a unique host ID. An IP address consists of the decimal values of its eight bytes, separated with periods; for example,192.168.7.27. The IP Over DCC follows TCP/IP telecommunications standards and controls the remote NEs through the Internet. The IP Over DCC means that the IP over DCC uses overhead DCC byte (the default is D1-D3) for communication.
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IMA frame

Input jitter tolerance

Intelligent power adjusting

Interface board area Internal cable Internet Group Management Protocol IP IP address

IP over DCC

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

IPA IS-IS ISDN ISO ISP IST ITU-T

See Intelligent power adjusting Intermedia System-Intermedia System Integrated Services Digital Network International Standard Organization Internet Service Provider Internal Spanning Tree International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization

A.11 J
Jitter jitter tolerance Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system instability. Jitter tolerance is defined as the peak-to-peak amplitude of sinusoidal jitter applied on the input ATM-PON signal that causes a 1 dB optical power penalty at the optical equipment.

A.12 L
label Label A mark on a cable, a subrack, or a cabinet for identification. A short identifier that is of fixed length and local significance. A label is used to uniquely identify the FEC to which a packet belongs. A label does not contain topology information. It is carried in the header of a packet and does not contain topology information. See Link Aggregation Control Protocol See link aggregation group Local Area Network Link Access Procedure-SDH A component that generates directional optical waves of narrow wavelengths. The laser light has better coherence than ordinary light. The fiber system takes the semi-conductor laser as the light source. A concept used to allow the transport network functionality to be described hierarchically as successive levels; each layer being solely concerned with the generation and transfer of its characteristic information. A data forwarding method. In LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called layer 2 switch. See Loopback Loopback Message Loopback Reply Lucent Connector

LACP LAG LAN LAPS Laser

Layer

layer 2 switch

LB LBM LBR LC

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

LCAS LCD LCT License

See Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme Liquid Crystal Display See Local craft terminal A permission that the vendor provides for the user with a specific function, capacity, and durability of a product. A license can be a file or a serial number. Usually the license consists of encrypted codes, and the operation authority varies with different level of license. In the topology view, a link is used to identify the physical or logical connection between two topological nodes. Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is part of an IEEE specification (802.3ad) that allows you to bundle several physical ports to form a single logical channel. LACP allows a switch to negotiate an automatic bundle by sending LACP packets to the peer.

Link Link Aggregation Control Protocol

link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme LLC Local craft terminal The Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) is designed to allow the dynamic provisioning of bandwidth, using VCAT, to meet customer requirements. Logical Link Control A single layer network management scheme that manages a transmission network consisting of a maximum of five NEs. In this way, the comprehensive management of the multi-service transmission network is achieved. Normally, the cross-over network cables and serial port cables are used to connect the local craft terminal (LCT) to an NE. Then, the LCT can configure and maintain a single NE. When the switching condition is satisfied, this function disables the service from being switched from the working channel to the protection channel. When the service has been switched, the function enables the service to be restored from the protection channel to the working channel. Loss of frame Loss Of Multiframe A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. Loss Of Signal When the performance event count value is smaller than a certain value, a thresholdcrossing event occurs. The value is the lower threshold. Lower Order Path Link State Pass Through Label Switched Path Label Switching Router Link Trace

