Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

TENSES & STRUCTURE

E. PRESENT TENSE (active) Sform for singular subject except I and YOU Base form for plural subject It is also used using auxiliary verb 1. PRESENT TENSE (passive) (IS, ARE, AM)+PAST PARTICIPLE form of the verb IS for singular subject ARE for plural subject AM for first person pronoun I F. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE<CONTINUOUS>(active) (IS,ARE,AM)+INGform IS for singular subject ARE for plural subject AM for first person pronoun I 2 . PRESENT PROGRESSIVE<CONTINUOUS> (passive) (IS,ARE, AM) + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE IS for singular subject ARE for plural subject AM for first person pronoun I G. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (active) (HAS,HAVE)+PAST PARTICIPIAL FORM HAS for singular subject HAVE for plural subject 1. 2. 3. 4.

USE
TO EXPRESS HABITUAL ACTION PRESENT ACTION OR STATE OF BEING GENERAL TRUTHS PERMANENT CONDITIONS (No past tense) 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. The ING form of the verb is sometimes used with any of the following time expressions: Now, right now, at this moment, at this very moment, this very minute, etc. On p.35-p.36 h1, it is used to indicate future action that is arranged. 1. 2.

EXAMPLE(S) IN SENTENCE
Students go to school everyday. My wife is in the market. All men sleep. Planets revolve around the sun. Students are gone to school everyday. My wife is gone in the market. All men are slept. Planets are revolved around the sun. Danielle is watching television now. I am spending my summer vacation with my sister in Sorsogon.

EXAMPLE(S) IN PARAGRAPH

REMARKS
The example 2, is not in passive voice, even there is an auxiliary verb is it does not follow by a past participle form of the verb.

In number 2. Its need to add a word gone to satisfy the structure, is + past participle

2.

1. Danielle is being watched television now. OR Television is being watched by Danielle now. 2. (I) am being spent my summer vacation with my sister in Sorsogon. OR Summer vacation is being spent by (me) with my sister in Sorsogon 1. Used to describe a completed or finished action at an INDEFINITE point of time. 1. Erik has gone to Manila. Has gone to Manila, when? There is no definite time. Erik has gone to Manila. He has stayed in his cousins house in Taft Avenue. He has visited one of his former classmates. Hes gone for a stroll at the Luneta Park. He has watched the film Titanic in a movie house in Recto. After watching, hes bought a pair of shoes and some take home fruits for his sister. Afterwards, hes prepared his things. Then, he has returned home after one week in Manila.

NOTE: the ff. remarks are intended only to PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (passive) -Television and Summer Vacation are what we call the OBJECT or the receiver of the action (verb) -(OBJECT) may put as the beginning of the sentence, see sentences in red. -The #2 in red is the example of this rule. Identify the corresponding subjective form of the object if it is a pronoun. Me-I, Us-We, You-You, Them-They, Her-She, Him-He, It-It.

The example in paragraph does not tell us definitely WHEN in the past the action has happened. See paragraph example in SIMPLE PAST TENSE for comparison. The red letters in the said paragraph are the examples of this rule. The auxiliary verb HAVE is shortened to VE plus the past participle of the verb if the subject is I, WE, YOU, or THEY in affirmative statement. The auxiliary verb HAS is shortened to S if the subject is HE, SHE, or IT in affirmative statement.

3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (passive) (HAS, HAVE) + BEEN + PAST PARTICIPLE HAS for singular subject HAVE for plural subject H. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE <CONTINUOUS> (active) (HAS BEEN, HAVE BEEN)+PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ING) form of the verb HAS BEEN for singular subject HAVE BEEN for plural subject Depending upon the duration of time, the present perfect progressive tense is usually connected with any of the following time expressions: For a number of years, for (fifteen) years, since

1.

Erik has been gone to Manila.

1.

Used to express an action or activity, which began in the past and is still going on at the present.

1.

My father has been working in the company for 8 years.

(1980), since the grades, since Wednesday, since childhood, since the beginning of 4. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE <CONTINUOUS> (active) (HAS, HAVE)+BEEN+BEING+PAST PARTICIPLE HAS for singular subject HAVE for plural subject I. SIMPLE PAST TENSE (active) PAST FORM OF THE VERB NOTE: singular or plural subjects take the same past form of the verb. 1. Unlike present perfect tense, the SIMPLE PAST TENSE indicates a completed action at a DEFINITE point of time in the past.

1.

My father has been being worked in the company for 8 years.

1.

