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Ethnic Anthropology of the Former East Germany (before 1945): Geographical Differentiations and Feature Correlations
Andreas Vonderach Institut fr Humangenetik und Anthropologie, Ulm
Using metric, morphognostic and dermatoglyphic data of 14year old children of families displaced after WW II, recorded during a large survey in Westphalia by Schwidetzky and Walter (1967), the anthropological structure of former East Germany (before 1945) is reconstructed. A principal component analysis for 14 features yields the following 5 principal components which together explain 50% of the total variance: 1st a breadth component with high values in the South-East, 2nd an EastEuropid component (oblique eye openings and prominent cheekbones) with high values in the Northeast (East and West Prussia), 3rd a pigmentation component with high values in the South, 4th a brain-case component (i.e. cephalic index and the morphognostic shape of the back of the head) and 5th a face profile with deep position of the eyeballs and prominent chin. The 4th and 5th PC show a similar geographical frequency distribution as the 1st PC with a North-West to South-East gradient. The discussion considers the conformities and contradictions to the traditional types. The 2nd PC substantially corresponds to the feature pattern of the East-Europid type described by Egon von Eickstedt and originates in the Slavic and Baltic population substrate from the time before the German settlement in the Middle Ages. The remaining four principal components show relations to the typological Nordic-Alpine contrast. The representation of feature complexes, such as pigmentation and facial profile, in separate principal components rests on the methodical aspects of the principal component analysis (orthogonality) and common genetic or anatomic bases. The comparison between the correlation matrixes of the East German school children and the native Westphalians shows noticeable differences. The correlation between oblique eye openings and prominent cheekbones, which is 0.44 among the East Germans (i.e. the highest value), is only 0.07 among the Westphalians which is not significantly different from zero. Instead, the Westphalians show several correlations between the facial index and physiognomic features some of which are opposed to those of the East German children and correspond to

Correspondence to authors email address: aw.vonderach8@t-online.de

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Andreas Vonderach the traditional feature pattern of the Falic type. With respect to ethnic differentiations, especially the physiognomic features of the face yield a great deal of information. This suggests not to discard types and not to regard them as homogenous and discrete entities but as clusters within the multivariate continuum. In this manner, the dominant present single-sided population concept which excludes feature correlations can be corrected, supplemented by a quite natural element of human groups.
Key Words: Ethnic differentiations in Europe; Germany; Morphological traits; Physiognomic features; Typology; Population concept.

