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F-14 FLEET DEFENDER

MicroProse
180 Lakefront Drive, Hunt Vall ey, MD 21030
(4 10) 771-1 15 I
All rights reserved.
Copyright 1994 MicroProse
This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part, by mimeograph or photocopy or other means without penmission,
with the exception of quoting brief passages for the purpose of reviews
Simulation Credits ............................................................................... 4 Beginning a Career ......... ..................................................... ............. 4 3
Acknowledgments ............ .. ..... ............................. ............................. .5 Career Progression (Promotions) ............................ .. ........... 44
Start-Up Instructions ....... ..... ... ... .. .... ........ .... ... .. .. .. ...... ... .................... 6 Awards and Decorations ... ................. ... ............ ... ... ................... 45
INTRODUCTION .......... .. ............................ ........ ............................. 9
Ending Your Career .. .... .. ... ............................. ..... .................... ..... .. 45
About the F-14 Tomcat ...... .............. ..................................................... 9 CHAPTER TWO
Historical Background ........................................................ .. ... ... ....... 9 SIMULATION CONTROLS ...... .............................. .......... .47
The Fleet Defense Mission ......................................................... 14 Flight Control Keys .. ... ... .. ... ... ...... .. ........................... .. ........................ ..... 49
About FLEET DEFENDER .. ............................. ... ............................... 16 Primary Fl ight Controls ..................................... .... ..... .... .. ...... .. ..... 49
CHAPTER ONE
GETTING STARTED .............................................. .... ............ .. . 19
Start-Up Screens .................................................. ..................................... 22
The MAIN MENU Screen ........................................ .................. 22
The SCRAMBLE Screen .............................................................. 23
The CAMPAIGN Screen ............................................................ 24
The Campaign Status Screen ................................................... 25
The Mission Briefing Screen ....................................................... 26
The DIFFICULTY Screen ............................................................ 28
The ARMING Screen .. ............................. ..................................... 34
The Squadron Roster ..... ............................ ................................... 36
SCRAMBLE Missions .................. .. .... ........................ ..... ............. ......... .. 38
CAM PAIGN Missions ........................................................................... 40
Beginning a Campaign ..... ... ............... .. .............. ............................. 40
Secondary Flight Controls ............................ ... ........................... .5 I
Miscellaneous Flight Controls .... .............................. .... .......... ... 52
Radar Controls .................. ..................... ............................................ 53
Weapon/ECM Controls ... ........................ ... ..... ...... ..... ... .. ... ... ..... 54
Head-Up Display (HUD) Controls ...................................... 55
Simulation Views ............................................... ............ ..... ..... ......... .56
Pilot/RIO View Controls ........................................ ..................... .58
Hardware Controls ...... ........................................................................... 59
Joystick Configurations .................................................................. .59
THRUSTMASTER FCS ...... .............................................. ............. 60
FCS-MARK II WCS ............................................ ............................. 61
VIRTUAL PiLOT ... ...... ............... .. ...... ... ........... ................................. 62
FLiGHTSTICK PRO .. ... ........ .................................. ................ ... ...... 63
Foot Pedals .. .. ..... ... ............. ......... ... .. ...... ........................ ... ........ ..... ....... 64
Ending a Campaign ........ .................................................................. 42
Your Career .. ............................................................................................... 4 3
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CHAPTER THREE CHAPTER FOUR
HOW TO FLY .................................................................................... 65 F-14 COCKPITS and AVIONICS ................................ ... 99
Flight Dynamics ..................... ... .................................................................. 65 Pilot (Front Seat) Cockpit .. ........................................... .............. .... 1 00
The "Big Four" ....................................... .. .... ........ ............................... 66 Head-Up Display (HUD) ........................................... ...... .. ...... I 00
Basic Concepts ................................................................................... 68 Vertical Display Indicator (VDI) .............................. ............. 1 06
G forces .......................................................... ......................................... 70 Horizontal Situation Display (HSD) ................................ .. 1 08
Flying the F-14 T omcat .......... .. ........................................................ .. ... 73 Tactical Electronic Warfare System
Fuel Management ................................... .......................... ....... ......... 73 (TEWS) Display .............................................................................. I 10
Navigation .............................................................................................. 75 Right Instrumentation Panel .................................................... I 12
Damage ...................................................................... ............................. 76 Left Instrumentation Panel ....................................................... I 14
Eject ... Eject. .. Eject! (Bailing Out) ............................................ 77 Right Console .................................................................................. . I 15
Carrier Operations ................. ......................................... ... ..... ................ 79 Left Console ................................ ...................................................... I 16
The Carrier Air Wing ............................................ ........ ........ ........ 79 Radar Intercept Officer (Rear Seat) Cockpit ...... ........ ........ I 17
Flight Rules ........................................ ........ ....................... ...................... 81 Standard Mode Detail Data Display (DDD) .............. 1 17
Carrier T ake-offs .............................................................................. . 82 Moderate/Authentic Mode Detailed Data
Retuming to the Carrier ........................................ ...................... 83 Display (DDD) .................................................. .............................. 1 19
Carrier Landing Pattems ............................... ............................... 86 Standard Mode Tactical Information Display
Missed Approach Procedures .... ... ... ............................ ............ 92 (TID) ........................................ .............................. .. ... .. ...... ............. ... .. .. 121
Your Wing-Man ......................................... ....................... ........................ 94 Moderate/Authentic Mode
Wing-man Control Keys ............... ............................................... 95 Tactical Information Display (TID) .................................... ........ 122
Section Formations ................................................. ... ...................... 95 Right Console ...................................................................... ............. 124
Left Console ....................... .................................................. ............. 124
The AWG-9 Radar .............................................................................. 125
Standard Mode Radar ................................................................ 125
Moderate Mode Radar .............................................................. 128
Authentic Mode Radar .............................................................. 137
Campaign Maps ......................... .. .... ..................................... .................. I 39
North Cape Theater ................................................................... I 39
Mediterranean Theater ........... ... ... ...... .. ..................................... I 28
Oceania Training Theater ................. ....................................... 137
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Producer Lead Artist
Scott Span burg Terrence Hodge
Programming/Design Artists
Scott Span burg Mike Reis
Mike McDonald Murray Taylor
Scott Elson
3D Artist
Ned Way
Christopher Clark
Max Remington
George Wargo
Historian/Writer
Detmar Peterke
Lawrence T. Russell
Technical Consultants
Marketing Representative
Lt Col. George P. Wargo
USAF (ret.)
Carl Knoch
Chris Martin
Music Composition
Keith Brightwell
Michael Bross
Michael Dell
Photographs courtesy of
Mr. Chuck Porter, Naval Imaging Center, Washington, D.C
Mr. "Zip" Rausa, Wings of Gold Magazine
Sound Department
Ken Lagace
jim McConkey
Roland Rizzo
jack Miller
Mark Reis
Manual Layout
joe Morel
Cesar Novoa
Manual Illustrations
Mike Rei s
Manual Graphics
Mike Reis
joe M9rel
George Gill
Mr. Chris Martin, Naval Air Warfare Center (VF- 33 "Stariighters")
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Package Design
john Emory
Moshe Milich
Quality Assurance
Michael Craighead
Vaughn Thomas
David Ginsburg
Quentin Chaney
Walter Carter
Russell Clark
Andy Mazurek
Matt Showalter
Destin Strader
Mi ke Wise
Scott Zlotak
Charl ie Andaloro
Bob Abe
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As you may have guessed from the preceding credits, it takes many people worki ng long hours t o
produce a fiight simulation. There's an adage among pilots which goes, "Never fiy an aircraft designed by
committee." Well, in the case of computer simulations, especiall y ours, this saying simply isn't true. No one
person could possibly hope to excel in all the different disciplines needed to complete one of these
projects. Flight simulations are a collective effort and FLEET DEFENDER is no exception.
Those of you familiar with MicroProse products will undoubtedly recognize some of the names from
past fiight simulations. That's because the same core group of men and women who designed F- 15 Strike
Eagle III banded together once again to produce FLEET DEFENDER. Their mission was to integrate a fiight
simulation based on the F-14B Tomcat with a comprehensive air-sea campaign environment
Improving on F-15 Strike Eagle III wasn't going to be easy. This simulation pushes the edge of the
envelope as far as recreating air-to-ground attack action is concemed. But the designers put together a list
features that players most wanted to see in our next sim. These included seamless play, state-of-the-art
graphics, a realistic F-14 fiight model, and improved AI. The design team set out to implement a dream
sheet of features and in the process, create a fiight simulator that's not too hard to leam yet fun to play.
Before all the programmers, artists, and game designers got started, the principle team members took a
field trip to Oceana Naval Air Station, Virgini a. Oceana NAS is the readiness and training site for east coast
F-14 squadrons and is located within the city limits of Virginia Beach. They didn't spend much time at the
beach though. Instead, the team was treated to a week of direct hands-on experience with the F-14 and its
systems courtesy ofVF-1 03, better known as the "Sluggers."
Figure I-I' During the I 99 I
Persian Gulf war, VF-I 03 was
assigned to the USS Saratoga
(CV-60), a Forrestal-class aircraft,
carrier, on station in the Red
Sea. The Sluggers conduaed
front-line operations over Iraq
and Kuwait with distinction
throughout the war.
We are deeply indebted to the men and women of VF-I 03 who welcomed us and made us feel right at home.
Unfortunatel y, space does not allow us to mention everyone who assisted us because just about the entire squadron
would make the list. The "Sluggers" are just a superb bunch. Having said that, there were a few individuals deserving
of special recognition for making the trip such a worthwhile venture. First,
our thanks goes out to Lt Sam "Splatt" Platt of VF- I 0 I "Grim Reapers" for
orchestrating the tour at Oceana and Lt Eric "Opus" Higgins and hi s RIO Lt
JG Paul "Ski ppy" McHenry of VF-I 03 "Sluggers" for demonstrating their F-14
and guiding us through an actual F-14 simul ator.
Whi le at Oceana the team was able to "run wild" on the U.S.S America (0/-
66) courtesy of the America's Commanding Officer, CPT. W.W. Copeland. We
would also like to thank our escorts; Ensign C. J. Jenkins and Joumalist First
Cl ass Albert J. McGilvray. Each of these gentl emen contributed to making
FLEET DEFENDER a realistic and accurate simulation and we are sincerely
grateful for their assistance.
5
Figure 1-2: The USS. America (CV-66) performing a gentle tum
to starboard for the camero.
START-UP INSTRUCTIONS
Contents
Your complete FLEET DEFENDER F-14 simulation should contain, in addition to this instruction manual, 4 1.44 MB 3 1/2"
disks, a Key Reference Card, a registration card, and a backup disks order card.
Minimum System Requirements
FLEET DEFENDER requires the following minimum system components and memory:
Computer: IBM, or fully compatible, 80386 33 MHz (a 80486 33 MHz is recommended)
System Memory: 4MB of RAM, with 2208K EMS free
Hard Drive: with at least 14 MB available
Conventional Memory: at least 566 K free
Graphics: VGA graphics card and VGA monitor
Floppy Drive: one 1.44MB 3 112" (required only for installation)
DOS: MS-DOS 5.0 or higher
INSTALLATION AND LOADING INSTRUCTIONS
Installotion
FLEET DEFENDER includes an install ation program t hat transfers the software data from the original (distribution) disks
onto your hard drive. You must util ize the install program provided to transfer this data. You con not just copy the
distribution disks onto your hard drive; if you do, FLEET DEFENDERwili not load.
To run the Install Program, tum on your computer, and then:
I. Place disk A in your ftoppy drive A or B
2. Type A: or B: Now press the Enter Key
3. Type Install, Press the Enter Key again. Follow the on-screen prompts
The installation program checks your system for a number of conditions, and advises you as to the status if your system
does not meet the conditions. It decompresses and copies the simulation files from the distribution disks onto your hard drive.
The install program also auto-detects your computer's configuration and provides recommendations for sound, speech,
control device Goystick, keyboard, etc.).
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INSTALLATION CONDITION CHECKS
I. If your hard drive has less than 14 MB available, the installation program terminates and immediately
advises you that adequate hard drive space is not available.
2. If your system has less than 566 K of free conventional memory, the installation program continues, but
advises you that adequate conventional memory is not available.
3. If your system has less than 2208 K of free EMS, the installation program continues, but advises you
that adequate EMS memory is not available. EMS memory is required for loading.
Loading
In order to load FLEET DEFENDER you must have first installed the program. If not retum to the section on installation
and follow the instructions found there.
I. To load FLEET DEFENDER change over to t he drive that contains the simulation directory. For
example, if you installed the program to your C drive, change your system by typing C:. Now press the
Enter Key.
2. Once you have accessed the proper drive, change over to the proper directory. If you selected the
default MPS\F-14 directory, you can change to that directory by typing cd MPS\F 14. Now press the
Enter Key.
3. Type F-14. Press the Enter Key to begin the simulation.
Hard Drive Requirements
Before installi ng FLEET DEFENDER, make sure that you have at least 14 MB of available space on your hard drive. You
can determine the amount of available hard drive space through the use of t he MS-DOS utility chkdsk Run this utility
according to the instructions found in your MS-DOS manual. The fifth line of the display indicates the amount of hard drive
space available.
Maf<jng A Boot Disk
If you feel uncomfortable about modifYing your AUTOEXEC.BAT or CONFIG.SYS files, or you are unable to free up
adequate conventional memory, your best bet is to utilize a boot disk A boot disk creates a temporary configuration for
your computer that is compatible with FLEET DEFENDER .
Use the boot disk to start your system whenever FLEET DEFENDER is to be loaded. That way, your normal system
configuration is unaffected.
You must first install FLEET DEFENDER on to your computer before running the boot disk utility. Return to the
"Installation" section and follow the instructions found there.
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TO MAKE A BOOT DISK:
I. Insert a blank, formatted disk into your computer's A drive. (You must use your computer's A drive,
since it can not boot from the B drive.)
2. Change your drive over to the directory containing the simulation files.
3. Type bootdisk and press the Enter Key.
4. If you have a ProAudio Spectrum sound card installed, type bootdisk pas and press the Enter Key.
The boot disk utility accesses your existing AUTOEXECBAT and CONFIG.SYS files for various pieces of information.
It also searches your hard drive for required information not found in those two files. If it is unable to find any part of the
required information, it prompts you to supply the information.
For example, suppose you renamed the directory in which your mouse driver resides to MY_MOUSE and moved it to
the E drive. The boot disk utility would not know to look in that location for your mouse driver. You must supply this
information when prompted. In this example, the response would be: e:\my_mouse\mouse.com
USING THE BOOT DISK
After making the boot disk, place it in drive A and reboot your computer. The boot disk configures your system for
FLEET DEFENDER, and automatically starts the program.
Restarting your System
When you are finished with FLEET DEFENDER, remove the boot disk from your computers A drive, and reboot your
system. Your system will restart with your normal configuration.
Conftguration
As part of the installation process, you are required to designate selections for music, sound, digitized speech, and input
controller. Fortunately, the install program auto-detects the majority of the possible options.
This configuration process is also utilized to change your selections if you add, delete or modifY system equipment or
just decide to change the selections.
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ABOUT THE F-14 TOMCAT
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The Aircraft Carrier and Changing Naval Doctrine
Following the successful conclusion of World War II , the United States was sold on the concept of naval aviation. The
island-hopping campaign in the Pacific against Japan would have been impossible without it. World War II changed naval
strategy forever, not just in the U.s. but throughout the world. Air power (and the aircraft carrier) had replaced the big
guns of the battleship. No longer would opposing fleets simpl y line up in parallel columns and hammer away at each other.
Starting with Coral Sea in 1942, naval battles could begin when the two sides were still hundreds of miles apart. Aircraft
carriers lent mobility to air power, freeing it from the restrictions imposed by stationary land bases. Taranto and Pearl
Harbor demonstrated the effectiveness of the surprise carrier strike.
9
A fteet could run from battle but it couldn't hide. Ships could now be t racked down and destroyed in their own bases.
The aircraft carrier, on the other hand, proved its resiliency by withstanding wave after wave of Japanese pilots intent on
committing suicide. The legendary Kamikaze ("Divi ne Wind" in Japanese) proved to be the uttimate challenge.
Clearly, naval strategy in future wars was going to be dictated by the development of naval aviation, at least as far as the
United States was concemed. The Navy had over a hundred aircraft carriers left over at the end of World War II and a
vested interest in promoting both the effectiveness and survivability of its carrier groups. With the war now over, the Navy
had to start thinking about winning the peace. The next battles would be fought in the halls of Congress and on Capitol
Hill over which branch of service would receive the most defense dollars.
Constructing and maintaining even a dozen modem aircraft carriers was going to cost plenty. The start-up cost alone
would be enormous and that was just the beginning. By the time fuel costs, training and personnel costs were factored in, a
single carner would uttimately require billions in defense outlays. Of course one mustn't forget to add in the air wing
consisting of eighty to ninety aircraft and the cost of training a new generation of naval aviators every twenty years or so.
Big carriers meant the Navy Department could ask for big money from Congress and get it. This is not to suggest that
the Navy pursued carrier development out of a desire to increase their share of the nation's defense budget Let's just say
that things have a way of perpetuat ing themselves and that big budgets added to the Navy's prestige when dealing with the
other services.
The Soviet Union, on the other hand, lacked the United States' industrial resources and practical experience in carrier
warfare. What it did not lack was a commitment to become the preeminent mi litary power on the planet. When WW II
ended, the Soviets found themselves in possession of eastem Europe. Holding onto this expanse of territory would require
land armies and their component air support.
For many years the Soviet Union had no real need to project its naval strength outside of Europe. Air and naval power
was used to complement a European ground war only. So while the Army and Air force had lavish resources heaped upon
them, the Soviet navy consisted of a few coastal patrol craft and surplus destroyers obtained from the U.S. during the war.
Each nation entered the Cold War with different strategic objectives. The United States recognized that it could never
retum t o semi-isolationism and that containing the spread of Communism was going to require global involvement. To
back this commitment, the U.s. had to create a naval force able to respond quickly to potential trouble spots. Such a force
would have to be self-contained and provi de for its own air defense.
The Soviet Union took a much more defensive stance. Its biggest concem was keeping U.S. warships out of Soviet
waters. While the United States buitt up its fteet of aircraft carriers, the Soviets jumped ahead in missile technology. The
Soviets planned to make the vaunted U.s. super-carriers vulnerable to low cost missile attacks.
In the I 950s, the U.s. Navy recognized that Soviet progress in missile technology would one day pose a serious threat
to its carrier battlegroups. Naval tacticians could envision having to fend off waves of attacking long-range bombers or
nuclear cruise missiles. It was assumed that sometime within the next decade the Soviets would manage t o arm their
strategic bombers with stand-off cruise missiles. Once this happened, U.s. carriers could be hunted down and destroyed
before they sailed within striking distance.
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To deal with this eventuality, the Navy wanted to develop a carrier-based fighter able to engage Soviet bombers at
ranges in excess of the stand-off range of their missiles. Engineers were quick to point out that the Navy's mission
requirements were at odds with the weight restrictions normally associated with carrier aircraft. A fighter conforming to
this set of requirements, would have to be large enough to store tons of additional fuel yet remain light enough for carrier
operations, an impossible task
The Navy's answer was to design a fighter with a powerful radar and
complement of long range air-to-air missiles. This solution had the
advantage of increasing the combat radius of the aircraft without
increasing its fuel load. The aircraft could take up a patrol station closer to
the carrier and let its missiles reach out and perform the mission.
Unfortunately, this concept meant the fighter would be burdened by the
weight of its own radar system and missiles, thus losing much of its
dogfighting capability in the process.
The abi lity to dogfight was not supposed to matter. Under these
design specifications the aircraft would be a platform for launching
missiles, and nothing more. Once it had expended all its missiles it would
immediately retum to the carrier. Labeled an interceptor, this aircraft was
never meant to engage the enemy up close and personal. After all, didn't
the Navy leave the guns off their Phantom II design? They wouldn't have
done that if they thought for a moment that their pilots would be
dogfighting with enemy pilots.
Genesis of the F-/4
Figure /-4: A carrier battJegroup at sea.
In late 1957, the Navy won a contract to begin developing the XAAM-M-I 0 Eagle, a two-stage, solid fuel, radar-
guided air-to-air missile with a range in excess of 100 nm. The Douglas F6D Missileer was the aircraft selected to carry
the Eagle. The Missileer design cal led for the inclusion of a track-while-scan pulse Doppler radar with the ability to
target, launch and control six Eagle missi les. This combination of aircraft and missile was intended to perform the Fleet
Air Defense role through the I 970s. Three years later, in late 1960, the entire program was scrapped. Enter the
Kennedy administration and a new Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara.
McNamara was a business man, moving from a successful business career in the private sector to head up the Defense
Dept. It was his contention that the military could save billions of dollars in procurement by collective purchasing. That is,
buying equipment in bulk Instead of allowing each branch of service to buy different items to do the same job, McNamara
stressed commonality. He wanted all the services to buy the exact same items to contain costs, including everything from
tools to tanks, frying pans to fighters.
II
As it happens, both the Air Force and Navy were shopping around for a new fighter aircraft. The Navy was looking for
a replacement for its canceled Missileer while the Air Force wanted a high speed, tactical strike fighter (the TFX program)
to replace the aging F-I 05 Thunderchief McNamara saw this as an opportunity to save money. He wanted the defense
industry t o build a single aircraft to suit the needs of both services.
In 1962, after much prodding by McNamara, the two services finall y arrived at a compromise design. General Dynamics
was awarded the Air Force's TFX contract. Grumman was given the contract to begin work on the Navy's version of the
same aircraft. Both variants, the Air Force's F-I I I A and the Navy's F-I I I B, were designed with maximum commonality in mind.
The first F- I I I Bs were fl yi ng by 1965. From the very beginning pilots had serious reservat ions about McNamara's "one
fighter for all occasions" idea. Chief among the complaints was the aircraft's weight, at 70,000 Ibs., the aircraft was too
heavy to operate safely from an aircraft carrier. T ake-offs were risky, landings were worse. Catapults and arrestor cables in
service at the time were not stressed to handle this load. On final approach, the aircraft had to be fl own at such a high
angle of attack that the pilot could no longer see the carrier deck
As a result of the F-I I I B setbacks, Grumman proposed to rework the aircraft using light weight titanium alloys. This
reengineered design became known as the VFX. In early 1967, the Navy commissioned a study comparing the two
design proposals. Grumman's VFX project won hands down. Usi ng the same engines as the F-I I I B, the VFX tumed in a
consistently superior performance and Congress canceled funds for the F-I I I B in 1968.
This cancellation proved to be the tuming poi nt in the F-14's development. The way was cleared for the Navy to make
a RFP (Request for Proposals) outlining specifi cs for a separate aircraft, apart from the Air Force's F-I I I A. Some of the
design features mentioned were tandem seating for a two man crew, twin engines, a track-while-scan radar with multi-
targeting capability, and carrier suitabil ity.
Figure /-5: "Hey, buddy! Get the heck outta' the way." A turkey-feathered
F-/ 4 prepares to take-off.
The F-/4A
Grumman was one of five aerospace companies which initially bid on
the VFX (F-14) contract. Because of its past association with the Navy
and experience with swept-wing technology, it was awarded the contract
in 1969. Out of hundreds of different designs, prototype 303E was the
one chosen for initial test production. The first of 12 developmental
aircraft was fl ying two years later (2 1 December 1970). Operational F-14s
were delivered to the Navy (VF-I , VF-2) in October 1972. These two
squadrons were subsequently deployed aboard the U.S.S. Enterprise
(CV-65) in 1974.
The F- 14 took over the role of Fleet Air Defense from the
venerable F-4 in the mid I 970s. The Phantom had done an admirable
job in its day but the Vietnam War never seriously tested its ability as a
FLEET DEFENDER. U.s. aircraft carriers were never threatened as they
would be in a future war by Soviet bombers.
12
As more capable fighters entered service in Third World air forces it became clear that a number of modifications to
the basic F-14 design were needed. For example, early model F-14s were issued with the TF30-PAI2A turbofan engine.
The TF30-PAI2A consumed far too much fuel for the amount of power it produced. It was problematic and prone to
compressor stall. The engine generated only 12,350 Ibs of thrust (20,900 Ibs. with afterbumer). Clearly, even with two of
these engines, the power produced was inadequate to the task of pushing a 70,000 lb. fighter around. The 412A was,
however, the only engine available for use without an extensive delay period.
The Navy decided to go ahead with the 412A until a successor could be found. Starting in 1982, however, as F-14s
came in for program maintenance and overlhaul they were frtted with the new TF-30-PA14 turbojet engine. Though the
414 was slightly heavier than the 412A and produced the same thrust, it was more reliable and used less fuel. Its biggest
drawback was that it produced smoky exhaust making the aircraft easy to spot in combat. (The FA suffered from the
same problem.) Realizing that the 414 was still only an interim solution, the Navy directed that work continue on finding a
more powerful replacement.
The USAF announced in 1984 that it was accepting a new engine, the F I I O-GE-I 00, for its F-16s. Several
months later, Secretary of the Navy John Lehman told a Congressional Appropriations subcommittee that
the F- 14 and TF series engine represented "probably the worst engine/airframe mismatch we have hod in many
years. The TF30 is just a terrible engine and has accounted for 28.2% of all F-14 crashes." His testimony paved
the way for the Navy to begin purchasing these engines along with the USAF.
The F-/ 4B
Shortly afterward, Grumman was awarded a $984 million contract to upgrade the F-14's avionics and
engines. The upgraded F-14As, known as the F-14A(Plus), were given advanced avionics. Impressed with the
USAF's F-I I O-GE-I OOs, the Navy redesignated these engines F I 10-GEAOO and placed them on the F-14A
(Plus). F-14s could finall y make a catapult assisted take-off without their afterbumer engaged. (The 400 Figure 1-6: The Fightin' 143,
better known os the "Puf<jn'Dogs"
produces 14,000 Ibs. of dry thrust, 23, I 00 Ibs. of wet or afterbuming thrust.)
The F-14A(Plus) was first fiown in 1986 and delivered to VF 101 "Grim Reapers" at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia
in 1988. Since then, F-14A(Plus) aircraft have also been delivered to VF-24 "Renegades," VF-74 "Bedevilers," VF- I 03
"Sluggers," VF-142 "Ghostriders," VF-143 "Puckin' Dogs," and VF-211 "Fighting Checkmates." On May 1st, 1991, the
CNO (Chief of Naval Operations) ordered that all F-14A(Plus) models be redesignated F-14B. To avoid confusion, all
F-14s in FLEET DEFENDER retain the B designation even in those scenarios prior to 1991 .
Keep in mind, even when playing those pre-I 988 Mediterranean campaign games, you are given a more powerful
version of the F-14 that did not historically exist at the time. All F-14s fiown in FLEET DEFENDER are assumed to be F-14B
model aircraft regardless of the scenario being played.
13
It should be noted that the MicroProse design team tested a flight model using the original TF-30-PAI2A engines
installed in F-14As. The result was a particularly nanrow flight envelope. The aircraft was very unforgiving if one failed to
stay within these parameters. More often than not, inattentive pilots found themselves spinning in before ever engaging
the enemy. In short, it wasn't much fun. For purposes of a commercial flight simulator, the F-14B with its improved
turbojet engines, was a much better choice.
THE FLEET DEFENSE MISSION
Both the F-14 and the F-I I I were originally thought of as mere platfonms, built to facilitate the delivery of specialized
ordnance. In the case of the F-I I I, the USAF saw the aircraft as a strategic bomber capable of low level, high speed
penetration of enemy airspace. The F-14, successor to the Missileer concept, was intended to be a platfonm for launching
AAMs at incoming bombers.
The Missileer program envisioned an aircraft which after taking off. could orbit a significant distance away from the
carrier, for an extended period of time. From this patrol station, the Missileer would fire its long range missiles at any enemy
aircraft venturing near. Once all its missiles were gone it would retum to the carrier and another aircraft would take its
place.
Despite the program's cancellation, this
concept of fleet defense remained. The Navy
was still in need of an aircraft able to contend
with Soviet advances in cruise missile
technology. The U.S. Navy was forced to
consider the state of carrier vul nerability 5-10
years down the road. To meet this future threat,
any fighter chosen to perfonm Fl eet Air Defense
would have to be equipped with a powerful
track-while-scan radar able to target mUltiple
aircraft. The fighter would also have to be
anmed with active radar missiles so that it could
have several of them in the air at one time.
The mission, Fleet Air Defense, exposes
both the aircraft and crew to a very special set
Figure 1-7: An F-14 belonging to VF-33 "Storfighters", at rest of stressful situations. After launch, an F-14 must
fly a CAP hundreds of miles away, loiter at slow
speed for several hours, then retum to make a carrier landing under all types of weather conditions or at night. No wonder
Navy flyers prefer to be known as aviators rather than pilots. Being a naval aviator puts them in a class all their own.
14
Flying an F-14 requires a certain mind-set. You are literally charged with protecting the lives of thousands of service
men and women. A single lapse in judgment could be enough to allow an enemy bomber or missile to get through. Luckily
there are safeguards and overlapping areas of responsibility built in to a carrier's air defense coverage. Even so, failure can
lead to horrific destruction.
Keep in mind that the F-14 is a strategic interceptor and not a pure fighter. Although this distinction is somewhat subtle
it's more than just a matter of semantics. There are profound differences in the way in which interceptors operate as
compared to fighter aircraft.
To fulfill the Fleet Air Defense role on a strategic level, a long range air-to-air-missile is necessary. Under the original
1950's concept, this missile was to have been the Eagle. With its cancellation, work on the AIM-54 Phoenix was begun. (It
is said to have risen from the ashes of the earlier program.) This combination of AWG-9 radar and Phoenix missile allows
the F-14 to be such an effective aircraft.
One problem with the Phoenix is that there are never enough of them. The Tomcat can only carry six. When they are
gone, what's next? As long as the F-14 has these missiles remaining it can act as a launching platfonm, firing at targets many
tens of miles away. Once all six are expended, however, the F- 14 has to close in and tangle with enemy aircraft. Despite its
size the F-14 maneuvers quite well at slower speeds. It certainly doesn't handle like a nimble F-16 but it can hold its own in
a dogfight.
The fact that the F-14 can make this role transfonmation is a credit to its swept wing technology. Swept wings allow
the F-14 to operate in more than one combat environment. With its wings swept back it is configured for high speed
(supersonic) dash profiles. The wings come back automatically (although there is a manual override) when you're feeling
the need for speed. When the aircraft is in need of energy (or additional lift to maintain an AOA) the wings come
forward. Think of the wings as reaching forward as if grasping for more air.