Locked switching

LOF LOM Loopback LOS Lower Threshold LP LPT LSP LSR LT

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A.13 M
MA MAC Maintenance Association Maintenance Domain See Maintenance Association Medium Access Control That portion of a Service Instance, preferably all of it or as much as possible, the connectivity of which is maintained by CFM. It is also a full mesh of Maintenance Entities. The network or the part of the network for which faults in connectivity are to be managed, belonging to a single administration. The boundary of a Maintenance Domain is defined by a set DSAPs, each of which may become a point of connectivity to a Service Instance. See Metropolitan Area Network A protection switching. When the protection path is normal and there is no request of a higher level switching, the service is manually switched from the working path to the protection path, to test whether the network still has the protection capability. A procedure by which tributaries are adapted into virtual containers at the boundary of an SDH network. A quadrate cardboard with four holes. It is used to mark the positions of the installation holes for the cabinet. Maximum Burst Size Message Communication Function Minimum Cell Rate See Maintenance Domain The average power of a pseudo-random data sequence coupled into the fibre by the transmitter. Maintenance End Point A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network. Management Information Base Maintenance Intermediate Point MOdulator-DEModulator Maintenance Point Maintenance Point Identification See Multi-Protocol Label Switch Multiplex Section Multiplex Section Adaptation

MAN Manual switching

Mapping Marking-off template MBS MCF MCR MD Mean launched power MEP Metropolitan Area Network

MIB MIP MODEM MP MPID MPLS MS MSA

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

MSOH MSP MST MSTI MSTP MSTP MTIE MTU Multi-Protocol Label Switch

See Multiplex Section Overhead See multiplex section protection Multiplex Section Termination Multiple Spanning Tree Instance See Multi-service transmission platform See Multiple spanning tree protocol Maximum Time Interval Error Maximum Transmission Unit A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of networks, and is beneficial to routing. It is based on the SDH platform, capable of accessing, processing and transmitting TDM services, ATM services, and Ethernet services, and providing unified management of these services. A process of transmitting packets of data from one source to many destinations. The destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast group rather than a host.

Multi-service transmission platform Multicast

Multiple spanning tree The MSTP can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks protocol redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/ RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. Multiplex Section Overhead multiplex section protection Multiplexing The overhead that comprises rows 5 to 9 of the SOH of the STM-N signal. See SOH definition. A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and including two multiplex section termination (MST) functions, from a "working" to a "protection" channel. A procedure by which multiple lower order path layer signals are adapted into a higher order path or the multiple higher order path layer signals are adapted into a multiplex section.

A.14 N
N+1 protection NE NE Explorer A radio link protection system composed of N working channels and one protection channel. See network element The main operation interface, of the U2000, which is used to manage the OptiX equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can configure, manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis.

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

network element

A network element (NE) contains both the hardware and the software running on it. One NE is at least equipped with one system control board which manages and monitors the entire network element. The NE software runs on the system control board. Network Segment means any discrete part of the Network. Normal Link Pulse Network Management System See network node interface Network Parameter Control Non Real-Time Variable Bit Rate Non Return to Zero code Network Service Access Point Network Time Protocol

network node interface The interface at a network node which is used to interconnect with another network node. network segment NLP NMS NNI NPC nrt-VBR NRZ NSAP NTP

A.15 O
OA OADM OAM OAM auto-discovery See Optical Amplifier Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Operations, Administration and Maintenance In the case of OAM auto-discovery, two interconnected ports, enabled with the Ethernet in the First Mile OAM (EFM OAM) function, negotiate to determine whether the mutual EFM OAM configuration match with each other by sending and responding to the OAM protocol data unit (OAMPDU). If the mutual EFM OAM configuration match, the two ports enter the EFM OAM handshake phase. In the handshake phase, the two ports regularly send the OAMPDU to maintain the neighborhood relation. See Optical Channel Protection See Optical Distribution Frame Outdoor Unit Out-of-frame Second Overhead Access Function Optical Line Terminal The capability of many programs and operating systems to display advice or instructions for using their features when so requested by the user. Optical Network Unit Out of Frame A process that adds the optical signals of various wavelengths to one channel and drop the optical signals of various wavelengths from one channel. Devices or subsystems in which optical signals can be amplified by means of the stimulated emission taking place in a suitable active medium.