Introduction The investigation of the population in ones own country, i.e. the analysis of the anthropological traces of historical migrations and ethno-genetic processes not only within a global or continental frame of reference but also on a regional on-site scale, belongs to the core objectives of anthropology. After Rudolf Virchow had investigated the pigmentation of school children (Virchow 1886), there has been no other nationwide investigation of physical characters in Germany. What continued, however, were regional surveys carried out in Baden (Ammon 1899, Schaeuble 1954), Silesia (summarized in Schwidetzky 1955), Westphalia (Schwidetzky, Walter 1967), Rhineland-Palatinate (Schwidetzky et al. 1975) and SchleswigHolstein (Vonderach, Helmuth 1996). They record especially morphological features including pigmentation, in some cases also serological polymorphisms and dermatoglyphic characters. Ethno-historical differentiations i.e. in Germany especially the influences of pre-German populations in South Germany and East Germany mainly occur in morphological features and pigmentation while polymorphisms of serological and other simply inherited genetic features can nearly be ruled out here due to the genetic drift effect and missing differentiations. The review of the regional surveys shows that large parts of Germany are mostly terra incognita anthropologically. The presence of previously non-evaluated data of almost 5000 children from East German displaced families collected during the Westphalian survey of the fifties allows a post-survey, regionbased reconstruction of the anthropological structure of East Germany. Its anthropological conditions have previously been almost unknown with the exception of Silesia. The ethnohistorical background of the anthropological differentiations in
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former East Germany originates in the German eastward settlement in the Middle Ages and early modern times in the course of which Germans settled in areas that had hitherto been Slavic or Baltic; in this process, part of the non-German population was assimilated (Kuhn 1967, Higounet 1989/1990, Dralle 1991). Material and Method The investigation is based on metric and morphognostic data of 14-year old male and female school children taken during the Westphalian survey carried out by the anthropological institute in Mainz from 1955 to 1958 (Schwidetzky, Walter 1967). They also include some dermatoglyphic and serological features. Amongst the 4960 school children from the East German regions, 2759 were chosen which were indigenous residents in each of the individual East German regions, indigenous being set as at least three grandparents born in the region. During the Westphalian survey, the head and body measurements have been taken in accordance with Martins textbook, the eye and hair colors using the charts by MartinSchultz and Fischer-Saller. The Schwidetzky index has been employed to diagnose the state of the biological development and maturation of the boys (Schwidetzky 1950). The pattern types of the finger prints have been determined with the help of a magnifying glass. The methods used to assign the family names to ethnic groups will be explained in detail in another paper. The descriptive characters of the head and face have been determined using morphognostic scales (see Walter 1962). In all cases, the investigator was Hubert Walter (personal communication H. Walter). After the Westphalian survey was completed, the suspicion arose that the scale placed on the morphognostic features, which is to a certain extent subjective, could have been shifted during the investigation because it took almost four years and operated from district to district, and hence I. Schwidetzky collected new data by means of the photographs (cf. Schwidetzky 1967). However, my investigations are based on the original diagnoses indicated on the data recording sheets. Since the East German expellees from all areas of birth are distributed all over Westphalia, a potential bias in the diagnoses made
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within Westphalia will have affected all groups of birth of the expellees equally. By determining the data in a random sequence and by only one investigator, two essential conditions placed by Schwidetzky (1992a) on the data recording of morphognostic features have been satisfied. The individual features have been checked for their dependence on the state of development (table 1). Instead of the absolute dimensions, the multivariate statistical investigation uses the indices generated from these dimensions. Furthermore, for the boys, a corrected stature has been calculated which is independent of the state of development using a linear regression analysis. In conjunction with the morphognostic features having ordinal scales, not only the frequencies but also the arithmetic means as per Bernhard (1991), which are not statistically conclusive, have been calculated because they are more stable. However, for the statistical comparisons only the frequencies were used. In order to save space and to have numbers of individuals as large as possible, this document lists only the results for both sexes together (table 2). The numbers of individuals are not satisfactory in all regions. The data for the native inhabitants from the Westphalian survey (Schwidetzky, Walter 1967) and from Walters investigation in the Einbeck district in South Lower Saxony (Walter 1960) serve as comparison groups. From the Rhineland-Palatinate survey (Schwidetzky et al. 1975), the results for only a part of the boys have been published. I have included them in the comparison but not within this publication which rests on the nonclassification of the sexes. The division of the material into regions is based on the old country and province borders prior to 1918, with some deviations wherever this has appeared practical for ethnohistorical reasons. The members of the German minorities in East Europe have been assigned to four groups: Group I: Latvia and Estonia (i.e. the Baltic Germans from the former territory of the German Order), Group II: Poland without West Prussia, Lithuania, Wolhynia and East Galicia, Group III: Ukraine without Wolhynia, Russia and Rumania (mainly from the Bukovina and Bessarabia), Group IV: Hungary, Slovakia and Yugoslavia (the majority coming from the Yugoslavian Banat). To obtain units of investigation having comparable sizes, the native Westphalians were assigned to the Mnsterland, Ruhr
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area, East Westphalia and Sauerland regions. Geographic Differentiations According to Regions A strong half of the investigated features show more or less clear geographic gradients (table 2 and figs. 3 and 4). Two principal gradients can be determined. The first one is a NorthWest to South-East gradient. It has the Western pole in the North-West regions (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and North Saxony-Anhalt) and the South-East pole in Silesia and in the Sudetenland (the region with German population in Czechoslovachia before 1945). Specifically the features that express the general proportions of the body and of the head as well as the pigmentation exhibit such a gradient. The Northwest tends to have a greater stature, a smaller Rohrer index, a leptosomic type of constitution, a lepto-dolichomorphic shape of head and face, a more prominent chin as well as a lighter pigmentation of the hair and eyes. In the Southeast, i.e. in the regions of Silesia, Sudetenland and in Middle Germany, there are, correspondingly, pyknomorphic, brachymorphic and darkpigmented school children. The second gradient runs Northeast. It has in common with the first gradient that the Northwestern regions, i.e. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and North Saxony-Anhalt, form the Western pole. In contrast to the first gradient, opposed feature observations are found in the Northeast of the investigated area, in East and West Prussia and in the Eastern peak of Pomerania. The features are morphognostic-physiognomic. In this respect, the Northeast tends to have a relatively high frequency of prominent cheekbones and oblique eye openings, wavy or concave nasal profiles and a retracting chin profile. For a number of features pyknic type of constitution, cephalic index, vaulted back of the head, dark eye color, strong concave nasal profile, eye obliquity and prominence of the cheekbones West Prussia takes a more Eastern position than East Prussia within the pre-dominating West-to-East gradient, which due to its special historical and linguistic position thus tends further to the West than would correspond with its geographical position. There is evidence that the sample of school children from Masuria represents an assorted group (details will be explained in a following paper). What concerns the native Westphalians, the Ruhr area shows an Eastern influence, which can be seen from the features eye
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obliquity and prominence of the cheekbones originating in the worker migration from East Germany and Poland around 1900 (Walter 1962). Principal Component Analysis The view of the geographical differentiation of the individual features has shown that these do not differ independently from one another but that they are interrelated. In order to determine these correlations, a principal component analysis was performed for the features Rohrer index, cephalic index, facial index, nasal index, hair and eye color, morphognostic shape of the back of the head, facial shape, nasal profile, chin profile, eyeball position, eye obliquity, prominence of the cheekbones and the dermatoglyphic character index of pattern intensity. Taking account of the important morphognostic features has been made possible by preconnecting the PRINQUAL procedure of the SAS program to the actual principal component analysis, which allows variables with nominal, ordinal, interval scales to be combined in a correlation matrix (SAS/STAT Users Guide). Because of possible sex differences, the principal component analysis was carried out separately for both sexes. The regional frequency distribution of the principal component scores is, however, based on a common principal component analysis for both sexes. Among the principal components determined (tables 3, 4 and 5, figs. 4c-f), there is none that would explain a major proportion of the total variance. With 14.3% (boys and girls together), the first principal component (PC) describes only one seventh of the variance; the sum of the first five principal components described here, one half (50%) of the total variance. The eigen values of the first five principal components are all greater than 1. The 1st PC rests on the correlations between the facial index and other features. In addition to the facial index, it is related to the nasal index, cephalic index, the morphognostic facial shape and the Rohrer index. In this respect, all features observed tend to take brachymorphic proportions. Apart from this, there are also slightly weaker principal component loadings for the prominence of the cheekbones and the eye obliquity. The 1st PC can be summarized as breadth component. It takes its highest values
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in the Southeastern regions of the investigated area, i.e. the Sudetenland, Upper Silesia, and among the members of the German minority in Poland. The lowest values have been found in the Northwestern regions, i.e. in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and North Saxony-Anhalt. The 1st PC corresponds with the North-West to South-East gradient which we already know from the individual features. The 2nd PC expresses 11.1% of the feature variance among the boys and 10.8% among the girls. The set of features determined by this PC consists of the correlation between prominent cheekbones and oblique eye openings, retracting chin, and concave or wavy nasal profile. Further, there are weaker relations to a narrow shape of the head and face. Only for the girls, there is also a relation to hair and eye color in the sense of a lighter pigmentation. The map shows the highest value in West Prussia, followed by Danzig and Northeastern East Prussia. The lowest values have been found in the South of the investigated area. The 3rd PC describes nearly 10% of the total variance and rests on the correlation of hair and eye color, for which relatively high principal component loadings exists. It can be considered as pigmentation component. Its geographical frequency distribution corresponds with that of the color features, with positive values in the South and negative values in the North. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has the greatest negative value, and hence the lightest pigmentation. The small deviations in East Brandenburg and Western West Prussia should be ascribed to the small sample sizes in these regions. The 4th PC (approx. 8% of the variance) is based on the correlation between a low cephalic index and vaulted back of the head and thus describes the length proportion of the neurocranium. Its geographical frequency distribution corresponds with that of the underlying features, with high positive values in the North (Baltic Germans, MecklenburgVorpommern, Western East Prussia) and larger negative values in the South-East, especially in the Sudetenland. Although the 5th PC accounts for only 7.7% of the variance for the boys and 8.0% for the girls and hence explains a proportion of the total variance that is scarcely greater than the proportion of the mean variance of each individual feature (i.e. 7.1% for 14 features), it is nevertheless of major interest since it