They rented a van last week. Last week definite point of time

Erik went to Manila last week. He stayed in his cousins house in Taft Avenue from Monday to Saturday. He visited one of his former classmates on Thursday. He went for a stroll at the Luneta Park on Friday morning. In the afternoon, he watched the film Titanic in a movie house in Recto. After watching, at about seven in the evening, he bought a pair of shoes and some home fruits for his sister. On Saturday morning, he prepared his things. Then, he returned home in the evening of the same day after one week in Manila.

The example in paragraph tells us DEFINITELY WHEN the action happened in the past.

5. SIMPLE PAST TENSE (passive) (WAS,WERE)+ PAST PARTICIPLE form of the verb WAS for singular subject. WERE for plural subject. J. PAST PROGRESSIVE <CONTINUOUS> (only in active) (WAS, WERE) + ING form of the verb PRESENT PARTICIPLE WAS for singular subject. WERE for plural subject.

1. They were rented a van last week. OR A van were rented by (them) last week.

See the remarks in PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (passive)

1. 2.

Used to express an action or activity that was going on at an exact time in the past. Also used to combine two actions that came about almost at the same time in the past. But this can be done only with the help of connectives WHILE and WHEN. NOTE: when combining two actions, the first action must be in the past progressive form, while the second action must be in the simple past tense.

1. 2.

I was traveling to Manila at ten oclock last night. First action: We have a lively discussion Second action: The president enters the room. Combination: While we were having a lively discussion, the president entered the room OR We were having a lively discussion when the president entered the room They rendered a dance number that they had rehearsed for two weeks.

Yesterday, at about three oclock in the afternoon, while we were waiting for a ride, we saw a head on collision of two passenger busses. A young lady, who witnessed the tragic accident, screamed upon learning that some of the passengers were her relatives. We were getting on a taxi when a policeman approached us, asking for first-hand information about the accident. While I was telling the policeman what I had seen, some curious onlookers crowded around us.

The example in paragraph used the past continuous tense of the verb in which each of its sentences contains two actions that came about almost at the same time in the past. See paragraph example in PAST PERFECT TENSE for comparison

K. PAST PERFECT TENSE (only in active) HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE VERB with SIMPLE PAST TENSE in other action The past perfect tense usually uses WHICH, THAT, BEFORE, AFTER, or WHEN to connect with the other action. NOTE: the structure does not change in singular or plural subject. L. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE<CONTINUOUS> (only in active) (first action)HAD BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ING) form of the verb (second action) SIMPLE PAST TENSE

1.

Used to express an action performed by, or that happened sometimes ago in the past before another action.

1.

We had waited for a ride when we saw the head on collision of two passenger busses. A young lady, who also witnessed the tragic accident, screamed after she had learned that some of the passengers were her relatives. A policeman, asking for first hand information about the accident, had approached us just before we got on a taxi. Before some curious onlookers crowded around us, I had already told the policeman what I saw.

The example in paragraph is also made up of two actions that took place in the past. But unlike the paragraph example in PAST PROGRESSIVE, its first action had happened already before the second action came. The example paragraph formed the past perfect tense of the verb.

1.

Used to describe an action that had been going on or happening for a period of time in the past before another past action.

1.

Sarine had been singing (for) three hours (before) she decided to stop.

Depending upon the duration of time, the first action of the past perfect progressive usually end with any of the following time expressions: (for) three hous, (for) a number of years, (for) fifteen years The two actions are usually joined together with the connectives UNTIL, BEFORE or WHEN. NOTE: the structure does not change in singular or plural subject. M. FUTURE TENSE (active) WILL + BASE FORM OF THE VERB NOTE: the structure does not change in singular or plural subject. 6. FUTURE TENSE (passive) WILL /SHALL +BE + PAST PARTICIPLE 1. I will be spent my summer vacation in sorsogon OR Summer vacation will be spent by (me) in sorsogon 1. Used to express an action that will be in progress at a definite time in the future. 1. I will be spending my summer vacation in Sorsogon next year. See the remarks in PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (passive)

1.

Refers to an event or action that will happen in the time that is yet to come.

1.

I will spend my summer vacation in Sorsogon.

N. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE<CONTINUOUS>(active only) WILL BE + ING FORM OF THE VERB NOTE: the structure does not change in singular or plural subject O. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE(active) WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE VERB. NOTE: the structure does not change in singular or plural subject 7. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE(passive) WILL HAVE + BEEN+PAST PARTICIPLE NOTE: the structure does not change in singular or plural subject P. FUTURE OF INTENTION(only in active) IS/ARE/AM + GOING + INFINITIVE

1.

Used to express an action that will have been completed before a point of time in the future, or before another future action.

1.

The bus will have arrived by four oclock this afternoon.

1.

The bus will have been arrived by four oclock this afternoon.

1.

It is used to indicate that something is certain to happen, or that someone has made up his mind to do something.

1.

The flood is going to wash out the newly planted rice.