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Section 13.6

C13S06.001: If w =

3x 2 + 4xy 2y 3 , then dw = (6x + 4y) dx + (4x 6y 2 ) dy.

C13S06.002:

If w = exp(x 2 y 2 ), then dw = 2x exp(x 2 y 2 ) dx 2y exp(x 2 y 2 ) dy.

C13S06.003: If w

= 1 + x 2 + y 2 , then

dw =

x

1 + x 2 + y 2

dx

+

y 1 + x 2 + y 2

dy

=

x dx + y dy 1 + x 2 + y 2 .

C13S06.004:

If w = xye x+y , then dw = y(x + 1)e x+y dx + x(y + 1)e x+y dy.

C13S06.005:

If w(x, y) = arctan x , then dw = y dx x dy

y

x 2 + y 2

.

C13S06.006: If w = xz 2 yx 2 + zy 2 ,

then dw = (z 2 2xy) dx + (2yz x 2 ) dy + (y 2 + 2xz) dz.

C13S06.007: If w = ln(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ), then

dw =

2x dx

2y dy

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 +

2z dz + z 2 = 2x dx + 2y dy + 2z dz

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

x 2 + y 2

.

C13S06.008:

C13S06.009:

If w = sin xyz, then dw = yz cos xyz dx + xz cos xyz dy + xy cos xyz dz.

If w = x tan yz, then dw = tan yz dx + xz sec 2 yz dy + xy sec 2 yz dz.

C13S06.010:

If w = xye uv , then dw = ye uv dx + xe uv dy + xyve uv du + xyue uv dv.

C13S06.011:

If w = e xyz , then dw = yze xyz dx xze xyz dy xye xyz dz.

C13S06.012: If w = ln(1 + rs), then

dw =

s dr

r ds

= s dr + r ds

1 + rs

1 + rs + 1 + rs

.

 C13S06.013: If C13S06.014: If C13S06.015: If

dw =

w

w

= u 2 exp(v 2 ), then dw = 2u exp(v 2 ) du 2u 2 v exp(v 2 ) dv.

= s + t s t

, then

dw =

2t ds

2s dt

t) 2 = 2s dt 2t ds

(s t) 2

(s t) 2 + (s

.

w = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , then

x dx

y dy

z dz

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + x 2 + y 2 + z 2

= x dx + y dy + z dz

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

C13S06.016: If w = pqr exp(p 2 q 2 r 2 ), then

1

.

dw = (qr 2p 2 qr) exp(p 2 q 2 r 2 ) dp

+ (pr 2pq 2 r) exp(p 2 q 2 r 2 ) dq + (pq 2pqr 2 ) exp(p 2 q 2 r 2 ) dr.

C13S06.017: If w = f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2 , then

dw = x dx + y dy

x 2 + y 2

.

Choose x = 3, y = 4, dx = 0.03, and dy = 0.04. Then

f (2.97, 4.04) f (3, 4) + 3 · (0.03) + 4 · (0.04)

3 2 + 4 2

Compare with the true value of

= 2507

500

f (2.97, 4.04) = 10057

20

5.014229751417.

C13S06.018: If w = f (x, y) = x 2 y 2 , then

dw =

x dx

y dy

= x dx y dy

x 2 y 2

x 2 y 2

x 2 y 2

.

= 5.014.

Choose x = 13, y = 5, dx = 0.2, and dy = 0.1. Then

f (13.2, 4.9) f (13, 5) + 13 · (0.2) + 5 · (0.1) = 12 + 13 2 5 2

Compare with the true value of

120 = 1471

31

120

f (13.2, 4.9)= 15023

10

12.256834827964.

12.258333333333.

C13S06.019: If w = f (x, y) =

1

1 + x + y , then

dw =

dx + dy

(1 + x + y) 2 .

Choose x = 3, y = 6, dx = 0.02, and dy = 0.05. Then

0.02 + 0.05

f (3.02, 6.05) f (3,

1

7

993

6)

(1 + 3 + 6) 2 = 10 10000 =

10000 = 0.0993.

Compare with the true value of

100

f (3.02, 6.05) = 1007 0.0993048659384310.

C13S06.020: If w = f (x, y, z) = xyz , then

dw = yz dx + xz dy + xy dz

2 xyz

2

.