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relates two different parts of the face to each other. It has the strongest loadings of the eye-ball position and chin profile features in the sense of a deep position of the eyeballs in conjunction with a prominent chin and can be interpreted as an expression of a sharp facial profile. Mainly in females, it also shows a relation to a low cephalic index. The map of the 5th PC shows positive values in the North and West the highest ones occurring in Mecklenburg-Pomerania and North Saxony-Anhalt and negative values in the South, again especially in the Sudetenland. Discussion The results of the principal component analysis may be due partly to geographical variations. However, a test consisting in carrying out the principal component analysis respectively for each of the individual sub-areas, i.e. East Prussia, Silesia, and Pomerania (including Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) yields similar principal components as for the entire population. The data thus determined clearly concur with the geographical main gradients observed from the individual features. Furthermore, there are apparent relations to the traditional types (e.g. von Eickstedt 1934). Thus, both in respect of their feature combination and their geographical distribution, the two poles of the 1st PC coincide with the typological Nordic-Alpine contrast. A significant variation from the type ideas is that the color features are missing in this PC. Due to their high common correlation, these are summarized in the 3rd PC. The probable cause for this is a partially common genetic background for the pigmentation. The typological reference is even more noticeable within the 2nd PC which relates the descriptive characters of the face of the East-Europid type (Baltic type in Anglo-Saxon terminology) to one another. This type is characterized in particular by the physiognomic characters of a slight facial flatness and robustness of the central face, together with oblique eye openings, concave nasal profile and retracting chin. Only the negative loading of the cephalic index and the positive loading of the facial index do not seem to match the conventional type pattern, which literature describes as moderately brachycephalic. Also here, the reason for this could be ascribed to the statistical method, i.e. to the construction of a breadth factor in its own principal component.
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The two principal components for the brain case and the facial profile (the 4th and 5th PC) show similar geographical distribution patterns as the 1st PC. Both feature complexes dolichomorphic brain cases as well as a straight and strong facial profile belong to the feature pattern of the Nordic type as has been described repeatedly (Bryn 1929, von Eickstedt 1934). And hence, both in respect of their geographical frequency distribution and of the features, one would expect these two complexes also in the negative pole of the 1st PC. Their representation by a separate principal component each may have similar causes as with the pigmentation: statistically, the higher correlations; biologically, the common genetic or anatomic bases respectively for each of the two principal components. Whenever the 2nd PC shows lower frequencies in the South-East, specifically in Upper Silesia, than its guiding features eye obliquity and prominence of the cheekbones (see figs. 4a and b), this is due to the fact that both features are also related to the breadth complex of the 1st PC. The reason for this may be that the alpine-brachymorphic and the East-Europid feature complex both belong to an older ethno-historical layer (see below). Like other multivariate statistical methods, factor analyses and its derivation principal component analysis do not represent an accurate but a distorted reproduction of reality or rather of the underlying data. They actually include arbitrary decisions as well as loss of information. Although the loss of information in the principal component analysis is much smaller than that in the construction of a dendrogram, the methodical aspects should be considered also here. The construction of straight axes between opposite poles which are perpendicular to each other in a multi-dimensional space, i.e. which show no correlation between one another (so-called orthogonality), is such an aspect. In fact, in the biological reality, there should hardly be any complex structures having no correlations between the individual factors of influence. However, the principal component analysis forces these factors into principal components which are completely independent of one another. In order to address these methodical effects, one needs to resort to the data basis of the principal component analysis, i.e. the matrix of the correlations between the features. The correlation matrix of the East German school children
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(tables 6 and 7) shows that the highest correlation exists between the features prominent cheekbones and oblique eye openings (0.44 for the boys and 0.52 for the girls). The secondhighest correlations are those of the facial index to the cephalic index and to the morphognostic facial shape with -0.37 each. The facial index has correlations with several other features, the greatest correlation being that with the nasal index (-0.27). Between the cephalic index and the morphognostic vaulted back of the head, there is a correlation of 0.25. Only the third rank is held by a correlation coefficient of 0.30 between hair and eye color. Without the red-haired subjects and hence for variables with ordinal scales calculated as per Spearman this correlation equals 0.38. While the eye obliquity and the prominence of the cheekbones are associated not only to other physiognomic features (i.e. chin profile, nasal profile) but also to the facial index and the nasal index through small correlations (over 0.10), the hair and eye color is not at all related to any other features. Also, the only dermatoglyphic character, the index of pattern intensity, shows no correlations with other features greater than 0.10. What is particularly informative is the comparison of the correlations of the East Germans, on which the principal components are based, to those of the native inhabitants in the Westphalian survey (table 8, cf. Schwidetzky, Walter 1967, p. 82 ff.). Although the correlations are not exactly comparable because more features have been taken into account for the native Westphalians and the physiognomic features have been determined in a photometrical and not in a morphognostic manner, the fundamental characteristics of the correlation matrices may be compared. In the same manner as for the East Germans, also the facial index of the native Westphalian boys shows the greatest number of correlations. For the Rohrer index, cephalic index and nasal index as well as the prominence of the cheekbones, concur with those of the East German boys. Different from them, the broad faces among the native Westphalians, however, tend to have a deeper eyeball position (r = 0.24) and more horizontal and less oblique eye openings (0.11). In addition to this, there are further correlations to physiognomic features which have not been recorded for the East German boys: narrow eye openings, narrow lips, straight shape of the mouth crevice, broad chin arc, square lateral chin
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angles, horizontal eyebrows. According to Schwidetzky, it is obvious that this is the feature complex which literature describes as the Falic type (Schwidetzky 1967, p. 84). Like the East German boys, the native Westphalian boys show no correlations between the strongly inter-related color features (0.57) and the morphognostic features. After all, the greatest difference between the Westphalian and East German correlation matrix is that the East-Europid correlation complex, which underlies the 2nd PC, is completely missing for the Westphalian inhabitants. The correlation between prominent cheekbones and oblique eye openings, which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.44) among the East German boys, is only 0.07 for the Westphalian boys i.e. not significantly different from zero. Further, the Westphalians do not show correlations between the features prominent cheekbones and oblique eye openings and retracting chin profile. All in all, the different correlation structures in Westphalia and East Germany clearly show the different typological composition of both populations, in which on the one hand the Falic type and on the other hand the East-Europid type play a particular role apart from the common population elements. The different correlations in both areas of Central Europe show that the feature correlations are not only of a general nature and based on general genetic or anatomic relationships but that they point to the existence of anthropological types. Thus, for our area of investigation, the analysis has shown to a certain extent the biological reality of conventional types. This holds for the Nordic, East-Europid and Alpine types as well as, through the investigations carried out by Ilse Schwidetzky, for the Falic type in Westphalia. The 2nd principal component can serve as a correlation-statistical evidence of the existence of the East-Europid type, which has so far only been described using feature maps or as a local or regional average type. It is important to note that the descriptive characters of the face allow to arrive at the most essential differentiations. This concurs with the observation made by Bernhard (1991) on a material from Afghanistan and Pakistan, namely that the formation of clusters occurs much more in accordance with ethnical aspects for the morphognostic features than for the metric variables; that is, the closest morphometrical similarity relations exist between series of equal ethnical membership,
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even if they live in areas relatively far away from each other (p. 217). The same observation was made by Dhima (1994) during investigations in Albania. From this, Bernhard infers that ethnically foreign groups were assimilated metrically to their geographic environment in the course of time. This corresponds with the fact known from investigations of twins and families that the heritability of physiognomic features of the head is greater than that of the conventional dimensions (Bernhard et al. 1979, Knumann 1996). Racial-ethnical types appear to be characterized physiognomically in the first place and metrically or serologically in the second place only. Using ethno-historic the resulting East-Europid feature complex may be related to the Slavic and Baltic peoples, which have influenced the East German population as a substrate. The East-Europid feature complex has its center outside the area investigated in Northeastern Europe (Vitov, Mark, Ceboksarov 1959, Bunak 1976). The relationship between the Nordic feature complex, predominantly originating from the Northwest, and the German and especially Lower German settlement of the medieval and early modern period appears equally clear. The third, darker-pigmented Alpine complex in the South cannot be assigned to any specific historical people. This feature complex represents the autochthonic population of Central Europe in the South of the low mountain range, which participated in various ethno-genetic processes since early history, for example that of the Celts, and which survived biologically in the modern European peoples. The question as to the reality of types characterized by complexes of individually and geographical-historically interrelated features is asked anew for each population and each type. Ideas of types have been gained by abstraction from the features of real populations (Rsing, Winkler 1992) and hence these ideas should be checked by empirical verification and correction. According to Schwidetzky (1962), touchstones are the geographical and individual correlations as well as the historical constancy seen in skeletal groups. Of course, types are not uniform, stable and discrete entities but need to be considered as bunches or knots within the multivariate continuum. Beside them there is also a great deal of nontypological variability. Since the traditional ideas of types are not the result of arbitrary decisions but of a long clarification
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process in the history of science in which the number of types increased, the types themselves were permanently compared to the specific features and old ideas of types formerly corrected or ruled out might be confirmed by statistical methods. In fact, this was so for several examples of von Eickstedts types which could be confirmed through geographical cluster analysis. Rsing and Winkler (1992) give examples for this from Africa and Asia. If typology is understood empirically, there will be no contradiction of typology to statistical methods. Instead, a singlesided population concept which excludes correlations between the features (Rsing 1990, Edwards 2003) can be corrected. The concepts of type and population complement each other in the process of analyzing biological reality, which cannot completely be described by the population concept (cf. Schwidetzky 1974, Winkler 1988, Rsing 1990, Rsing, Winkler 1992, Schrter 1993). Acknowledgement
I wish to thank Professor Dr. Friedrich W. Rsing, Ulm, for valuable discussion and kind revision of the English text.