OCP ODF ODU OFS OHA OLT Online Help ONU OOF optical add/drop multiplexing Optical Amplifier

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

Optical attenuator

A passive device that increases the attenuation in a fiber link. It is used to ensure that the optical power of the signals received at the receive end is not extremely high. It is available in two types: fixed attenuator and variable attenuator. In an optical transmission link that contains multiple wavelengths, when a certain wavelength goes faulty, the services at the wavelength can be protected if the optical channel protection is configured. A component normally attached to an optical cable or piece of apparatus for the purpose of providing frequent optical interconnection/disconnection of optical fibers or cables. A frame which is used to transfer and spool fibers. A component that connects several transmit or receive units. A device that sends a very short pulse of light down a fiber optic communication system and measures the time history of the pulse reflection. A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or maintenance engineers of different stations. Open Systems Interconnection Optical Switch Node Open Shortest Path First See Optical Time Domain Reflectometer Optical Transponder Unit. A device or subsystem that converts the accessed client signals into the G.694.1/G.694.2-compliant WDM wavelength. The ranger of optical energy level of output signals. Extra bits in a digital stream used to carry information besides traffic signals. Orderwire, for example, would be considered overhead information.

Optical Channel Protection Optical Connector Optical Distribution Frame Optical Interface Optical Time Domain Reflectometer orderwire OSI OSN OSPF OTDR OTU Output optical power Overhead

A.16 P
Paired slots Two slots of which the overheads can be passed through by using the bus on the backplane. When the SCC unit is faulty or offline, the overheads can be passed through between the paired slots by using the directly connected overhead bus. When two SDH boards form an MSP ring, the boards need to be inserted in paired slots so that the K bytes can be passed through. When services are passed through, it indicates that transmission equipment does not process the service received and only detects the signal quality. A performance resource object defined in the network management system. The left end of a path is a device node whose port needs to be specified and the right end of a path is a certain IP address which can be configured by the user. By defining a path in the network management system, a user can test the performance of a network path between a device port and an IP address. The tested performance may be the path delay, packet loss ratio or other aspects. Path protection is a special case of fixed partitioning sub-path protection technique where every primary path is partitioned into only one sub-path (i.e., h = D, diameter of the network).

pass through Path

path protection

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

PBS PC PCM PCR PDH PE Performance register

Peak Burst Size Personal Computer Pulse Code Modulation Peak Cell Rate See Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Provider Edge. A PE is the name of the device or set of devices at the edge of the provider network with the functionality that is needed to interface with the customer. Performance register is the memory space for performance event counts, including 15min current performance register, 24-hour current performance register, 15-min history performance register, 24-hour history performance register, UAT register and CSES register. The object of performance event monitoring is the board functional module, so every board functional module has a performance register. A performance register is used to count the performance events taking place within a period of operation time, so as to evaluate the quality of operation from the angle of statistics.

performance threshold The performance threshold is a limit for generating an alarm for a selected entity. When the measurement data satisfies the preset alarm threshold or exceeds the preset grads, the PM subsystem generates a performance alarm. Performance threshold Performance events usually have upper and lower thresholds. When the performance event count value exceeds the upper threshold, a performance threshold-crossing event is generated; when the performance event count value is below the upper threshold for a period of time, the performance threshold-crossing event is ended. In this way, performance jitter caused by some sudden events can be shielded. A few performance events only have one threshold, which is the special case that upper threshold and lower threshold are equal. Permanent Virtual Connection PGND PIM-SM PIR plesiochronous Traditional ATM Permanent Virtual Connection that is established/released upon a request initiated by a management request procedure (that is all nodes supporting the connections need to be instructed by the network management). Protection Ground Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode Peak Information Rate Qualifying two time-varying phenomena, time-scales, or signals in which corresponding significant instants occur at the same rate, any variations in rate being constrained within specified limits. Note: Corresponding significant instants are separated by time intervals having durations which may vary without limit.

Plesiochronous Digital The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in Hierarchy telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems. PLL Pointer POS Power box Phase-Locked Loop An indicator whose value defines the frame offset of a virtual container with respect to the frame reference of the transport entity on which it is supported. Packet Over SDH A direct current power distribution box at the upper part of a cabinet, which supplies power for the subracks in the cabinet.