Choose x = 1, y = 3, z = 3, dx = 0.1, dy = 0.1, and dz = 0.1. Then

f (0.9, 2.9, 3.1) f (1, 3, 3) + 9 · (0.1) 3 · (0.1) + 3 · (0.1) = 3

2

9

Compare with the true value of

f (0.9, 2.9, 3.1) = 3 8990

100

2.8444683158720541.

C13S06.021:

If w = f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , then

dw = x dx + y dy + z dz

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

.

3

20

20 = 57

= 2.85.

Choose x = 3, y = 4, z = 12, dx = 0.03, dy = 0.04, and dz = 0.05. Then

f (3.03, 3.96, 12.05)

f (3, 4, 12) + 3 · (0.03) 4 · (0.04) + 12 · (0.05)

3 2 + 4 2 + 12 2

Compare with the true value of

= 13 +

1300 = 16953

53

1300

13.040769230769.

f (3.03, 3.96, 12.05) = 68026

20

13.040897208398.

C13S06.022:

f (1.98, 3.03, 4.97) as follows:

If w = f (x, y, z) =

x + xyz y + z , then Mathematica 3.0 can ﬁnd the linear approximation to

f[x , y , z ] := xyz/(x + y + z)

D[f[x,y,z], x]dx + D[f[x,y,z], y]dy + D[f[x,y,z], z]dz // Together

(yz 2 + y 2 z) dx + (xz 2 + x 2 z) dy + (xy 2 + x 2 y) dz

(x + y + z) 2

% /.

{ x 2, y 3, z 5, dx -2/100, dy 3/100, dz -3/100 }

3

250

f[2, 3, 5]

3

Then we add the last two results:

% + %%

747

250

N[ %, 20 ]

3

2.9880000000000000000

Now we compare the approximation with the true value:

f[ 198/100, 303/100, 497/100 ]

14908509

4990000

N[ %, 20 ]

2.9876771543086172345

C13S06.023: If w = f (x, y, z) = e xyz , then

dw = e xyz (yz dx + xz dy + xy dz).

Take x = 1, y = 0, z = 2, dx = 0.02, dy = 0.03,

and dz = 0.02. Then

3

f (1.02, 0.03, 2.02) f (1, 0, 2) e 0 (0 2 · (0.03) + 0) = 1 + 50 = 1.06.

Compare with the exact value, which is

f (1.02, 0.03, 2.02) = exp 250000 1.0637623386083891.

15453

C13S06.024: If w = f (x, y)=(x y) cos 2πxy, then

dw = [cos(2πxy) 2πy(x y) sin(2πxy)] dx [cos(2πxy)+2πx(x y) sin(2πxy)] dy.

Take x = 1, y = 0.5, dx = 0.1, and dy = 0.1. Then

f (1.1, 0.4) f (1, 0.5) + (1) · (0.1) (1) · (0.1) =

1

2

Compare with the exactly value, which is

1

5 = 10 = 0.7.

7

f (1.1, 0.4) = 10 cos 22π ≈ −0.6508435401217760.

7

25

C13S06.025:

If w = f (x, y) = x + y 2 , then

dw =

x + y

x

dx +

x + y

y

dy.

Take x = 16, y = 100, dx = 1, and dy = 1. Then

f (15, 99) f (16, 100) + 4 + 10 · (1) + 4 + 10 · (1) = 196 49

4

10

10 = 1911 = 191.1.

10

By comparison, the exact value is

f (15, 99) = 15 + 99 2 191.0713954719907741.

4

C13S06.026: If w = f (x, y, z) = x 1/2 y 1/3 z 1/4 , then

Take x = 25,

dw = y 1/3 z 1/4 dx + x 1/2 z 1/4

2x 1/2

3y 2/3

dy + x 1/2

y 1/3

4z 3/4

dz.

y = 27, z = 16, dx = 1, dy = 1, and dz = 1. Then

f (26, 28, 17) f (25, 27, 16) + 3 · 4

5 · 4

5 · 3

2 · 5 + 3 · 9 + 4 ·

8 = 30 +

For comparison, the true value is

6217

135817

=

4320

4320

31.4391203703703704.

f (26, 28, 17) = 2 7/6 · 7 1/3 · 13 1/2 · 17 1/4 31.4401721089687491.