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Figure 1 Political borders in East Central Europe before (above) and after the Second World War (below) (1937 and 2005)

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Figure 2 Subdivision in historical regions used in this study. Amongst the German minorities in East Europe, only group II (Poland) is considered by the map.

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Figure 3 Frequency distributions of the features in the regions (boys and girls). Points / low hatching density: feature class 1 greatest hatching density: feature class with the highest number (4,5 or 6): 3 a. percentage of Slavic and Baltic family names. 1 (points): 0.0-1.4%, 2: 1.5-3.7%, 3: 4.5-8.0%, 4: 10.013.5%, 5: 19.0-22.0%, 6: 46.0-54.0%. 3 b. corrected stature (boys only): 1 (points): 161 x, 2: 160, 3: 159, 4: 158, 5: 157, 6: 156 (in cm). 3 c. Rohrer index: 1 (points): 1.20-1.22, 2: 1.23-1.25, 3: 1.26-1.28, 4: 1.29 x. 3 d. pyknic type of constitution: 1 (points): 5.9%, 2: 6.0-8.9%, 3: 9.0-11.9%, 4: 12.0 x . 3 e. cephalic index: 1 (points): x 80.4, 2. 80.5-81.9, 3: 82.0-83.4, 4. 83.5-84.9, 5: 85.0 x. 3 f. morphological facial index: 1 (points): 87.5 x, 2: 86.0-87.4, 3: 84.5-85.9, 4: 83.0-84.4. In 3 d, the value for East Brandenburg has been smoothed because of the small number of individuals. Amongst the German minorities in East Europe, only group II (Poland) is considered by the maps.

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Figure 4. Frequency distributions of the features and principal component values in the regions (boys and girls): 4 a. moderate oblique and very oblique eye openings: 1 (points): 0.0-9.9%, 2: 10.0-13.9%, 3: 14.017.9%, 4: 18.0-21.9%, 5 (greatest hatching density): 22.0 x. 4 b. moderate prominent and very prominent cheek bones: 1 (points): 0.0-19.9%, 2: 20.0-29.9%, 3: 30.039.9%, 4 (greatest hatching density): 40.0 x. 4 c 4 f. principal components (great hatching density means high values of the respective principal component): 4 c. 1st principal component (breadth component): 1 (points): x -0.4, 2: -0.4 -0.2, 3: -0.2 0.0, 4: 0.0 0.2, 5: 0.2 x. 4 d. 2nd principal component (East-Europid component): 1 (points): x -0.2, 2: -0.2 0.0, 3: 0.0 0.2, 4: 0.2 0.4, 5: 0.4 x. 4 e. 3rd principal component (pigmentation component): 1 (points): x -0.4, 2: -0.4 -0.2, 3: -0.2 0.0, 4: 0.0 0.2, 5. 0.2 0.4. 4 f. 5th principal component (facial profile component): 1 (points): x -0.4, 2: -0.4 -0.2, 3: -0.2 0.0, 4: 0.0 0.2, 5: 0.2 0.4, 6: 0.4 x. Note: In 4 a, b, e and f, the values for East Brandenburg, and in 4 e, for Western West Prussia, have been smoothed because of the small numbers of individuals. Amongst the German minorities in East Europe, only group II (Poland) is considered in the maps.

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Table 1 Correlations between the features and the state of development (Schwidetzky index), (boys)
Eye color Hair color4 0.312 *** (s) 0.083 (c) -0.034 n.s (s) 0.107 (c) 0.210*** (s) 0.059 * (s) -0.008 n.s (s) -0.011 n.s (s) 0.005 n.s (s) 0.143 *** (s)

Stature Weight 3 Rohrer index3 Chest circumference Shape of the back of the head Nasal profile Chin profile Facial shape Position of the eye balls Eye obliquity Prominence of the cheek bones Index of pattern intenstity

0.716 ***1 (s)2 0.730 *** (s) 0.092 *** (s) 0.642 *** (s)

Head lenght (g-op) Head breadth ( eu-eu) Bizygom. breadth ( zy-zy)

0.309 *** (s) 0.164 *** (s) 0.361 *** (s)

Facial height (n-gn) Nasal heigth (n-sn) Nasal breadth (al-al) Bigonial breadth (go-go)

0.507 *** (s) 0.361 *** (s) 0.360 *** (s) 0.320 *** (s)

Cephalic index Facial index Nasal index Jugomandibular index Mandibulofacial index

-0.112 *** (s) 0.220 *** (s) 0.030 n.s. (s) 0.101 *** (s) -0.103 *** (s)

Difference of the correlation coefficents from zero (significance of 0.1 %-***, 1.0 %-** or 5.0 %*-level) 2 S = Correlation coefficient from Spearman, C = Correlation coefficient Cramer's V 3 without the adipose individuals 4 without the red haired individuals