15
ABOUT FLEET DEFENDER
FLEET DEFENDER is a combat flight simulation based upon the United States Navy's principle carner-based interceptor, the
F-14B Tomcat Since its deployment in 1972, the F-14 has been entrusted with the defense of the United States Navy's
aircraft carrier battlegroups, its most valued military possession. More importantly, however, this aircraft is charged with
protecting the li ves of 8,000-10,000 servicemen and women that serve aboard the ships of an average battlegroup (CVBG).
They are the Navy's shield. From Admiral to Ensign, Chief Petty Officer to Recruit, the F-14 is truly our FLEET DEFENDER.
Those of you already familiar with MicroProse's F-15 Strike Eagle III should feel free to jump right in with a single sortie.
Notice that many of the control keys and features are common to both simulations. The programmers and game
designers made a conscious effort to limit the functional differences between the two so that you could get started playi ng
right away. But, if this is your first MicroProse flight simulation get
ready for the ride of your life.
Picture yourself on the deck of a modem aircraft carner suspended
70 ft. off the surface of the water. You and your RIO (Radar Intercept
Officer) are strapped into your F-14 with over 30,000 Ibs. of thrust
spooling up behind you. "Greenshirts" swarm around your aircraft
making sure everything performs as advertised. Underneath your
aircraft, a steam catapult is building up pressure, it has to get your
30 ton ''Tomcat'' airbome in less than 300 feet That doesn't leave a
big margin for error. The blast deflectors are raised, signifying that the
moment of take-off is fast approaching. You are about to be thrown off
the flight deck with only one chance to get it right.
After the obligatory ''thumb's up" exchange with the Cat Officer, it's
time to go. With a deafening roar, your F-14 is thrust into the sky trailing
a superheated column of air. There's no turning back now .... you're
Figure 1-8: The Cot Officer (in the foreground) is seconds from sending this F-14 airborne, you're committed. You've become a FLEET DEFENDER.
on its way. The rest is up to you.
FLEET DEFENDER is specifically designed to recreate carner take-offs and landings (TOLs) in realistic detail. In fact,
carrier landings are such a challenge that they can easily become a game within a game. How many landings can you make
before getting your first wave-of(? The stress of so many carrier approaches can get to be too much, especially at night.
In order to relieve the tension, this simulation combines carner operations with air combat in two all-new theaters of
war. Each theater of war contains three distinct campaign scenarios for you to participate in. If you're not ready for
combat and just want to practice flying the Tomcat, there is an entire theater devoted solely to training.
16
Each of the campaign scenarios exposes your canrier and its escorts to savage attacks. Enemy aircraft probe your
defenses and test your CAPs. Cruise missiles suddenly pop-up seemingly out of nowhere. Yes- there are numerous
challenges which await you, from intercepting bomber fonmations at high altitudes to wave-hopping dogfights with
supersonic fighters. All in all, you' ll find yourself tangling wrth more than thirty different aircraft and helicopters.
You assume the role of flight leader on each mission and as the flight leader, you are placed in command of a section of
two F-14s. A two-ship is a collective effort. You and your wing-man must work together as a team in order to get the job
done. As the flight leader, you exercise a great deal of tactical control over your wing-man, keep him wrth you to cover your
"six" or send him off to perfonm on his own. Use him but don't lose him.
Too many players think of their wing-man as cannon fodder. That's a habit you'll want to get out of because in FLEET
DEFENDER your wing-man, as well as other members of your squadron, improve their skills wrth each mission they fly. The
more experienced your wing-man becomes the better he'll perfonm so rt's in your best interest to look after him.
Wrth only twenty Tomcats on-board your canrier at the start of each campaign, you can't afford to lose a single one
unnecessarily. If your squadron is handled roughly by the enemy early on, later missions may
prove difficult if not impossible to complete. Remember that in each of the campaigns
defense of the canrier is paramount. Lose the canrier- lose the campaign.
FLEET DEFENDER features an assortment of friendly aircraft ready to help you out in a
dogfight or deliver a shattering counter-blow. When you're not out intercepting bandrts,
you may be required to escort strike packages. Luckily, your two-ship is not alone out
there. Assisting you are addrtional two-ship CAPs and the full weight of a modem aircraft
canrier battlegroup.
Unless you are forced to eject due to battle damage, you will be returning to your
carrier. Even undamaged, landing back aboard your carrier will probably be the most
stressful part of a mission, even more stressful than dogfighting or braving triple-A.
For a naval aviator a good landing means catching the "three-wire" for a full stop. This
type of landing is known as a trap. Miss all three wires and you had better be prepared to go Figure /-9: Comin' in (or a perfect three-wire trap.
to full throttle for a "go around." This is known as a bolter. If a bolter doesn't get your heart This aviator has retumed home in one piece.
racing maybe you shouldn't be fl yi ng jets for the Navy.
If you find yourself having difficulty making canrier landings, don't get discouraged. One of the F-14s involved in the
downing of two Libyan Su-22s in 1981 took three trys to get back on deck.. You should expect to have your share of bolters
before canrier landings get easier it to you. But while they may eventually get easier, they will never get routine. Just
remember that everyone has their off-days, that's why extensive instructions on making canrier landings are included in
this manual.
Even if you don't get the hang of rt right away, don't give up. Points are deducted from your score if you end their
mission wrthout successfully landing back aboard the canrier, so stick with it. You wi ll never get full credit for completing a
mission until you can retum safely to the canrier.
17
To help you along, a complete stateside training theater has been included. The Training theater revolves around
Oceana Naval Air Station (NAS) located outside of Norfolk, Virginia. It extends as far north as southem Pennsylvania and
as far south as the Bahamas. While in training at Oceana you' ll be assigned to VF: 101 "Grim Reapers", the east coast Fleet
Readiness Squadron (FRS). As a Grim Reaper, you'll be given an opportunrty to sharpen your flying skills before entering
into combat. Go ahead and practice all those fancy maneuvers you see in the movies. Just remember that once in combat
this game is for real. You just might want to discard all that hot-doggin' for some common sense ACM.
Figure 1- I 0: VF- I 0 I "Grim
Reapers" squadron emblem
The majority of the training takes place over water. Somewhere out there is an aircraft carrier, provided it
hasn't been swallowed up by the Bermuda triangle. This carrier is devoted to conducting training exercises wfth
rookie aviators before classifying them as mission ready. Now is the time to practice take-offs and landings
(TOLs). If you're going to make mistakes it's best to make them during training and not during combat.
FLEET DEFENDER does not require you to spend time in training, however. You may choose to
ignore this theater altogether. Air combat can be very unforgiving to rookie pilots. It's life and death out
there with no such thing as second best. You don't score any points for being a good loser.
Chivalry in sky was tried in WW I. The idea that air combat was a gentlemanly joust between knights in
the sky didn't last long once men started dying by the thousands. Therefore a little advance training prior to
combat can payoff big-time. If nothing else, it'll help you get a jump on the competition.
Those of you died-in-the-wool flight fanatics with an eye for detail will undoubtedly be saying to
yourselves; Hey- if the F-14B didn't enter service until the late 1980s how come some of the campaigns take
place before then? That's a fair question.
The design team choose to model the F-14B because it represents a marked improvement over the F-14A. The
under-powered Tomcat-A wouldn't have perfonmed up to everyone's expectations unless we toyed with the data some
and produced an unrealistic flight model. We wanted to recreate actual campaigns but given our choice of time periods
and theaters, this would have forced us to model the F-14A. It would not have been fun to fly.
As players, we all get a greater sense of involvement when the simulation is pattemed after historical events. There's a
greater emotional attachment to one's character (and one's aircraft for that matter) when you can equate game situations
to "real life.' ' So with this in mind the design team decided to keep the historical flavor yet allow the player to fly the F-14B.
If you believe this gives you too much of an edge, you can always limit yourself to a maximum power setting of 80%.
We've taken care of play balance problems by allowing the Soviets to deploy some of their contemporary fighters in these
early scenarios. Enjoy' Don't slow down for tums and may you always catch a three-wire on your way back home.
18
If you're a pilot wrth a lot of flight sim time under your belt, this chapter is designed to allow you to begin play almost
immediately. On the other hand, if you're new to flight simulations, bear wrth rt. Flight isn't an easy thing to explain to newcomers.
Undoubtedly, you'll come across many terms and concepts that will be foreign to you. FLEET DEFENDER. like the F-14
rt portrays, isn't always user-friendly (especially the portions dealing with radar). Don't become frustrated, though, we're
sure you'll get the hang of it in no time. Just remember, the Navy spends years teaching its naval aviators the same
information that FLEET DEFENDER tries to teach in hours (and days).
By the way, if this is your first flight simulator, we think you've picked a great one to start off your flying career. The F-14
is one of this country's classic fighter ai rcraft. It combines just the right amount of high-tech wizardry wrth old fashioned
stick-and-rudder work.
Ideally, you should have the game running in front of you whi le you study this instruction manual. Thi s way, you can
refer back and forth from game to manual, and vice versa. The combination of play and study should help you leam even
the most difficult parts of this game with minimal confusion. If, after all this, you're still stuck. feel free to call one of our
technical experts in the MPS Customer Service Dept.
19
There are two different ways to play FLEET DEFENDER : SCRAMBLE and CAMPAIGN. The SCRAMBLE method is a
one shot affair, you take-off. engage in combat then retum to the carrier. Because these missions represent only a single
sortie, you are spared having to worry about the "big picture" events of a full campaign.
These missions allow you to jump right in and begin fiying wh:h minimal preparation. Ah:hough there is a standard
defauh: mi ssion, SCRAMBLE also gives you the abilrty to create your own mini-combat situations from scratch. This is the
preferred way to get familiar with the game before you embark on a full campaign. Tum to the section entitled
SCRAMBLE for more infonmation on these missions.
The second method of play is CAMPAIGN. A campaign is a series of inter-connected missions which take place over
an extended period of time. These missions differ from single sorties in that there is a lot going on behind the scenes. You
won't always see h:, but h:'s there.
During testing, a furious battle erupted between a pair of Swedish Viggens and a group of MiG-23s that had wandered off
course and crossed into Swedish (neutral) airspace. It was fascinating to watch. The Viggens had the Floggers for breakfast and
prevented a major Soviet airstrike from reaching its target in Norway.
In a campaign, you (and other members of your squadron) are promoted based on your perfonmance in combat. How
well you do on one mission directly affects your likelihood of success on the next. For example, if your squadron was to
experience heavy losses on a particular mission, h: may not have enough aircraft leftover to carry out future assignments.
Campaigns give you access to greater numbers of friendly aircraft but with this greater force comes greater
responsibilities. There are two F-14 fighter squadrons nonmally assigned to a carrier. These twenty aircraft are all that
stands between the enemy and your ships. If these precious twenty airframes are ever bent, bumt or lost at sea, they're
gone for good. Chances are you'll need every one of these aircraft if you intend to last through to the end of a campaign.
Each campaign is made up of a variety of air defense and escort missions. Not onl y are you tasked wh:h protecting
friendly strike groups sent to attack enemy targets, you are also charged wh:h defending your own ships from enemy air
attack If your aircraft carrier is ever sunk, the game is over. It doesn't matter how well you do as an individual pilot. The
raison d'etre for the F-14 is to protect the carrier, everything else is secondary. Tum to the section enth:led CAM PAIGN for
a more detailed explanation of these missions.
20
Key Reference Card
No matter which method of play you select, continually fiipping through this instruction manual detracts from the overall
simulation. For the first couple of missions you should keep the Key Reference Card next to your computer. This will enable
to you to continue fiying (and fighting) without having to pause each time you need to look up a particular command.
The Key Reference Card contains a summary of all the keyboard key commands you need to play this simulation. The
commands are arranged according to their function so that after a few missions, you'll find yourself remembering
commands without having to refer to the card any longer.
Terminology
Keyboard Keys: When a keyboard key is referred to in this manual, its name
appears in italics followed by the key stroke (shown in uppercase and set in
parentheses). For example, the key used to tum the radar system On and Off
is noted as follows; Radar On/OffToggle lBJ key.
Selector. refers to the mouse, joysti ck button, or key controls. Selector # I
refers to either the left mouse button or Enter Key, Selector #2 refers to either
the right mouse button or Spacebar Key.
Pause Option
You may halt this simulation at any time simply by pressing the Pause ~ iE].
Because the Pause feature is a lUXUry not available to pilots in the real world, Figure I-I: An F-14 in a high energy state with wings swept
hard core "purists" are sometimes reluctant to use it. By not pausing the back for speed.
simulation, however, you are giving your opponents an unfair advantage. They
continue to sneak up while you fiip through the manual.
Feel free to use the Pause feature any time you need to refer to a section of instructions. It's not considered cheating!
21
THE MAIN MENU SCREEN
Figure 1-2: The Main Menu screen showing the two principle ploy
options; SCRAMBLE and CAMPAIGN.
Figure 1-3: The Hal/ of Fame screen shows the top ten naval
aviators along with their col/signs and top scores.
START-UP SCREENS
To begin playing FLEET DEFENDER , you must select one of the two
play options found on the Main Menu Screen; SCRAMBLE or CAMPAIGN.
SCRAMBLE []]
Press t he SCRAMBLE [S] Key to begin a SCRAMBLE mission. The
SCRAMBLE option is more than just a way to get fiying in a hurry, rt's a
mission generator as well. After selecting this option, you are given an
opportunrty to create your own scenario and then go fi y rt.
CAMPAIGN@]
Press the CAMPAIGN [C] Key to access a full CAMPAIGN. The
campaign option puts you in the middle of an entire Air/ Sea battle
environment. In addition to fiying combat missions, there are literally
hundreds of decisions you're required to make. Your hands will be full from
the very start.
TOP TEN ITl
You may also access the FLEET DEFENDER Hall of Fame from the Main
Menu screen by pressing the TOP TEN [T] Key. The Top Ten roster shows
the top ten highest scores (what else) your pilots have achieved. If you are
good enough you may just find yourself at the top of this list
QUIT[Qj
Change your mind? Pressing QUIT [Q] Key ends this session and exits
you to DOS.
As an altemative to using the keyboard. you may use your mouse cursor to
depress any particular button.
22
THE SCRAMBLE SCREEN
SCRAMBLE missions are single sorties that you generate yourself With
the exception of the 1981 Libyan default option, there are no canned
SCRAMBLE missions.
M A I N M E N U ~
Pressing the Main Menu button [MJ Key returns you to the Main
Menu Screen.
DIFFICULTY @J
Pressing the DIFFICULTY [DJ Key takes you immediately to the Difficulty
Screen. Thi s screen is explained in more detail below. The some Difficulty
screen is used for both SCRAMBLE and CAMPAIGN missions.
ARMING 0
Pressing the ARMING [AJ Key takes you immediately to the Anming
Screen. This screen is explained in more detail below. The some Arming
screen is used for both SCRAMBLE and CAMPAIGN missions.
TAKE OFF Cf]
Figure /-4: The SCRAMBLE Screen. These are quick and easy
missions that make for excellent toumament challenges.
Pressing the TAKE OFF [TJ Key puts you in the cockpit. At this point you're ready to go. You begin your mission either
on the canrer deck or already in flight. If you start on the canrer deck, you must press the Afterbumer Engage [AJ Key to
begin. Once your engine has "spooled up" to full RPMs, the catapuh: wi ll fire. Your F-14 is hurled down the flight deck In
just seconds, you' ll be airbome, so be ready for it.
Mission Generation buttons
The blue lower case buttons on this screen are known as Mission Generation buttons. They give you the ability to
construct your own scenarios "on the fly". Consult the SCRAMBLE section below for full details on how to generate
these missions.
23
THE CAMPAIGN SCREEN
A CAMPAIGN takes a little longer to set up than a SCRAMBLE mission
as you might imagine, but they are well worth the extra effort. Campaign
missions are the most challenging way to play FLEET DEFENDER.
The CAMPAIGN Screerl shows you the current status of anyon-going
campaign your squadron may be involved in. Included in this information are
notes conceming your current theater, current campaign scenario, your pilot
name and that of your RiO. You are also given a summary of the number of
missions already flown, your indivi dual point score, your current campaign score
and difficulty level. Finally, this screen indicates whether or not you are flying this
mission in Training mode. (Don't confuse this mode with missions flown in
the Oceana Training theater).
Squadron ~
Figure 1-5: The Campaign Screen. Campaigns allows you to
undertake missions within a full air/sea environment Pressing the SQUADRON [S] Key calls up the Squadron Roster board. This
roster shows the available squadrons plus information about squadrons with
campaigns in progress. Consult the Squadron Roster section below for more details. Press the Enter key or use the mouse
cursor and press OK to retum to the CAMPAIGN Screen.
Medals (IJ
Pressing the MEDALS [E] Key grants access to your personal collection of awards and decorations. A Phoenix symbol
marks the number of times you've had to resurrect yourself. (This feature has been added so that your friends can check
up on you when you begin to tell war stories). Press the Enter key or use the mouse cursor and press OK to retum to the
CAMPAIGN Screen.
MAINMENU @J
Pressing the MAIN MENU [M] Key retums you to the Main Menu Screen.
DIFFICUL TY [QJ
Pressing the DIFFICULTY [D] Key takes you immediately to the Difficulty Screen. This screen is explained in more detail
below. The some Difficulty screen is used for both SCRAMBLE and CAMPAIGN missions.
BEGIN []J
Pressing the BEGIN [B] Key takes you to the Campaign Status screen.
24
THE CAMPAIGN STATUS SCREEN
As the name implies, this screen gives you information about the current status of your on-going campaign. Inside the status
box is the number of the next mission to be flown as well as a short mission briefing. To see how well this campaign is going,
press the blue lower case buttons to access first a mission log and then an individual pilot log.
Mission Log
Press the Mission Log [M] Key to access a complete log of all the missions flown so far in this campaign. The mission log
summarizes each mission so you can tell at a glance;
I) whether the mission succeeded or failed,
2) how many F-14 aircraftfaircrews were lost by your squadron,
3) how many enemy aircraft were shot down by members of your squadron,
4) and finally, your squadron's combined point score for this mission.
Pilot Log [J
Press the Pilot Log [P] Key to access a complete log of all the missions you have flown thus far in this campaign. The
Pilot log summarizes each mission so you can tell at a glance;
I) whether the mission succeeded or failed,
2) how many F-14 aircraftfaircrews were lost by your squadron,
3) how many enemy aircraft you were able to shoot down,
4) your LSO rating (how well you landed back aboard the carrier),
5) and finally, the point score you received for completing this mission.
Pressing the Status [TJ Key retums you to the Campaign Status screen.

Pressing the SQUADRON [S] KEY retums you to the Campaign Screen.
BRIEFING [ID
Pressing the Briefing [B] Key takes you to the Mission Briefing screen.
25
THE MISSION BRIEFING SCREEN
The Mission Briefing Screen contains a text briefing which outlines the
nature of the mission along with the conditions for victory.
STATUS @]
Pressing the STATUS [S] Key retums you to the Campaign Status screen.
W I N G M A N ~
Pressing the WINGMAN [W] Key gives you access to the Squadron
ASSignment Boord.
The Squadron Assignment Board contains a list of all F-14 crews
(Pilot/RIO combinations) in your squadron. It also lists, among other things,
their current assignments for this particular mission. These assignments
include CAP (Combat Air Patrol), Ready 5, and Standby.
Crews assigned to CAP missions wi ll patrol predetenmined areas around
Figure /-6: The Mission Briefing screen contains a brief overview of
the up-<:oming mission.
the carrier according to the carriers standard air defense plan. You have no
control over their placement. Crews assigned to Ready 5 positions are held in reserve on your carrier's flight deck until
needed. If you get in trouble, these are the guys that'll be sent to help bail you out. Finally, air crews that are not needed
for this mission are placed on Standby. These guys, in effect, have the day off
Should you choose to, you may spoil their day off by requesting that a Standby crew be reassigned to fly this mission as
your Wing-man. New Wing-man crews must be selected from the ranks of those crews on Standby. You cannot reassign
crews that are already participating in this mission.
To change Wing-man, use your mouse pointer and press the left mouse button over the desired crew. Your old wing-
man is now put on Standby.
Crews gain experience as they fly more missions and accumulate higher point scores, so rotating your Wing-men is
advisable. Since there is always a chance that crews wi ll be lost during a mission, building up a single crew at the expense of
the others is risky.
26
VF-olt GZJ
In addition to your own squadron, you may check on the status of your sister fighter squadron (VF ah:emate) by
pressing VF-alt M Key. This roster is presented for informational purposes only. You may not select a wing-man from this
squadron.
ARMING [6J
Pressing the ARMING [A] Key takes you immediately to the Arming Screen. This screen is explained in more detail
below. The some Arming screen is used (or both SCRAMBLE and CAMPAIGN missions.
TAKE OFF ITJ
Pressi ng the TAKE OFF [T] Key puts you in the cockprt:. At this point you're :eady to go. You begin some missions on
the carrer deck awaiting your tum to take-off Other missions start with your aircraft already in flight and positioned at its
CAP station.
If you start a mission on the carner deck. you must press the Afterburner Engage 0 or Max Accelerate I Shift 10 to begin.
27
THE DIFFICULTY SCREEN
Figure 1-7: The Difficulty screen is a handy way of setting up a mission
according to your individual tastes,
The Difficulty Screen allows you to set the difficulty levels of ten
or more game features, The three difficulty levels are referred to as
play Modes, They are Standard Mode (the easiest of the three),
Moderate Mode (more complex t han Standard Mode), and finally
the ultimate in realism, Authentic Mode (the most challenging of the
three di fficulty levels),
Difficulty Levels
TRAINING: Select this mode and you' ll never have to say you're
sorry, You can "get away" with mistakes in Training mode that would
end a regular mission, Training mode turns your F-14 into an
invi ncible fighting machine, Enemy missiles (SAMs and AAMs) and
gunfire cannot harm your aircraft but your weapons retain their
lethality, Training mode also allows you to continuall y resupply your
aircraft (and your wing-man's aircraft) wrt:h fuel and weapons, Given
time, you can clear the skies of enemy aircraft,
Training mode also gives you the ability to "teleport" your F-14 to
any point on the map wrt:h a click of your mouse button, Press the Map View 0 to access the campaign map, Now press
the blue button marked Move [MJ Key. You are now able to posrt:ion your mouse pointer anywhere on the map you wish
to go. Press the left mouse button and your F- 14 is instantly teleported to this spot on the map. No fuel is used in this move.
As much fun as Training mode is, it does have one drawback You are never given a score for Training missions. Even if
you switch to Training mode for only part of the mission, you are given a score of zero (0). All points scored on a mission are
lost if you switch to Training mode while the mission is in progress.
28
LEVEL I - 4
FLEET DEFENDER missions can be flown in various degrees of difficulty. There are four different levels; Level I (easiest)
to Level 4 (Impossible). As you might imagine, more points are awarded for missions flown at the higher difficulty levels.
You detenmine the difficulty level of each mission by setting the mission options to one of the following modes of play;
Standard, Moderate, and Authentic.
STANDARD MODE is the easiest of the three modes of play. It is very forgiving of pilot enror. Aircraft systems are
simplified and abstracted for the player who just wants to fly and shoot without being overly concemed with realism.
MODERATE MODE is an intenmediate difficulty level. It combines some of the easier aspects of Standard Mode play
with the more realistic features of Authentic Mode. Many of the things that were perfonmed automatically before must now
be perfonmed manually. The biggest change, however, comes in the operation of the radar and its component systems.
AUTHENTIC MODE represents the highest level of difficulty in FLEET DEFENDER. It is also the level at which players
score the most points. Of the three, Authentic Mode places the greatest work load on the player. Aircraft avionics and
weapons perfonm just as their counterparts do in real life.
As more mission options are set to harder modes of play, the overall level of difficulty goes up accordingly. You con
watch this happen by changing the mission options bock and forth.
Difficulty Options
There are ten difficulty options that need to be set prior to the initiation of any campaign. Consider these options
carefully. Once a mission begins it's too late to change your mind.
WEAPON EFFECTIVENESS
Standard Mode: Your missiles are always 100% effective. They always hit and they always kill. It's hardly a challenge
really, just aim and shoot.
Moderate Mode: Your missiles still destroy a target when they hit it but hitting a target has been made more difficult.
Enemy aircraft can now avoid your missiles by using electronic counter-measures (ECM) or by outmaneuvering them, if
given a chance.
Authentic Mode: The lethalrty of each missile is detenmined using infonmation drawn from a carefully constnucted data-
base. Over thirty unique characteristics are taken into account to ensure that each missile perfonms in FLEET DEFENDER
just as it does in real-life. This mode accurately models the differences between individual air-to-air missiles.
29
FLIGHT MODEL
Standard Mode: Your F-14 almost flies itself in this mode, rt's very hard to make a mistake. The aircraft performs the
same regardless of altitude. Roll inertia has been removed from the flight model in this mode. Adverse G effects have also
been taken out. The aircraft automatically calculates and inputs the proper amount of trim for you. The Automatic pilot is
equipped with a terrain-following feature to keep you from hitting the ground by accident.
Moderate Mode: Unlike Standard Mode, this flight model incorporates the affect of air density (altitude) on
perfonmance. In addition, you may damage the aircraft by exposing it to stress resulting from high G forces.
Rol l inertia has been removed from t he flight model in this mode as well and the proper amount of t rim is input for
you. The Automatic pi lot is equipped wrth a terrain-foll owing feature to keep you from hitting the ground by accident.
Authentic Mode: This flight model incorporates the affect of air density (altrtude) on performance. You may damage
the aircraft by exposing rt to stress resulting from high G forces. (The G force tolerance of the aircraft has been reduced
from that in Moderate Mode.)
Flight controls may seem a brt sluggish. This is because roll inertia has been added. You are also required to trim the
aircraft frequently to maximize its performance. (Unless you are an absolute fanatic for realism, trimming the aircraft can
get to be annoying. If you find the trim feature bothersome, press the Auto Trim Bypass I Shift I [IJ. The terrain-following
feature of the Automatic pilot has been removed. It only keeps your aircraft flying straight and level.
F- /4 DAMAGE
Standard Mode: Your F- 14 can take an unbeli evable amount of damage and continue to fly.
Moderate Mode: You can sti ll take a good deal of damage but missiles should not be ignored. Several hits are enough
to bring you down. Avionics and other critical areas are assessed damage individually.
Authentic Mode: Damage is assessed realistically according to the type of hrt your aircraft receives. For example, radar-
guided missiles generally cause more damage than heat-seeking missiles because of their larger warheads. Missile hits usually
(but not always) cause catastrophic failure to one or more systems. Bursts of gunfire cause less damage per direct hit than
missi les. As a rule, rt takes many bursts of gunfire to bring down your aircraft.
30
CARRIER LANDINGS
Standard Mode: The Landing Signals Officer (LSO) is very lenient in this mode. You can mess up an approach and still
receive a good rating. Your F-14 is also eager to forgive mistakes. Any landing you can walk away from is a good landing and
this mode lets you walk away from most of them.
Moderate Mode: Landings are somewhat more difficult. Your airspeed, angle, and rate of descent must all be wrthin
critical tolerances in order to land safely. The LSO is more crirtical of your landings than before but unless you put the nose
of the aircraft through the deck. you should do okay.
Authentic Mode: The LSO is a SOB. He demands perfection and can't wart to give you a bad rating. You must stay in
complete control of the aircraft throughout your approach or you'll receive a wave-off In this mode, it is better to go
around than risk a bad landing. Bad landings are usually fatal. Authentic Mode approaches require a high degree of piloting
skill. If you are not sweating these landings than you just don't understand the problem.
RIO ASSISTANCE
Standard Mode: Your Radar Intercept Officer (RIO) gives you a great deal of assistance which allows you to
concentrate on flying, your primary concem as a pilot.
The RIO automatically locks the nearest enemy aircraft for you. Sometimes this helps out and sometimes it doesn't. As
a pilot you must be the final arbitrator. Your RIO also alerts you to "bandrts" (enemy aircraft) in the area by calling out
their clock position. For example, if your RIO calls out "Bandit- 6 o'clock", this indicates that an enemy is on your tail.
In addition, your RIO is also responsible for deploying electronic counter-measures (ECM) when necessary. Even so, as
the pilot you might want to keep your finger near the Chaff/Flare swrtches yourself, just in case.
Finally, your RIO is responsible for calling out damage to your aircraft.
Moderate Mode: In this mode, your back seater is a Irttle more casual about his duties. He's more than willing to let
you take over some of the responsi bilrties. Your RIO still reports on bandrts in the area, deploys countermeasures, and calls
out damage, but you have to lock-up your own targets.
Authentic Mode: In this mode, your RIO is really just along for the ride. Oh sure, your RIO wi ll still spot bandrts and
report on damage, but other than that. you're on your own.
31
BACKSEAT CONTROLS
Standard Mode: You may fly the aircraft from the back seat as you would if you were seated in the front. You just have
to peer over the DDD to do it., that's all.
Moderate Mode: You cannot fly the aircraft from the back-seat. The aircraft maintains the stick posrt:ion (prt:ch, yaw, and
roll input) rt: was in when you exrt:ed the front seat.
Authentic Mode: You cannot fly the aircraft from the back-seat. The aircraft will follow rt:s natural tendency to level
rt:self. if possible.
GUN CAMERA
Standard Mode: The Vertical Display Indicator (VDI) shows the camera image in color and labels the primary targets
for you. The camera rt:self can pan 360.
Moderate Mode: The VDI shows the camera image in monochrome (green) and labels the primary targets for you. As
in Standard Mode, the camera can pan 360.
Authentic Mode: The VDI shows the camera image in monochrome (green). It does not label the primary targets for
you. The camera has forward looking gimble limrt:s of 20left and right of center and 20above and below the horizon.
RADAR
The three Radar difficulty modes are covered in the AWG-9 radar section of Chapter 4.
GROUND CRASH MODE
Standard: The aircraft can hrt: ground objects and terrain wrt:hout being affected (i .e. you can crash into the ground and
still keep flying). Your aircraft is not damaged in any way by contact wrt:h the ground. Exception.' If your aircraft has been
previously damaged by enemy action, any contact with the ground ends your mission (and your career)
Moderate and Authentic: Any contact with a ground object other than a carrier flight deck results in the immediate
destnuction of your aircraft. If you happen to be inside the aircraft when this occurs". see yah!
ENEMY SKILL: Enemy pilots are rated as follows; ( I ) Trainee, (2) Cadet, (3) Regular, (4) Veteran and (5) Ace.
Choosing the higher levels just makes your job all the more difficult. Highly skilled pilots are simply able to fly and tight
better than lesser trained pilots. Veteran pilots combine experience wrt:h training to produce superior performance. An
Ace is a veteran pilot with exceptional instincts and superb judgment.
CARRIER CLASS: Select one of three different classes of aircraft carriers represented in the game; Forrestal, f<jtty Hawk,
or the giant nuclear-powered Nimitz class. The differences between the three carriers are largely cosmetic, however, the
longer length of the Nimitz class flight deck makes landings a little easier.