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

PPP PRBS PRC Primitive

Point-to-Point Protocol See Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Primary Reference Clock In the hierarchy of signaling system No.7, when the upper layer applies for services from the lower layer or the lower layer transmits services to the upper layer, the data is exchanged between the user and the service provider. In this case, the data transmitted between adjacent layers is called primitive. The line, such as the subscriber cable and trunk cable, which are hired by the telecommunication carrier and are used to meet the special requirement of the user. The line is also called hired line. Generally, the switch device is not contained. A cable which connects the equipment and the protection grounding bar. Usually, the cable is yellow and green. A specific path that is part of a protection group and is labeled protection. A specific service that is part of a protection group and is labelled protection. In the NMS, the protection subnet becomes a concept of network level other than multiplex section rings or path protection rings. The protection sub-network involves NEs and fibre cable connections. The user interface, of the network management system, which is used to manage protection in the network. Packet Switched Power Spectral Density A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences. See Permanent Virtual Connection Pseudo Wire Pseudo wire. A mechanism that bears the simulated services between PEs on the PSN (Packet Switched Network).

Private Line

protection grounding Protection path Protection service Protection subnet

Protection View PS PSD Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence PVC PW PW

A.17 Q
QoS Quality of Service See Quality of Service Quality of Service, which determines the satisfaction of a subscriber for a service. QoS is influenced by the following factors applicable to all services: service operability, service accessibility, service maintainability, and service integrity.

A.18 R
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol RDI An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol, providing for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with the STP protocol. Remote Defect Indication

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Receiver Sensitivity Reference clock REG Regeneration Regenerator section overhead Remote optical pumping amplifier (ROPA) Resilient Packet Ring RF RFA RFI ring network RNC route router

Receiver sensitivity is defined as the minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x 10-10 BER. A reference clock is usually of high stability , accuracy and autonomy and it's frequency can be compared with other clock as a benchmark. A piece of equipment or device that regenerates electrical signals. The process of receiving and reconstructing a digital signal so that the amplitudes, waveforms and timing of its signal elements are constrained within specified limits. The regenerator section overhead comprises rows 1 to 3 of the SOH of the STM-N signal. An remote optical amplifier sub-system designed for applications where power supply and monitoring systems are unavailable. The ROPA subsystem is a power compensation solution to the ultra-long distance long hop (LHP) transmission. A network topology being developed as a new standard for fiber optic rings. Radio Frequency Request For Announcement Request for Information A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a circular pathway for signals. Radio Network Controller A route is the path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/ IP network, each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically. Links a local network to a remote network. For example, your company's network probably uses a router to connect to the Internet. Can be used to connect a LAN to a LAN, a WAN to a WAN, or a LAN to the Internet. Rendezvous Point See Resilient Packet Ring In the asynchronous transfer mode and there is no hand-shaking signal. It can communicate with RS232 and RS422 of other stations in point-to-point mode and the transmission is transparent. Its highest speed is 19.2kbit/s. The specification that defines the electrical characteristics of balanced voltage digital interface circuits. The interface can change to RS232 via the hardware jumper and others are the same as RS232. See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Radio Transmission Node Receiver