Table 2 Features and family names in the regions (boys and girls) Part 1 of 2 parts
Sa-A. South1 38 47.4 6.3 47.8 20.7 3.7 81.4 84.5 63.2 86.1 1.26 34.0 5.8 160.2 160.1 26.0 19.0 158.1 159.1 54.0 13.9 157.4 9.5 158.9 11.4 158.7 160.5 26.0 27.8 45.7 29.6 1.25 1.21 1.23 1.25 34.1 8.0 158.6 158.0 45.0 86.2 85.9 86.8 86.5 86.4 1.23 33.4 7.1 157.5 159.2 25.0 81.9 85.1 61.1 82.4 84.7 63.1 82.4 83.6 62.7 81.3 85.5 62.9 82.1 84.7 62.4 0.0 2.0 2.3 2.2 0.0 1.9 81.5 84.7 63.2 87.1 1.23 32.9 44.4 38.2 34.1 31.8 26.2 31.0 34.5 0.0 81.9 84.7 61.3 86.8 1.31 10.3 30.6 35.3 50.0 45.5 50.0 45.8 34.4 11.1 8.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 3.2 3.4 5.0 35.0 32.5 2.5 81.8 86.3 62.6 86.1 1.25 30.0 5.2 20.7 5.0 157.3 158.9 160.2 158.4 158.6 85.0 15.0 159.6 22.0 38.9 55.2 59.1 51.1 47.6 51.0 55.2 52.5 36 82 44 88 42 155 29 40 140 50.0 5.0 45.0 28.6 1.4 81.6 84.8 62.4 86.8 1.24 35.7 5.0 158.4 159.6 78.0 Thur. Saxony1 Lusitia Pomerania West East East Prussia Masuria W. East North-E. West Prussia East West 102 50.0 6.9 46.0 29.4 1.0 82.1 86.0 62.5 85.8 1.24 36.3 23 21.7 4.3 30.4 34.8 0.0 81.9 85.7 63.0 86.0 1.20 47.8 10.8 8.7 159.5 159.4 160.3 159.1 61.0 13.0

region

Me- Vp

Sa-A. Brand.1 North

29

33

34

Eye colour light 1a-2b 69.0% 51.5 33.1 Eye colour brown 12-16 0.0% 9.1 2.1 Hair colour fair A-O 44.8% 45.5 44.3 Hair colour black/Brown U-Y 27.6% 27.3 26.0 Hair colour red I-VI 3.4% 0.0 2.1 Cephalic index 79.2 78.7 81.5 Facial index 84.9 87.6 84.8 Nasal index 62.3 61.8 64.0 Mandibulofacial index 88.2 85.6 85.4

Rohrer index 1.20 1.22 1.24 Const. Type leptosome 48.2% 45.5 42.2 Const. Type pyknic 3.4% 3.1 8.5 Stature 161.8 161.2 157.3 Corrected stature (boys) 161.7 159.7 157.2 n (corr. stature) 15.0 18.0 26.0

Table 2: part 1 (here continued onto second page)


Sa-A. South1 38 2.95 3.10 3.14 1.16 1.16 48.4 2.1 21.3 10.1 2.1 30.3 13.8 16.0 16.0 11.94 12.42 13.31 25.0 21.2 13.9 11.7 4.5 20.5 12.68 22.2 16.4 11.4 4.5 11.3 26.1 12.03 19.4 26.2 15.9 26.1 2.8 0.0 4.5 3.4 7.1 14.3 11.9 21.4 33.4 12.26 8.3 1.0 4.5 3.4 16.7 27.8 30.6 34.1 39.8 21.4 36.8 5.8 1.3 20.6 13.5 17.4 30.4 11.1 6.3 0.0 2.2 2.4 1.2 3.4 34.5 6.9 6.9 24.1 13.8 10.3 27.5 12.32 12.55 44.4 52.0 50.0 44.3 47.6 49.0 41.4 1.28 1.23 1.20 1.27 1.38 1.37 1.31 1.48 42.5 2.5 37.5 2.5 2.5 20.0 10.0 22.5 30.5 13.10 3.25 1.17 3.10 1.15 3.05 1.05 3.17 1.13 3.12 1.29 3.10 1.19 3.00 1.10 3.25 1.23 3.12 1.19 1.24 40.0 6.4 35.0 4.3 3.6 19.3 13.6 15.8 21.5 13.06 2.78 3.06 2.84 2.92 3.05 2.98 2.89 2.92 2.74 2.98 2.83 3.06 2.90 3.03 2.83 3.00 2.89 2.96 36 82 44 88 42 155 29 40 140 102 2.97 2.99 3.12 1.25 1.47 38.2 3.9 25.5 12.7 5.9 22.5 9.8 22.6 40.2 Thur. Saxony1 Lusitia Pomerania West East East Prussia Masuria W. East North-E. West Prussia East West 23 2.96 3.04 3.22 1.17 1.30 52.2 4.3 34.8 4.3 4.3 17.4 8.7 13.0 30.4 11.90 12.22

region

Me- Vp

Sa-A. Brand.1 North

29

33

34

2.95 3.01

Back of the head 2.76 3.00 Chin profile 2.93 2.88 Pos. of the eye balls 3.24 3.21 Eye obliquity 1.10 1.21 Prom. of the cheek bones 1.24 1.12

3.24 1.12

1.30

Nasal profile: straight 48.3% 30.3 43.7 Nasal profile: convex 6.9% 12.1 2.1 Nasal profile: moderate concave 27.6% 45.5 40.1 Nasal profile: strong concave 3.4% 0.0 4.2 Nasal profile: very wavy 0.0% 3.0 0.0 Facial shape:oval (narrow) 24.1% 42.4 24.0 Facial shape: round 6.9% 3.0 6.3 Eye opening oblique 6.4% 15.2 12.0 Cheek bones prominent 20.6% 12.1 29.6 Index of pattern intensity 12.55 12.15 12.13

Table 2: part 1 (here continued onto third page)


Sa-A. South1 0.232 0.156 0.622 0.542 0.459 24 0.0 3.5 86.0 83.0 139.0 97.0 135.0 67.0 202.0 53.0 2.4 5.0 23.7 11.9 22.4 29.7 28.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.5 5.9 7.5 3.2 47.6 63.0 19 47 25 42 25 83 14 21 73 46.3 65.5 177.0 0.210 0.145 0.644 0.474 0.523 0.216 0.138 0.646 0.490 0.511 0.130 0.130 0.741 0.500 0.500 0.232 0.143 0.624 0.464 0.536 0.306 0.251 0.443 0.620 0.380 0.282 0.137 0.581 0.641 0.359 0.474 0.037 0.488 0.465 0.536 0.187 0.158 0.654 0.571 0.428 0.284 0.099 0.617 0.583 0.418 0.182 0.165 0.643 0.560 0.441 59 19.7 30.9 152.0
3

region

Me- Vp

Sa-A. Brand.1 North Lusitia Pomerania West East East Prussia Masuria W. East North-E.