32
Joystick OJ
Pressing the blue Joystick OJ Key brings up an additional panel labeled CONTROL. This panel allows you to set up the
simulation according to the availability of your own hardware.
JOYSTICK: Use your mouse pointer to make a choice of controller devices (or combination of devices). Note that you
may choose not to use a joystick at al l and use keyboard controls instead. FLEET DEFENDER also allows for specialized
equipment such as throttle controllers or foot pedals as well.
KEYBOARD SENSITIVITY: You may adjust the sensitivity of your keyboard between High, Medium, and Low. The
more sensitive you make the keyboard, the more control input is generated each time you press a particular key.
ROLL RATE: Select one of two different roll rates: Standard or Authentic. Selecting Standard gives you a roll which is
unaffected by altitude or airspeed. An Authentic roll rate is more realistic and takes into account all the aerodynamic factors
which affect your fiight performance.
Difficulty @J
Press this key to retum to the previous Difficulty panel.
Recolibrote [B)
Press the Recalibrote [R] Key to recalibrate your joystick or controller between flights. Follow the on-screen
instructions. When finished, press Escape/Menu Options [ Esc I
Sound O f f ~
This key is a toggle which tums the sound On and Off. Since the [S] Key is used for this toggle, to press the
SQUADRON button you must use your mouse pointer.
Music IT]
Thi s key is a toggle which tums the background music On and Off Game sound is unaffected.
33
THE ARMING SCREEN
There are si x different weapon configurations for you to choose from on the Arming Screen. Each mission has its own
pecul iar set of ordnance requirements so get to know them. Once in the air, it's t oo late to change weapons if you find
you've made a bad selection.
Figure 1-8: The Arming Screen
Fleet Defense CHARLIE
Fleet Defense ALPHA
4 (AIM-54 Phoeni x) + 2 (AIM-7 Sparrow) + 2 (AIM-9 Sidewi nder)
This load-out represents a good mix of radar and heat-seeki ng missiles.
Use this load-out when going up against a group of strike-fighters. The four
AIM-54s should be used to pick off a few bandits at long range. The
remaining missiles are good for proximity dogfighting with the survivors.
Fleet Defense BRAVO
6 (AIM-54 Phoenix) + 2 (AIM-9 Sidewinder)
This load-out best illustrates the Navy' s Missileer launch platform
concept The six Phoenix missiles allow you to sit back safel y out of range
and shoot down the enemy with impunity. You pay a high price for this
seeming invincibility, though. Note your top speed at sea level and don't
even think about getting into a dogfight.
2 (AIM-54 Phoenix) + I (AIM-7 Sparrow) + 4 (AIM-9 Sidewinder)
Like the FD Alpha load-out, this mix of radar and heat-seeking missiles is great for multi-mission tasking. The two
AIM-54s could be used against non-maneuvering targets like
reconnaissance or ASW aircraft. The four "heaters" gives you plenty of
ammunition in case of a BFM engagement.
MiG CAP ALPHA
4 (AIM-7 Sparrow) + 4 (AIM-9 Sidewinder)
This load-out is ideal for escort missi ons. The four Sparrows give you a
medium-range capability while the Sidewinders allow you to break
formation to dogfight with interceptors. Your speed is such that keeping up
with a strike package is not a problem.
34
Figure 1-9: Shown here, a F-14 loaded down with a
full compliment of six Phoenix missiles
MiG CAP BRAVO
6 (AIM-7 SparTOw) + 2 (AIM-9 Sidewinder)
Every now and then you get lucky and come across a flight of enemy helicopters or better yet , troop transports. When
this happens there are never enough missiles around. The six Sparrows allow you to "turkey-shoot" a half dozen or 50.
These medium-range missiles let you stay out danger while you pick the enemy off one-by-one.
MiG CAP CHARLIE
4 (AIM-54 Phoenix) + 4 (AIM-9 Sidewinder)
Thi s load-out combines long-range capabilrty with speed. The four AIM-54s are perfect for taking out reconnaissance
aircraft or tactical co-ordination platforms. Once the Phoenix missiles are gone, you' re left with a dramatic speed advantage
and a full complement of "fire and forget" missiles.
STANDARD ARMAMENT: In addition to the missiles, your F-14 always begins a mission with one 20 mm M61 A I gun
(675 rounds) and two drop tanks of fuel each containing 267 gallons.
Detail [QJ
Press the Detaif [0] Key for a close-up inspection of your weapon configuration.
35
THE SQUADRON ROSTER
Figure /-/0: The Squadron Roster Board. There are no entrance
exams to pass or initiations to endure before joining.
Before you fly any mission, you must first be assigned to a particular F-14
equipped fighter squadron. FLEET DEFENDER features ten (10) F-14
squadrons normally associated with the U.s. east coast naval commands. By
pressing the SQUADRON [S] Key, you are given access to these squadrons
and their current campaign status. Pick anyone of the squadrons you desire.
EDIT PILOT [ID
Press the EDIT PILOT [E] Key to assign yourself to the squadron you've
selected. A name plate labeled Pilot Name appears. Use the non-key pad
arrow keys and backspace key to enter your first name (top line), call sign
(middle line) and last name (bottom line). For example, your entry might
look like;
Edward
"Killer"
Crawford
Once you have finished entering or editing your name, you must now do the same for your RIO. Use your mouse
cursor to press EDIT RIO button. When you are satisfied, press the Enter key or use t he mouse cursor and press OK to
retum to the Squadron Roster Board.
RESET (BJ
The RESET [R] Key takes you back to the very beginning and allows you to start the campaign over. Any points you
may have scored during the course of the campaign are lost when you start over again.
CAMPAIGN@]
Press the CAMPAIGN [q Key to make theater and scenario selections. There are three theaters to choose from; two
are combat theaters (North Cape and Mediterranean). The third theater is the Oceana NAS theater featuring training
operations off the east coast of the United States. Use the non-key pad arrow keys to select anyone of the three. Your
selection is highlighted in yellow.
Your choice of scenario depends entirely upon your choice of theater. Each of the combat theaters has three
different scenarios to choose from. Use the non-key pad arrow keys to elect anyone of the three. Your selection is again
highlighted in yellow. The Oceana theater features six different training options. You may select anyone of the six.
36
S T A T U S ~
Press the STATUS [SJ Key to access a more detailed summary of your campaign's cunrent status.
OK @]
Press the OK [OJ Key when you are satisfied with the infonrnation on the Squadron Roster board. This key retums you
to the CAMPAIGN Screen. As you can see, the CAMPAIGN Screen now reflects any changes you may have entered.
CANCEL 0
The CANCEL [A J Key negates any configuration changes you may have made to the current campaign. If you make a
set-up mistake, this key lets you correct it by starting over.
37
SCRAMBLE MISSIONS
For those of you who just want to get in one last mission before heading off to work. school, etc., The SCRAMBLE
play option allows you to fiy quick and easy single sortie missions.
Rather than present you with a host of stock missions, this play option features a mini-mission generator. By combining
t he SCRAMBLE mission generator with a little imagination, you are able to create a variety of aerial encounters.
SCRAMBLE Mission Generator
Use your mouse pointer or press the corresponding highl ighted letters to select SCRAMBLE mission options.
Figure I-I I: The SCRAMBLE
screen displays 0/1 your mission
options. You con create 0/1
new missions or accept the
default setting.
Type lIJ
By pressing this button, you are given access to the list of all available aircraft. Note that you are only allowed to select
one aircraft type per mission. Use your mouse pointer and press the left mouse button to make your selection.
Skill []]
Select the enemy skill level. Press this button and the ski ll level selections appear to the right. Choose from between
Trainee, Cadet, Regular, Veteran and Ace. At the higher skill levels, enemy pilots are able to use their radar better, fire
missiles faster, and generall y fi y a little smarter. An Ace is a real chall enge, even in a Yak-38. Trainees are little better than
sitting ducks, but even they get lucky from t ime to time.
NumberlEJ
Select the number of friendly and enemy aircraft you wish to take part in this mission. You may choose up to six (6)
enemy and six (6) friendly aircraft. Warning: each additional aircraft you put in the sky practically doubles your work load.
Imagine having to fight your way out of a furball consisting of twelve aircraft.
38
Formation [B
Select the type of enemy fomnation. There are four different fomnations; Box, Wall, Ladder, or Cruise. A three-
dimensional nepresentation of each fomnation appears to the right of your selection. Consult the Oceana training section
for more details conceming enemy fomnations.
Enemy Alt [ID
Select your enemy's starting altitude using the keyboard anrow keys. An altimeter appears to the right all owing you to
view your selection. You may place the enemy anywhere from 1000 ft. up to the SCRAMBLE ceiling of 40,000 feet.
Your Alt@]
Select your own starting altitude using the keyboard anrow keys. An altimeter appears to the right all owing you to view
your selection. You may begin anywhere from 1000 ft. up to t he SCRAMBLE ceiling of 40,000 feet.
Position [J
Select your starting position vis-a-vis the enemy fomnation. You may choose one of thnee starting positions; Offensive
(Advantaged), Neutral (Head-to-Head), or Defensive (Disadvantaged).
Time OJ
Select the time using the keyboard anrow keys. A clock appears all owing you to view your selection. The Day-to-Night
(Dusk) transition begins at 1800 hrs and ends at 2000 hrs. The Night-to-Day (Dawn) transition begi ns at 0500 hrs and
ends at 0700 hrs.
WeatherGYJ
Choose between three different types of weather conditions; Stormy, Clear, and Overcast Stomny conditions are more
severe than mene overcast, the cloud layer is thicker and the cloud ceil ing is lower to the ground.
Squadron [QJ
You may choose to fiy as a member of one of eight (8) different F-14 squadrons. The squadron's patch appears to the
right as you cycle through your selections.
Default Option: If you'ne in a neal hurry don't bother setting the mission options, just press TAKE OFF [TJ and accept
the SCRAMBLE mode default. This setting allows you to recreate the Tomcat's 1981 encounter with two Libyan Su-22s.
Historically, both the "Fitters" were shot down by a pair of F-14s belonging to VF-41 "Black Aces." This was the famous
Navy; 2, Libya; 0 incident.
39
CAMPAIGN MISSIONS
Rather than limit players to individual SCRAMBLE sorties, FLEET DEFENDER allows you to take part in an entire naval/air
campaign. A single campaign has the potential to last anywhere from several days to several weeks. Your role will be to fly
missions in support of your carrier and its strike operations. Since you have only one carrier per campaign scenario you must
protect it. If it is ever sunk or so severely damaged that it can no longer perform air operations, the campaign is over.
In addition to CAP (Combat Air Patrol) missions, you are also tasked with escorting friendly strike packages while on-
route to their targets. On these missions you are not accountable for how well the strike package performs. As a fighter
"jock", you don't care if any of these aircraft hit their targets just as long as they all make it back home. Therefore, your
performance is judged on the number of friendly aircraft that survive the mission and not the level of destruction inflicted
on the target.
Campaign missions have been created based on actual air/sea tactics used by the Soviet Union. They have not been
intentionally play balanced beforehand to make them easy or even fair, for that matter. You'll find that some missions are
milk runs, while others will be downright impossible.
BEGI NNING A CAMPAIGN
You begin each campaign aboard a single aircraft carrier being escorted by several Cruisers, Guided-missile Destroyers
and Frigates. Onboard the carrier are approximately 90 combat aircraft and helicopters. Their striking power is awesome
but it is mitigated to a degree by the enemy's formidable air defenses. The enemy has a host of ships and planes
determined to stop your carrier group and this is where you come in.
You (and your RJO) represent one of twenty-two F-14 aircrews that make up the two fighter squadrons onboard the
carrier. Two of these crews are actually replacements. There are only twenty F-14s onboard, and ah:hough this may sound like a
lot, combat attrition will take its tol l. You can't afford to press the envelope too often.
In order to begin a campaign, three things are necessary. You must;
I) choose one of the two combat theaters (either North Cape or Mediterranean),
2) choose one of the three campaign scenarios, and
3) be assigned to an active squadron.
Once you have accomplished these three things, you are ready to begin your first campaign mission.
40
Flying 0 Mission
Now, it's time to prepare for your first mission. Actually, individual campaign missions are no different than the single
sortie missions flown in SCRAMBLE option. However, with all the many decisions that need to be made before take-off.
it's probably a good idea to check everything once again.
I) From the CAMPAIGN screen, check the Squadron Roster Board to make sure you have the right
squadron and the right campaign. Now, press the DIFFICULTY button [DJ Key.
2) From the DIFFICULTY screen, set the difficulty options on the panel as desired. You may also
recalibrate your joystick at this point if needed. Now, press the CAMPAIGN button [q Key to retum briefly to the
CAMPAIGN screen.
3) From the CAMPAIGN screen, press the BEGIN button [BJ Key. This takes you directly to the pre-Mission briefing.
4) From the BRIEFING screen, press the BRIEFING button [BJ Key to get your mission briefing. Read the briefing
text carefully, it contains important operational information and the mission conditions for victory. Now that you
have an idea what is expected of you, press the ARMING button [A J Key.
5) From the ARMING screen, make your ordnance selections based upon the up-coming mission requirements.
Now, press the WINGMAN [W] Key.
6) From the W INGMAN screen, you may assign yourself a new wing-man, if you so desire. Take a minute to check
the other crew assignments so you are familiar with the crews participating in this mission. Once you are satisfied
with the crew assignments, there is only one thing left to do; press the TAKE OFF button [T] Key and ... take-off!
Ending 0 Mission
Hopefully, each of your missions will end with you retuming safely to an undamaged aircraft carrier. Ideally, this is the
way every mission should end. Sadly, the fortunes of war will dictate otherwise on occasion.
BECOMING A CASUALTY
There is always a chance you will not survive a mission. If this happens, the mission is over at the point of your demise.
See Resurrection below.
EJECTING
Bailing out of a crippled aircraft is another way to end the mission. If you survive the ejection and are picked up, you
are taken directly to the mission debriefing.
41
ABORT 0
You may abort a mission in progress at any time. To abort a mission, press the Escape/Menu Options I Esc I to access
the Control Options screen. Now, press the ABORT button [A] Key located at the bottom of this screen. Ending a
mission in this manner causes you to loose credit for any points you may have scored on thi s mission. You are taken to
the mission debrief
EXIT TO 005 0
Rather than aborting a mission, you may also leave the simulation altogether from the Control Option screen. Press
the EXIT TO DOS [X] Key. Thi s key has the same affect as pressing the Quit lED [QJ Key.
Mission Debriefing
You receive a debriefing at the conclusion of each mission, whether you personally survive it or not. This debrief
consists of a replay of the entire mission summarizing the major events and placing them in chronological order. A
summary of your point score is also displayed along with any medals or awards you are to receive.
Ending 0 Campaign
Your carrier group will continue its operations until it achieves its objectives unless the campaign ends prematurely.
There are two principle ways for a campaign to end prematurely, if your pilot is Killed In Action (KIA), or your aircraft
carrier is sunk or severely damaged.
At the end of each campaign, you're overall perfonmance is rated according to the number of successful missions you
have fiown. You can lose a few missions and still have a decent campaign record. In Baseball , a .500 percentage wi ll get you
in the World Series, so too, in FLEET DEFENDER. Win over half of the missions and you should feel pretty good, win 75%
of them and you're doing great.
42
YOUR CAREER
FLEET DEFENDER allows you to personalize your pilot and RIO by giving them names of your own choosing. Most
players tend to name the pilot after themselves and name the RIO after their best friend. There's no requirement to do
this, however. You may give the pilot and RIO any names you wish.
Assuming you name the pilot after yourself. we can also assume that you now have a vested interest in doing well and
surviving. In this respect, you are no different than any other naval aviator that fiies the Tomcat in real life. He has his career
to worry about, now you have yours.
BEGINNING A CAREER
Your career as a naval aviator begins the moment you give a name to your pi lot.
From this moment on, your career is simply the sum total of all the points scored during
al l the missions you have fiown using this persona. (You may have a different pilot name for
each active squadron.)
Your personal objective is to survive the campaign, all other considerations should be
secondary. Along the way, however, you wi ll accumulate points for accompli shing certain
tasks and destroying enemy aircraft. If you are noticeably successfully, you are
recommended for various awards and decorations.
43
Figure I-I 2: Feeling that need for speed? This F-I 4 is
showing its stuff on a low level pass.
CAREER PROGRESSION (PROMOTIONS)
Your ultimate career goal is to get promoted up the ladder until you reach the rank of Commodore. It won't be easy.
You wi ll only attain thi s lofty grade after fiying many missions, in many campaigns. After you attain this rank, you are retired.
Enjoy your break from combat, you eamed it.
Mission Scoring
You receive a point score depending upon how well you performed as an individual. You also receive points as a member
of the squadron for participating in a successful mission. These two sums are totaled t o produce your final mission score.
Failure t o accompli sh your mission gamers less points for you as an individual and makes a campaign more difficult to
ultimately win. For example, you may be given a mission to prevent enemy reconnaissance aircraft from finding your carrier
group. If the enemy is allowed to locate your carrier, the next mission may have you desperately trying to shoot down a
salvo of cruise missiles.
Promotions
Promotions are based upon your accumulated point totals. They are not easy to get, but they do come in time. Every
naval aviator starts the game as a Lieutenant JG Uunior Grade) with a point score of zero (0). In order to attain the next
highest rank, you only need to accumulate the prerequisite number of points. The higher the rank, the more points you
must accumulate to attain it.
Regardless of the number of points you receive, you are never promoted more than one rank after anyone mission. If
you do really well on a particular mission, you must fiy another so that your promotions can catch up with your
accumulated point score.
The following chart outlines the rank stnucture in FLEET DEFENDER and the point scores needed to attain them;
Rank
Lieutenant JG
Lieutenant
Lt. Commander
Commander
Captain
Commodore
Points needed
At Start
6,000
18,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
Your Wing-man can never be more than one rank above you. Any higher than that and he'd be considered the
fiight leader.
Likewise, your RIO is always kept at least one rank lower than you. Sorry bock-seaters, but that's just the way it is in this sim.
44
AWARDS AND DECORATIONS
In addition to promotions, you may also earn various awards and
decorations for outstanding performance. Like your point score, these stay
with the pilot who earns them. They are not transferable.
The awards, as well as the point score needed to attain them, are
as follows;
Medal Awarded
CMOH
Navy Cross
Silver Star
Distinguished Flying Cross
Air Medal
Navy Commendation Medal
Purple Heart
National Defense Service Medal
ENDING YOUR CAREER
Retirement
Point Score Needed
7,000
5,500
4,500
3,500
2,500
1,500
None
None
Figure 1-13: The Awards screen.
The most pleasant way to end a service career is through retirement after having achieved a chest full of medals. As
soon as you reach the rank of Commodore, you are retired. Once you achieve the rank of Commodore your fl ying days
are over. The Navy can't have its senior officers out tooling around in fighters, now can it?
Roll of the Honored Dead
The other way to end a career is not so pleasant. Every time you take to the sky there's a chance you may not retum.
At the conclusion of each mission, a list of those who won't be returning is published. This list is termed the Roll of the
Honored Dead. If your pilot's name is on it, your career is over.
Resurrect ffiJ
All is not lost. Because being a FLEET DEFENDER is such a hazardous occupation, the designers have included a
universal safeguard against premature retirement. If you are ever KIA for any reason, you are given a second chance. To
resurrect yourself, press the Resurrect [R] Key. If only it was this easy in real life!
45
Figure /-/4: The Roll of the Honored Dead.
The Phoenix
Resurrected pilots are immediately returned to active service and
allowed to keep the points they scored prior to their demise. The drawback
to resurrection is that you are considered to have failed the mission. All
things considered, it's a small price to pay.
Perish (E]
If you are unwilling to toy wrth destiny, press the Perish [PJ Key. The pilot
is irrevocably gone and the campaign is ended.
Fly O v e r ~
The Fly Over option is essentially the same as resurrection except
that the pilot must start the same mission again. Press the Fly Over [F] Key
to try again.
A Phoenix, a mythological bird which rises from the ashes of rt:s own destruction, is used to symbol ize resurrection.
One of these icons is placed wrth your medals each time your pilot is resurrected. There is no limrt to the number of times
a pilot may be brought back
46
Because of the complexity of the F-14's weapon and fiight control systems there are wel l over a hundred different key
commands. Each command perfonrns a unique function and is activated by the touch of a certain key or combination of
keys on your keyboard.
Originally, the game designers considered including an overlay template showing all the distinct key combinations.
Quickly we realized rt: would be unusable due to the overwhelming number of commands. So instead, a complete li st of all
the key commands used in FLEET DEFENDER is provided on the Key Reference Card included with your game. Keep the
card handy for use during fiight.
47
This chapter is intended to provide you with a detailed summary of all the various command functions used during the
normal course of play. Each function is referred to by its name as it appears on the Key Reference Card followed by the
actual keystroke in parenthesizes. The keys have been grouped into appropriate sections for quick reference. These include
primary and secondary flight controls, simulation views, radar, weapons, and general simulation controls, etc.
There is an additional list of Wing-man controls which appear on the Key Reference Card but do not appear in thi s
chapter. Details conceming wing-man control keys can be found in the Wing-man section of Chapter Four.
48
FLIGHT CONTROL KEYS
PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS
Primary flight controls are usually non-combat related keys deemed most important to your ability to fly the aircraft.
They represent keys that are frequently used during the course of a mission. As such they are easily remembered after a
few sorties.
Front/Bock Seat Toggle 0: This toggle allows you to instantly move between the front (pilot) seat and back (RIO) seat.
Your view perspective defauh:s to a Look Ahead view as a result of this move.
Accelerate G} Pressing this key increases the throttle setting of your aircraft in increments of I 0%. You are able to
watch this incremental increase in power on the RpM gauge located directly under the pilot's altimeter. Notice a significant
increase in fuel consumption as well.
Full Military Power I Shift I G : Pressing this key immediately increases your throttle to 100% RpMs (Full Military Power).
Throttle Bock G : Pressing this key decreases the throttle setting of your aircraft in increments of 10%. Notice how your
fuel flow rate decreases as you throttle back
Cut Throttle I Shift I G : Pressing this key immediately shuts down both engines completely. You'd better have a landing
spot already picked out. Gliding is not one of the F-14's strong-points.
Speed Brake Toggle lID: If your aircraft is on the deck, toggling this key tums your wheel brakes On and Off while you
taxi. If your aircraft is airbome, this key toggles between the speed brake's two positions, retracted (in) and extended (out).
Extending your speedbrakes in flight is known as "popping the boards".
Afterbumer Engage 0: Pressing this key kicks in the afterbumer. Your afterbumer boosts your thrust well over 100%
but consumes fuel at a prohibitive rate. Use the afterbumer sparingly.
Note that this key is not a toggle. You cannot use it to tum off the afterbumer. To tum off the afterbumer, press the
Throttle Back G once.
Automatic Pilot [} By toggling this key, you may engage and disengage your aircraft's Automatic Pilot. When the
Automatic Pilot is engaged, it maintains your heading and altitude. You are able to make minor course corrections without
disengaging the Automatic Pilot. Automatic Pilot is most useful when you are busy attending to other chores (like working
the radar systems in the back seat).
Stick Trim Up [J : Each press of this key adjusts (trims) the pitch of the aircraft upward without putting back pressure
on the joystick
49
Stick Trim Down 0]: Each press of this key adjusts (trims) the pitch of the aircraft downward without putting forward
pressure on the joystick
Auto Trim I Shift IOJ: Pressing this key automatically adjusts (trims) your aircraft's pitch for you.
Figure 2- 1: Vampire ... Vampire ... Vampire .. ! A Sea-Sparrow
missile is launched at in-coming anti-ship missiles just over
the horizon.
Rudder Left Q : Pressing this key causes the aircraft to yaw (tum wlo banking the
wings) to the left.
Rudder Right 0 : Pressing this key causes the aircraft to yaw (tum wlo banking
the wings) to the right
Directional Controls (Arrow Keys): The keyboard arrow keys act as the
Controller when the simulation is not being played with a joystick. These four
keys are able to maneuver the aircraft, up, down, left and right, just as if you were
using a joystick.
Eject I Shift I [I]: When your aircraft is damaged by enemy fire and is no longer
airworthy, it' s time to bailout. Press Eject I Shift I [I] to bailout but remember, there
are no second chances. If you "punch Elvis" (hit the Eject key) by mistake, you are
not given an opportunity to take it back
IMPORTANT SAFETY TlP- You cannot successfully eject if your aircraft is inverted
or traveling over 350 knots, so avoid premature ejections.
NAV mode []] : This key causes the HUD to begin displayi ng navigation aids such as a velocity vector and 5
incremental pitch ladder. A Course Deviation Indicator appears on the Vertical Di splay Indicator to assist you in lining up
for a carrier approach.
Waypoint Toggle @J: This key toggles through all your assigned waypoint locations for the current mission. A brief
description of the waypoint appears along the bottom edge of the screen as you cyde through the settings. The waypoint's
relative bearing is also displayed on the HUD by means of a heading caret on your heading indicator.
50
SECONDARY FLIGHT CONTROLS
Secondary fiight controls are also important though they are less often used than those previously described. These
controls are usually associated with non-critical tasks.
Extemal Lights Toggle [ShiH 1 [g : This key toggles your extemal formation lights (including landing lights) Qn and Qff.
Extemal lights are only important for identification purposes or close formation fi yi ng at night. Otherwise, tum them off or
they assist the enemy in spotting your aircraft.
Jettison Extemal Tanks [ShiH IQJ : Press this key to jettison extemal fuel tanks. Since extemal fuel is used up first, it is a
good idea to jettison your tanks once you have used up the first 3,600 Ibs. (or when your fuel state goes below 16,000
Ibs). Even empty your fuel tanks add weight to the aircraft.
Landing Gear Toggle [ill : This toggle raises and lowers your landing gear UP and DQWN. This should be the first key you
press after leaving the deck on take-off Flying with your landing gear extended risks damaging the aircraft. It also creates an
unbelievable amount of drag resistance and slows you down. You cannot lower the landing gear if you are traveling faster than
300 knots. Use the speed brake to slow to 300 knots or less before lowering the landing gear.
Landing Hook Toggle [8J : This toggle raises and lowers your aircraft's landing hook Arrestor cables on deck cannot stop
your aircraft unless the landing hook is lowered. Trying to land with the hook raised means an automatic bolter.
Hawkeye Picture [Shift 10 : Press this key to request that the E-2C Hawkeye update you with tactical information
(bogey-dope). The Hawkeye is your aircraft carrier's seeing-eye dog, so to speak Consult the section on the E-2C
Hawkeye in Chapter 3 for complete information.
HSOITIO Toggle [Shi ft 1 : Toggl ing this key altemates the HSD monitor between displayi ng standard HSD navigational
information and TID repeater data. A TID repeater is just a way for the pilot to view on his HSD (i n the front seat) what the
RIO, is seeing on his TID (in the back seat). Consult the HSD and TID sections in Chapter 4 for more information.
VOI/TeS Toggle QJ : Pressing this toggle allows you to altemate the Vertical Display Indicator monitor between standard
VDI information and images produced by the Tel evision Camera System (TCS) . Consult the VDI and TCS sections in
Chapter 4 for more information.
Request Landing Clearance : Press this key t o request landing instructions from the Air Boss when retuming to
your carrier after a mission. You must be within 20 nm of your carrier before the Air Boss wi ll acknowledge your request.
Consult the section on Carrier landings for more complete details.
TOMCA T- Ball : Press this key in response to a "Call the Ball " query from the LSo. By pressing this key you are
acknowledging that you have a visual contact with the "meatball"- a landing device on the port side of the carrier deck
Consult the section on Carrier landings for complete instructions.
51
MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT CONTROLS
These controls represent miscellaneous keys that are occasionally used during flight.
Escape/Menu Selectjon I Esc I: Pressing this key while in flight gives you immediate access to a number of simulation
control options. These options include changing your joystick/hardware configurations, keyboard sensitivity, sound options,
messages and detail levels. You may also recalibrate your joystick from this menu if necessary. The simulation is paused
while you make your selections.
Quit Pressing this key immediately ends the simulation and retums you to DOS. It does not save information to
disk Quitting a mission in this manner does not give you credit for any points you may have scored prior to leaving. You
may as well have pulled the plug. Li ke cutting the power, this option may be exercised at any time during play.
Pause Press this key to halt the simulation in its tracks. The game is frozen indefinitely until you resume play.
This feature is perfect in case the phone rings or your Boss should happen to walk in during a frantic "furball". Play is
resumed by pressing any key.
Accelerate Time I Shifl I ITJ: Accelerated time is useful when flying long distances and the chance of encountering hostile
aircraft is low. There are eight (8x) levels of accelerated time. Your current time acceleration multiplier (if greater than I x) is
displayed in the upper left comer of the pilot's forward view screen. You are immediately kicked out of accelerated time if
any enemy action takes place, otherwise press the Normal Time ITJ to exit Accelerated time mode.
Normal Time IT]: Normal Time retums the simulation to a non-accelerated time rate (I x) .
Training Mode 0D ITJ: Training Mode means never having to say you're sonry. While in Training Mode, you are
immediately rendered invulnerable, enemy gunfire and missiles cannot hurt you and contact with the ground does not end
your mission. You are also eligible to perform other " cheat" options li ke Resupply.
Training mode may be toggled On or Off as many times as you like during the course of a mission. However, if any
portion of your mission is flown in Training mode (even if it's only for a couple seconds) you will not receive any points for
completing the mission.
Resupply I Shifl I ffi) : Each time you tap Resupply, your fuel tank is filled and your ordnance stores (missiles and gun
ammo) are replenished. Resupply also automaticall y repairs all damage to your aircraft at the same time. You may use this
key only in conjunction with Training Mode.
Clock Advance 0D 0 : Each time this key is pressed, game time is advanced by five minutes. Thi s feature can only be
used in conjunction with Training Mode.
Clock Reverse 0D G: Each time this key is pressed, game time is reversed by five minutes. Thi s feature can only be
used in conjunction with Training Mode.
52
Landing Cheat Toggle ~ : This key allows you to automatically advance your aircraft through
the various stages of an approach pattem. By toggling this key repeatedly, you are able to move
your ai rcraft through the entire landing procedure right down to the deck This key is only functional
while in Training mode or when your camer landing difficulty level is set to Standard.
RADAR CONTROLS
Leaming how to use the radar properly will be the most challenging aspect of FLEET
DEFENDER. There are three (3) different radar difficulty levels; (Standard, Moderate, and
Authentic Modes). Within each difficulty level there are three (3) search modes (SEARCH, Figure 2-2.' Flight leader and wing-man retuming
PDSRCH, and RWS) and three (3) attack modes (PDSn, TWS-A, TWS-M). Certain key home from on uneventful CAP.
commands are only applicable when playing at certain difficulty levels or when the radar is
keyed to a particular mode. These cases are noted by asterisks (*).