RP RPR RS232

RS422

RSTP RTN RX

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

A.19 S
S1 byte In an SDH network, each network element traces step by step to the same clock reference source through a specific clock synchronization path, thus realizing the synchronization of the whole network. If a clock reference source traced by the NE is lost, the clock of this NE will trace another clock reference source of lower level. To implement protection switching of clocks in the whole network, the NE must learn about the clock quality information of the clock reference source it traces. Therefore, ITU-T defines S1 byte to transmit the network synchronization status information. It uses the lower four bits of the multiplex section overhead S1 byte to indicate 16 types of synchronization quality grades. The specific coding information is shown in the following table. Auto protection switching of clocks in the synchronous network can be implemented by using S1 byte and following the certain switching protocol. Storage Area Network Square Connector Sustainable Cell Rate See space diversity See Signal Degrade See Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Serious Disturbance Period SDH Equipment Clock The portion of a SONET transmission facility, including terminating points, between (i) a terminal network element and a regenerator or (ii) two regenerators. A terminating point is the point after signal regeneration at which performance monitoring is (or may be) done. Self-healing is the establishment of a replacement connection by network without the NMC function. When a connection failure occurs, the replacement connection is found by the network elements and rerouted depending on network resources available at that time. The ECC channel realized by means of serial port. A network device that provides services to network users by managing shared resources, often used in the context of a client-server architecture for a LAN. A measure that ensures that the services can be received at the receive end. Severely Errored Second Synchronous Equipment Timing Source Parameters of a system or operation that can be selected by the user. See Signal Fail See SF Signal Fail. A signal that indicates the associated data has failed in the sense that a nearend defect condition (non-degrade defect) is active.

SAN SC SCR SD SD SDH SDP SEC Section

Self-healing

Serial port extended ECC server Service protection SES SETS settings SF SF SF

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

SFP SHDSL

See Small Form-Factor Pluggable Single-line High speed Digital Subscriber Line

Side Mode Suppression The Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) is the ratio of the largest peak of the total Ratio source spectrum to the second largest peak. signal cable Signal Degrade Signal Fail Simple Network Management Protocol Common signal cables cover the E1cable, network cable, and other non-subscriber signal cable. SD is a signal indicating the associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect (e.g., dDEG) condition is active. SF is a signal indicating the associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (not being the degraded defect) is active. A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block. Angle-bars on which shelves and chassis may slide and be supported within a cabinet or shelf. A specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers. See Side Mode Suppression Ratio SubNetwork Connection See Subnetwork connection multipath protection See SubNetwork Connection Protection Set the SNC node on the protection sub-network to support sub-network connection protection that spans protection sub-networks. The SNCP node of the ring sub-network can support electric circuit dually feed and selectively receive a timeslot out of the ring, thus implementing sub-network connection protection. The SNCP node is generally set on the node on the line board with the path protection type of the dual fed and selectively received. See Subnetwork Connection Tunnel Protection See Simple Network Management Protocol Signal Noise Ratio A protection mode. The main and standby radios are set up in Hot Standby mode, but are connected to their own antennas. Both antennas, separated by a specific distance, are receiving the signal transmitted from the online radio at the other end of the lin

slide rail Small Form-Factor Pluggable SMSR SNC SNCMP SNCP SNCP node

SNCTP SNMP SNR space diversity

Spanning Tree Protocol Spanning Tree Protocol. STP is a protocol that is used in the LAN to remove the loop. STP applies to the redundant network to block some undesirable redundant paths through certain algorithms and prune a loop network into a loop-free tree network. SPI SSM Synchronous Physical Interface See Synchronization Status Message

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

SSU

Synchronization Supply Unit

Statistical multiplexing A multiplexing technique whereby information from multiple logical channels can be transmitted across a single physical channel. It dynamically allocates bandwidth only to active input channels, to make better use of available bandwidth and allow more devices to be connected than with other multiplexing techniques. Compare with TDM. STM-4 STP Sub-network number SDH Transport Module -4 See Spanning Tree Protocol It is used to differentiate the different network sections in the sub-network conference. Actually it is the first several digits (one or two) of the user phone number. An orderwire phone number is composed of the sub-network number and the user number. A logical entity in the transmission network, which comprises a group of network management objects. A subnet can contain NEs and other subnets. The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router and is matched with the IP address.