C13S06.027: If w = f (x, y) = exp(x 2 y 2 ), then

dw = 2x exp(x 2 y 2 ) dx 2y exp(x 2 y 2 ) dy.

Take x = 1, y = 1, dx = 0.1, and dy = 0.1. Then

f (1.1, 0.9) f (1, 1) + 2 · (0.1) 2 · (0.1) = 1 +

Compare with the true value, which is

2

5

= 7 = 1.4.

5

f (1.1, 0.9)= e 2/5 1.4918246976412703.

1/3

C13S06.028: If w = f (x, y) = x 1/5 , then

y

dw =

1

3x 2/3 y 1/5

dx

1/3

6/5 dy = 5y dx 3x dy

x

5y

15x 2/3 y 6/5

.

Take x = 27, y = 32, dx = 2, and dy = 2. Then

f (25, 30) f (27, 32) + 160 · (2) 15 · 9 · 81 64 · (2)

For purposes of comparison, the true value is

= 3

2 4320 = 6401

79

4320 1.4817129629629630.

7/15

f (25, 30) = 5 6 1/5 1.4810023646720941.

C13S06.029:

If w = f (x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , then

dw

= x dx + y dy + z dz

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

.

Take x = 3, y = 4, z = 12, dx = 0.1, dy = 0.2, and dz = 0.3. Then

f (3.1, 4.2, 11.7) f (3, 4, 12) + 0.3+0.8 3.6 = 13

13

The true value is

5

26 = 333

5

26

12.8076923076923077.

f (3.1, 4.2, 11.7) = 16414

10

12.8117133904876283.

C13S06.030: If w = f (x, y, z)=(x 2 + 2y 2 + 2z 2 ) 1/3 , then

dw = 2x dx + 4y dy + 4z dz

3(x 2 + 2y 2 + 2z 2 ) 2/3 .

Take x = y = z = 5, dx = 0.1, dy = 0.2, and dz = 0.3. Then

f (5.1, 5.2, 5.3) f (5, 5, 5) + 10 · (0.1) + 20 · (0.2) + 20 · (0.3)

3(25 + 50 + 50) 2/3

For comparison purposes, the true value is

=5+ 11

75 = 386 5.1466666666666667.

75

f (5.1, 5.2, 5.3) = 13627

100

1/3

5.1459640985125985.

C13S06.031: Given: The point Q(1, 2) on the curve f (x, y) = 0, where f (x, y)=2x 3 + 2y 3 9xy. Then

df = (6x 2 9y) dx + (6y 2 9x)

dy = 0.

Choose x = 1, y = 2, and dx = 0.1. Then

1

(6 18) · 10 + (24 9) dy = 0;

dy =

 1 12 12 2 15 · 10 = 150 = 25 = 0.08.

So the point P on the curve f (x, y) = 0 near Q and with x-coordinate 1.1 has y-coordinate

2

y 2 + 25 = 52 25 = 2.08.

The true value of the y-coordinate is approximately 2.0757642703016864.

C13S06.032:

Then

Given: The point Q(2, 4) on the curve f (x, y) = 0, where f (x, y)=4x 4 + 4y 4 17x 2 y 2 .

df = (16x 3 34xy 2 ) dx + (16y 3 34x 2 y) dy = 0.

Choose x = 2,

y = 4, and dy = 0.1. Then

(128 1088) dx + (1024 544)(0.1) = 0;

960 dx 48 = 0;

1

dx = 20 = 0.05.

So the point P on the curve f (x, y) = 0 near Q and having y-coordinate 3.9therefore has x-coordinate x 2 0.05 = 1.95. By some coincidence, the error in this approximation is zero: The point P (3.9, 1.95) does lie on the curve f (x, y) = 0.

6

C13S06.033: Suppose that the base of the rectangle has length x and that its height is y. Then its area is

Then dw = 2.5;

this is the estimate of the maximum error in computing the area of the rectangle. The actual maximum error possible is f (10.1, 15.1) f (10, 15) = 2.51.

w = f (x, y) = xy, and dw = y dx + x dy. Choose x = 10, y = 15, dx = 0.1, and dy = 0.1.