Radar OnlOffToggle [ID : This key toggles your AWG-9 radar ON and OFF. A message appears at the bottom of your
screen indicating whether the radar is Active or Inactive when you toggle this key. Consult the section on the A WG-9 for
more details.
Change Radar Mode @) This key allows you to cycle through al l the various radar search and attack modes that are
available; PDSRCH, TWS-A, TWS-M, and RWS. Your current mode is indicated to the right of the ODD located in the
back (RIO) seat. You can watch the radar mode indicator lights change as you cycle through the modes.
Identification; Friend or Foe, IFF CD : Before you shoot at a target It is a good idea to determine Its identity. You may
destroy a friendly, neutral, or civilian aircraft by mistake and lose big-time points in t he process. Special electronic systems are
used t o "interrogate" a target to determine Its nature. Press the IFF CD to interrogate a locked target (IFF is only effective
with a locked target). Consult the section detailing the AWG-9 radar for more information conceming the IFF function.
Lock/Cycle Targets [Backspace I : Press this key to lock a target when the radar is in SEARCH mode. The radar instantly
changes to PDSn when the target is locked. By repeatedly pressing this key you are able to cycle through all eli gible
targets appearing on your radar display. (Standard Mode radar only)
Break Lock [EJ : This key immediately breaks any radar "lock" you currently have on a target. Note that your RIO may
immediately re-"Iock" the target under certain circumstances.
BoresightlVSL Toggle [End I: Thi s key toggles your radar between Boresight mode and Verti cal Scan Lock-On. (Used in
Moderate and Authentic Mode difficulty levels)
Beam Elevation Up 2[ PgUp I: Each t ime this key is pressed, the radar beam elevation is raised 2. The elevation setting
can be checked on the indicator located to the left of t he DOD. (Used in Moderate and Authentic Mode difficulty levels)
53
Beam Elevation Down 21 PgDn I: Each time this key is pressed, the radar beam elevation is lowered 2. The elevation setting
can be checked on the indicator located to the left of the DDD. (Used in Moderate and Authentic Mode difficulty levels)
Adjust Bars [Home I: Thi s key changes the number of bars cunrently being scanned by the radar. As more bars are
selected the vertical area covered by your beam is increased. See the AWG-9 radar section for more infonmation on bar
settings. (Used in Authentic Mode difficulty level only)
Adjust Azimuth ~ : This key changes the width (azimuth) of your radar beam. The greater the azimuth setting, the
greater the horizontal coverage of your radar beam. This key is only used in Moderate and Authentic Modes. In Moderate
Mode, this key toggles between Wide, Medium, and Narrow settings. In Authentic Mode, the settings are measured in degrees.
See the A WG-9 radar section for more infonmation on azimuth settings.
WEAPON/ECM CONTROLS
Next to your primary and secondary fl ight controls, your weapon commands are the most important keys to
remember. It' s too late, once you're in a dogfght to begin fumbling around trying to select the proper missi le. Get to know
the weapon commands ahead of time, this way cockpit confusion won't lead to a panic situation.
These keys al low you to call up three different missiles or place your 20 mm gun in priority for real close-in work Your
ECM controls allow you to escape from in-coming missiles by deceiving their infrared seekers or clouding their radar retums.
Moster Arm Switch Toggle ~ : This key toggles your Master Anm switch On and Off The Master Anm switch acts as a
safety device. You can not launch missiles or fire your guns unless the Master Anm switch is On. The Master Anm switch
indicator illuminates when the switch is On. When the switch is Off, an X symbol is superimposed over your HUD
weapon indicator.
Guns OJ : Pressing thi s key places your 20 mm Vulcan M61 A I gun into priority. A fl oating gunsight pipper appears in
the center of your HUD. The HUD weapon indicator reads G along with the number of rounds remaini ng on-board.
Sidewinder Missile ~ : Pressing this key puts a short range, heat-seeking AIM-9 missile in priority. The HUD weapon
indicator reads SW along with the number of missiles remai ning on-board.
Sparrow Missile @]: Pressi ng this key puts a medium range, radar-guided AIM-7M missi le in priority. The HUD weapon
indicator reads SP along with the number of missiles remaining on-board.
Phoenix Missile @J : Pressing this key puts a long range, "fire and forget" AIM-54 missile in priority. The HUD weapon
indicator reads PH along with the number of missiles remaining on-board.
Fire Guns 1 Enter I: Each time this key is pressed one burst of 20 mm rounds is fired from your M61 A I gun. Tracers
rounds are visible so that you are able to accurately track your fire.
54
Pickle Button I Spacebar I: One missile of the type currently in priority is fired each time this key is pressed. The number
of missiles currently on-board is noted on your HUD. Each time is key is pressed, this number is reduced accordingly.
TEWS Jammer Toggle CD : Press this key to toggle the TEWS Jammer On and Off. Although the TEWS jammer
automaticall y activates when it detects enemy radars, it must first be tumed On by toggling this key. The word
JAMMER appears across the TEWS display when the jammer is tumed On. When active, the word JAMMER flashes
on the TEWS display.
Release Chaff @] : Pressing this key releases a bundle of radar-distorting chaff You are inrtially given twenty-four (24)
bundles. When this key is pressed a message appears on the HUD indicating that you have released a bundle of chaff and
how many you have remaining. In certain modes, your RIO is authorized to automatically deploy chaff bundles for you.
Release Flore III : Pressing this key releases a fiare designed to decoy incoming heat-seeking missiles. You are inrtiall y
given twelve (12) fiares. When this key is pressed a message appears on the HUD indicating that you have released a flare
and how many you have remaining. In certain modes, your RIO is authorized to automatically deploy flares for you.
HEAD-UP DISPlAY (HUD) CONTROLS
Most of your cockprt time is spent looking through the Head-Up Display (or HUD). The following commands allow
you to tailor the HUD to suit your particular needs.
Increase HUD Brightness 0 [8] : This key gradually increases the brightness of your HUD symbology each time rt is
pressed.
Decrease HUD Brightness I Shift 1[8] : This key gradually decreases the brightness of your HUD symbology each time rt is
pressed.
HUD Glore Filter Toggle 0!]C8J : Press this toggle to raise and lower the HUD glare filter. The symbology on the HUD
changes to an orange hue when the glare filter is raised.
HUD Dec/utter Toggle [QJ: Press this toggle when the amount of HUD symbology begins to clutter (overcrowd) the
display. With the HUD Declutter activated only your heading symbology remains.
55
SIMULATION VIEWS
One aspect of FLEET DEFENDER that we're most proud of is the art work and detailed 3-D modeling that went into
creating the aircraft you encounter. Many of these ai rcraft have never before been seen in a commercial flight si mulator.
The following key controls give you access to a wi de range of simulation vi ews. These perspectives allow you to enjoy all
our hard work (right before you blow it up')
Forward View [ill: Thi s perspective gives you a forward (inside the cockpit) view. It can be used from both front and
rear cockpits. The front cockpit forward view gives you visual access to the HUD and all front seat instrumentation. The
rear cockpit forward view gives you the RI O's perspective and visual access to the DDD and TID.
Full Front View m: This perspective gives you an unobstructed view out the front of the aircraft (outside the cockpit).
This vi ew is accessible from both front and rear seats.
LSO View 0: This perspective is viewed from the Landing Signals Officer's (LSO) station on board the carrier. It is a
reverse angle view from the carrier used to judge your landing approaches. Your aircraft automatically remains centered in
the LSO's field of vision as you move.
Air Boss View 0: Thi s perspective is vi ewed from the control tower above the carrier deck and is known as the Air Boss
view. Your aircraft automatically remains centered in the Air Boss' field of vision as you move.
Figure 2-3: Imogine the spectacular view this pilot
must hove os he soors high above the clouds.
Remote View m: This is an extemal perspective which initially defaults to a rear view of
your aircraft. You are able to PTZ (pan, tilt. zoom) this view. It automat ically keeps your aircraft
centered in your field of vision.
Full Motion Pilot View ffi : This vi ew gi ves you the perspective from the pilot's field of
visi on. It is called full motion because it can moved wherever a pilot is normally able to
swivel his head and look. To move this view, use the key pad numbers; 2- down, 4- left,
6- right and 8- up. Pressing the 5 Key (in the middle of the Keypad) automatically brings
the view back to a straight ahead perspecti ve.
Missile View m: This view gives positions your perspective directly behind a missile as it
flies to its target If more than one missile is in flight you are positioned behind the one most
recently launched. If no ordnance is in flight you are positioned behind your aircraft. Multiple
presses of this key cycles you through all in-flight ordnance including enemy ordnance
launched at your aircraft. You are able to PTZ (pan, t ilt, zoom) this perspecti ve. It
automatically keeps the missile centered in your field of view.
56
Padlock View m: This view is similar to the Full Motion Pilot View with one exception, this view does all the work for
you. Padlock view automatically "locks" on a specific air target and keeps it centered in your field of view. Multiple key
presses allows you to cycle through all aircraft, both friendly and enemy, that you would normally be able to see.
Tactical View m : Thi s view positions your perspective so that you are looking past your aircraft at a target. It
automaticall y rotates to keep the target centered in your field of view. You are able to PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom) this
perspective. It is invaluable when dogfighting by letting you "see" your maneuvers in relation to those of your enemy's.
Multiple presses of this key cycles through eligible aircraft.
Reverse Tactical View [F10i : This vi ew is the same as the Tactical View m except that you are seeing the situation
from the enemy's perspective. It automatically rotates to keep your aircraft centered in the field of view. You may use
Zoom In/Out commands in conjunction with this view. Multiple presses of this key cycles through eligible aircraft.
Map View CD : Thi s key brings up a large scale theater map which gives you the ability to spot the location of various
friendly objects (i.e. your F-14, your wing-man, other F-14s, your carrier, etc.) The location of your mission waypoints are
also noted on the map. You are also able to review your mission briefing in case you've forgotten.
The Map view allows you to "move" the position of your aircraft to any position on the map instantaneously. Press the
Move button [M Key] and follow the on-screen instructions.
57
PILOT IRIO VIEW CONTROLS
In addition to the normal simulation views, FLEET DEFENDER gives you quick and uncomplicated access to a variety of
pilot and RIO perspectives. These keys allow you to change your field of vision in order to better operate and monitor
your aircraft's avionics. You can also sight-see outside the aircraft as well. Occasional glances outside do wonders for your
situational awareness.
All numeric keys used in changing these view perspectives are found on the keypad. Each of these perspectives may be
used by both the pilot and RIO.
Figure 2-4: The keypad numeric keys are used to
change your view perspective. Use the Front
SeatJ8ack Seat Toggle [] in conjunction with
these keys to get both pilot and RIO fields of vision.
DOD
[J[[]l!Jn
~ _ ~ [ J
O[[J(][l
[:.. lOu
Look Ahead @J: Press this key to access a forward (straight ahead) view.
Look Up @:l: Press this key to retum to a normal forward perspective from a Look Down view.
Look Down @: Certain cockpit instrumentation may only be
accessed by looking down. Press this key to look down. (self-explanatory)
Look Left G]: Press this key to look left. (self-explanatory)
Look Right @J: Press this key to look right. (self-explanatory)
Look Rear Left 0]: Press this key to look behind the ai rcraft. The view
perspective is oriented at 2250.
Look Rear Right @]: Press thi s key to look behind the aircraft. The
vi ew perspective is oriented at I 35.
58
Figure 2-5: This Tomcat (tying slow with
wings out-stretched for the camera,
belongs to the famous VF-143 "Pu/<jn'
Dogs." Actually the emblem is not a dog
at all, but rather a mythological beast
known as a Griffin.
HARDWARE CONTROLS
Due to the immediacy of modem air combat. it is worth the time to familiarize yourself with the cockpit and controls
before you take to the air. A good airplane can never compensate for a poor pilot. So, before you attempt to master the
art of combat. you must first master your aircraft. In other words, fiying a supersonic aircraft is difficult enough without
having to worry about being detected and shot down.
To configure your hardware, press the Escape/Menu Options I Esc I. A Control Options menu appears with your
hardware configurations.
JOYSTICK CONFIGURATIONS
Figure 2-6: FLEET DEFENDER is
entirely compatible with any standard
joystick interface.
NONE
Even if you do not possess a joystick, you can still play FLEET DEFENDER using keyboard control keys. Select NONE.
(0ie recommend, however, that you play this simulation with at least one joystick)
ONE
If you intend to play the simulation with only one joystick (in conjunction with keyboard controls), use your mouse
pointer and left mouse button to select ONE.
The joystick si mulates the actual control stick in the aircraft. Pull back to go UP, push forward to go DOWN, Banking
the aircraft left and right is done by moving the joystick to the LEFT and RIGHT. The degree of joystick input controls the
extent to which the aircraft responds.
The uppermost button (Selector # I) emulates the Pickle Button I Spacebar I, It is used to fire missiles. The lower
button (Selector #2) emulates the Fire Guns I Enter I,
59
TWO
If one was good, two ought to be better. right! FLEET DEFENDER can be played using two standard joysticks. The second
joystick emulates the throttle control keys found on your keyboard. Pushing forward has the affect of increasing your thrust
(Accelerate Key). Pulling back has the opposite affect (Throttle Back Key).
WIThrottle
If your joystick includes a separate throttle control, select the WfTHROTILE option. The software automatically
knows to look for this control on your joystick
THRUSTMASTER FCSTM
Figure 2-7: The THRUSTMASTER Flight
Control System
BTNUB
Pickle Button ~
BTNTG
Fire Guns IEnterl
BTN LB
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Break View @
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Break View @
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - IFF CD
BTNHU
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Padlock View m
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Padlock View m
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Padlock View ~
BTN HR
Right View - 1 st Press (J
Right Rear View - 2nd Press @J
BTN HL
Left View - 1 st Press @J
Left Rear View - 2nd Press CD
BTNHO
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Lower View - 1 st Press @
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Lower View - 1 st Press @
Cockpit View - 2nd Press [B
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Lower View @
BTNMB
Lock/Cycle Targets [ Backspace I
The THRUSTMASTER Flight Control System is compatible with FLEET DEFENDER. It consists of three main
components, a pistol-grip fl ight stick, a four-position hot controller, and four control buttons. These controls (or
combination of control buttons) emulate keyboard functions as shown in the diagram.
60
FCS-MARK II WCS
The FCS Marl<. II WCS can be used as an analog throttle control. Set the top switch to ANALOG and set the hot
controller switch to DIGITAL.
WCS Marl<. II drivers are included in a FLEET DEFENDER sub-directory. If you wish to devise your own control settings,
you may download this code for yourself
Figure 2-8: The THRUSTMASTER Weapon
Control System TM. Button pushing on the
WCS replaces key presses.
BTN4
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Radar ZoOOi In [IJ
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Radar Zoom Out [ill
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Elevate R a d ~ l f Beam I PgUp)
BTN5
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Change Radar Bar Setting ) Home)
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Change Radar Azimuth ~
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Lower Radar Beam I Pg On)
RKRUP
No Function
RKRMO
No Function
RKR ON
No Function
BTN6
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Speed Brake @
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Speed Brake @
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Back Seat CJ
61
BTN3
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Change Radar Search Mode I Delete)
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Change Radar Search Mode IDelete )
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Boresight and VSL Mode toggle ~
BTN2
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Select Phoenix- 1 st Press 0
Sparrow - 2nd Press 0
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Select Sidewinder - 1 st Press ~
Guns - 2nd Press OJ
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Select Guns OJ
Boresight RadarMode ) ~ )
BTN 1
Wcs II Rocker Switch Up - Chaff and Flare @)I(J
Wcs II Rocker Switch Middle - Chaff and Flare @)I(J
Wcs II Rocker Switch Down - Extend Landing Gear @J
Tailhook [EJ
Go to Nav/ lLS Hud ~
VIRTUAL PILOTTM
Figure 2-9. VIRTUAL PILOT'M
Fire Missiles -----f-1"l
View Controls
Up
Left + Right
Down
Throttle
Fire Guns
VIRTUAL PILOp M consists of four main components; a steering wheel device, a four-position hat controller, a bar
t hrottle control and four control buttons/switches.
The control functions emulate FLEET DEFENDER control keys according to the above diagram.
62
FLiGHTSTICK PRO
Figure 2-/ 0: FLIGHTS TICK PRO
Up
Left + Right
Down
View Controls
Pickle Fire Missile ----------If
[ spacebar J
Throttle
GG
Lock/Cycle Targets - - - - r . - = ~ = _ : ~
[ Backspace J
Break Lock
1RI
Fire Guns
JEnterJ
FLiGHTST[ CK PRO consists of four main components; a standard pistol gri p joystick, a four-position hat cont roller, a
wheel type throttle control and four control buttons/switches.
The control functions emulate FLEET DEFENDER control keys according to the above diagram.
63
FOOT PEDALS
THRUSTMASTER RCS (Rudder Control System)
Figure 2-1 I: The THRUSTMASTER
RCSTM (Rudder Control System)
The THRUSTMASTER RCSTM (Rudder Control System) consists of two linked foot pedals which operate the aircraft's
rudders. Moving t he foot pedals, forward and back, emulates the Rudder Left Q and Rudder Right 0
64
FLIGHT DYNAMICS
The most intensely scrutinized portion of any commercial flight simulator is its flight model. Comparing fli ght models
seems to be an industry pastime these days. Whenever a new sim is released the first topic of discussion is inevitably- its
flight model. What's a flight model, you ask? A flight model is simply the set of mathematical formulae that your computer
uses to approximate the performance of a real aircraft. Fli ght models vary according to the aircraft being simulated.
While flight models can get close to the real thing, (and this is entirely subjective) nothing you can do on a computer
sitting at home can compare to the sensation of actual flight. There's nothing like it. Flight is the hardest thing in the world
to describe to people who have never experienced it.
Let the game designers and programmers argue amongst themselves, you and I wil l just have fun. There are plenty of
bandits to hunt down and there's always another bad weather approach waiting to give you "white knuckles".
65
The following section shows you how to make the flight model work for you. It'll also teach you the finer points of
controlling your aircraft while in flight because you can't be expected to max perform your aircraft without first being
familiar with how an aircraft operates. Flight Dynamics covers the art of fl yi ng in its most general (and useful) terms.
THE FOUR FORCES
Figure 3-1: As you con see by the above diagram the laws o(
physics act and counter-oct upon an aircraft Controlled fiight is
merely the art o(juggling these (our (orces.
THE "BIG FOUR"
There are four basic forces which affect each and every object as it
moves through the air; Lift, Thrust, Drag, and Gravity. We call these forces;
the Big Four.
Controlled flight is the art of managing these universal forces in order to
travel through the air and reach a desired destination safely. The same forces
which act upon a football to determine how far it travels also affect huge
civilian airliners with hundreds of people aboard.
Lift
Lift is perhaps the most misunderstood of all the four forces. When an
aircraft is in flight, air strikes the leading (forward) edge of its wing surface. As
air strikes this edge, its flow is disrupted and re-routed to go over, under, and
around the wi ng surface. Deflected air changes speed as it is forced past the
wing. Air moving over top of a wing surface moves at a greater speed than the
air moving below. Since slow moving air has a higher air pressure, the higher pressure under the wing surface pushes on
the bottom of the surface causing it to rise. This, in a nutshell, is the basic secret to heavier-than-air flight.
AERODYNAMIC LIFT
~ s s ~ ~ : Zone ,
FASTER AIR FLOW '--./
AIR FL'!:.... __ ::;; = ~ ~
- - ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ....... ~ ......... ; ~ ~
= SLOWER AIR FLOW
High Pressure Zone
Figure 3-2: Uft Diagram Uft is created by the greater pressure
exerted on the bottom o( a wing surface by virtue o( the slower
moving air.
Forward motion is very important in producing Lift. The faster a wing
surface moves, the greater the volume of air that forced past it. As the vol ume
of air increases, the volume of air being deflected downward increases as well.
This results in a greater pressure differential between the air above and the air
below the wing.
Confused yet? Let's simplify matters and state that Lift is the force which
directly counter-acts an aircraft's weight during flight. For example, if your F-14
weighs 80,000 Ibs. then your wings must produce exactly 80,000 Ibs. of Lift to
maintain level flight, not 79,999 or 80,00 I. Any Lift produced above or below
this number will cause the aircraft to change altitude.
66
Gravity (Weight)
"Whatever goes up, must come down." All objects (animal, vegetable,
and mineral) fall toward the center of this planet at a constant rate of
roughly 32 ft. /second
2
As a practical matter, gravity holds things down and
keeps them from off into space. In fact if rt wasn't for gravity, life as we
know rt wouldn't exist.
Gravrty works at cross purposes to Lift. It must constantly be overcome
by Lift in order for anything to remain airbome for very long. In level Lift
forces our aircraft away from the Earth's surface just as gravity pulls it
downward. If the force of Gravity becomes greater than the Lift being
exerted, the object will be drawn toward the ground, eventually ending the
So, while we all must appreciate the beneficial effects of gravrty, rt sure
presents problems for those of us who want to
See the section on G Forces for more information on the affects of gravity.
Thrust
Modern fighters have fantastic performance envelopes due to the
tremendous amount of power their jet engines can produce. This power is
known as Thrust.
Thrust is the aerodynamic force which propels an object through the air.
It makes no difference if the object is pulled through air by a propeller or
pushed from behind by a jet engine. The purpose of Thrust is to force air
lEVElFlIGHTIG 60% BANK 2G TURN
Lift Force Turning Aircraft
Figure 3-3: G-Forces when bankjng. As you con see the ffight
attitude (bank angle) that an aircraft assumes while tuming has a
direct relationship to the number of "G's" infficted on the aircraft
and pilot
across the aircraft's wing surface in order to create Lift. As long as the aircraft maintains a level attitude increasing the
amount of Thrust results in a corresponding increase in Lift.
Pilots often discuss the relative merits of their aircraft in terms of thrust-to-weight ratios. A Thrust-to-weight (JIW) ratio
is a numerical calculation which compares the amount of Thrust (measured in pounds) being produced versus the weight
of the aircraft (also measured in pounds).
Ideally, aeronautical design engineers would like to build every aircraft wrth a Trw ratio greater than I: I. Such aircraft
would then produce more thrust than their weight and allow them to maintain vertical climbs almost indefinitely.
Unfortunately, greater thrust requires larger engines which drives the weight of the aircraft up which then requires more
thrust--well, you get the idea.
Many players have expressed the misconception that the Tomcat's twin jet engines should allow it to make accelerated
vertical climbs. 50nry to say but there aren't any front line fighter aircraft that can perform such a climb outside of
Hollywood. This type of climb is reserved for ICBMs and the national debt.
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Each of the F-14B's two General Electric F I I 0-GE-400 turbofans are able to produce approximately 16, I 00 Ibs. of dry
thrust or 27,000 Ibs. of wet (afterbuming) thrust each. That is a huge amount of power being generated but given the
Tomcat's combat weight of almost 80,000 Ibs. it's not nearly enough to sustain a vertical climb. Nuff said!
Drag
Aerodynamic resistance to the forward movement of the aircraft is known as Drag. Just as Lift and Weight counteract
each other in the vertical plane, Thrust and Drag counteract each other in the horizontal plane.
To grasp the concept, it is first necessary to separate Drag from the idea of weight. Weight is only an impediment to
the extent that it counteracts Lift. Therefore, weight is counter-acted by increasing Lift while Drag can be counter-acted by
altering the aircraft (in simple tenms). Increasing Thrust does not overcome the affect of Drag.
Drag is a function of a particular aircraft's size and shape (design). All aircraft create a certain amount of Drag no matter
how aerodynamically well constructed they may be. For example, an aircraft which exposes a large frontal area to the
direction of flight creates a lot of Drag. This type of Drag is known as Parasitic. It can be reduced by aerodynamic
streamlining such as minimizing the exposed frontal area of the aircraft.
Parasitic Drag is a major concem to aircraft designers. The size of an aircraft is usually dictated by the avionics carried,
the size of the radar, and the amount of payload (including crew members) required. These factors cannot be changed to
any great degree once an aircraft is in flight. Therefore, the amount of Parasitic Drag is generally fixed.
Some aircraft, like the F-14, are capable of changing the sweep of their wings from 90 degrees to something almost
flush with the fuselage. These variable-geometry fighters are able to cut down on the effects of Parasitic Drag by adjusting
their wings thereby exposing less critical surface to the direction of flight. As a general rule, variable sweep wings are
extended forward for low energy maneuverability and retracted for speed.
BASIC CONCEPTS
Airspeed
Your airspeed is given in knots or nautical miles per hour. Since a nautical mile is 2,000 yards in length (longer than a
regular mile), an aircraft traveling at a speed of 200 knots is going considerably faster than one going 200 miles per hour.
Keep this in mind when you are flying, especially at slow speeds. Think in tenms of knots and not mph.
Airspeed is the velocity of an aircraft relative to the sunrounding air mass. It is not an absolute indication of the aircraft's
speed over ground. A reading of 450 knots does not necessarily mean that the aircraft is traveling 450 nautical miles an
hour between points on the ground.
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Your speed is displayed in KIAS (Knots Indicated Air Speed). The primary difference between lAS (indicated airspeed)
and TAS (true airspeed) is air density. Pilots use indicated airspeed because it is a constant as opposed to true airspeed
which is affected by both ambient temperature and ah:itude variations. Because air density at higher altitudes is less than
that found at sea level , an aircraft's indicated airspeed wi ll decrease as altitude increases. Therefore, an aircraft fl yi ng at
30,000 feet with an indicated airspeed of 350 knots is traveling much faster than an aircraft at 5,000 feet with the same
indicated airspeed.
A mach number is the speed of your aircraft in relation to the speed of sound. An aircraft fl ying at the speed of sound
is said to be traveling at mach I. The same aircraft flying at twice the speed of sound would be traveling at mach 2. Above
30,000 feet, pilots maneuver their aircraft using mach numbers instead of indicated airspeed.
As you can see by the following chart, the indicated airspeed of an aircraft traveling mach I vari es considerably due to
ah:itude. An aircraft flying at sea level has to be doing 661 KIAS to break the sound barrier. The same aircraft at 60,000 feet,
however, would only show an indicated airspeed of 198 KIAS.
Ah:itude
at 0 ft:
at 10,000 ft:
at 20,000 ft:
at 30,000 ft:
at 40,000 ft:
at 50,000 ft:
at 60,000 ft:
KIAS at Mach I
661 KIAS
548 KIAS
450 KIAS
360 KIAS
312 KIAS
251 KIAS
198 KIAS
You can also use the mach number to get a rough idea of your aircraft's ground speed. Simply muh:iply the mach
number by 10. This is the approximate distance your aircraft is traveling in nautical miles per minute. For example, at mach I
the aircraft is traveling I x 10 or 10 nautical miles per minute. At mach 2, this distance would be doubled (2 x 10= 20).
Angle of Attock (AOA)
Angle of Attack is one of those concepts that flight instructors can describe, define, and demonstrate for hours. But a
student pilot will either grasp the concept within the first few minutes or he won't get it no matter how long his instructor
raves. The definition of Angle of Attack in its most simplistic fonm is: the angle (measured in degrees) at which the wing
surface o( an aircraft cuts into the relative wind. That's all there is to it and yet it is one of the most difficuh: concepts for
novice pilots to understand.
Basically, AOA is the difference between the aircraft's flight path and the "chord line" of the wing. In level flight the
"chord line" of the wi ng is facing directly into the airflow. When climbing, the "chord line" of the wi ng is pitched upward
relative to the airflow. With its nose and wing pitched up, the aircraft is said to have increased its angle of attack. The
reverse is true when diving.
69
Angle of Attack is not the same thing as pointing the nose at a certain tick marl< on the climb ladder ar'd it has
nothing to do with the position of the horizon. (Pointing the nose of the aircraft up or down is coiled aircraft attitude.)
Aircraft attitude and Angle of Attack are two different things. For instance, let's say you are performing a Zoom climb
in order to shake a bandit off your tail. Your aircraft would have a very nose-high attitude (pointed straight up) and yet
have a very low Angle of Attack.
Stalling the Aircraft
It is a common misconception among the non-fiying public that stalling means trouble with the engines. They instantly
picture a stall in terms rooted in their ground based existence; a sputtering, coughing motor in the family car. Actually, use
of the word stall in the context of fiying has nothing to do with the engines. Certain aircraft, specifically gliders, fi y very well
without any engines at all. And whi le these aircraft are certainly subject to stalls, the lack of an engine is not to blame.
A stall is caused by an actual separation of the air fiow from the upper surface of the wing. The air fiow over top of the
wing surface ends in an area of disturbed air extending forward from the trailing edge. Thi s condition causes the aircraft to
"depart from controlled flight" or stall.
Note that this condition may occur with the engines going full tih:. Speed has little to do with the onset of a stall. Stalls
occur when the aircraft's AOA is too great to produce the necessary amount of Lift to keep it fi ying. Trying to fi y the
aircraft at too great an Angle of Attack is the one sure way to cause a stall.
It is important to note that speed, pitch attitude, and bank inclination are all factors in determining whether a plane is
about to stall. An aircraft in level fiight may stall if it attempts too sharp a tum without increasing its speed. This is due to
insufficient lift being generated by the wing in direct opposition to gravity's affect on the aircraft.
The effects of a stall are different depending on the aircraft. Some aircraft simply assume a mild nose-down attitude
until retuming to level fiight. Other aircraft may enter a sudden and potentially dangerous spin. On low level missions a
pilot may not have time to recover before striking the ground. Thi s is especially true if one wing stalls before the other.
In FLEET DEFENDER the most likely time for stall condition to occur is immediately after take-off or while trying to
land. Despite having a catapuh: to literally throw you into the air, you are initially fiying at just above stall speed. Therefore,
on take-off. avoid sharp climbs until you are certain not to stall.
Long slow-fiight landing approaches bring your airspeed down to dangerous levels. You must constantly be on guard. In
trying to land you will be fiying at near-stall speed for an extended period of time. If you stall somewhere in the landing
pattem, you will not have enough altitude to affect a recovery before hitting the water.
G FORCES (GRAVITY)
Gravity is measured in Gs (i.e. one G equals the normal force of gravity, 3 Gs would be a force equal to three times
the normal force of gravity). The pilot and aircraft experience I G in straight and level fiight. If that same pilot pulls a hard
tum, centrifugal force will "load" additional force on his wings.