Thur. Saxony1

West Prussia East West 0.359 0.044 0.597 0.683 0.319 12 10.4 22.9 48.0
includes

ABOA 0.224 ABOB 0.104 ABO0 0.672 MN M 0.434 MN N 0.566 n (ABO. MN) 15

0.151 0.057 0.791 0.528 0.472

0.358 0.081 0.560 0.380 0.620

18

25

Family name Polish/Czech 2 0.0% 0.0 0.0 Family name not German 3 4.8% 3.3 7.9 n (family names) 63.0 60.0 76.0

Proportion of the sexes convert to 55:45. 2 Slavic ( Polish and Czech) family names of the younger layer, from 16./17. century to present time. Baltic (Lithuanian, Kuranian and Prussian) names and older Slavic names.

Table 2: part 2 of 2 parts


Upper Silesia 318 42.5 8.2 39.7 32.4 3.1 83.9 83.9 61.9 87.4 1.22 41.8 7.9 159.0 159.5 56 157.6 22 157.8 18.9 6.3 160.2 161.0 12 25.7 50.0 1.30 1.20 1.28 27.6 13.1 86.9 87.2 85.1 87.4 86.8 1.27 30.6 8.3 157.8 157.3 158.0 159.6 90 20 61.5 61.7 63.7 62.8 62.0 84.4 84.9 84.8 84.0 84.3 84.2 62.7 86.7 1.24 45.7 5.7 157.2 156.6 19 158.4 159.1 159.5 159.0 84.9 85.6 79.9 83.4 82.8 84.2 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.6 5.6 0.0 2.7 80.5 86.5 61.2 86.1 1.26 37.8 38.0 18.8 32.5 27.8 71.4 21.6 32.9 46.4 43.8 45.0 55.6 20.0 48.8 41.3 33.6 2.5 80.4 86.2 61.9 84.9 1.26 9.8 13.2 6.3 10.0 2.8 17.1 4.1 6.2 54.0 42.0 43.8 45.0 61.1 31.4 54.4 48.9 56.9 5.1 49.2 29.1 3.1 79.9 85.2 62.0 86.3 1.25 90 33 16 160 36 35 4180 4712 4547 3153 57.9 3.7 55.6 24.9 3.3 80.1 85.7 62.3 85.7 1.22 22.3 3.6 81.3 84.6 61.4 81.1 Sudet. West 1 Sudet. East1 Baltic Germ.2 Germans abroard II III IV Mnst.land1 Ruhrarea Sauerland East Westph. Einbeck

Danzig

EastBrand .1

Lower Silesia North South

38

21

256

365

278 54.1 6.8

Eye colour light 1a-2b 47.4% 36.1 50.0 42.2 Eye colour brown 12-16 7.9% 9.8 8.2 9.3 Hair colour fair A-O 31.6% 24.9 43.3 37.0 Hair colour black/brown U-Y 44.7% 59.2 30.5 38.1 Hair colour red I-VI 0.0% 6.1 0.8 4.1 Cephalic index 81.1 81.4 82.8 83.7 Facial index 85.0 86.4 84.5 84.2 Nasal index 62.3 62.2 61.9 61.7 Mandibulofacial index 87.2 84.0 86.8 86.7

Rohrer index 1.21 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.25 Const. Type leptosome 44.7% 35.7 36.8 30.6 30.3 Const. Type pyknic 9.9% 3.7 8.2 9.3 12.0 Stature 158.6 157.8 158.3 156.4 157.5 Corrected stature (boys) 161.2 159.4 158.6 157.2 157.9 n (corr. stature) 20 9 143 204 187

Table 2: part 2 (here continued onto second page)


Upper Silesia 318 2.94 2.97 3.10 1.24 1.37 47.2 6.2 27.7 6.3 2.5 16.0 13.8 19.5 31.2 12.43 12.41 32.6 26.4 12.61 22.1 18.2 10.2 18.9 6.3 25.0 18.8 12.31 19.7 19.1 31.3 1.0 6.6 6.3 0.6 14.4 19.4 19.4 30.1 2.3 6.6 0.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 13.9 13.9 19.5 41.7 12.26 12.75 25.0 31.4 31.3 29.4 30.6 2.3 10.7 12.6 3.8 0.0 0.0 34.3 0.0 2.9 14.3 14.3 8.6 28.6 12.14 12.9 22.2 12.05 17.9 30.1 12.32 6.8 16.3 12.23 11.6 17.0 12.05 4.1 11.1 12.1 56.6 38.2 43.8 53.8 61.1 57.1 44.6 4.9 19.0 36.15 13.5 38.5 10.8 40.2 8.4 31.8 6.6 2.8 4.6 1.37 1.33 1.19 1.34 1.44 1.29 45.9 4.9 48.2 3.4 59.4 2.3 1.24 1.18 1.25 1.22 1.22 1.11 3.11 3.10 3.25 3.11 3.25 3.11 3.09 3.10 3.13 2.96 3.03 2.97 3.07 3.13 2.63 2.98 2.94 2.86 90 33 16 160 36 35 4180 4712 4547 3153 Sudet. West1 Sudet. East1 Baltic Germ.2 Germans abroard II III IV Mnst.land1 Ruhrarea Sauerland East Westph. Einbeck

Danzig

EastBrand .1

Lower Silesia North South

38

21

256

365

278 2.93 2.95 3.06 1.05 1.13 66.0 6.5

2.95

2.98

3.14

Back of the head 2.82 2.83 2.94 Chin profile 3.00 3.02 2.98 Pos. Of the eye balls 3.16 3.10 3.07 Eye obliquity 1.26 1.11 1.14 Prom. of the cheek bones 1.45 1.38 1.27

1.15

1.23

Nasal profile: straight 42.1% 62.9 53.9 57.0 Nasal profile: convex 2.6% 0.0 3.9 5.2 Nasal profile: moderate concave 42.1% 19.7 28.9 25.5 Nasal profile: strong concave 2.6% 3.7 3.5 3.0 Nasal profile: very wavy 0.0% 9.8 2.3 3.0 Facial shape: oval (narrow) 31.6% 38.1 18.4 16.9 Facial shape: round 15.8% 3.7 10.2 12.6 Eye opening oblique 18.4% 7.4 12.1 12.6 Cheek bones prominent 39.5% 38.4 23.4 21.4 Index of pattern intensity 12.18 12.52 12.76 12.27

Table 2: part 2 (here continued onto third page)


Upper Silesia Sudet. West1 Sudet. East1 Baltic Germ.2 Germans abroard II III IV Mnst.land1 Ruhrarea Sauerland East Westph. Einbeck