C13S06.034: Part (a): The volume of the cylinder is w = f (r, h) = πr 2 h, so that

dw = 2πrh dr + πr 2 dh.

Choose r = 3, h = 9, and dr = dh = 0.1. Then

dw = 54π · (0.1) + 9π · (0.1) = 63π

10

19.7920337176156974

is the estimate of the maximum error in computing the volume of the cylinder. The actual maximum error possible is

f (3.1, 9.1) f (3, 9)= 6451π

1000

20.2664142083077562.

Part (b): The surface area of the cylinder is w = f (r, h)=2πrh + 2πr 2 , and thus

dw = (2πh + 4πr) dr + 2πr dh.

Choose r = 3, h = 9, and dr = dh = 0.1.

Then

dw = (2π · 9+4π · 3) · (0.1) + 2π · 3 · (0.1) = 18π

5

11.3097335529232557

is the estimate of the maximum error in computing the surface area of the cylinder. The actual maximum error possible is

f (3.1, 9.1) f (3, 9)= 91π

25

= 11.4353972590668474.

C13S06.035: The volume of the cone is given by

w = f (r, h) = π r 2 h,

3

so that

Choose r = 5, h = 10, and dr = dh = 0.1.

Then

dw = 2π rh dr + π r 2 dh.

3

3

dw = 2π

3

· 5 · 10 · (0.1) + π · 5 2 · (0.1) = 25π 13.0899693899574718

3

6

is an estimate of the maximum error in measuring the volume of the cylinder. The true value of the maximum error is

f (5.1, 10.1) f (5, 10) = 12701π

3000

13.3004560977479880.

C13S06.036: If the dimensions of the box are x by y by z, then its total surface is w = f (x, y, z) = 2xy + 2xz + 2yz, and so

dw = 2(y + z) dx + 2(x + z) dy + 2(x + y) dz.

Choose x = 10, y = 15, z = 20, and dx = dy = dz = 0.1. Then

7

dw = (70 + 60 + 50) · (0.1) = 18

is an estimate of the maximum error in measuring the total surface area of the box. The true value of the maximum error is

f (10.1, 15.1, 20.1) f (10, 15, 20) = 903 = 18.06.

50

C13S06.037: If the sides of the ﬁeld are x and y and the angle between them is θ, then the area of the ﬁeld is given by

so that

dw =

1

2 y

w = f (x, y, θ) =

1

2 xy sin θ,

sin θ dx + 1 2 x sin θ dy + 1 2 xy cos θ dθ.

If x = 500, y = 700, θ = π/6, dx = dy = 1, and = π/720, then

dw = 350 · 2 · 1 + 250 · 1

1

2 · 1 + 1 2 · 500 · 700 · √ 2 3

·

π

720

=

300 + 4375π 3

36

961.2810182103919247

(in square feet) is an estimate of the maximum error in computing the area of the ﬁeld. The true value of the maximum error is

f (501, 701, (π/6) + (π/720)) f (500, 700, π/6) 962.9622561829376760

(in square feet). The former amounts to approximately 0.0220679756246646 acres (there are 43560 square feet in one acre).

C13S06.038: We begin with the equation

V

(T, p) = 82.06T ,

p

for which

dV = 4103(p dT T dp)

50p 2

.

When p = 5, dp = 0.1, T = 300, and dT = 20, we ﬁnd that

dV

= 4103(5 · (20) 300 · (0.1))

50 · 25

= 28721

125

= 229.768.

The actual change in the volume is

V (280, 4.9) V (300, 5) = 8206 ≈ −234.4571428571428571.

35

C13S06.039: The period T of a pendulum of length L is given (approximately) by

T

= 2π L 1/2 ,

g

for which

dT =

L 1/2 · πg dL πL dg g 2

g

.

If L = 2, dL = 1/12, g = 32, and dg = 0.2, then

8

dT =

1920 17π 0.0278161849536596.

The true value of the increase in the period is

T (2 + 1/12, 32.2) T (2, 32) 0.0274043631738259.