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Modem fighter aircraft are constructed to withstand many times the force of gravrty, It is actually the pilot that places
limits on the maneuverability of an aircraft, Aircraft are quite capable of perfonming maneuvers that would instantly
incapacitate any pilot that tried them,
Gravity govems every move we make on this pl anet We are so used to the effect of gravrty that we are usually not
even conscious of it as a matter of course, With few exceptions, human beings experience a constant I G (the force of
nonmal gravity) on a daily basis, We take for granted that our leg muscles will overcome this force, We also take for granted
that if we place this instruction manual next to our computer, gravity wi ll keep it there until the next time we need it.
Think for a moment if the force of gravrty was suddenly multiplied several times. Walking would become quite a chore.
At 2 Gs our bodies would weigh twice what they weighed at I G. If the force of gravrty continued to increase eventually it
would exceed our muscle's abilrty to raise our feet
Pilots routinely expose their aircraft (and themselves) to repeated periods of severe G-induced stress. During combat.
these periods of stress can be quite prolonged. Sometimes it's the abi lrty of a pilot to withstand that extra G which makes
all the difference in combat For example, when flying high perfonmance aircraft, a 200 lb. pilot can easily be made to weigh
over half a ton.
A nonmal human head weighs approximately 25 to 30 Ibs. but when subjected to a relatively mild 5 G tum, it would
now weigh 125 to 150 Ibs. Imagine having to support such a load. That kind of weight places a tremendous strain on a
pilot's neck The pilot can't just brace this weight against the back of his seat, he has to be constantly tuming his head about
looking for bandits. Operating an aircraft under these conditions is extremely difficult. Every action becomes a major test of
strength and endurance.
Aside from making pilots weigh a great deal, gravrty has certain other physiological affects. When the human body is
subjected to high positive Gs, blood is forced away from the brain and begins pooling in the feet When too much blood
leaves the upper extremities, a pilot will lose consciousness because his brain is starved for oxygen. This loss of
consciousness is known as a G-induced block-out Pilots just call it "taking a nap."
Positive Gs and Block-Outs
A pilot subjects himself to positive Gs whenever he pulls back on the stick As you might imagine, this happens fairl y
frequently. Even when inverted, once that stick comes back positive G forces are the result, Smart pilots will keep their eye
on the G count When the G forces reach around 8 Gs, it's time to consider unloading the aircraft. Expose yourself to
anything over 8 Gs and you run the risk of going to sleep.
When a black-out does occur the screen fades to black It remains entirely black for the duration of the event As you
recover from the black-out, the screen fades back in. The length of time that the screen stays black is entirely a function of
the amount of Gs you experience over how long a period of time.
While the screen is black. the simulation continues at its regular pace. (The world does not stop just because you're
asleep) In fact, by blacking-out you have become a perfect I G strafe target. perfectly helpless. Any enemy pilot in the
vicinity has an open invitation to make sure your nap is penmanent
71
Negative Gs and Red-outs
Negative G forces, like positive Gs, act on a pilot and aircraft as well. Understandably, it may be confusing at first to
think in terms of negative Gs. In our earlier example, positive gravity is what kept this manual resti ng firmly next to our
computer. Negative gravity would cause the manual to be pulled from the table.
Negative Gs are caused when a pilot pushes the stick forward (away from himself). In normal fiight the aircraft would
respond to this control input by dropping the nose or divi ng. If the aircraft was inverted, pushing the stick forward would
cause the nose to rise. In either case, negative Gs are created which, like positive Gs, have certain physiological effects.
Instead of pooling in the feet, blood is pulled from the lower extremities and into the head. The arterial network of the
brain is swelled by the force of this additional fiuid. In particular, the small blood vessel s within the eyes (capill aries) are
stretched and sometimes burst. This condition causes what is known as Red-out. The affects of Red-out are very
pronounced and can lead to a pilot being temporarily bl inded.
Figure 3-4: This pilot is pulling some heavy G's in this 900 left bank With his wings
swept full aft, you can get some indication of his energy state.
Negative G forces greater than 3.0 cause the onset of Red-
out. When thi s happens the screen will fade to red. The affects
of Red-out are somewhat different than that of Black-outs.
Instead of losing consciousness, a pl ayer is temporaril y blinded.
The screen remains red (indicating a Red-out condition) until
such time as the negat ive G stress is removed.
There is a simple way around Red-outs. Rather than push
the nose of your aircraft down and create negative Gs, roll 180
degrees inverted. Now that you are inverted you can pull back
on the stick to drop your nose. You are now creating positive
Gs which are much easier to deal wi th. Once you have
reached the desired nose down attitude just roll 1800 again.
Now you are right si de up and in the proper di ve angle.
Remember, negative Gs are easy t o avoid by rolling inverted
and creating positive Gs in their pl ace.
72
FLYING THE F-14 TOMCAT
Your success in FLEET DEFENDER depends almost entirely upon your abilrly to fiy the F-14 Tomcat All the high tech
gadgetry in the world can't save you if you can't fiy the plane. In fact, it's the skill you display at maneuvering your aircraft
that ultimately decides the majority of your battles.
This section covers some of the finer points of becoming a Tomcat driver. Obviously, this manual can't cover
everything. There are certain things you must find out for yourself
FUEL MANAGEMENT
Fuel Load
In addition to enemy action or inadvertent contact with the ground, the only thing that can force an early end to a
mission is running out of fuel. An empty fuel tank will stop your mission with the same finality as an enemy missile.
Therefore, it is important that you remain cognizant of your fuel state at all times.
Rather than being measured in gallons, aviation fuel is measured in thousands of pounds (Ibs.). One gallon of JP 4 (fuel)
weighs approximately 6.5 Ibs. Fully fueled, your F- 14 carries almost 20,000 Ibs. of fuel. This figure refiects intemal tanks
containing 16,200 Ibs. plus two extemal tanks with an additional 3,600 Ibs.
The F- 14 fuel gauge, located to the right of the HSD (Horizontal Situation Display) states the total amount of fuel
remaining on board. Your total fuel load, indicated at the top of the gauge, is divided into equal portions, signifying the fuel
available to each engine. A reading of 5600 would indicate that five thousand six hundred pounds of fuel remain on board.
Dry Thrust (Normal, non-afterbuming operation)
Dry Thrust is the nickname given to power produced by the engines without engaging the afterbumer. The highest
throttle setting (100%) using Dry Thrust is known as Full Military Power. At lower power settings you consume less fuel.
You fiy slower but your endurance time is raised significantly.
Practicing fuel economy whi le in-fiight is an important part of your mission. Fuel is power, but it is also weight. The
heavier an aircraft is, the more fuel is bumed up pushing it around. You arrive at the break-even point very quickly. During
the course of normal patrol operations, use Dry Thrust except in case of emergencies. It saves gas.
Wet Thrust (The Afterburner)
Afterbuming engines give the pilot access to enormous additional power. This power is known as wet thrust because
raw liquid fuel is literally dumped directly into the engine's fiaming exhaust. When you're feeling the need for speed, kicking
in the afterbumer will do the trick but all this extra power comes at a heavy price in fuel.
There are really only two times that you should engage the afterbumer, on take-off and when conducting BFM.
73
The need to use the afterburner when taking-off is obvious. Getting safely off the deck takes precedence over
fuel conservation.
BFM engagements put your aircraft through its paces. They often require you to fight with the afterburner engaged just
to sustain the rapid energy consumption that occurs. A few minutes of afterbumer is all it takes to drain a tank, so watch it.
There' s no sense using all your fuel up in combat just to be forced into ejecting later on. A plane down is a plane down. It
doesn't matter whether you are shot down or crash after running out of gas.
Fuel Conservation
The F-14 was meant to be a strategic interceptor able to cover long distances. You can't fulfill this role very well if
you're always having to return home on Bingo fuel. The secret to being a strategic interceptor is letting your radar and
missiles do the work for you.
The AWG-9 radar is very powerful. Use it to check out areas that are far away rather than wasting fuel flying over to them.
The Phoenix missi le gives you the abil ity to reach out
and touch someone nearly 100 nm away. Sure beats having
to travel that 100 miles just to pop off a Sidewinder, doesn't
it? Think of the fuel you're saving.
Setting your engines to cruising speed (80% RpM) gives
your aircraft its best mix of power versus fuel consumption.
This setting should be used when you are flying long
distances. Avoid using high power settings, especially the
afterburner, except in emergencies.
You should remain at cruise speed for most of each
flight. What 's your hurry? The Navy's launching platform
concept doesn't require speed, it requires endurance.
Complete each mission even if it means flying at 240 knots
to and from the target.
Make no mistake about it, when the fuel is gone- it's
game over. You had better have a landing spot in mind
Figure 3-5: This thirsty "Cat" takes a drink (rom a KA-6 Refueling tanker. 'cause the F-14B has a glide path like a brick
74
NAVIGATION
Getting lost has always been a problem for pilots as far back as the Wright brothers. Fortunately, the F-14 has
sophisticated navigation equipment on board to help you to find your way home. In fact, your NAV gear enables you to fi y
back to the carrier in any low visibility weather condition, including prtch darkness.
Waypoints
Your F-14 has a navigational computer which contains a pre-programmed set of co-ordinates known as Waypoints.
These points help you navigate by inserting reference carets on the HUD Magnetic Heading Indicator.
Each mission you fiy has its own unique waypoints. Examples of waypoints for a particular mission might be: your
carrier, your mission objective, a CAP location, and even the strike package your supposed to being escorting. Waypoints
are not necessarily fixed points in space. In the case of your carrier or strike package, the waypoi nt moves as they do.
Once in fiight. press the Waypoint Toggle [[l to toggle through this mission's list of waypoints. A brief description of the
waypoint appears along the bottom of the screen. For each waypoint there is a corresponding bearing caret. This caret is
located on the HUD Magnetic Heading Indicator which runs across the top of the HUD.
To reach a particular waypoint, along you need do is toggle the Waypoint Toggle [[l until you have selected this point.
Wrth that accomplished, tum the aircraft so that you are fi yi ng directly toward the bearing caret. (It wi ll be posrtioned in
the center of the HUD Magnetic Heading Indicator).
RIO Campaign Map
Another means of navigation is having your RIO pull out his campaign map. The campaign map shows a weatth of
infonmation including your present location and that of your carrier. The map is oriented so that the top edge is north (or
36(0). Use the map in conjunction with the front cockpit magnetic compass (located directly to the right of the VDI).
The RIO map also allows you to pinpoint the location of other friendly aircraft as well. Press the blue buttons to make
your
Horizontal Situation Display
The HSD provides you with your most efficient means of navigation. This display contains a NA V compass which
indicates your current heading. A bearing indicator on the NAV compass ring shows how to reach your next waypoint.
Distance infonmation conceming that waypoint is also displayed. Finally, you are given airspeed data in both T AS and GS
fonmats. See the section on the HSD in Chapter 4.
75
DAMAGE
This section deals with a subject that no one wishes to talk about- damage. Unless you spend your entire career in
Training mode, no matter how good you are, at some point your F-14 will suffer battle damage.
In Standard Mode, you can withstand numerous hits (missiles seem to just bounce off your aircraft's fuselage). As the
level of difficulty is increased, the amount of damage you can withstand before being shot down is decreased. At Authentic
Mode, any hit is a potential show stopper.
Non-specific Structural Damage
Each time your aircraft is hit by enemy fire, either missile or gunfire, it is liable to suffer two different types of damage.
The first type is non-specific structural damage. This is general damage resulting from shell hits (or near-miss missile
detonations) which puncture the fuselage but fail to hit vital areas. A running total of this sort of damage is kept throughout
your mission. When the accumulative effect of damage in this "pool" reaches a certain level, it can force an early end t o
your flight.
Critical Systems Damage
The second type of damage is known as critical systems damage. While you are less likely to sustain this type of damage,
the r e s u ~ is far more serious. Critical damage is not cumulative, its effect is assessed against you immediately.
You are able to determine the extent of this damage by looking at the Master Caution-Advisory Panel on both the
pilot and RIO' s right hand console. Use the Look Right [J from either seat. The areas of your F-14 affected by critical
systems damage are;
GEAR- Damage to the landing gear prevents it from being extended or retracted. If your landing gear cannot be
extended (for landing purposes) you may as well retum to the carrier group, slow down to 200 knots, and
"punch Elvis" next to an escort vessel.
HOOK- Once your arrestor hook is shot away or damaged, you cannot use it to land safely. You are said to suffer
from PBS (permanent bolter syndrome). You may as well retum to the carrier group, slow down to 200 knots,
and "punch Elvis" next to an escort vessel.
BINGO- While not actual damage, the Bingo fuel lamp illuminates when you have reached a critical fuel state. Your
aircraft only has enough fuel onboard to retum home. If you don't tum back immediately, you are almost
guaranteed to go for a swim.
BRAKES- Damage to your speedbrakes prevents you from using them in flight. Your wheel-brakes will still function.
This type of damage isn't too bad, unless you have to slow down in a hurry.
76
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE- If you lose hydraulic pressure, the aircraft becomes very difficult to fi y. All of your fiight
controls are liable to give out on you at any moment You are an accident warting to happen, so RTB right away
before you are forced to "punch Elvis".
LEFT/ RIGHT ENGI NES- Engine hrts are very serious. While the Tomcat can fiy on onl y one engine, rt wasn't meant
to. You lose half your thrust and half your fuel when an engine is hrt. Of course, if both engines are hit ...
LEFT/ RIGHT FUEL LOW- When your fuel state is wrthin several thousand pounds of reaching Bingo, these lamps
wi ll illuminate. Fuel tanks are always vulnerable to being pierced by shell fragments. If your aircraft suffers from this
type of hrt, leakage wi ll cause you to lose much of your fuel supply.
W ING SWEEP- Crrtical damage to the wings keeps them from being able to sweep forward and back They become
jammed in their current posrtion. You are therefore restricted to only certai n portions of your fiight envelope.
DATA LlNK- Damage to your Data Link system prevents outside data from being fed into your targeting system.
Data-linked infonmation is no longer shown on your TID.
AWG-9- Damage to the AWG-9 knocks on your radar. You are no longer able to search or use your radar to fire
missiles. Note however, that this does not prevent you from using heat-seeking Sidewinder missiles.
AWG-15- This is your aircraft' s fire control center. Damage to the AWG-15 prevents you from launching any
missiles or firing your guns.
NA V- Damage to your NA V system prevents you from using waypoint information to navigate.
EJECT .. EJECT .. EJECT! (BAILING OUT)
Since the last section talked about damage, perhaps now is a good time to discuss ejecting (i.e. bailing out).
Both pilot and RIO are equipped wrth rocket-assisted GRU-7 A Martin-Baker Zero-zero Ejection seats. The zero-zero
rating means that the seat is designed to perform at zero knots and at zero altrtude (standing still on the ground) .
Hey, if it ever foils, you can always toke it bock to the manufacturer.
When your aircraft suffers a fatal hrt, it will nose over and go into what' s known as a "graveyard spiral". The aircraft is
essent ially uncontrollable at this point You cannot recover from this downhill spin so don't waste time trying. You have
only one task left and that is to get out before the aircraft hits something hard. In other words, it' s t ime to "punch El vis"
(i.e.- yank the ejection handles).
In order to bailout of a crippled Tomcat, press the Eject I Shift IlIJ. There are two things which have an affect on
whether or not you get out safely. The first is airspeed. Punching out at too high a speed is fatal. In fact, anythi ng over 350
knots is a show stopper. Stay in the aircraft until your airspeed drops below this number. Patience is a virtue. You may
have to "ride it in" for awhile.
77
Unfortunately, once your aircraft begins its terminal dive rt: tends to pick up airspeed, not lose rt:. If you're going to get
out rt:'s sometimes best to decide early.
Figure 3-6: "Green Shirts" getting the next aircraft ready for toke-off. It's not a
glamorous job, but these are the guys that make it happen on the ffight deck
The second thing which affects bailing out is attitude.
We're not talking about your attitude here- we're talking about
the aircraft's. You cannot eject while the aircraft is inverted (i.e.
upside down). Again, timing is everything. Once the aircraft
begins spiraling down you must wait until it's right-side up
before ejecting. If you eject downward, chances are you wil l
not survive.
Once you have ejected, your mission is over. There's
nothing left to do but wart: for the rescue helicopters to come
and fish you out of the water.
Although the view instantly changes to a descending
exterior perspective upon ejection, this is not meant to be a
parachute view. If rt: was, you'd be spending a good deal of
computer time floating to the ground. As it is, the exterior
view follows your aircraft until rt: "augers in." Both the view and
the aircraft reach the ground simultaneously. The mission ends
and your final score for the mission is tabulated.
78
CARRIER OPERATIONS
In a way, FLEET DEFENDER is as much a simulation about air/sea combat as it is about air-to-air dogfighting. The center
piece of this campaign environment is the aircraft carrier. It is in your best interest to help protect the carrier because after
each mission, you are required to retum to the ship and land, whether you win, lose, or draw.
FLEET DEFENDER revolves around your ability to successfully operate off an aircraft carrier at sea. You can be the top
gun in your squadron, averaging three or four kills per sortie. You can be the best aviator aboard ship, always catching a
"three-wire". None of that matters if your carrier is sunk It doesn't matter how good you are, nobody really cares. If a
multi-billion dollar ship is destroyed t aking thousands of servicemen to the bottom in the process, don't expect people to
shed tears over your career coming to an end.
Fortunately, every precaution is taken to ensure the carrier remains in one piece. Your and your wing-man are just one
part of these precautions. A minimum of six F-1 4s are stationed around the carrier at al l times. Known as CAPs (Combat
Air Patrols), pairs of F-14s are positioned around the carri er so that they are able to intercept enemy aircraft approaching
from any direction.
An additional pair of Tomcats is kept on the deck of the carrier in case a CAP would need immediate assistance.
Known as the Ready-Five, these aircraft are ready and waiting to go. They can be launched in well under ffve minutes should
the need arise. In addition to F-14s, all manner of friendly aircraft are continuousl y taking-off and landing.
THE CARRIER AIR WING
E-2C "Hawkeye"
Next to the F-1 4, the E-2C "Hawkeye" is perhaps the most
important aircraft aboard ship. It is an Airbome Early Wami ng (AEW)
aircraft, distinguishable by a large radome which houses a powerful radar
used to scan the sky. It this respect it is much like its land-based cousin-
the AWACS. Despite its importance, there are only a few of t hese
aircraft on board a carrier. They are jealously guarded by at least one
CAP at all times.
THE HAWKEYE "PICTURE"
In FLEET DEFENDER, the E-2C Hawkeye orbits the carrier keeping a
Figure 3-7: The E-2C Hawkeye is the Navy's principle eye-in-the-sky.
constant close watch on anything moving within 200 miles. It sends out frequent tactical reports to the various F-14 CAPs
so that nothing sneaks up on the carrier. These reports are known as Hawkeye "pictures". You may request a Hawkeye
"picture" at any time during a mission by pressing the Hawkeye Picture [Shift I [J .
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The Hawkeye controller responds by reporting on the enemy aircraft nearest to you that it has detected. Its response
always follows the same pattem of information.
If enemy aircraft are detected, the Hawkeye reports; CONTACTS- (the bearing from your aircraft) and (the range from
your aircraft).
If no enemy aircraft have been detected, the Hawkeye reports; CLEAN.
HAWKEYE DATA-LINK
In addition to providing you with a verbal "picture", the Hawkeye is able to send you tactical information direct via a data-
link system. You are able to actually target and engage enemy aircraft that the Hawkeye "sees" but your radar does not.
Data-linked targeti ng information is displayed (where else) on your RIO's Tactical Information Display (TID). See the
section in Chapter 4 conceming on the TID for more information on the data-link feature.
STRIKE AIRCRAFT
Not all of a carrier's aircraft are devoted to defense. A modem carrier packs an awesome offensive punch. After all, it's
the reason your carrier is at sea in the first place. Accordingly, strike packages are continually being assembled, readied, and
launched with clockwork precision.
Because FLEET DEFENDER cont ains scenarios which cover a period of 20+ years, strike aircraft can range from
venerable A-7 Corsairs to A-6 Intruder and F/A- 18 Homets. These ai rcraft carry a wide variety of bombs, rockets, anti -shi p
missil es, and even mines.
Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft.
While the "Hawkeye" watches above the waves, ASW (Anti-submarine warfare) like the S-3 Viking keep watch below.
These aircraft, along with LAMPS helicopters, are constantly rotating to and from missions. Their ordnance ranges from
standard depth charges to sono-buoys and homing torpedoes.
Figure 3-8: This is on route to another pickup.
The response time on these missions is critical.
Search and Rescue (SAR) Helicopters
Finally, SAR (Search and Rescue) heli copters are always on alert status should somebody go
down. Whenever a friendly aircraft is hit and forced to ditch at sea, these helos are immediately
dispatched to pick up survivors. There may be times when you are called upon to escort these
angels of mercy.
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FLIGHT RULES
Just like the flow of automobile traffic is regulated to keep cars from crashing into one another, so too is air traffic. In
fact, it's even more important for pilots to follow certain established flight rules. If oircraft ore involved in 0 mid-oir collision the
pilots just can't get out on exchange licenses. Certain flight regulations are in affect during the entire time you are airbome,
but by far the most critical time for traffic control is during take-offs and landings (TOLs) .
There's one man on board a carrier whose job it is to enforce the rules. This man is known as the Air Boss. You can
access his view perspective by pressi ng the Air Boss lEJ. Break even the smallest regulation and he'll take a personal
interest in seeing that you stay below deck for the rest of the time you're at sea. If you don't want to end up "flying" a desk,
play by the rules!
The Air Boss is responsible for choreographing all aircraft movement both on the flight deck and in the air. His word is
law when it comes to traffic control. Nothing moves above deck or below without his express approval. Air Traffic
Controllers (ATCs) work directly for the Air Boss. They are on duty at all times to assist pilots and help the Air Boss ensure
that nobody breaks the rules. Even with all these safeguards momentary lapses can occur and the result can be disaster.
FLEET DEFENDER makes things a little easier for you by always having the carrier tum to a heading of 360
0
(directly north) when someone is landing or taking-off. Thi s makes lining up on the carrier so much easier, especiall y
during bad weather or night OPs. To make everyone's job easier, particularl y the LSO' s, read the following section on
carrier flight operations.
The Carrier Flight Deck
The flight deck of a modem aircraft carrier is a busy place to say the least. Air operations are maintained 24 hours a
day, seven days a week It' s a place where even small mistakes can have a big impact. This frantic pace must be maintained
in order to get aircraft into the air in a timel y fashion. With all four of its catapults in operation, a modem carrier can launch
one aircraft every twenty seconds. There' s not an airport in the worl d that even comes close to this sustained level of
activity on a daily basis.
Because the fli ght deck is such a deafening place to worlk, hearing protection is mandatory. Most communication is
conducted visually through a series of intricate gestures. These often comedic-looking signals must be understood by
everyone with access to the flight deck Any misinterpretation could cause a potentially fatal accident or loss of an aircraft.
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CARRIER TAKE-OFFS (CAT-SHOTS)
Carrier take-offs are pretty straight-forward (no pun intended- well maybe just a little one) but they are also somewhat
dangerous. Loaded with fuel and weapons, your aircraft is the heaviest it will ever get during the mission at take-off
All take-offs from the carrier are assisted by a steam-powered catapult. You won't see it, but rt's there. Wrth the
catapult's assistance your 80,000 lb. aircraft will be hurled into the air in less than 400 ft. Even wrth the help of the catapult,
your aircraft will be flying just above stall speed. It will also be traveling extremely close to the ground with no reserve
momentum or energy reserve to call upon if needed. You are unable to trade
altitude for airspeed in case of a stall so don't play around.
Although use of the aircraft's afterbumer is not mandatory for take-offs, we
recommend that you use it. Your aircraft should begin every take-off at Full
Military Power I Shift 10 as a minimum. But to be on the safe side, press the
Afterbumer Engage 0 to begin the mission. It'll take several seconds for your
engines to "spool up" to full RpMs. Once they reach the necessary thrust, the
catapult will fire and your F-14 will start down the flight deck By the time you
reach the end of the flight deck, you will have gathered up enough airspeed
(hopefully) to get airbome.
From the moment the aircraft begins rolling, you had better be on your
toes. T ake-offs can be very unforgiving if you are not 100% in control. Striking
an object on the deck or careening off the side of the carrier and into the
water can be fatal. If you see that this is going to happen, by all means, hit the
Eject I Shift I [[] .
Figure 3-9: Another heart-pounding, adrenaline pumping cot-shot
off the deck for this lucky naval aviator.
As soon as you are clear of the carrier, raise your landing gear by pressing
the Landing Gear @]. Notice your airspeed jump up as the drag created by
having your gear extended disappears. Keep the nose of the aircraft pointed slightly above the horizon while your airspeed
continues to build. Extra speed (energy) will be necessary when you pull back on the stick to gain altrtude.
One thing you don't want to do while taking-off is lose either energy or airspeed. A stall at low altrtude is usually fatal.
There just isn't time to regain control before hrtting the ground. Examples of energy-losing maneuvers would be high G tums
(i.e. wings banked at 90 degrees) or sharp increases in your aircraft attitude. Avoid anything that might cost you forward
airspeed when you're this close to the ground.
If the aircraft is moving fast enough, rt wi ll start to climb. Try to maintain a 5to 10angle of attack but keep an eye on
your airspeed. As you climb your airspeed will drop. If it dips below 150 knots you are in danger of stalling the aircraft. Play
around with the Remote View m in order to get familiar with take-offs.
82
Continue your initial climb to an altitude of 2000 ft. and then level off. At this point, it is probably safe to shut down the
afterbumer. Press the Throttle Bock G once. The less fuel you consume on take-off. the longer you can remain at your
patrol station.
Now that you are clear of the traffic pattem you can relax for a moment. Press the Automatic Pilot 0 . With the Auto
Pilot engaged, take this time to look about the two cockpits (yours and the RIO's).
Repeat this Take-Off checklist before proceeding with the mi ssion;
Toke-Off Check.1ist
I) Check the position of your landing gear to insure that it has been retracted (raised). Landing Gear Toggle [g
2) Make sure the Afterbumer is disengaged. Throttle Bock G .
3) Tum the Master Arm Switch to On position. Moster Arm Switch Toggle @J .
4) Activate the AWG-9 radar. Radar OnlOffToggle ffiJ.
5) Set your NAV equipment to your first waypoint. Waypoint Toggle [[] .
5) Contact your Wing-man. Direct him to begin fl ying in formation with you. Formation ~ m .
6) Tum to the proper waypoint heading (you may have to disengage the Automatic Pilot) and begin your mission.
Congratulations. You've survived your first "cat-shot". Now you and your RIO are about to take on your very first
mission. But don't get too smug. Now that you're up there, sooner or later you've got to get back down.
You've only got about 2-3 hours worth of fuel on board. That's just enough time to let the butterfiies loose in your
stomach and read this next section on how to land. Good luck!
RETURNING TO THE CARRIER
If there's one thing which separates naval aviators from regular pilots, it's the fact that they have to shoot a carner
landing in order to get home. All F-14 pilots must be qualified to land aboard a carner at sea before they're any good to
the Navy.
Next to actual combat, carner landings or "traps" as they are called, are the most frightening part of a mission. You
can be the "Top Gun" of your squadron, even fly rings around MiG-29s, but it all means nothing unless you can get back
down safely.
Carner landings are extremely complicated affairs. They are the most individually challenging aspect of becoming a
naval aviator. Ask any Navy flyer and he'll tell you that coming home to a carner is worse than air combat, especially at
night or in bad weather.
Landing on a carner deck requires total concentration, a bit of luck. and a whole lot of skill. You can't fake an approach.
You're either "on the ball" or you will receive a wave-off from the LSo. If you get a wave-off. count on going around again
and starting your approach over. A carner cannot afford to have a missed approach result in a crash on deck. There are
just too many people and too much equipment aboard to allow that to happen.
83
Every approach will end one of three ways. You will either score a "trap" meaning that you caught an arrestor cable
and landed successfully or you will score a "bolter" meaning that you missed the wires and had to go around and try again.
It's probably best not to think about the third altemative, namely- crashing. Crashing into the flight deck, or any other part
ofthe ship for that matter, is fatal. Game over.
Being able to make safe carrer landings is crucial to your success in this simulation. If you can't master carrier landings,
break out F-15 Strike Eagle III and ploy that for awhile. We're confident however, that given time, you wi ll be able to perfect
your landing techniques. Therefore, the following section is devoted entirely to helping you get back down safel y.
The Air Boss and Air Traffic Control
Your missions do not take place in a vacuum. The airspace around your carrer is very likely to be crowded with other
aircraft, taking-off or retuming home just like you. This is the reason for having an Air Boss and air traffic controllers. It' s
their job to make sure everything runs smoothly and that everyone stays between the lines.
The whole point of air traffic control is making sure that aircraft don't bump into each other while in flight (or on the
ground eitheri). This is often easier said than done. There are no paved roadways in the sky with nicely painted lane markers
to keep pilots from straying into the other guy's flight path.
There is, however, an invisible oval (racetrack) shaped traffic pattem which surrounds the carrer and regulates all air
movement in the vicinity. All pilots are required to stay within the flow of this traffic pattem unless given an express
directive not to do so by the Air Boss or ATCs.
As aircraft retum from their missions, the Air Boss directs them into pre-determined routes so that he knows where
they are at all times. His ATCs keep the aircraft at safe separation distances so that they don't run into each other. More
importantly, however, aircraft are spaced so that only one aircraft tries land on the deck at a time.
Certain aircraft will have landing priority over others. Aircraft that are low on fuel need to get down in a hurry. They
are obviously given top priority. The rest of the aircraft in a package are brought down next.
Damaged aircraft often have to wait until last. Why? Because damaged aircraft run the risk of fouling the deck should
their approach go poorly. Of course if there are wounded crew members aboard a damaged aircraft the priority may
change according to the severity of the wound.
No one is allowed to approach the carrer traffic pattem unless given clearance to do so. This is why each retuming
pilot. incl uding you, must request landing instructions from the control tower.
Landing Instruaions
Each time you attempt to land back aboard the carrer, you are required to request landing instructions before
proceeding. In FLEET DEFENDER, this is done by pressing the Request Landing Clearance ~ W when you have reached a
point within twenty (20) nm of the carrero
The A TCs in the "control tower" will either give you clearance to land immediately or delay your landing by redirecting
you to some marshal point away from the carrero
84
CLEARANCE TO LAND
If the flight deck is clear and the traffic pattem is not too congested, the TOWER will give you immediate clearance to
land. You should already have the HUD in Navigation (NAV) mode at this time, if not, switch the HUD over to NAV
Mode Tum by pressing the NA V mode @J .
Toggle the Vertical Direction Indicator (VDI) to VDI mode by
pressing the VOI/TCS G'J if the monitor is showing TCS imagery. Pick up
the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) on the VDI and maneuver your
aircraft so that it is centered. You are now on a direct course toward the
carrier, though not necessarily lined up properly with the ffight deck
Continue to fly down this heading until you are approximately ten
( I 0) nm from the carrier. Check your distance from the waypoint (your
carrier) on the HSD. At this time, you must begin your transition into the
traffic pattem.