subnet subnet mask

Subnetwork connection The only difference is that SNCP is of 1+1 protection and SNCMP is of N+1 protection. multipath protection That is, several backup channels protect one active channel in SNCMP. SubNetwork A working subnetwork connection is replaced by a protection subnetwork connection if Connection Protection the working subnetwork connection fails, or if its performance falls below a required level. Subnetwork Connection Tunnel Protection Support Suppression state SNCTP provides a VC-4 level channel protection. When the working channel is faulty, the services of the entire VC-4 path can be switched over to the protection channel. A part used to support and fix a cabinet on the antistatic floor An attribute set to determine whether an NE monitors the alarm. Under suppression status, NE will not monitor the corresponding alarm conditions and the alarm will not occur even when the alarm conditions are met. Switching Virtual Connection There may be the case that several protected boards need to be switched; thus the tributary board switching priority should be set. If the switching priority of each board is set the same, the tributary board that fails later cannot be switched. The board with higher priority can preempt the switching of that with lower priority. It refers to the period of time between the start of detecting and the moment when the line is switched back to the original status after protection switching occurs in the MSP sub-network.

SVC Switching priority

Switching restoration time

Synchronization Status A message that is used to transmit the quality levels of timing signals on the synchronous Message timing link. Through this message, the node clocks of the SDH network and the synchronization network can aquire upper stream clock information, and the two perform operations on the corresponding clocks, such as tracing, switchover, or converting hold), and then forward the synchronization information of this node to down stream.

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDH is a transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. It defines the transmission features of digital signals such as frame structure, multiplexing mode, transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and BISDN. It interleaves the bytes of low-speed signals to multiplex the signals to high-speed counterparts, and the line coding of scrambling is only used only for signals. SDH is suitable for the fiber communication system with high speed and a large capacity since it uses synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping structure. A clock providing timing services to connected network elements. This would include clocks conforming to Recommendations G.811, G.812 and G.813.

Synchronous source

A.20 T
T2000 The T2000 is a subnet management system (SNMS). In the telecommunication management network architecture, the T2000 is located between the NE level and network level, which can support all NE level functions and part of the network level management functions. See also NM. A lite version of T2000. It is an element level management system for the optical transmission network. It can manage SDH, DWDM and Metro optical transmission equipment. See also LCT. In the SDH transport hierarchy, the TCM is located between the AU/TU management layer and HP/LP layer. It uses the N1/N2 byte of POH overhead to monitor the quality of the transport channels on a transmission section (TCM section). See Tandem Connection Monitor See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Time Division Multiplexing N/A Trace Identifier Mismatch Continuously repeating interval of time or a time period in which two devices are able to interconnect. Also called the moment synchronization, time synchronization means that the synchronization of the absolute time, which requires that the starting time of the signals keeps consistent with the UTC time. Terminal Multiplexer Telecommunications Management Network See Type of Service See Tributary Protection Switch A network level management function of the network management system. Through trail management, you can configure end-to-end services, view graphic interface and visual routes of a trail, query detailed information of a trail, filter, search and locate a trail quickly, manage and maintain trails in a centralized manner, manage alarms and performance data by trail, and print a trail report.

T2000 LCT

Tandem Connection Monitor TCM TCP/IP TCP/IP TDM tie wrap TIM Time Slot Time Synchronization

TM TMN ToS TPS Trail management function

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

Transceiver Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol transparent transmission Tray Tributary loopback