C13S06.040: Given

T

= 2π L

g

1/2

,

 we compute dT = 2π · 1 2 Therefore dT = 1 g T 2π 1 g 1 = 2 · L · g

L 1/2 · g dL

g

L dg

2

π

g

L 1/2 · (g dL L dg).

g 2

g

=

L 1/2 · π

g 2 g

L 1/2 · (g dL L dg)

2 · (g dL L dg) = 2gL · (g dL L dg) = 1 2 · dL

1

L

1

C13S06.041: Given: R(v 0 , α) = 32 (v 0 ) 2 sin 2α, we ﬁrst compute

dR =

1

16 v 0 sin 2α dv 0 + (v 0 ) 2 cos 2α dα .

dg

g

.

Substitution of v 0 = 400, dv 0 = 10, α = π/6, and = π/180 yields

dR = 125 3 + 250π 303.7728135458261405

9

as an estimate of the increase in the range. The true value of the increase is

R(410, (π/6) + (π/180)) − R(400, π/6) = −2500 √ 3 + 42025 sin 31π ≈ 308.1070548148573585.
8
90

C13S06.042: Given

we ﬁrst compute

dS =

k h 3 dw

w

2

wh 3k 4 dh =

S =

k

wh 3 ,

wh 3

k

1

w dw

+

If S = 1 when w = 2 and h = 4, then

1 =

k 64 ,

2 ·

so that

k = 128;

9

3

h dh = S · w dw

1

thus

S = 128 wh 3 .

+

3

h

dh .

(1)

To approximate the sag when w = 2.1 and h = 4.1, we take w = 2, h = 4, and dw = dh = 0.1 in Eq. (1) to ﬁnd that

dS = 1 · 1 2 · (0.1) + 3 4 · (0.1) = 0.05 0.075 = 0.125,

and thus the sag will be approximately 1 0.125 = 0.875 (inches). The true value is

inches.

S(2.1, 4.1) =

(2.1) 128 · (4.1) 3 0.88438039

C13S06.043: Part (a): If (x, y) (0, 0) along the line y = x, then

(x,y)(0,0) f (x, y) = lim

lim

x0 f (x, x) = lim

x0 1=1.

But if (x, y) (0, 0) along the line y = 0, then

(x,y)(0,0) f (x, y) = lim

lim

x0 f (x, 0) = lim

x0 0=0.

Therefore f is not continuous at (0, 0).

Part (b): We compute the partial derivatives of f at (0, 0) by the deﬁnition:

f x (0,

f y (0,

0) = lim

h0

0) = lim

k0

f (0 + h, 0) f (0, 0)

h

f (0, 0 + k) f (0, 0)

k

= lim

h0

= lim

k0

f

(h, 0)

f

h

(0, k)

k

= lim

h0

= lim

k0

0

h

0

k

= 0;

= 0.

Therefore both f x and f y exist at (0, 0) but f is not continuous at (0, 0).

C13S06.044:

The function f (x, y) = x 1/3 + y 1/3 3 is continuous everywhere because it is the composition

of the sum of continuous functions. At the origin we compute its partial derivative with respect to x as follows:

f x (0, 0) = lim

h0

f (0 + h, 0) f (0, 0)

h

= lim

h0

h 1/3 3

h

= 1;

similarly, f y (0, 0) = 1. So only the plane z = x + y can approximate the graph of f at and near (0, 0). But the line L 1 in the vertical plane y = x, through (0, 0, 0), and tangent to the graph of f has slope

lim

x0

f (x, x) f (0, 0)

x 2

= 4 2 ,

whereas the line L 2 in the vertical plane y = x, through (0, 0, 0), and tangent to the graph of z = x + y has slope 2 . Because no plane through (0, 0, 0) approximates the graph of f accurately near (0, 0), the function f is not diﬀerentiable at (0, 0).

C13S06.045: Given:

f (x, y) = y 2 + x 2 sin 1

x

10

if x

= 0; f (0, y) = y 2 . Then

and

f x (0, 0) = lim

h0

f (h, 0) f (0, 0)

h

= lim

h0

f y (0, 0) = lim

k0

f (0, k) f (0, 0)

k

1

h · h 2 sin h = h0 lim h sin h = 0

1

1

= lim

k0

k 2

k

= lim

k0 k = 0.

Therefore the linear approximation to