Because the carrier will be pointing north and into the wind, you
want to be approaching it from the south. All carrier landings are
conduaed from the rear of the ship. If you are approaching the carrier from
astem, the CDI should be centered on the VDI while you fly a magnetic
heading near 3600.
Although the TOWER has given you clearance to land, there still may
be others ahead of you in the pattem. Caution must be exercised when
entering the traffic pattem. You should stay 2-3 nm away from any traffic
ahead of you. This gives them time to land safely and get clear of the
nunway before you start your final approach.
MARSHAL POINTS
Sometimes it is necessary for the TOWER to delay your landing. This
can be due to a number of different reasons such as; too many aircraft
already in the pattem, down equipment or even a "fouled deck" situation.
In these cases, your request for landing instnuctions is met with a
directive ordering you to go to a holding area known as a "MARSHAL
POINT'. A Marshal Point is nothing more than a pre-set location in
space where the A TCs can send you while they wait for the traffic
situation to clear.
85
MARSHAL POINTS
Daytime Approaches
10 NM
10NM ~ ~ ~ 10NM
/ - \ ~ 1 0 N ~
~ A I
I f
\ J
'- -
I '\
B I
I +
, J
- .,
Figure 3-1 0: When your landing is delayed the A TC will send you to a
holding area known as a Marshal Point
If you receive a Marshal Point directive, the TOWER wil l also assign you a certain attitude. You must stay at this altitude
or risk running into other aircraft. The ATCs may have "stacked" a number of aircraft at this Marshal point each one
holding at a different altitude.
During Good Weather (Daytime) operations, a carrier will have three Marshal Points labeled A. B, and C. These three
holding areas are located as depicted in the diagram, some 10-20 nm astem of the carrier. You wi ll be sent to one of the
three until it's your tum to land.
LANDING PATTERN Crosswind Leg
Good Weather (Daytime) 300 KIAS 600 ft . all.
Approach ==============:::::
W'ND
Downwind
Leg
250-200
KIAS
500 ft . all.
Gear
lowered
,
Bolter Pattem
full throttle
Carrier Group
maintains course
"into the wind"
Takeoff

"Final"
135 KIAS
360-300

AU
Upwind
Leg
400-350
KIAS
800ft. all.
Hook
lowered
Base Leg

200-150 KIAS 450-400 ft. all.
Figure 3-11: In good weather (daytime) approaches, pilots are required to (ollowa
racetrack approach pattem consisting o( (our basic "legs". Each leg gradually has you
fiying just a little bit lower and 0 little bit slower.
During periods of low visibility (bad weather or night), only
the Marshal Point located directly behind the carrier B is ever
used. This allows the pilots to transition from the Marshal Point
to a straight approach with minimal course corrections.
To assist you in locating the Marshal Point your waypoint
navigation system is automatically updated. Simply toggle the
Waypoint @J until the message bar reads "Marshal Point".
Use the HSD to fi y a racetrack pattem around the Marshal
Point until the TOWER gives you clearance to land. This
usually takes several minutes, so cut your throttle back to 50%
RpM to conserve fuel while waiting.
When the pattem clears, the TOWER wi ll send you a
message indicating that it's your tum to land. You do not need
to keep requesting landing instructions. The Air Boss knows
you're out there.
CARRIER LANDING PATIERNS
There are two basic landing pattems you are expected to
recognize and adhere to; good weather patterns and low
visibility (bad weather or nighttime) pattems.
Good Weather (Daytime) Approaches
The standard good weather (daytime) approach requires
that the pilot fi y a prescribed racetrack pattem consisting of
four distinct "legs." As you can see by the Good Weather
(Daytime) Approach diagram, your initial entry into the traffic
pattem begins astem of (behind) the carrier. This is called the
Upwind Leg because here you are flying directly into the wind.
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UPWIND LEG
As you fiy the Upwind Leg, maintain a separation distance of approximately one mile from the carrier. Your speed
should be dropping to 350 knots. Use the Automatic Pilot 0 to hold your attitude steady at no less than 800 ft. You want
excess energy and airspeed to "bleed" off so keep the nose of your aircraft pointed level with, or slightly above, the
horizon. It's a good idea to lower your landing hook whi le fiying the Upwind leg. Press the Landing Hook Toggle [BJ.
When you reach a point approximately one mile in front of the carrier, it's time to tum into the second leg of the
approach- the Crosswind Leg. Tum into the Crosswind Leg at a 45to 600 left bank angle.
CROSSWIND LEG
The Crosswind leg is so named because you are now fi ying with the wind at a perpendicular angle. Level off from
the tum and extend your speed brake brieffy by pressing the Broke Toggle lli). Keep it on long enough to bring your
airspeed down to just below 300 knots. At the same time, you should be gradually descending to 600 ft. attitude. Hold at
600 ft. using the Automatic Pilot 0 .
When you reach a point approximately one mile west of the carrier, it's time to tum into the third leg of the
approach- the Downwind Leg.
DOWNWIND LEG
The Downwind Leg is so named because you are now fiying with the wi nd at your back (down the wind direction).
Level off from the tum and lower your landing gear by pressing the Landing Gear@ .
Your airspeed wi ll immediately drop as soon as the drag affects of having your wheels down takes hold of the aircraft. Add
power as necessary to maintain an airspeed of at least 225 knots. Continue descending to an attitude of no less than 500 ft.
Upon reaching a point approximately 3/4 to I nm astem of (behind) the carrier make a 900 left tum onto the Bose Leg
of the landing pattem.
BASE LEG
The Base Leg is your last chance to make corrections before tuming "on final". Your airspeed should continue to
gradual bleed off to 160 knots with your landing gear extended. Your attitude should be no greater than 400 ft. You must
hold this attitude yourself because the Automatic Pilot has difticutty being precise below 500 ft.
Once you are satisfied that you have the aircraft under proper control, steal a quick glance out the left side. Look for
the carrier. When you see that it is lined up directly perpendicular to your fiight path, it's time to tum on final.
FINAL APPROACH
From this point on, until your wheels touch on the deck, nothing you do will seem fast enough. You'll always be playing
"catch-up", one step behind the pace of events.
You'll intercept the glideslope approximately 3/4ths of a mile from the carrier. At this point you should be flying at no
more than 145 knots and no higher than 360 ft.
87
Line up your general approach with the vertical stripe painted on the stem of the carrier. It corresponds with the
centerline of the flight deck. When you are this close to the carrier- never bonk your wings. You want to touch down with
your wings level. Therefore, always use the rudder keys, Rudder Left Q and Rudder Right 0 to make minor course
adjustments.
"CALLING THE BALL"
The "meatball" is a tiny light anray located on the port (left) side of the carrier, approximately halfYvay down the
flight deck. It is difficult to make out with all the other lights lining the deck. You generally cannot see the "ball" if you are
more than a mile from the ship. Do not mistake the red light atop the "island most" (to the right of the deck) with the boll.
As soon as you level off from the Base to Final Leg tum, the Landing Signals Officer (LSO) takes over. The first thing he
will ask you, if you are on the proper glideslope, is to "CALL THE BALL". Your response will either be ''TOMCAT- BALL", if
you see it or "CLARA", if you don't.
If you have visual contact with the ball, press the TOMCA T- Ball [6!D lID .
This lets the LSO know that you are receiving visual reference cues
from the ball.
If you are too low in the glidepath, the ball will appear as a dull reddish
colored light.
If you are too high in the glidepath, the ball will appear as a bright yellow
colored light.
If you are maintaining the proper 30 glideslope, the ball will appear as green
colored light. This indicates that you are on slope.
APPROACH INDEXERS
Figure 3-/2: The "meatball" is a visual landing aid which helps pilots
assume the proper 30 glideslope during the final approach leg of the
traffic pattem.
In addition to the "meatball", your F-14 is equipped a tiny square light
located on the left HUD brace Gust below the Stall Warning indicator) Thi s
light is known as the Approach Indexer. It is designed to help you maintain the proper airspeed while flying down the final
glideslope approach.
If you are fl yi ng too fast, the indexer lamp turns a bright yellow color.
If you are fl yi ng too slow, the indexer lamp turns a dull reddish color.
If you are in the glideslope and proceeding at the proper speed, the indexer lamp turns a bright green color. Thi s
indicates that you are on speed.
88
THE LANDING SIGNALS OFFICER (LSO)
Every take-off and landing is carefull y scrutinized by the Air Traffic controllers in the Tower and a Landing Signals
Officer (LSO) stationed on the fiight deck. It is the LSO' s job to talk you through each and every landing.
As you proceed down the final approach glide path, the LSO asks you to CALL THE BALL. Your response lets him
know whether or not you are able to visual inspect the "meatball".
Either way, his responsibility is to get you down in one piece. He will give you landing guidance such as ADD POWER,
COME LEFT, or WAVE OFF. Do not ignore his instructions. He is actually in a better position to judge your approach than
you are.
LSO RATING
Once you have been successfully brought back aboard shi p, the LSO must rate your approach. He is looking at things
like approach speed, proper descent rate, AOA, and wing position on touchdown.
He wi ll give each one of your landi ngs a score between one ( I) and four (4). A score of ( I) means you have some
serious work to do on your landings. A four (4) rating means you could probably land on the back of a postage stamp.
The Carrier Landing difficulty setting (Standard, Moderate, or Authentic Mode) has a lot to do with how severely your
landings are crit iqued.
"TRAPPING A WIRE"
The end result of this highly regulated approach pattem is to have your wheels touch down on the deck right where
you (and the LSO) want them to. If you follow the prescribed glideslope, your landing hook will catch the third arrestor
cable (second to last wire). This is known as "catchin' a 3-wire". It signifies a perfect landing.
Trapping the first or second wire means your aircraft was a little low in the glidepath and hit the deck early. Trapping
the 4-wire means you waited a little too long to touch down. Even so, hooking the 4-wire is better than a bolter (missing
the wires altogether).
OPTIMUM LANDING CONDITION
To receive the best possible LSO rati ng, you should attempt to achieve the following optimum landing conditions;
I. Wings Level
2. Airspeed: 135 knots maximum on touch down
3. Glideslope: 3 descent on final approach
4. Nose-high Flare: rear wheels should make contact first
5. Landing Hook should snag the #3 wire (second from the last arrestor cable)
Wasn't that easy! Good weather and daytime landings are a snap. Now let's try a few Low Visibility approaches -
landings that take place during periods of bad weather or total darkness.
89
Low Visibility Approaches
Not every mission you are assigned is flown in good weather. Sometimes it can get downright nasty out there,
especially in the North Cape. Marginal weather conditions make just fl ying rather dicey, never mind trying to shoot a good
landing. There are times when the carrier will be socked-in by low lyi ng clouds that obscure the flight deck
When low visibi lity conditions exist, the normal approach pattem is not used. Instead, pilots are given clearance to
make straight in approaches. Rather than fly a racetrack pattem around the carrier, pi lots
LOW VISIBILITY APPROACH line up with the stem of the carrier and are brought down immediately.
Bad Weather (Nighttime) Approach
Bolter Pattern
full throttle
WIND
u
Because you won't have the luxury of being able to see the carrier, these approaches
require you to place an inordinate amount of tnust in your instruments. Without visual cues to
guide yourself, you wi ll be at the mercy of your HSD and VDI's Course Deviation Indicator.
LOW VISIBILITY MARSHAL POINT
~
1 Mile
135 KIAS
; 460ft. all.
3 Mile
Things take longer during periods of low visi bility because aircraft are moved around
more cautiously. The Air Boss and A TCs demand greater separation distances between
aircraft for safety purposes. Therefore, poor visibility increases the likelihood that you will be
sent to a Marshal point prior to landing.
Marshal Point B, the holding area directly behind the ship, is the only one of the three
points used during low visibil ity OPs. It is positioned at least 15 nm behind t he ship. An
additional mi le is added for 1,000 ft. of altitude you are assigned. For example, if you are
told to go t o Angels 5 (5,000 ft.), the center of t he Marshal Point will be positioned 20 nm
from the ship.
k ; Commence
/{ijb glide slope
200 knots
Figure 3- / 3:
/
10 Mile
250 KIAS
; 1200 ft . all.
+ B
I
'\
I
+
J
Marshal Point B
\
The reason for only using the central Marshal Point during periods of low visi bility is-
simplicity. Thi s procedure allows you to transition from the holding area directly into the
landing approach by simply flying a heading of 3600.
Once you are given clearance to land from the TOWER, you wi ll be fiying a "straight in"
approach aimed at the stem of the carrier. You can ffy this approach looking through the HUD,
but we recommend that you change your view perspecdve. Press the Look Down View @ so that
you're able to see both the VDI and HSD on the screen at the same time.
Now that you have both of t hese monrtors in front of you, your view to the outside
world is limrted. It' s unsettling, isn't it- kind of gives you the willies. Welcome to the real
world of low visibility flight. You should be getting some appreciation of what the real pilots
must go through.
There's a reason for having you do this, however. In the first place, there's nothing to
see outside, everything you need to look at is located inside the cockprt. Why not have rt all
in front of you at one time? Having both the VDI and HSD monrtors at your disposal allows
you to shoot your approach much more precisely.
90
STRAIGHT IN APPROACH PATTERN
The farther away you are from the canier when you begin lining up the more t ime you have to assume the
proper glide-slope. Thi s is why low visibility Marshal Points are placed far away from the ship.
Assuming you have remained within your holding area, tum to a heading of 3600. You are now heading on
a northerly course toward the stem of the canier. Perfect!
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) bar should be centered on the Vertical Display Indicator (VDI). If it is
not, put your aircraft on a heading that centers the bar. Because the CDI bar only points in the direction of the
canier, you want to fly a heading that also lines you up with the flight deck as well.
Since the canier's fli ght deck always runs directly north-south (360-1 8(0), you want to fl y a heading aimed
at the canier as close to 3600 as possible. The closer you are to a heading of 3600, the fewer course corrections
you will have to make later on.
Press the Automatic Pilot [E] to keep you on the proper heading. From this point on you are required to
trust your instrumentation and "fly the needles."
Now it's time to check your approximate distance from the flight deck Look at the Horizontal Situation
Display (HSD) to get your waypoint distance (WPD). Your waypoint should remain toggled to CARRIER
throughout your approach.
Toggle off the Automatic Pilot [E] and begin a gentle descent At a distance of ten (10) nm, you should be fl yi ng
level at an altitude no greater than I ,200 ft. Maintain an airspeed of 350 knots and stay at this altitude until you
reach a point three (3) nm from the canier. Low visibility operations are inherendy more risky so you should keep your
speed a litde higher than usual in case of emergency. An extra I 0 knots of airspeed should do the trick.
At three miles, tap t he Brake [ID so that your airspeed drops below 300 knots. Extend your Landing Gear [Q}
Don't forget to retract your airbrakes. During the next two miles, gradually descend so that at one (I) mile from
the canier your altitude falls to 460 ft and slow your approach to 180 knots.
At one mile you're are considered to be on ~ n a l approach. Continue slowing down until you are fl ying at
approximately 150 knots. Begin your final descent The flight deck should become visible at this point.
Peg the Vertical Velocity Indicator (VVI) at a spot on the flight deck and keep it there. As you get nearer to the
canier, you can fine tune thi s aiming point. Throtde Back G so that you are fl ying just a few knots above stall speed
(135 knots). Once again, when you are this close to the canier- never bonk your wings. You want to touch down
with your wings level. Therefore, always use the rudder keys, Rudder Left Q and Rudder Right 0 to make minor
course adjustments.
Okay- great job! If you followed these instructions to the letter you should catch the #3 wire without any
trouble. Whooops! Nowhere in these instructions did it say anything about lowering your Landing Hook [BJ .
You went to all that trouble just to bolter.
Don't panic. By sheer coincidence, the following section covers exactly what you shoul d do in case of a
bolter or missed approach.
91
STRAIGHT IN
APPROACH
~ lONM
/--- "-
\
B I
I t
I /
,_ ......
Marshal Point B
Figure 3-14: The Straight In
approach is used during
periods of Low (or No)
Visibility because it places
less strain on the pilot
MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURES
A "missed approach" is a landing attempt that for whatever reason, has gone wrong. Missed approaches can occur as a
result of excess landing speed, straying from the glideslope, even forgetting to put down your landing gear. But just because
you miss an approach doesn't mean you're a bad pilot. It happens all the time. You must expect a few missed attempts.
The point is that a pilot should know how to recover quickly and safely from a botched landing.
Figure 3-15: The LSO station. These guys are
responsible for bringing you home safely. They
also score each one of your landing attempts
and post them for all to see.
The key to recovery is recognizing a missed approach for what it is early on. It' s no sin to
have to go around for another try. Just think of it as additional practice. Many pilots will
continue to fight a bad landing past the point of no retum. The problem is that in trying to
correct a bad approach you are likely to over compensate. Small problems rapidly become
big ones the closer you get to the canrer.
Rule # I: Never waste time trying to correct a good approach gone bad.
The LSO Wove-Off
If you fail to heed Rule # I and continue a bad approach, the Landing Signal Officer (LSO)
will signal a wove-off. A wave-off is your cue to forget about this landing and go around for
another try. As soon as you get a wave-off call from the LSO, you should immediately begin
following your "missed approach" procedures as described below.
If you ignore the wave-off and land anyway prepare to see your mission score reduced.
This is the Air Boss' way of chewing you out. Disregarding a wave-off is a very serious offense and will be deah: with
accordingly. Unless you are fiying on vapors, it's not worth ignoring a wave-off
Rule # 2: Unless you are low on fuel, and then only if you are down to fumes, never disregard a wove-off.
FOULED DECK
Just as your F-14 is not the only aircraft in the sky, it's also not the only aircraft on the fiight deck Aircraft are
shuffled between the hangar deck and fiight deck as quickly as possible but sometimes this just isn't fast enough. It can take
up to five minutes to taxi an aircraft, prep it for launch, then cat-shoot it free of the fiight deck When the fiight deck is full
of aircraft waiting to take-off. other aircraft shouldn't be trying to land. This situation is known as a fouled-deck
In fact, any time the fiight deck is obstructed, it is considered fouled and landing operations are suspended. If the deck is
fouled prior to you entering the traffic pattem, you are sent to a Marshal Point holding area until the situation is cleared.
If the deck is fouled while you are at any point in the pattem, including final approach, you are to implement the
"missed approach" procedure.
92
BOLTER
Whenever your aircraft touches down but fails to hook any of the wires, it is known as a "botter." For example, an
aircraft which attempts to land at too high a speed may "float" and touch down beyond the last of the wires.
Pilot error is another reason for botters. In the excitement of the moment a novice may forget to lower his hook
Don't lough, it's happened to me. If you experience a botter, don't panic. Treat a botter the same way you would any missed
approach and refer to the missed approach procedures described below.
MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURES
Missed Approaches are extremely hard to recover from. Why? Because in attempting to land you have configured
your aircraft to descend until it touches down on something solid. Your wings, flaps, trim vanes, spoilers and everything else
are positioned to set the aircraft down. Now all of a sudden, you are required to move the aircraft in a different direction -
up! It takes time to reconfigure, time you don't have when flying low and slow.
Obviously, the earlier you identify a missed approach, the easier it will be for you to recover from. The closer you are
to the flight deck the more difficutt your recovery will be. You'll be flying a near stall speed with a considerable downward
velocity. Halting the downward motion is going to consume energy (airspeed) and potentially push you below your
minimum stoll speed.
The following Missed Approach checklist of procedures should be followed whenever a missed approach is declared
or wave-off received;
I) Power Up- immediately go to afterbumer by pressing the Afterbumer Engage 0. You are going need an
immediate burst of power to arrest your descent and then climb out in order to re-enter the traffic pattern.
2) Gear Up- Retract your landing gear by pressing the Landing Gear @J. Do this second. If you are not quick
enough to hatt your descent you may touch down on the flight deck anyway. With your wheels down you still
have a chance to take-off again. If your wheels are up, contact with the flight deck usually resutts in a fatal crash.
3) Nose Up- keep the nose of the aircraft pointed no more than I Cf above the horizon. Nurse the aircraft back
into the sky. An abrupt pitch change wi ll kil l your forward airspeed and cause a stall.
4) Wings Level- Keep your wings level. Perform a straight forward climb out. Do not
bank your wings or you will kill off any excess Lift being produced.
The object of these missed approach procedures is to reconfigure your aircraft for normal
flight as quickly as possible. We recommend that you climb out to a minimum of 1500 ft. and
then rejoin the traffic pattem at a 45angle to the crosswind leg. Having to go around a second
(or even third) time sure beats having a crash landing end a promising career.
93
Figure 3-1 6: Flight leader and wing-man being
prepared for their mission.
YOUR WING-MAN
As if fiying the F-14 in combat wasn't enough, FLEET DEFENDER gives you the opportunity (responsibility) to control
the actions of another F-14, that of your wing-man's. While this means added worK for you, it also allows for an almost
endless list of tactical possibilities.
Usually, the minimum number of F-14s sent on anyone particular mission is two (2). Known in the Navy as a section, a
formation of two aircraft consists of a fiight leader and wing-man. On each mission you (as the active player) assume the
role of fiight leader. As a fiight leader, it will be your job to coordinate the actions of both aircraft. Thi s is not easy. It will
either double your effectiveness in combat or half it through miscommunication and poor coordination.
Although you are able to direct your wing-man's responses in combat, if left alone, his own artificial intelligence will take
over. Otherwise, your wing-man is always be right where you put him. You'll never have to worry about him leavi ng a fight
early just to save himself at your expense.
In fact, when controlled by the computer, your wing-man is every bit as capable as you, sometimes, even more so.
The more missions you wing-man has under his belt, the more skilled he becomes. Actually, FLEET DEFENDER keeps
track of four separate areas of wing-man development general fi yi ng skill, use of the radar, weapon employment and initiative.
GENERAL FLYING ABILITY: Your wing-man's expertise at performing ACM is based upon his general ability to
handle the aircraft. This rating improves as he gains experience.
RADAR USE: As your wing-man's pilotJRIO skill level improves, hostile targets are located on radar faster. In
addition, it takes less and less time for your wing-man to sort and lock targets.
WEAPON EMPLOYMENT: Your wing-man's ability to use his weapons once a target is found, is judged according
to his skill level.
INITIATIVE: Each time your wing-man engages an enemy aircraft his AI routine attempts to gain a position of
advantage. The more initiative a wing-man takes the better able he is to achieve this position. If however, your
wing-man is forced to take up a defensive posture, he will call "ENGAGED DEFENSIVE".
ENGAGED DEFENSIVE is equivalent of you pressing the alt F5 Key which request assistance from your wing-man.
94
WING-MAN CONTROL KEYS
The addition of a second F-14 significantly increases the combat power at your disposal and gives you the ability to
perform multiple tasks simultaneously. But, having a wing-man along is only a positive thing if your are able to use him
wisely, otherwise he's something else to worry about and get in the way.
Your wing-man has the ability to make reasoned decisions if left alone. (FLEET DEFENDER features stunningly
competent AI routines.) However, you (as flight leader) are able to exercise a great degree of control. The following keys
allow you to direct the actions of your wing-man;
Go Tactical ~ [IT] : Pressing this key releases your wing-man t o attack targets independently. His response to you is
either; Roger (indicating he is after a specific target) or "No Joy", indicating he has no bogeys in sight. In any case, by
pressing this key you are releasing him to go find targets. If none are to be found, he will reform on your wing.
Target Directive ~ m : This command directs your wing-man to attack the target that you currendy have locked on
your radar. This key must be pressed after your wi ng-man has received the Go Tactical ~ [IT] command. His response
to you will be BOGEY TARGETED when he has achieved a radar lock on your target. You are free to choose a new
target at this t ime.
Formation ~ m : Directs your wi ngman to assume one of three specific formations. Your options are: (I ) Parade,
(2) Cruise, or (3) Combat Spread. Press the appropriate number key. Your wing-man responds by acknowledging your
formation selecti on. Only Combat Spread all ows your wing-man to independently target and engage enemy aircraft.
Bracket ~ [ED : Directs your wing-man to perform a bracket in conjunction with your aircraft. The options are: (I)
Bracket Left, (2) Bracket Right, (3) High, (4) Low, and (5) Straight. Press the appropriate number key to select an option.
Your wing-man responds by acknowledgi ng the selected option. If you select either (3) High or (4) Low, you must then
select an altitude differential of up to 10,000 ft.
Engaged Defensive ~ m : Di rects your wing-man to come to your immediate assistance. He wi ll drop whatever he
happens to be doing at the time to come to your aid. Such loyalty deserves repayment in kind.
Sanitize ~ m : Directs your wing-man to perform a radar sweep in the direction selected. Your options are: (I)
Left, (2) Right, (3) Front, and (4) Back If your wing-man makes contact with an object in the area he responds with the
number of contacts he has sighted, their range, and finally their altitude.
Sort ~ m: Directs your wing-man to report on the target he currently has locked-up. Hi s response is either:
Sorted None, Sorted Lead, Sorted Trail, Sorted Left, Sorted Right or Unknown. A report of UNKNOWN indicates that
your wing-man is not sure of target's location within the formation. It does not mean to imply a response to an IFF check
Alibi ~ m : Directs your wing-man to report his current damage and weapon status.
95
PARADE
Rejoin ~ m : Directs your wi ng-man to rejoin with you. Watch for him to appear and saddle up along side your
aircraft.
Retum to Bose @D[F10! : Directs your wing-man to retum to the carrier (base). His response, "RTB", acknowledges
your command.
Delouse [Shift!:] : Sends a message to your E-2C controller (or carrier) to send an F-14 two-shi p to your location.
This two-ship wi ll either come from the carrier (the Ready 5 aircraft) or it will be drawn from another CAP station nearby.
SECT!ON FORMATIONS
In order for your section to function properly, fiight leader and wi ng-man must fi y and fight as a team. If you are only
interested in becoming a ''Top Gun" you can forget about forming an effective two-ship. In fact, if you don't know how to
cooperate with your wing-man you might as well leave him back on the deck
One good thing you don't have to worry about is mid-air collisions, either with your wing-man or the enemy. Thi s
allows for some really tight formations as you may well imagine. It also keeps pilots from playing bumper cars or attempti ng
to ram the enemy as a final gesture before going down. Nobody does this intentionally- nobody. Even if unintentional , the
chances of a mid-air colli sion with an enemy aircraft are very small indeed. Ramming is just not a viable tactic anymore.
Formations @Dm
V,
There are three basic formations that you and your wing-man can assume; Parade, Cruise,
and Combat Spread. You can change your formation at any time, just by pressing the Formation
@D m . Press the appropriate number key to make your selection.
PARADE FORMATION
When fiying in parade formation, your wing-man takes up a position behind you, less than
100 ft away. Whi le fi ying in parade formation your wing-man is unable to target or fire upon
enemy aircraft. He is essentially under a "weapons hold" restriction until you free him by pressing
the Go Tactical :] or by putting him into a Combat Spread @J formation.
100 ft .
F-14 s
"' ,
Overhead View
Figure 3-/ 7: The Parade formation
96
CRUISE FORMATION
When fiying in cruise formation, your wing-man takes up a position behind you, less than
200 ft away. While fiying in cruise formation your wing-man is unable to target or fire upon
enemy aircraft unless you release as previously described.
COMBAT SPREAD FORMATION
When fi ying in a Combat Spread formation your wing-man takes up a lateral (line
abreast) position off your wing. From this position he may target and fire upon enemy targets
of opportunity without your prior approval.
COMBAT SPREAD
F-14 s
.... 0------ 300 ft. -------., ...
Overhead View
Figure 3-/ 9: The Combat Spread formation.
97
CRUISE
~
200 ft.
F-14s ~
Overhead View
Figure 3-/8: The Cruise formation
BRACKET FORMATION ~ 0
The Bracket is more of a section tactic than a traveling formation. It is labeled a formation and included here only
because it deals with the tactical positioning of your wi ng-man.
You may order your wing-man into assuming a Bracket formation at any time by pressing Brocket ~ 0 . Pressing
this key causes a secondary menu to appear which lists your Bracket options. Press the corresponding numeric key to assign
your wing-man one of the following Bracket options: (I) Bracket Left, (2) Bracket Right, (3) High, (4) Low, and (5) Straight.
BRACKET LEFT/ RIGHT
Wingman
F-14s
Overhead View
Flight
Leader
Figure 3-20: Your wing-man assumes the various brocket positions as shown here.
Note that your own F-1 4 becomes the off-setting
pivot point for the Bracket. The offset distance for a
Bracket Left, Bracket Right, or Bracket Straight is 5 nm.
When ordering a High or Low, you are required to
select an attitude differential using the numeric keys from
one( I ) to ten (0) thousand feet.
Tactically, the Bracket attack resembles a pincer
movement, if conducted properly, enemy aircraft are
sandwiched between you and your wing-man. The
enemy is approached until he is forced to commit on
either you or your wing-man. Once this commitment
becomes apparent, the uncommitted (unengaged)
friendly aircraft is then considered the "free" fighter.
The (ree fighter should immediately assume an
offensive posture and convert on the enemy's "si x." The
committed fighter should break in a manner which
facilitates the free fighter's attack.
If perfonmed correctly the two-ship will have caught the enemy between them. The enemy is vulnerable to the free
fighter's attack unless he disengages from the committed fighter. If the enemy does disengage, he has lost any initiative he
might have had and now faces a I v. 2 situation.
98
We recommend that first time fi yers take the time to read thi s chapter and do some
practicing in the Oceana Training theater. This way newcomers can get the hang of things and
not have to face hostile aircraft right away. Eventually all this "pilot stuff ' will become second
nature but for now let's concentrate on the F-14's fi ight instrumentation.
Each functioning gauge, dial, and indicator is described in detail so t hat you can tell at a
glance just how well your aircraft is doing. It is divided up into the major instrumentation of
both the front and back seat cockpits.
In addition, instrumentat ion on the pilot/RIO's side panel s and console is also covered in
separate sections.
99
Figure 4-1: Smiling under all that headgear.
this 'Tomcat" driver has just retumed from a
successful mission.
PILOT (FRONT SEAT) COCKPIT
Because you portray a F-14 pilot in this simulation, most of your time will be spent in the front seat cockpit. All the
necessary fl ight controls are located here. While you occupy the front seat you are in command of the aircraft, you make
the decisions. The following section describes the various displays and instrumentation you have at your disposal.
HEAD-UP DISPLAY (HUD)
Figure 4-2: The basic Head-Up
Display (HUD) showing pitch
ladder and Phoenix missiles
in priority.
Waypoint Caret
Weapon Priority Indicator
The Head-Up Display is actually a transparent pane of "plexi-glass" situated directly in front of your field of vision.