Danzig

EastBrand .1

Lower Silesia North South

0.305 0.130 0.571 0.539 0.460 187 35.2 44.6 437.0 96.0 45.0 19.0 231.0 47.0 18.5 24.4 0.0 21.6 19.1 19.0 42.0 13.4 20.0 0.0 12.6 12.8 11.9 53 21 12 83 21 18 2700 0.500 0.477 0.417 0.464 0.290 0.500 0.447 0.500 0.524 0.584 0.536 0.711 0.500 0.554 0.567 0.437 2697 0.732 0.698 0.435 0.653 0.712 0.627 0.666 0.628 0.019 0.024 0.225 0.101 0.113 0.118 0.065 0.089 0.060 0.654 0.533 0.466 2774

0.265

0.299

0.249

0.277

0.338

0.246 0.175

0.255

0.272

0.282

0.291

0.276 0.071 0.653 0.514 0.486 1806

0.088

0.088

0.607

0.647

0.565

0.503

ABOA 0.295 0.250 ABOB 0.195 0.116 ABO0 0.510 0.634 MN M 0.600 0.556 MN N 0.400 0.444 n (ABO. MN) 20 9

0.435

0.492

145

208

Family name Polish/Czech 3 10.1% 5.5 4.1 3.1 Family name not German 4 34.2% 20.0 19.7 14.9 n (family names) 79.0 55.0 391.0 423.0

Proportion of the sexes convert to 55:45. 2 Baltic Germans: 12 boys and 4 girls, not converted 3 Slavic (Polish and Czech) family names of the younger layer, from 16./17. century to present time. 4 includes Baltic (Lithuanian, Kuranian and Prussian) names and older Slavic names. 5 moderate and strong concave together.

Table 3 Principal component loadings (boys, n= 1607)


2nd PC 11.1% - 0.1364 - 0.3023 0.2982 0.0034 - 0.0844 - 0.0189 0.2983 - 0.2309 0.0721 - 0.0262 0.4280 - 0.0562 0.4906 0.4669 - 0.0577 - 0.1126 0.1410 0.0578 0.1792 0.0415 0.0093 - 0.0953 0.6565 - 0.0223 - 0.2575 0.6462 0.1785 - 0.0200 0.0496 - 0.0047 0.3904 - 0.5221 0.0284 0.4124 - 0.0927 0.2598 0.2772 0.3030 0.0373 - 0.3536 - 0.0657 0.0281 - 0.1218 0.0657 - 0.1786 0.0630 0.0241 0.1725 0.0065 - 0.1977 - 0.0197 - 0.0520 0.1363 - 0.3487 0.8027 0.2874 9.7% 8.3% 7.7% 3rd PC 4th PC 5th PC

1st PC

Proportion of variability

13.8%

Rohrer index 0.2246 Cephalic index 0.3134 Facial index - 0.5158 Nasal index 0.3713 Ind. of pattern int. - 0.0163 Hair colour - 0.0270 Nasal profile 0.0919 Facial shape 0.3459 Eye colour 0.0439 Back of the head 0.3037 Chin profile 0.0357 Pos. of the eye balls - 0.0895 Eye obliquity 0.3122 Prom. of the cheek bones 0.3423

Table 4 Principal component loadings (girls, n= 1152)


2nd PC 10.8% - 0.1400 - 0.2389 0.2060 0.0147 - 0.0786 - 0.3085 0.2894 - 0.1357 - 0.3025 - 0.1652 0.2812 - 0.1782 0.4775 0.4682 0.1877 0.1882 - 0.1495 - 0.1510 0.0182 0.2073 - 0.0740 0.1491 0.5745 0.1229 - 0.3761 0.5620 0.0838 0.1208 - 0.0175 0.2152 0.0297 - 0.4028 0.0666 0.0991 - 0.3150 0.0510 - 0.2230 0.1614 0.1772 - 0.2049 - 0.4031 0.5614 0.2413 0.1078 - 0.3424 - 0.1347 0.3988 0.1829 0.2122 0.1774 0.3865 0.1882 - 0.5005 0.2342 - 0.2584 - 0.0660 10.1% 8.0% 7.8% 3rd PC 4th PC 5th PC

1st PC

Proportion of variability

14.1%

Rohrer index 0.2429 Cephalic index 0.3739 Facial index - 0.5168 Nasal index 0.3364 Ind. of pattern int. - 0.0293 Hair colour 0.0499 Nasal profile 0.1022 Facial shape 0.2219 Eye colour 0.0975 Back of the head 0.2781 Chin profile - 0.1061 Pos. of the eye balls - 0.0573 Eye obliquity 0.3300 Prom. of the cheek bones 0.3785

Table 5 Principal component scores in the regions (boys and girls)


Brand. 34 -0.151 0.152 -0.108 0.206 0.143 -0.159 0.087 -0.114 0.246 0.135 -0.359 0.080 0.315 -0.013 0.167 -0.374 -0.151 0.004 0.182 -0.020 0.039 -0.307 -0.266 0.143 -0.143 -0.213 0.024 -0.190 0.040 0.322 -0.017 0.299 -0.287 0.075 0.096 38 36 82 44 88 42 Sa-A. South Thur. Saxony Lusat. Pomerania West East

Me- Vp

Sa-A. North

29

33

1st PC 2nd PC 3rd PC 4th PC 5th PC

-0.556 0.076 -0.531 0.232 0.561

-0.764 0.335 -0.028 -0.040 0.639

East Prussia West East North-E. 140 -0.159 0.066 -0.187 0.089 0.088 Sudet. West 90 0.216 -0.043 0.255 -0.247 -0.475 0.231 -0.057 0.267 -0.332 -0.524 33 16 -0.433 0.327 -0.140 0.502 0.439 Sudet. East Baltic Germans 0.074 0.444 -0.166 -0.098 0.128 -0.168 0.082 0.267 0.109 0.169 -0.139 0.425 0.078 0.074 0.230 102 23 38 21

Masur.

West Prussia East West

Danzig

East Brand.

L.Silesia North 256

155

29

40

1st PC 2nd PC 3rd PC 4th PC 5th PC

-0.065 0.229 -0.212 0.214 0.113

-0.092 0.051 -0.036 0.066 0.002

-0.096 0.341 -0.115 0.008 0.354

-0.197 0.180 0.273 0.078 0.241 Germans abroad II III IV. 160 0.300 -0.110 0.018 -0.096 -0.032 36 0.091 0.103 -0.215 -0.368 0.026 35 0.055 -0.304 0.763 0.120 -0.186

-0.034 -0.145 -0.084 0.000 -0.131

L.Silesia South

Upper Silesia

365

318

1st PC 2nd PC 3rd PC 4th PC 5th PC

0.048 -0.313 0.180 -0.096 -0.127

0.285 -0.053 0.077 -0.103 -0.180

Table 6 Correlation matrix (boys)


NI IPI Hair col. N.pr. Fac.Sh. Eye col. back h. chin pr. Pos. E. Eye obl.

Ro.-I.

CI

FI.