A transmitter and receiver housed together in a single unit and having some circuits in common, often for portable or mobile use. Common name for the suite of protocols developed to support the construction of worldwide internetworks. A process during which the signaling protocol or data is not processed in the content but encapsulated in the format for the processing of the next phase. A component that can be installed in the cabinet for holding chassis or other devices. A fault can be located for each service path by performing loopback to each path of the tributary board. There are three kinds of loopback modes. 1. No loopback: It is the normal status. No loopback is needed when the equipment runs efficiently; 2. Outloop: When arriving at the line board after passing the input port in the local NE, the input signal is directly looped back to the service output end; 3. Inloop: The input signal is returned along the original trail from the tributary board of the target NE. Tributary protection switching, a function provided by the equipment, is intended to protect N tributary processing boards through a standby tributary processing board. An information structure which provides adaptation between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer. It consists of an information payload (the lower order VC) and a TU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the higher order VC frame start. One or more Tributary Units, occupying fixed, defined positions in a higher order VCn payload is termed a Tributary Unit Group (TUG). TUGs are defined in such a way that mixed capacity payloads made up of different size Tributary Units can be constructed to increase flexibility of the transport network Time To Live Tributary Unit See Tributary Unit Group A field in an IP packet (IP datagram) that is used for quality of service (QoS). The TOS field is 8 bits, broken into five sub-fields.

Tributary Protection Switch Tributary unit

Tributary Unit Group

TTL TU TUG Type of Service

A.21 U
UART UAS UBR underfloor cabling UNI Unprotected Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter Unavailable Second Unspecified Bit Rate The cables connected cabinets and other devices are routed underfloor. See User Network Interface Pertaining to the transmission of the services that are not protected, the services cannot be switched to the protection channel if the working channel is faulty or the service is interrupted, because protection mechanism is not configured. It refers to a sub-network without any protection mechanism. The purpose of such configuration is to provide the basic data of trail protection for the subsequent trail management.
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Unprotected subnetwork

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A Glossary

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Upload Upper threshold UPS Upward cabling User

An operation to report some or all configuration data of an NE to the T2000. The configuration data then covers the configuration data stored at the T2000 side. The critical value that can induce unexpected events if exceeded. Uninterruptible Power Supply Cables or fibers connect the rack with other equipment from the top of the cabinet. A client user of the NMS. The user name and password uniquely identifies the operation rights of a user in the NMS. Universal Time Coordinated

User Network Interface The interface between a network and the user of network services. UTC

A.22 V
VB VBR VC VCG VCI Virtual concatenation Virtual Container Virtual Bridge Variable Bit Rate See Virtual concatenation Virtual Concatenation Group Virtual Channel Identifier N/A A Virtual Container is the information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. It consists of information payload and path Overhead (POH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 or 500 s. A subset of the active topology of a Bridged Local Area Network. Associated with each VLAN is a VLAN Identifier (VID). The extension of a private network that encompasses encapsulated, encrypted, and authenticated links across shared or public networks. VPN connections can provide remote access and routed connections to private networks over the Internet. See Virtual local area network Virtual Path Virtual Path Identifier See Virtual Private Network

Virtual local area network Virtual Private Network VLAN VP VPI VPN

A.23 W
Wait to Restore Time A period of time that must elapse before a - from a fault recovered - trail/connection can be used again to transport the normal traffic signal and/or to select the normal traffic signal from. A period of time that must elapse from a recovered fault before an LSP/span can be used again to transport the normal traffic and/or to select the normal traffic from. Wide Area Network

Wait-to-Restore WAN

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary

Wander

The long-term variations of the significant instants of a digital signal from their ideal position in time (where long-term implies that these variations are of frequency less than 10Hz). A washer is a thin flat ring of metal or rubber which is placed over a bolt before the nut is screwed on. Wavelength Division Multiplexing. WDM technology utilizes the characteristics of broad bandwidth and low attenuation of single mode optical fibre, uses multiple wavelengths as carriers, and allows multiple channels to transmit simultaneously in a single fibre.

washer Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Wavelength protection The wavelength protection group is important to describe the wavelength protection group structure. Its function is similar to that of the protection subnet in the SDH NE. The wavelength path protection can only work with the correct configuration of the wavelength protection group. WDM WFQ Winding pipe Working path WRED WTR WTR See Wavelength Division Multiplexing Weighted Fair Queuing A tool for fiber routing, which acts as the corrugated pipe. The channels allocated to transport the normal traffic. Weighted Random Early Detection See Wait-to-Restore See Wait to Restore Time

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