When you look directly forward, you are actually looking through the Head-Up Display (HUD). As the name implies, the
reason for a HUD is simple. Flight and weapon symbology is superimposed on the "glass" so that you do not have to look
down to read instruments. This all ows you to keep your head upright when involved in combat so you don't lose sight of a
bandit at an inopportune moment.
Standard HUD Information
Much of the symbology on the HUD is standard infonmation which shows up regardless of the weaponry or mode
selected.
The Magnetic Heading Indicator
Stretching across the very top of the HUD is the Magnetic Heading Indicator. This indicator is divided into I (J' compass
heading increments which are then further sub-divided into 2 increments.
Your course is equal to the compass heading which occupies the center position of the indicator (directly above the
tiny cross). You can check the accuracy of the Magnetic Heading Indicator with the analog compass located to the right of
the Vertical Display Indicator (VDI).
100
WA YPOINT CARET
Located undemeath of the Magnetic Heading Indicator is a waypoint reference cue known as a caret (pronounced
canrot). The caret resembles an inverted V and is positioned on the heading indicator according to the waypoint you
have selected.
AIRCRAFT RETICLE
The aircraft reticle depicts the position of your aircraft's wings (chond line). It appears on the HUD as two L shaped
characters that have been knocked over on their sides. This line indicates where the nose of the aircraft is pointing, relative
to the horizon. The position of the aircraft reticle on the pitch ladder indicates your aircraft's relative pitch angle.
PITCH LADDER
The pitch (up/down reference) angle of your aircraft is displayed by means of a pitch ladder. The pitch ladder is the set
of horizontal pitch lines in the center of the HUD which are anranged like the rungs of a ladder.
The pitch lines of the ladder are divided into 10 increments, from 00 (level) to 800. The greater the pitch angle, the
more your aircraft wi ll be pointing up or down.
Solid pitch lines indicate your aircraft is pointed upward. A small circle indicates that your aircraft is pointing straight
upwand in a sheer vertical climb. Dashed pitch lines indicate your aircraft is pointed downwand. A small circle with a X
inside indicates that your aircraft is pointing straight down.
WEAPON PRIORITY INDICATOR
Centered at the bottom of the HUD is symbology indicating which weapon system is cunrently in prioriity. (Being in
priority means which type of missile would be launched if you were to fire a missile right now. Even though the M61 A I
gun is always ready to fire, there is a separate HUD mode for the gun system which displays a fioating gunsight.)
The letter codes which appear on the HUD are PH (Phoenix), SP (Spanrow), SW (Sidewinder) and G (Gun).
Undemeath the letter code is displayed a number which equals the number of those missiles left onboard. If a zero (0)
appears, none of that type of missile remains.
If the Master Arm Switch is in the Off position, an X is superimposed over the Weapon Priority Indicator.
101
HUD Navigation Mode Symbology
When you press the NAV Mode ~ , special navigation symbology appears on the HUD to assist you. Notice that the
Weapon Priority Indicator is removed. It is assumed that you will not be engaging in combat while fl ying in Navigation mode.
Magnetic Heading Indicator
Pitch Ladder
Vertical Velocity Indicator
PITCH LADDER
The pitch ladder has been changed from I 0
0
pitch increments to increments of 50. This all ows you to fly the finer pitch
angles required for precision navigation.
VERTICAL VELOCITY INDICATOR (WI)
A Vertical Velocity Indicator is placed on the HUD to assist you in visually determining your sink rate when landing. The
W I is the tiny circle with three tick marks protruding from it. It is usually located under the aircraft reticle.
The W I is normally used when making carrier approaches. It is an indication of where your aircraft is actually going.
Note that this is sometimes different from the aircraft reticle, which only shows where your aircraft is pointing.
For example, in a carrier approach, the nose of the aircraft is kept pointed slightly above the horizon to maintain a
glide-slope flare. The W I, however, is located below the horizon indicating that the aircraft is descending (even though the
nose angle indicates a climb).
On final approach, keep the WI aimed at the spot on the carrier deck where you wish to land. Use it as an aiming
stake. If you keep the WI on the deck, you can glide the aircraft down for perfect landings every time.
102
Combot Mode Symbology
Except for take-offs and landings (when the HUD should be placed in NAV mode), the majority of time your HUD
should be set to display Combat mode symbology. A Combat mode is one in which a weapon system has been put in
priority (Gun or missile). Basically, the HUD is in Combat mode ifit is not in Nav mode.
Standard Combat Mode Symbology
Some Combat mode symbology is standard on the HUD regardless of what weapon is placed in priority.
Figure 4-4: The Head-Up Display
(HUD) with a target locked and
AIM-7 Sparrows in priority.
Closure Scale
TARGET RANGE SCALE
Target Diamond
Range Scale
When the HUD is placed in a Combat mode, a vertical Target Range Scale appears on the right side of the display. The
bottom of the scale always refiects a range of zero. The upper end of the scale varies according to the range of the target
In order for a target to appear on this scale, rt must erther be radar-locked (in PDSTT) or designated (in a TWS
mode). A range caret (the V-shaped symbol lying on rt:s side) is located on the left side of the scale. As the name implies,
this caret indicates the range of the principle target
Two tick marks extend from the right side of the range scale. The upper tick mark represents the weapon's Rmax, the
maximum effective range of the weapon in priority. The bottom tick mark represents the weapon's Rmin, the minimum
effective range of the weapon in priority.
CLOSURE SCALE
When placed in a Combat mode, the vertical scale on the left side of the HUD shows the relative rate of closure
between your aircraft and the target A caret (a V-shaped symbol tilted to one side) is positioned on the right side of the
vertical scale. This caret indicates your rate of closure. This scale registers closure rates of between -200 knots (at the
bottom of the scale) and + I 000 knots (atthe top). A positive val ue means you are closing in on the target at the indicated
speed. A negative value means that the distance between the two aircraft is increasing by the indicated amount
A negative closure rote indicates that the target is actually pulling away tram you
103
TARGET DESIGNATOR DIAMOND
When a target has been radar-locked or designated, a Target Diamond appears on the HUD corresponding to the
actual position of the target. If the target goes off the HUD, the diamond is peg-ged along the side nearest its point of exit.
SHOOT CUES
When a target is brought within the Rmax and Rmin of the weapon system in priority, HUD symbology begins to flash.
This flashing symbology is your shoot cue telling you it's time to fire the weapon.
BREAK X
When a target is within the Rmin range of the weapon system in priority, a large X symbol appears in the center of the
HUD. This X is known as the Break X indicat ing that you need to back off and increase the range between you and the
target. Note that the M61 A I gun has no Rmin.
Gun Priority Symbology
By pressing the Guns [D, the HUD symbology is changed to refl ect that your M61 A I has been placed in priority.
When the M6 1 A I gun is in priority, a fl oating gunsight reticle appears on the HUD. This gunsight automatical ly
computes the amount of lead angle needed to score a hit on a particular target. When fi ring the gun, you must maneuver
the aircraft so that the floating gunsight is placed on your intended target.
AIM-9 Sidewinder Priority Symbology
Figure 4-5: The Head-Up Display
(HUD) with the fioating AIM-9
Sidewinder seeker-head loof<jng
for a target
Floating Seeker Location
Target Diamond
By pressing the Sidewinder ~ , the HUD symbology is changed to reflect that your AIM-9 heat-seeking Sidewinder
missiles have been placed in priority.
When your Sidewinder missi les are in priority, a floating seeker-head reticle appears on the HUD. This reticle floats
about the HUD looking for a heat source to lock-on to (acquire). The seeker-head detection range is approximately 6 nm,
therefore, the Sidewinder will not acquire a target on its own unless the target is within this distance.
104
The seeker-head reticle wil l continue to float about the HUD until it acquires a target. Once a target is acquired, the
reticle is superimposed on the Target Diamond Designator. The symbology will flash, your shoot-cue to fire.
Note that the Sidewinder missile does not require radar to engage a target You con even tum off the radar and acquire the
target solely through the missile's seeker-head.
AIM-7 Sparrow Priority Symbology
By pressing the the HUD symbology is changed to reflect that your AIM-7 medium-ranged, radar-guided,
Sparrow missiles have been placed in priority.
Sparrow HUD symbology is exactly the same as that of the Sidewinder with the exception that there is no floating
seeker-head. The Sparrow missile requires the aircraft's radar to engage a target and does not have a intemal seeker like
the Sidewinder.
AIM-54 Phoenix Priority Symbology
By pressi ng the Phoenix 0, the HUD symbology is changed to reflect that your AIM-54 long-ranged, radar-guided,
Phoenix missiles have been placed in priority.
Phoenix HUD symbology is exactly the same as that of the Sparrow missile. The upper range limit (Rmax) of the
Phoenix missile is considerably greater than that of the Sparrow, however. This is reflected on the vertical range scale.
105
VERTICAL DISPLAY INDICATOR (VDI)
The Vertical Display Indicator (VDI) is located in the front seat cockpit directly undemeath the HUD. In its primary role,
the VDI acts as a HUD repeater (a back-up) in case the real HUD is ever damaged in combat In addition to acting as a
substitute HUD, the VDI monitor can also be toggled to display images produced by the Television Camera System (TCS).
Press the VDlfTCS Mode Toggle @J to altemate between the two modes.
VOl Navigation Mode Symbology
Figure 4-6: The Vertical Display Indicator
(VOl) in NA V mode showing the COl.
PITCH LADDER
The pitch ladder on the VDI is a duplicate of the pitch ladder on the HUD. Solid pitch lines indicate your aircraft is pointed
above the horizon (i.e. upward). Dashed pitch lines indicate your aircraft is pointed below the horizon (i.e. downward).
AIRCRAFT RETICLE
The VDI aircraft reticle functions exactly as the aircraft reticle on the HUD. The two L shaped characters indicate
where the nose of the aircraft is pointing relative to the horizon. The position of the aircraft reticle on the pitch ladder
indicates your aircraft's relative pitch angle.
GROUND TEXTURE
Ground texture appears on the VDI as a pair of light tone patches that appear to be continually revolving. (They look
like the dashed lines on a highway as you are driving post) These patches remain in motion even if your aircraft is stopped.
They are merely aid in making the visual distinction between above and below the horizon.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) is a vertical bar which moves left or right across your VDI. The purpose of the
CDI is to assist you in getting a more exact bearing on your aircraft carrier. It is not part of an Instnument Landing System
and should not be used for precision approaches.
106
The CDI functions in the same manner as the waypoint caret on the HUD's Magnetic Heading Indicator. It is a visual
cue that you are heading toward your carrier. you are aimed at your carrier, it does not mean that you are
properly lined up with the fiight deck You could be fiying directly at the carrier and still be perpendicular to the flight deck
In this instance, the CDI would still be centered on the VDI.
VDI Combat Mode Symbology
Figure 4-7: The Vertical Display Indicator
(VOl) in combat mode showing a locked
target and target range bar.
Range Bar
AZIMUTH RANGE BAR
Steering Tee
The vertical bar positioned on the left side of the VDI is known as the Azimuth Range Bar. This bar is used to
determine whether or not a target is wit hin range of the weapon system currently in priority. It does not give you the exact
range to target, however. You must estimate target distance for yourself
Estimating target distance is done by noting the scale of the bar and the position of the Target Range Mark The
number located on the VDI beneath the Azimuth Range bar represents it's maximum range (in nm).
If a target is currently locked on radar, a tick mark (known as the Target Range Mark) appears on the left side of the
bar. Note its location, (i.e. 1/3rd of the way up the bar, half the way up etc.) on the bar and compare this t o the maximum
range of the bar as indicated. A Target Range Mark. located halfway up a 100 nm bar would indicate that the target is
approximately 50 nm away.
On the right side of the bar are two other tick marks. These are known as Rmax and Rmin indicators. If the Target
Range Mark falls between these two tick marks, the target is within range.
Rather than having a Target Diamond Designator appear on the VDI, this display uses a symbol known as a steering tee.
The steering tee is an inverted T-shaped symbol and functions exactly as a Target Diamond Designator does on the HUD.
ALLOWABLE STEERING ERROR (ASE) CIRCLE
The dashed line circle in the middle of the VDI is known as the Allowable Steering Error (ASE) circle. For best it
is recommended that you maneuver the aircraft so that the steering tee is inside the ASE circle before you fire a missile.
This is not a requirement, though. It just means that the enemy will have a more difficult time avoiding your missile because
you have made the effort to line up a cleaner shot.
107
Television Camero System (TeS)
Figure 4-8: The VDI can also be used to
view targets by way of the Television
Camero System (Tes).
Zoom Magnification
Camera Image
The F-14 has an onboard television camera system which is slaved to the AWG-9 radar. The camera automatically
focuses on locked targets and continues to track them as long as the target remains within the gimbal limits of the TCS.
The camera image is broadcast on the VDI and can be magnified up to 20 times.
The TCS functions differently according to the difficulty level setting. For details, consult the difficulty level section of
Chapter I.
HORIZONTAL SITUATION DISPLAY (HSD)
Figure 4-9. The Horizontal Situation Display
(HSD) is your primary means of gathering
navigational information.
Heading Indicator ---
~ - - Waypoint Distance
The Horizontal Situation Display (HSD) consists of a rotating compass dial with three lines of navigational text
infonrnation inserted in the center. Like the VDI, it is multi-functional. This monitor can altemate between showing standard
HSD navigational infonrnation and being a Target Infonrnation Display (TID) repeater.
To altemate between the displays, press the HSDITID Toggle [Shift I ffiJ .
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HSD Navigation Information
COMPASS HEADING
Your direction of ft ight is indicated by the Command Course bar located at the top of the dial (12 o'clock position).
Your ai rcraft 's heading is indicated by the compass reading which appears under the Command Course bar at any
given moment.
WAYPOINT INDICATOR
An small tick mark is placed on the compass heading indicating the direction of the waypoint you've selected.
WAYPOINT DISTANCE (WPD)
The top line of text located in the center of the compass dial gives your current distance (in nrn) from the
selected waypoint.
TRUE AIRSPEED (T AS)
The middle line of text gives your true airspeed (in knots). Since your airspeed indicator is calibrated to reftect your
airspeed at sea level, your actual airspeed at higher altitudes wi ll vary. True airspeed (T AS) takes this variance into account.
To get a estimate of your true airspeed through the air, increase your KlAS reading by 2% per thousand feet of altitude.
GROUND SPEED (GS)
The bottom line of text gives your actual over land ground speed (in knots). Note that for the purposes of FLEET
DEFENDER, it is the same reading as your Indicated Air Speed (KIAS).
Target Information Display (TID) Repeater
Figure 4-10: The Horizontal Situation Display
(HSD) can also act as a TID repeater. This
lets paranoid pilots see exactly what their
RIO is doing while their back is tumed.
Your Aircraft
Display Range
By pressing the HSDfTlD Toggle [Shift IlBJ the HSD monitor is turned into a TID repeater. This way, you can see all
the information currently showing up on the RIO's TID. The range (in nm) of the display is shown in the upper right hand
comer of the monitor.
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TACTICAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEM (TEWS) DISPLAY
Figure 4-1 I: The T aebcol
Electronic Warfare System
(TEWS) is port of your overall
self-preservation effort
SAM Site
SAM
SAM
The Tactical Electronic Warfare System (pronounced "T ooz") is an integral part of your aircraft's self-defense capability.
It consists of an anray of sophisticated sensors and receivers located throughout the aircraft. The TEWS gives you the ability
to locate enemy aircraft by the energy their radars emit. It also allows you to pinpoint the location of ground based tracking
radars. In fact, any radar that is emitting energy, whether it be friend or foe, is detectable.
The TEWS display appears on your console as a series of four concentric circles centered on a pair of horizontal and
vertical lines. Your aircraft is located at the intersection of the x and y-axis lines (in the center of the screen). The display
itself is oriented so that the top of the screen always represents 12 o'clock (in front of your ai rcraft). The bottom of the
display is your aircraft's 6 o'clock position (the rear of your aircraft).
The maximum display range of the TEWS is 40 nm. Each of the concentric circles represents a radius increase of 10 nm.
Targets that are detected beyond 40 nm are peg-ged along the edge of the TEWS display. They could be located
anywhere from 41 nm to as far away as 200 nm.
Ground-based Radars (square icons)
When a ground-based radar is Searching for your aircraft the audio waming will "beep" or "hit" each time the radar's
energy passes over you. No icon appears on the screen, however. You receive audio wamings only.
When an enemy ground-based radar is Tracking your aircraft, a square icon with a number insi de from 1-9 appears on
the screen at the appropriate range and bearing. You also receive an audio alert cue.
When an enemy ground-based radar has "Locked-ond launched" the square icon begins flashing. A smaller square icon
appears over top of the flashing icon. This is a surface-to-ai r missile which the SAM radar is directing toward your aircraft. In
short, it means trouble.
110
Aircraft Radars (diamond icons)
Enemy aircraft radars appear on the TEWS only after they have "Locked-On" to your aircraft. A diamond-shaped icon is
placed at the appropriate range and bearing. These icons do not flash when a missile is launched, just count one being fired
anyway. Oust think how quickly you fire a missile once you achieve a "lock" Enemy pilots are just as eager to shoot at you).
Inside each of these icons is a number from 1-9 which signifies the type of radar emissions being detected by the
TEWS. The numbers correspond to a particular type of radar as listed below;
Ground-based Radar Indicators (square icons)
[I J Continuous wave Long-range SAM radars
SA-2, SA-3, SA-N-3A, SA-N-3B
[2J Pulse-Doppler Long-range SAM radars
SA-5, HAWK, Crotale
[3J Continuous wave Short-range SAM radars
SA-6, SA-N-7, SA-N-9
[4J Pulse-Doppler Short-range SAM radars
SA-8, CADS-N-I
[8J AAA Acquisition and Tracking radar
T riple-A batteries
[9J Long-range Search radars
Ground Control Intercept (GCI) Stations
Aircraft Radar Indicators (diamond icons)
[I J Pulse-Doppler Multi-target Search and Track radar
F-14, F/A-18, Su-27, MiG-29, MiG-31
[2J Pulse-Doppler Single-target Search and Track radar
FA, F-16, Viggen, T omado MKJ
[3J Multi-mode Search and Track radar
MiG-23, MiG-25, Mirage F-I
[4J Single-mode Search and Track radar
MiG-21, Su-17, Su-22, F-5E
[5J Range-only radar
MiG-27, Su-24
[9J Airbome Early Waming radar (AWACS)
E-2c' T u-126
III
SAM and MM Deteaion
Radar missiles, both ground and air launched, appear on the TEWS as tiny unnumbered squares. If a SAM installation
or enemy aircraft launches a radar-guided missile, you can see it begin to head toward your aircraft. This should give you
plenty of time to deploy counter-measures or maneuver to defeat it. Heat-seef<jng missiles, because they don't emit radar
energy, never appear on the TEWS.
TEWSJammer
In addition to detecting enemy radars, the TEWS actively attempts to distort, or otherwise jam their signal. The TEWS
jammer interferes with the ability of enemy radars to first; detect you, or having fai led at that, lock you in their beam.
You may tum the Jammer ON or OFF by toggling the TEWS Jammer Toggle QJ ,what else! When the Jammer is ON,
the word "JAMMER" appears across the TEWS display screen. If tumed off, the word is removed.
When actively jamming an enemy radar, the word JAMMER" flashes. This indicates that the jammer is blanketing the
sky with "white noise". While this makes you hard to hit with a missile, all that "noise" you are making makes you easy to
detect. If steah:h is more important to you than missile avoidance, tum the Jammer off
RIGHT INSTRUMENTATION PANEL
Figure 4-/ 2. The Pilot's right
instrument ponel.
Artificial Horizon
Vertical Velocity Indicator
Wing-Sweep Indicator
TEWS
The F- 14 has a computer-controll ed variable wing sweep which allows the aircraft to take advantage of swept and
straight wi ng characteristics. Swept wings reduce drag and produce good linear performance, straight wings give the aircraft
a superior maneuvering ability.
This indicator lets you know at a glance the degree at which your wings are swept (0
0
to 700). FLEET DEFENDER does
not allow you to manually adjust your wing configuration.
112
Right Engine FIRE Lamp
This light illuminates when your right engine has been damaged and is on fire.
Standby Attitude Indicator (Artificial Horizon)
This gauge functions as an artificial horizon indicator. Use this gauge only in emergencies. Although the pitch lines are
legible, you would not want to use it for judging a landing approach.
Heading Indicator
This gauge is a magnetic heading compass. It is useful as a back-up NAV devi ce if your HUD is damaged.
G Meter
This window displays a digital indication of the G forces currently being placed on the aircraft (and pilot).
Fuel Quantity Indicator
The Fuel Quantity Indicator can be the most important instrument onboard the aircraft at times, especially when it's
dark and you're a long way from home.
TOTAL FUEL STATE INDICATOR
The top five-digit window states the total amount of fuel currently onboard the aircraft. This figure represents your fuel
state as measured in pounds (not gallons).
BINGO FUEL INDICATOR
The number directly below your total fuel state indicator is your Bingo Fuel mark. This number represents the
minimum amount of fuel needed your you to retum safely to the carrier. When you reach this number during the course
of mission, it's time to tum around and head home- immediately!
LEFT/RIGHT ENGINE FUEL INDICATORS
Your total fuel state figure is divided up among your two engines. The fuel is not transferable between engines should
one get knocked out.
113
LEFT INSTRUMENTATION PANEL
Figure 4-1 3: The Pilot's
left instrument panel.
Vertical Velocity Indicator
Radar Altimeter
Angle-or-Attack Indicator (AOA)
This gauge displays your current angle-of-attack in degrees of AOA.
Vertical Velocity Indicator
Ai r Speed Indicator
Altimeter
This gauge indicates your rate of climb or descent. The numbers represent 1000s of ft.l minute. For example if the
needle was pointed at the number 2, this indicates you are climbing (or diving) at a rate of 2,000 feet per minute.
Air Speed Indicator
Your air speed indicator displays your current speed in KIAS. Notice that as you increase in altitude, these numbers
make it appear that you are going slower. This is not the case. Check your airspeed indicated here with your true airspeed
(T AS) displayed on the Horizontal Situation Display (HSD).
Radar Altimeter
This gauge is a radar altimeter which displays your Above-Ground-Level (AGL) altitude. Note the subtle difference
between AGL and ASL (Above-Sea-Level). If you can't grasp the concept. don't fiy over mountains in the dark. This
altimeter is connected to a Terrain Following Radar (TFR) and will register AGL readings as high as 3000 feet.
Altimeter
Unlike the radar altimeter, your standard altimeter measures Above-Sea-Level (ASL) readings in hundreds and
thousands of feet. The large number (at the nine o'clock position on the dial) is your current altitude in thousands of feet.
The smaller numbers (at all points on the clock) represent altitude in hundreds of feet.
114
Engine Instrument Group
The Engine Instrument Group consists of three main gauges; the RpM (revol utions per minute) indicator, the EGT
(Engine temperature) indicator and the FF (Rate of Fuel Flow) indicator. These three instruments are collectively known as
the Engine Instrument Group. They are used for monitoring purposes only.
RIGHT CONSOLE
You can access the pilot's right hand console by pressing the Look Right [J. You must first occupy a /Tont seat view. This
screen is informational only. There are no "hot" buttons or interactive keys available on this screen. The RIO has a
duplicate advisory panel available to him.
Figure 4-1 4: The Pilot's
right hand console. In
foreground is the column
of lights known as Master
Caution-Advisory panel.
When these lights are On,
you know you've got
problems.
Moster Caution-Advisory Panel
The main item on this screen is the column of red waming lights. These lights are collectively referred to as the Master
Caution-Advisory Panel. When a vital aircraft system is damaged, its conresponding lamp will illuminate.
Arrestor Hook Lever
The lever to raise and lower your Arrestor Hook [EJ is located to the far left of this screen.
115
LEFT CONSOLE
Figure 4-15: The Pilot's left hand
console. The throttle is the
prominent feature on this
parocular view.
You can access the pilot' s left hand console by pressing the Look Left 0. You must first occupy a front seat
position (view).
Throttle Lever
The main item on this screen is the throttle. You can watch the throttle advance and retreat as you press the throttle
G and G] .
Landing Gear Lever
Positioned directly above the throttle handle is the Landing Gear lever. You can watch the lever move as you toggle
the Landing Gear @].
11 6
RADAR INTERCEPT OFFICER (REAR SEAT) COCKPIT
The F-14 is far too complex a machine to ever be operated by a single human, no matter how well trained. Therefore,
in addition to a pilot, the F-14 features a Radar Intercept Officer or RIO. This individual provides the pilot with a second
pair of hands and a second pair of eyes. It is the RIO's responsibility to anticipate, rather than react to events.
The RIO is given the task of operating the radar and weapon systems. Although the pilot has the ultimate say in when
to pull the trigger, it's the RIO's job to find the bad guys and make it easy for his front-seater to shoot 'em down.
The two main displays he must operate are: the Detailed Dat a Display (DDD) and the Tactical Information Display
(TID). These displays represent t he heart of the F-14's radar system and al low t he RIO to locate and engage targets out to
200 nm away.
The back-seater has one major drawback though- he cannot fly the aircraft should the pilot become incapacitated. The
Grumman design team that put together the F-1 4 evident ly choose t o leave fl ight controls out of the RIO's reach.
STANDARD MODE DETAI L DATA DISPLAY (DOD)
In Standard Mode, the Detailed Data Display (DDD) monitor is your radar screen. It is positioned (in the back seat) at
eye level, directly in front of the Radar Intercept Officer (RIO). Because it has a monochrome green background, it
reminds you of a football field when viewed from above.
The DDD is oriented so that the top edge of the monitor is 12 o'clock (ahead of your flight path), the left edge of the
monitor is 9 o'clock and the right edge, therefore, is 3 o'clock. Your aircraft is centered along the bottom edge of the
monitor. In fact, think of your aircraft as being the central tick mark on this line.
The two vertical bars in the center of the monitor (each has 4 horizontal tick marks) are positioned at a 300 to your line
of flight Radar blips outside these bars, therefore, represent aircraft that are 30 or more to your left or right The fu ll display
width equals 1300. Note the tiny tick marks along the bottom edge. There is a 100 azimuth width between each one.
The radar range of the display is 200 nm in Standard Mode. You can use Zoom In/Out W and 0 to make the range
numbers change above t he display, but this has no real affect on the radar range. Even if the display is set to 5 nm, it is still
detecting targets out to 200 nm. Range settings have no affect while playing with the radar set to Standard Mode.
Because of the display's orientation, the nearer target blips are to the bottom edge, the closer they are to your aircraft in
actuality. This is only true in Standard Mode. Blip positions in Moderate/Authentic mean something entirely different
117
Detailed Data Display (DOD) Modes
Figure 4-/6: The Standard Mode
Detailed Data Display (DDD) in
SEARCH mode displays targets
like a conventional radar screen.
When the radar is set to a Standard Mode difficulty level, the DDD has only two operational modes of operation;
SEARCH and TRACK. Your current operating mode is shown undemeath the DDD monitor. The radar mode buttons located
to the right of the display are used in Moderate/Authentic Mode only. You can ignore these buttons whi le playing in
Standard Mode.
SEARCH MODE
Search mode is the radar's normal mode of operation. You will spend 95% of the mission fi ying around, looking for the
enemy wrth your radar set to SEARCH. In Standard Mode (difficulty leveO, targets in front of you are automatically detected
when your radar is set to SEARCH mode.
When your radar is active (tumed On) and set to SEARCH mode, a vertical bar moves back and forth across the
display. This motion shows the position of your radar beam as it sweeps the sky. In Standard Mode, your radar sweeps a
full 1800 arc in front of your aircraft. When rt comes in contact wrth an enemy aircraft, a tiny, square radar "blip" is created.
This blip is then placed on the display in its proper relationship to your aircraft.
Once you have detected a target, the next thing you' ll want to do is "lock" rt on radar. In Standard Mode, you can lock-
up a target in one of two ways. The first way is by pressing the Lock/Cycle Target [Backspace I. This immediately locks-up
the nearest target blip (friendly, enemy or neutral).
The second way of locking targets is done directly on the DDD monitor rtself Move your mouse pointer onto the
DDD screen. Once the pointer moves across the monochrome display, it changes into two horizontal lines known as
Acquisition bors or "Ack bars". Position these bars above and below the desired target blip (so that the blip is straddled).
Now press the left mouse button to lock the target.
118
TRACK MODE
Figure 4-1 7: The Standard Mode
Detailed Data Display (DDD)
tracks single targets by focusing
the radar beam. Note that you
lose sight of the other targets
while you are in TRACK mode.
TRACK Mode is the DOD's second mode of operation. This mode is used when a target has been locked on radar.
The radar switches from Search to Track automaticall y. The word TRACK appears undemeath the DOD monitor when
the radar has been switched to TRACK Mode.
The symbology on the DOD also changes when the radar is in TRACK mode. Because t he radar beam is now focused
(locked) on one particular target. only t hat target' s bli p appears. The radar beam stops its sweeping motion and remains
fixated on the locked target
In addrtion, a horizon line and Allowabl e Steering Enror (ASE) circle are displayed. The horizon line allows you to orient
yourself vis-a-vis your prtch angle. This is particularly important when fi ying at low altrtudes and occupying the backseat.
Ideally, the target blip should be inside the ASE circle before launching a missile. This is not a strict requirement, however.
MODERATE/AUTHENTIC MODE DETAILED DATA DISPLAY (DDD)
The Moderate/Authentic Mode Detai led Data Di splay (DOD) worlks very differently than rt does in Standard Mode.
Physically, however, it looks much the same.
Once again, the DOD is oriented so that the two vertical bars (each wrth 4 horizontal tick marlks) are posrtioned at a
300 to your line of fiight. Radar blips outside these bars, therefore, represent aircraft that are 300 or more to your left or
right. Like the Standard Mode DOD, the full display width equals 1300.
In this mode, the position of the target blips on the display has nothing to do wrth range. We repeat; the posrtion of
the target blips on the display has nothing to do with range. The DOD, in this mode, shows azimuth (the horizontal
location of the target in relation to your aircraft) and target closure.
119
Target closure is displayed on the DDD vertically. The nearer to the top of the screen a target blip is located, the faster
it is moving toward you. Note that running down both sides of the display are five tick marks. (fhe tick marks are directly
undemeath the tiny T symbols in upper comers). The uppermost tick mark (directly under the T symbol) represents a
closure rate of 1200 knots. The next t ick down represents a closure rate of 600 knots. The center tick mark indicates no
closure, both of you are traveling at nearly the same speed.
Target blips located below the center tick mark are actually moving away from you. A target located parallel t o the
bottom tick mark is movi ng away from you at 1200 knots.