- 0.0257 0.0442 - 0.0199 0.1042 - 0.0298 0.1549 0.0145 - 0.0135 0.0893 - 0.0290 - 0.0275 - 0.0424 0.1261 - 0.0336 0.1229 - 0.0055 - 0.0310 0.1046 - 0 .0601 0.0783 0.0140 - 0.0310 0.1171 - 0.0258 0.0012 0.0339 0.0371 0.0592 0.3073 - 0.0093 - 0.0702 0.0247 0.0357 - 0.0057 0.0154 0.0404 0.0467 0.0409 0.0328 0.0379 0.1242 0.0834 - 0.0994 0.1325 0.1572 0.0253 - 0.0613 0.4443 0.0384 - 0.0738 - 0.0082 0.0057

Rohrer index Cephalic index 0.0532 Facial index - 0.1237 - 0.3767 Nasal index 0.1253 0.0123 - 0.2743 Index of pattern intensity - 0.0350 - 0.0116 - 0.0184 Hair colour 0.0641 - 0.0056 0.0403 Nasal profile 0.0234 - 0.0630 0.0269 Facial shape 0.1491 0.0185 - 0.3704 Eye colour - 0.0084 0.0608 - 0.0271 Back of the head 0.0817 0.2549 - 0.1241 Chin profile - 0.0134 - 0.0608 0.1017 Position of the eye balls 0.0172 - 0 .0692 0.0557 Eye obliquity - 0.0040 - 0.0077 - 0.0743 Prom. of the cheek bones 0.0283 0.0006 - 0.1333 0.0159 - 0.0426 - 0.0338

Table 7 Correlation matrix (girls)


NI IPI Hair col. N.pr. Fac.Sh. Eye col. back h. chin pr. Pos. E. Eye obl.

Ro.-I.

CI

FI.

- 0.0443 0.0074 0.0611 0.0964 - 0.0117 0.0447 0.0559 - 0.0289 - 0.0264 - 0.0395 - 0.0133 0.1032 - 0.0086 0.1225 - 0.0386 - 0.0029 0.1074 - 0.0330 0.1249 - 0.0082 - 0.0541 0.0273 - 0.0220 0.0960 - 0.0605 0.0154 0.0377 - 0.0283 0.0738 0.0265 0.0148 0.0273 0.3796 - 0.0134 - 0.0618 0.0378 - 0.0292 - 0.0385 0.0631 0.0223 0.0045 0.0392 0.0352 0.0903 - 0.0982 0.0140 0.0387 - 0.0559 - 0.0360 0.5199 - 0.0468 - 0.0260 0.0154 - 0.0102 0.0733

Rohrer index Cephalic index 0.0841 Facial index - 0.1932 - 0.3817 Nasal index 0.0299 0.0400 - 0.3297 Index of pattern intensity 0.0186 0.0429 0.0236 Hair colour 0.0109 0.0416 0.0110 Nasal profile 0.0296 - 0.0074 0.0006 Facial shape 0.1528 0.0160 - 0.2705 Eye colour 0.0114 0.0726 - 0.0533 Back of the head 0.0821 0.2542 - 0.1426 Chin profile - 0.0412 - 0.0736 0.1206 Position of the eye balls 0.0320 - 0.0693 0.0335 Eye obliquity - 0.0082 0.0437 - 0.0814 Prom. of the cheek bones 0.0897 0.0808 - 0.1428

Table 8: part one of two Correlation matrix indigenous Westphalians (boys, n= 1180, Schwidetzky & Walter 1967, table 13a)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.012 - 0.009 0.312 0.019 0.007 0.087 0.058 - 0.100 - 0.116 0.153 0.132 0.147 - 0.082 - 0.071 - 0.085 0.037 0.135 0.149 0.060 0.116 - 0.178 0.101 0.240 - 0.115 - 0.101 0.104 - 0.177 - 0.046 - 0.054 - 0.003 - 0.084 0.220 - 0.115 - 0.137 0.022 0.034 - 0.008 - 0.338 0.224 0.176 0.177 - 0.070 - 0.034 - 0.099 - 0.111 0.039 - 0.166 0.013 0.048 0.058 0.071 0.005 - 0.011 0.101 0.020 - 0.029 0.086 0.013 0.021 0.093 - 0.599 - 0.153 0.249 - 0.096 0.128 0.178 0.101 - 0.169 - 0.109 - 0.003 - 0.036 - 0.041 0.145 0.102 0.192 0.120 - 0.040 0.054 - 0.120 - 0.300 - 0.037 - 0.108 - 0.180 0.091 - 0.032 - 0.105 0.152 0.212 - 0.119 0.029 - 0.038 0.007 - 0.185 0.077 - 0.049 0.026 0.072 - 0.042 0.028 0.015 0.034 0.009

0.095 0.088 0.006 0.062 0.024 0.081 0.107 - 0.061 0.099 - 0.190 0.072 - 0.027 0.113 - 0.013 - 0.098 - 0.104 0.001 0.055 - 0.098 0.072

- 0.054 - 0.096 - 0.065 0.070 0.231 0.063 0.007 0.047 0.013 - 0.004 0.037 - 0.006

0.028 - 0.025 0.085 - 0.159 0.119 0.097 0.180 0.091 0.004 0.024 0.012

1. State of development 2. Eye obliquity 3. Eye opening index 4. Mouth-index 5. Index of eye depth 6. Lateral chin angle 7. Roundn. of lat.chin angle 8. Shape of mouth opening 9. Eyebrow direction 10. Chin profile 11. Nasal profile 12. Prom. of the cheek bones 13. Cephalic index 14. Facial index 15. Nasal index 16. Jugomandibular index 17. Stature 18. Rohrer index 19. Eye colour 20. Hair colour 21. Index of pattern intensity

- 0.046 - 0.083 0.101 - 0.073 0.081 0.134 0.175 - 0.098 - 0.111

- 0.009

Table 8: part two of two


11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1. State of development 2. Eye obliquity 3. Eye opening index 4. Mouth-index 5. Index of eye depth 6. Lateral chin angle 7. Roundn. of lat.chin angle 8. Shape of mouth opening 9. Eyebrow direction 10. Chin profile 11. Nasal profile 12. Prom. of the cheek bones 13. Cephalic index 14. Facial index 15. Nasal index 16. Jugomandibular index 17. Stature 18. Rohrer index 19. Eye colour 20. Hair colour 21. Index of pattern intensity - 0.572 0.033 0.148 - 0.265 - 0.039 0.031 - 0.037 0.010 - 0.022 - 0.010 - 0.110 - 0.236 0.304 0.088 - 0.103 0.028 - 0.074 - 0.104 0.007 - 0.368 0.039 - 0.100 - 0.010 0.148 - 0.046 - 0.077 0.072 - 0.361 0.098 0.089 0.282 0.108 - 0.151 0.090 0.025 0.013 0.107 - 0.027 0.008 0.014 - 0.053 - 0.042 - 0.140 0.007 - 0.042 - 0.034 0.008 - 0.039 0.044 0.008 - 0.006 - 0.084 0.571 - 0.051

0.038

36

Andreas Vonderach

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