The range of the DDD is adjustable. You can use Zoom In/Out wand (2] to change the maximum range setting. The
range numbers change above the display to indicate the current maximum range.
While the Standard Mode DDD worked just like a radar screen, in Moderate/Authentic Mode, the DDD functions
very differently. Actually, putting the word "Detailed" in this display's name is a mistake. When you get right down to it, this
display does not give you much detail at all. Most of the time you will be jumping back and forth between the DDD and
TID to get the complete target picture.
Display Information and Symbology
Figure 4-18: The Moderate/Authentic Mode
Detailed Data Display (DOD) displays by
the horizontal azimuth and rate of closure,
not range!
Although the symbology di splayed on the Moderate/Authentic Mode DDD is fairly si milar to Standard Mode, the
display itself is set up differently. Instead of giving you range and azimuth like a normal radar, the Moderate/Authentic Mode
DDD gives you azimuth and closure rate.
Changing Radar Modes
The buttons directly to the right of the DDD change you radar mode. Use your mouse pointer to press the desired
button or change radar mode by toggling the Change Radar Mode ~ Your current radar mode is displayed in the text
window undemeath the DDD.
120
You may also change the azimuth (width) of the radar beam by toggling the Azimuth Setting ~ Depending upon your
mode, you have three choices, Nanrow, Medium, and Wide. Your cunrent azimuth setting is also displayed in the text
window undemeath the DDD.
STANDARD MODE TACTICAL INFORMATION DISPLAY (TID)
Figure 4-1 9: The T acticol
Information Display (TID). In
Standard Mode, the TID gives
you an unfair advantage over
the competition.
Displ ay Range
Your Aircraft
The RIO's Tactical Information Display (TID) is located undemeath the Detailed Data Display. Some players have
refenred to it as the "crystal ball", others are reminded of peering down into a fishbowl. In either case, the TID is a large
circular display and is accessed by using the Look Down [gJ while occupying back seat.
Unlike the DDD, your aircraft is located in the center ofthe Tactical Information Display. This gives you a 360
0
"God's
eye" view of the tactical situation sunrounding your aircraft. The TID can also be range scaled between 10 nm and 200 nm.
Display Icons and Symbology
Your aircraft, as well as other friendly aircraft icons are displayed in blue. Enemy and neutral icons are displayed in red.
The icons themselves are easily distinguishable. Appearing on the display are fighter, bomber, ship and SAM radar icons.
When you lock a target on radar, a white box appears around its icon. This makes it easy to see your target it the
midst of a crowd.
Your assigned waypoints also appear on this display as green triangles.
121
MODERATE/AUTHENTIC MODE TACTICAL INFORMATION DISPLAY (TID)
The TID no longer displays pretty colored icons for you in Moderate/Authentic Mode, In this mode, the TID resembles
a baseball diamond, with your aircraft positioned at home plate, Instead of icons, targets are depicted on screen as symbols
representing friendl y, enemy, neutral, or unknown targets,
TID Target Icons
-UNKNOWN
There are icons to represent friendly, enemy, or neutral aircraft, There is even
an icon to represent targets which are passed to you via data-link
n
/\
n
-ENEMY
Pulse-Doppler Search (PDSRCH)
- FRIENDLY
The Tactical Information Display is inoperative when your radar is in PDSRCH
mode, When the radar is in PDSRCH, the TID screen remains blank
o
- LOCKED/DESIGNATED
TARGET
Pulse-Doppler Single Target Track (POSIT)
u
- DATA-LINK UNKNOWN
When the radar is toggled to PDSn , the TID provides you with targeting
information specific to the target you have
locked-up, Figure 4-20: Moderate/Authentic Mode
target icons,
ASPECT ANGLE
13L
12L ~
~ 1 3 0 '
120:
4L
H
i
180'
0'
T
13R
130' /
40'
~
4R
Figure 4-2 I: Aspect Angle is the angle at which you are
looking at the target (i,e, the side o( the target (acing you).
The angle con be either a single or double digit value, (For
example, on angle o( 80
0
would be displayed as 8, on
angle o( 120
0
would be displayed as 12- the lost zero is
always dropped)
The target's range (RA) is displayed at
the top left side of the monitor, The range is given in nautical mi les (nm),
The target's altitude (AL T) is displayed directly undemeath the target's range
indication, The altitude is given in thousands of feet
The target's aspect angle (T A) is displayed directly to the right of the target's
RA indication,
The target's closure rate (displayed in knots) is centered halfWay down the right
hand side of the screen, The greater the closure rate number, the faster the target is
approaching and the less time you'll have to deal with it,
Finally, located in the lower right hand side of the display is the Weapon Priority
Indicator along with the number of missiles you have remaining, This symbol is
repeated on the HUD,
Track-While-Scan (TWS-M, TWS-A)
The TID is most effective when toggled to one the T rack-While-Scan modes
(Manual or Automatic.) You do not receive the same level of information about
specific targets that you get with PDSn, but you are able to target and engage
multiple bogeys simultaneously,
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With the radar in aT rack-While-Scan mode, you can look over the entire battlefield, inspecting many aircraft instead
of having to lock them up one at a time.
HIGHLIGHTING TARGETS [HT]
In Standard Mode, you had to lock-up a target before you could IFF check it. The advanced modes allow you to highlight
a target instead of locking it up. This lets you IFF check an enemy aircraft without setting off his radar waming receivers.
To highlight a target, simply use the mouse pointer to press the HT (Highlight Target) button located at the bottom of
the TID. Now move the mouse pointer over the target icon you wish to designate. Press the left mouse button. The
target icon is now highlighted. Press the IFF ITl to identify this target
DESIGNATING TARGETS [DT]
In TWS mode, you are able to aim your Phoenix missiles at more than one target at a time. This is done by designating
targets in a particular sequence or firing order (i.e. direct the order in which missiles are fired at specific targets.
To designate a target. use your mouse pointer to press the DT (Designate Target) button located undemeath the TID.
The letters on the button will illuminate when the button is pressed.
Once this has been done, simply choose the targets you wish to designate (add to the firing order). Move your mouse
pointer over the target icon and press the left mouse button. As each target is designated, a firing order sequence number is
placed to the right of the target icon. You con only do this if you Phoenix missiles remaining on-board.
CLEARING TARGETS [Cl]
If you change your mind about a particular firing sequence, use the mouse pointer to press the CT (Clear Targets)
button. The CT button is located under the TID monitor. When this button is pressed, all stored infonmation, such as
target ID, firing order, etc., is erased.
Range-While-Search (RWS)
The TID displays only target icons when toggled to this radar mode. Data link infonmation still appears however.
Data Link Targeting
Figure 4-22: The E-2C Hawkeye allows you to
fire on targets based on information it provides
you via data-link
Your F-14 has the ability to engage targets based on infonmation provided
to you via a data-link with the E-2C Hawkeye. To display data-linked targets,
use your mouse pointer and press the DL (Data-Link) button located at the
bottom of the TID.
Once these targets appear on the TID, they are treated as any other t arget
You may fire on them at your leisure, even if you radar is tumed off
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RIGHT CONSOLE
You can access the RIO's right hand console by pressing the Look Right You must first occupy a backseat view. The
main item on this screen is the column of red waming lights. These lights are collectively refenred to as the Master Caution-
Advisory panel. When a system is damaged, its corresponding lamp will illuminate.
Figure 4-23: The RIO's right
hand console.
Master Caution
Advisory Panel
This screen is informational only and duplicates the pilot's panel in the front seat. There are no "hot" buttons or
interactive keys available on this screen.
LEFT CONSOLE
The RIO's left console contains a control panel with actual buttons and knobs needed to change the azimuth and bars
of the A WG-9 radar.
Figure 4-24.' The RIO's left
hand console.
124
o THE AWG-9 RADAR
The radar system on the F-14 Tomcat is the AWG-9 (Air Weapons Group-9) radar. It is an integrated radar/weapon
system able to track up to 24 different targets at one time. Six of these targets can be attacked simultaneously using the
AIM-54 Phoenix missile. The system can also use targeting infonmation provi ded by other aircraft through a data link
The AWG-9 does have certain drawbacks, though. This radar and its component systems represent 1960s technology,
long before the tenm "user friendl y" was ever heard of It shows. There is nothing friendly about the AWG-9 radar. The
complexity of the AWG-9's displays requires a second set of eyes- and hands. Luckily, FLEET DEFENDER gives you the
option of tuming over certain radar duties to your RIO by setting the level of RIO assistance.
If this is your first time in an F-14 cockpit, you can avoid a great deal of confusion by leaming how to operate the radar
in Standard Mode first. This mode is the least difficurt level of operation. It represents a streamlined version of the more
advanced modes. Only after you are completely comfortable with using the radar in Standard Mode should you begin to
experiment with the more realistic (and complex) modes.
Moderate Mode radar represents a big step up from Standard Mode but it is still only an intenmediate level of difficurty.
The urtimate challenge in FLEET DEFENDER is to play the simulation with the radar set to Authentic Mode. Authentic
Mode is -well, authentic. Don't say we didn't wam you. Next to carrier landings, becoming proficient with the radar
system is admittedly the most difficurt part of FLEET DEFENDER.
The term "mode" is used frequently in the following text to describe the various operative functions of the radar. It is importQnt
not to confuse these "modes" with the different levels of difficulty; Standard, Moderate, and Authentic Mode. Difficulty levels and
operative modes are two entirely different concepts. Therefore, the term "mode" is always used uppercase when referring to levels
of difficulty and lowercase when describing radar functions
STANDARD MODE RADAR
Modes of Operation
Standard Mode radar has two basic methods of operation, known as operative modes; Search and Track Your radar
spends the majority of its time in Search mode. That is, the radar beam just sweeps back and forth looking for targets,
sending out energy. Thi s is the radar's nonmal mode of operation.
When your radar is operating in Search mode, it is detectable. In most cases it does not cause the enemy pilots to react
with undue alanm. They are only aware that a radar is operating in their vicinity. Once a target enters a piece of sky being
covered by your radar, the target is detected. Detected targets appear on the DDD as tiny green squares (radar blips).
The radar's other operative mode is known as Track mode. This mode is used when you wish to concentrate your
radar beam on a particular target. Concentrating your radar beam (locking-up a target) is a necessary prerequisite for using
radar-guided missi les. The radar switches from Search mode to Track mode when a target is locked. Enemy aircraft react to
being locked-up. Don't you? Therefore, it is in your best interest to remain in Search mode for as long as possible.
125
Note that Track mode is the abbreviated form of the phrase Single-Target-Track mode (STT) . The sn indicator light,
located to the right ofthe DDD, illuminates when Single-Target-Track mode is in operation (i.e. when a target is locked).
Operating the Standard Mode Radar
Step I : Tum the radar On (activate the radar).
Press the Radar On/Off toggle lli]. From the rear seat cockpit you can also tum on the radar by clicking the left
mouse button on the cockpit switch marked RDR. A text message appears letting you know that the radar has been
activated. The cockpit switch labeled RDR illuminates when the radar is on. Note that in Standard Mode, the radar is
already switched on for you.
Step 2: Be sure the Master Arm switch is On.
Press the Master Arm Switch toggle ~ or move your mouse pointer over the Master Arm switch and press the left
mouse button. When the Master Arm switch is activated the Master Arm light illuminates. Note that in Standard Mode,
the Master Arm switch is already tumed on for you.
Step 3: Adjust the display range of your radar beam.
At the higher difficulty settings, you would normally adjust range of your radar here. In Standard Mode, your radar's display range
is unimportant Your radar beam always searches out to a maximum range of 200 nm. You can change the range setting but this
has no real affect on your beam. This step is only included as a reminder. This step is only used in the more difficult modes.
Step 4: Target detection.
In Standard Mode, your radar automatically detects any targets in front the 3/9 axis of your aircraft. As long as the
target is even one foot in front of your aircraft, it is detected regardless of its ah:itude. Targets appear on the rear cockpit
Detailed Data Display (DDD) as tiny green squares (or radar "blips"). Notice that your radar beam continues to sweep
back and forth across the DDD, so information conceming the targets is continually updated. Read the DDD section in this
chapter for details on DDD symbology.
Step 5: Select your weapon.
The F- 14 has the capability to canry three different types of AAMs and is also equipped with a muh:i-barreled 20 mm
cannon. To select a weapon, press either Guns CD, AIM-9 Sidewinder [gJ, AIM-7 Sparrow @], or AIM-54 Phoenix 0 . Your
weapon selection appears on the bottom of the HUD, along with the number of missiles (or rounds) you have remaining.
If your Master Arm switch is off, an X symbol is placed over your weapon selection indication.
126
Step 6: Obtain a radar lock
To lock-up the desired target, press either the Lock/Cycle Targets (Backspace Key). In Standard Mode, each additional
press of this key cycles through all eligible targets.
You can also lock-up a target directly tram the DDD by moving your mouse pointer over the DDD screen. As the mouse
pointer moves over the DDD screen it changes into an Acquisition symbol. The Acquisition or "Ack" symbol appears as two
horizontal bars. Move the bars so that they straddle (above and below) the target blip and press the left mouse button.
Your radar stops sweeping after you lock a target It changes mode trom Search to Track It centers on the target aircraft you
have locked and remains stationary.
Step 7: Perfonm an Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) check
Before you fire at a target, it is a good idea to conduct an Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) check You ore severely
penalized for shooting down friendlies and neutrals.
In order to IFF check a target, the target must be locked. Press the IFF CD or use your mouse pointer to press the IFF
button in the rear cockpit. If the target is friendly, you' ll hear a solid tone sound. If the target is an enemy or neutral aircraft
you do not hear the tone.
When an IFF check is made on a friendly target, two horizontal lines appear on the DDD which bisect the target's blip.
When neutral targets are checked a single line bisects the blip. When an IFF check is made on an enemy target, no lines
appear on the DDD.
With your radar set to a Standard Mode level of difficulty you con always check the TID screen to see if the target is blue
(meaning friendly) or red (meaning neutral or enemy).
Step 8: Retum to the front seat cockpit.
In the F-14, the pilot has the uh:imate responsibility for launching all ordnance, the RIO's job is done once a target is locked.
Retum to the front cockpit to view the Head-Up Display (HUD). All the targeting infonmation you need appears on
the HUD when a target is locked. For example, a target diamond is superimposed over the locked target on the HUD
screen. Read the HUD section in this chapter for details on HUD symbology.
Step 9: Receive a "Shoot cue".
Wait until the target is withi n range of your weapon. The maximum (Rmax) and
minimum (Rmin) ranges of the selected weapon are displayed as tick marks on the HUD
range bar. The uppenmost tick mark is the maximum range of your weapon, the lower
tick mark is the minimum range of the weapon.
The target itself is shown as a caret positioned on the left side of the range bar.
When this caret moves between the maximum and minimum range of your weapon,
the HUD symbology begins to ffash. This is a shoot cue indicating that your target is in
range, and that you are ready to fire. Figure 4-25: Fox-2. A missile launch on a locked target
127
Step 10: Fire the weapon.
Once you receive a shoot cue you can fire your selected weapon. To fire a weapon press the Pickle Button I Spacebar I
or push Joystick button #2. After a brief delay, a missile leaps off the rail and heads toward your target. Your vision is
momentarily obscured by the missile's smoke trail. Note that your inventory of that weapon, as indicated on the HUD, is
reduced accordingly.
Quick note: If the missile is an AIM-7 Sparrow you must keep the target locked on your radar until the missile actually hits. You
con only have one of these missiles in the air at a time.
How to Handle Multiple (Standard Mode) Targets
Note that the detect, lock, and shoot procedure can be repeated very quickly if multiple targets are detected on the
DDD. Simply cycle through all the eligible targets using the Lock/Cycle Targets [Backspace I and fire a missile at each one.
Repeat this cycle of lock-shoot, lock-shoot until you have fired on all the targets or have run out of missiles.
Be sure that you have selected either Sidewinder or Phoenix missiles when firing on multiple targets. Sparrow missiles
require that your radar remain locked on a single target until the missile actually hits.
MODERATE MODE RADAR
One of the biggest differences between Standard Mode and Moderate Mode is the addition of several new radar
operative modes. In Standard Mode, the radar was simplified and easy to use, you only had to worry about two operative
modes: Search and Track. Now that you have graduated to the Moderate level of difficulty, the Search mode function has
been divided into a number of new modes.
In addition to introducing new modes of operation, your radar no longer detects targets just because they happen to
be in front of your aircraft. Moderate Mode gives your radar beam shape (an area of coverage). Targets must fly into this
area of coverage (the radar's scan pattem) in order for you to detect them.
In Standard Mode, the horizontal coverage (azimuth) of your radar beam was fixed at a full 1800. The entire area in
front of your aircraft was covered both vertically (from ground level on up) and horizontall y. Moderate Mode introduces
the concept of radar scan pattems (the conical area covered by the radar's energy). Your radar now has both vertical and
horizontal limitations which vary according to the radar's mode of operation.
The vertical size of your radar scan pattem is measured in bars. The more bars a radar beam scans, the larger the area
of vertical coverage. More bars means a greater difference between the upper and lower limits of the radar beam. The
horizontal size (azimuth) of your radar beam is measured in degrees.
Moderate Mode also forces you to take the target's radar cross-signature into account. In Standard Mode, your radar
was able to detect all targets out to a maximum range of 200 nautical miles, regardless of their size. This has now been
changed to reflect a more realistic relationship between the size of the target and the distance at which it can be detected.
Radar cross-signatures are described in the radar training portion of the Oceana training theater section.
128
Your radar mode also plays an important role in detenmining how far away it can detect targets. For example, Pulse
Doppler Search mode (PDSRCH) is able to spot large-sized targets, like four engined bombers, out to a range of 200 nm.
Track-While-Scan mode, because it has to monitor many radar retums, has a much shorter range (approximately 145 nm).
Modes of Operation
PULSE DOPPLER SEARCH (PDSRCH) MODE
Pulse Doppler Search mode (PDSRCH) is the nonmal operating state of your radar in Moderate Mode. It functions much
the same as Search mode did at the Standard Mode level of difficulty, but there are some important differences.
In Moderate Mode, the size of the PDSRCH scan pattem is adjustable. It can be set to one of three pattems: Wide
(2 bar/65), Medium (4 barJ4oo), or Narrow (8 bar/20). The current widith setting is recorded undemeath t he Detailed
Data Di splay (DDD).
Read the TID sec(jon of this chapter for details on Target Information Display (TID) symbology.
PDSRCH provides you with rudimentary target infonmation only. It alerts you to the presence of other aircraft but
does little to aid your situational awareness. For example, PDSRCH never provi des target range infonmation. Targets
appearing on the DDD could be 100 nm away or as little as 10 nm. As long as you remain in PDSRCH mode, you' ll never
know. Therefore, once a target is detected, it is recommended that you quickly switch to another radar mode.
The Target Information Display (TID) does not func(jon while the radar is in Pulse Doppler Search (PDSRCH) mode.
2) RANGE WHILE SEARCH (RWS) MODE
Range-While-Search (RWS) mode functions exactly as PDSRCH with
one exception, target icons show up your RIO's Target Information Display
(TID) . Not only does the TID give you a top down vi ew of the tactical
situation, it also allows you to detenmine a target's approximate range.
The TID can be range-scaled from a maximum range of 200 nm to 10
nm by pressing the Zoom In/Out m and 0 . Target range is detenmined by
comparing the position of the target within the display. If a target is near the
middle of the display and the display is set to a range of 100 nm, the target
is approximately 50 nm away from your aircraft.
Range-While-Search mode (RWS) allows you to check on the range of
targets without having to lock them on radar. Like PDSRCH, RWS has
three variable scan pattern widiths: Wide (65), Medium (40), or Narrow
(200). The current widith setti ng is recorded undemeath the DDD.
Read the TID section in this chapter for details on Target Information
Display (TID) symbology.
129
Figure 4-26: The Moderate/Authentic Mode TID showing targets
displayed in Range-While-Search Mode.
PULSE DOPPLER SINGLE-TARGET-TRACK (PDSTT) MODE
Pulse Doppler Single-T arget-Track mode (PDSTI) functions much the same as Track mode did at the Standard Mode
level of d i f f i c u ~ . When a target is detected in Pulse Doppler Search (PDSRCH) or Range-While-Search (RWS) modes, it can
be locked-up by changing the radar mode to Pulse Doppler Single-Target-Track mode (PDSTI).
To change the radar mode from PDSRCH to PDSn, press the Lock/Cycle Targets r=1 Bc-ac-':-k-sp-a-c-'e I . Alternatively, you can
move the mouse pointer to the sn button (located to the right of the DDD) and press the left mouse button.
PDSlT gives you away, however. Locking-up a target using PDSn causes the enemy pilot's radar detector to start
sounding-off in his headset Oust like yours does when on enemy pilot locks you up!) For this reason you may not want to use
this rnode unless its absolutely necessary.
Once you have locked a target using PDSn, your TID provides you with specific details concerning this target Check
the TID for range, altitude, and closure information.
POSIT only allows you to track and engage one target at a time. Although you can fire any of your missiles using this mode,
POSIT is best used to fire AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. AIM-7s are semi-octive radar-guided missiles which require the full attention of
the radar. You can only have one of these missiles in the air at a time, anyway.
TRACK-WHILE-SCAN-AUTOMATIC (TWS-A) MODE
Figure 4-27: A F-141ets an AIM-54 Phoenix go.
Even traveling mach 5, with such 0 long range, it'll
be several minutes before it hits its target
Track-While-Scan-Automatic mode (TWS-A) is the AWG-9's raison d'etre. The
combination ofT rack-While-Scan and Phoenix missile is what makes the F-14 so deadly.
Track-While-Scan is pronounced 'Twiz" by those in the knOw.
TWS-A all ows you to fire AIM-54 missi les at up to six (6) different targets at a time.
Note t hat unlike PDSn , you do not lock-up individual targets using this mode, so the
enemy is not alerted. Therefore, you can fire on targets in TWS-A mode and they may not
even see it coming. This makes TWS-A the radar mode of choice when launching missiles
at BVR (beyond visual range) targets.
In order to keep track of so many targets at once, the AWG-9 radar needs to be
updated with fresh targeting information every two seconds. This means that the area
covered by your beam must be smaller than usual so that it can be scanned more quickly.
Accordingly, TWS-A allows for beam widths of medium and narrow size only.
To select Track-While-Scan-Automatic mode, press the Change Radar mode ~ .
Alternatively, you can move the mouse pointer to the TWSA button (located to the right of the DDD) and press the left
mouse button. Once selected, TWS-A is indicated, along with the current beam width setting underneath the DDD.
Locking-up targets defeats the purpose ofTWS-A. The main benefit of this mode is the ability to engage multiple targets
without them being aware that you are looking at them. The key to using TWS-A is the Target Information Display (TID).
Be sure that you are familiar with the symbology on the TID especially the information dealing with target sequences.
130
In TWS-Automatic mode, targets are automatically assigned a position on the launch sequence. That is to say, the radar
detenmines which targets pose the greatest danger (those closest t o your aircraft) and directs your missiles accordingly.
Targets nearest to your aircraft are usually fired upon first.
The firing order is displayed on the TID by placing a number directly to the right of the target's icon. Numbers to the left
of target icons indicate the target's altitude. A target with the # I next to it is fired upon first, the #2 target is fired upon next,
up to a maximum of six, equally the maximum number of Phoenix missiles carned by the F-14.
As you fire your Phoenix missiles, targets move up in the firing order and are renumbered. The #3 target becomes the
#2 target, the #2 target becomes the # I target, and so on. You can never have more targets occupying positions in the firing
order than you have AIM-54 Phoenix missiles.
TRACK-WHILE-SCAN-MANUAL (TWS-M) MODE
Trock-While-Scon-Manual mode functions exactly the same as Trock-While-Scon-Automatic, with one important
difference. Whereas TWS-A designated targets for you and assigned them a position in the firing sequence, Trock-While-
Scan-Manual mode makes you responsible for prioritizing the targets, hence the term "manual".
Trock-While-Scan-Manual mode (TWS-M) allows you (forces you) to decide which targets you will fire on and in what
order. To designate targets in TWS-M mode, simply move your mouse pointer to the button marked DT (Designate
Target). The DT button is located beneath the circular TID screen. Press the left mouse button when the pointer is resting
on the DT button. The DT button tums red signi fYi ng that you are in the process of designated targets.
Once you have pressed the DT button, move the mouse pointer over to the target icon on the TID you wish to
designate. Press the left mouse button again. The target you have designated is assigned a number indicating its place in the
firing order. If this is the first target you have designated, a number one ( I) appears to the right of the target icon.
You may continue to designate targets up to the number of AIM -54 Phoenix missiles you have remaining. TWS modes
(Automatic and Manual) are only relevant when you are carrying AIM-54 Phoenix
missiles. Without Phoenix missiles, Trock-While-Scan modes are a moot point!
BORESIGHT (BRST) MODE
Boresight mode (BRST) is designed specifically to aid the pilot in the fast-
paced environment of modem air combat. Boresight mode allows you to
lock-up an enemy without going through normal step-by-step radar
procedures. It is a close-quarter dogfighting mode that allows you to instantly
get a radar lock on any target that is directly in front of your aircraft.
To change the radar to Boresight mode (BRST), press the BoresightlVSL
Toggle [E nd I As you may guess, this key toggles between Boresight mode and
Vertical Scan Lock-On mode (VSL). Continue to press the toggle until the
letters BRST appears in the window beneath the DDD.
131
Figure 4-28: The Moderote/Authendc Mode HUD showing the
Boresight circle.
Boresight mode focuses your radar beam along the headi ng of your ai rcraft. When your radar is in Boresight mode, a
circular boresight indicator appears in the center of your HUD. In addition to the circular HUD boresight, the Boresight
indicator in the pilot's cockpit illuminates.
Any aircraft (friendly or enemy) that ventures into or is maneuvered inside this circle is automatically locked-up on your
radar. You do not have to press a key. The BRST circle automatically changes to a target diamond when the target is
locked. However, the maximum range of Boresight mode is 5 nautical miles. That is to say, a target must be within 5 nm of
your aircraft and within the BRST circle in order to be locked-up.
This mode is also very useful in picki ng a specific target out of a group of aircraft. If more than one aircraft is located
inside t he BRST circle, the target aircraft nearest your own is the one that is locked.
VERTICAL SCAN LOCK-ON (VSL) MODE
Figure 4-29: The Moderate/Authentic Mode HUD showing the
Vertical Scan Lock-on (VSL) diamond.
Li ke BRST, Vertical Scan Lock-On mode (VSL) is another radar mode used
almost exclusively in the tight tuming confines of a high G dogfight VSL causes
the radar to sweep in an up and down motion rather than in the normal left. to
right fashion. The gimble limits of your radar in VSL are -150 down and +550
up. In a tuming dogfight with your aircraft in a high G bank, being able to
sweep at +550 almost gives your ai rcraft the ability to see around comers.
To change the radar to VSL, press the BoresightlVSL Toggle [End] This
key toggles between Boresight mode (BRST) and Vertical Scan Lock-On mode
(VSL). Continue to press thi s key until the letters VSL appears in the
wi ndow beneath the DDD.
A diamond-shaped icon sweeps up and down on your HUD. This is not
an actual target perfonming high speed loops, it is only an indication that
your radar is in VSL mode. Like Boresight mode, when VSL sweeps across an
eligible target, it automatically "locks" that target for you. No muss, no fuss.
The only drawback to VSL mode is that the beam width is very narrow and
the risk of overlooking targets on either side is great. Again, li ke Boresight mode, VSL is range restricted to 5 nm or less.
Note that you cannot further elevate the beam by pressing keys nonmally used to raise or lower the beam. VSL limits
the vertical scan parameters to _15 and +55.
132
Operating the Moderate Mode Radar
Step I : Tum the radar on.
Press the Radar On/Off Toggle []] . From the rear seat cockpit screen you can tum on the radar by clicking the left
mouse button on the cockpit switch marked RDR. A text message appears letting you know that the radar has been
activated. The cockpit switch labeled RDR illuminates when the radar is on and the beam can be seen sweeping back and
forth on the DDD.
Step 2: Be sure the Master Arm switch is on.
Press the Master Arm Switch toggle [};D or move your mouse pointer over the Master Arm switch and press the left
mouse button. When the Master Arm switch is activated the Master Arm li ght illuminates.
Step 3: Adjust the maximum display range of your radar beam.
To adjust your radar's maximum display range, you must be seated in the RIO's cockpit (back seat). Press the Zoom
Out 0 to increase the range or press the Zoom In m to decrease the range.
You can select a radar range of either 5 nm, I 0 nm, 20 nm, 50 nm, I 00 nm, and 200 nm. The current range of the
radar beam is illuminated on the panel above the DDD. It is also shown in the tiny display window.
Step 4: Adjust the radar beam elevation.
Your radar projects a conical beam directly ahead of your aircraft. If a target is above or below this cone (i.e. outside
the limits of the beam) your radar cannot detect it.
In Moderate Mode you can adjust the beam's elevation by pressing Beam Elevation Up 2 [PgUP l or Beam Elevation
Down 2 [PgDn I You can inspect the radar beam's current elevation setting on the vertical gauge directly to the left of the
DDD. The numbers 00, 20, 40, and 600 refer to degree of beam elevation or depression.
Hint Adjusting your beam elevation has tactical benefits. One is to ffy very low (wave-hop) with your radar beam pointed
upwards. This makes it hard (or enemy aircraft to detect you (you'll be below their radar coverage!). Meanwhile, you'll be able to
spot them just fine.
Step 5: Select a radar mode.
This decision was made for you in Standard Mode. There were only two operative modes: Search mode to find targets
and Track mode to attack 'em. In Moderate Mode, however, there are several search modes and several "attack" modes.
As you will come to understand, there are pros and cons to using each radar mode.
You have two search modes to choose from. They are;
I) the PDSRCH mode for general long range, wide area coverage, and
2) the RWS mode which functions exactly like the PDSRCH with the added benefrt of range information on the TID.
133
After locating a target (or targets), it is a good idea to switch over to one of the several attack modes now available to
you. These are as follows;
I) the PDSTT mode for locking-up and attacking single targets, or
2) the TWS-A mode for attacking multiple targets with Phoenix missiles, or
3) the TWS-M mode for manually designating multiple targets to be attacked with Phoenix missiles, or
4) the BRST mode for point-blank dogfighting (the proverbial knife fight in a phone booth), or
5) the VSL mode for hard tuming (banking) fights emphasizing vertical coverage over horizontal coverage.
Step 6: Target detection.
Regardless of the radar mode you choose, a target must be physically located within the area covered by the scan
pattem of your radar beam in order to be detected. This is why bar and azimuth settings are important. They delineate how
big an area your radar is covering. Beam elevation is also important because it detenmines where your radar is pointing.
Not only must a target be inside your radar scan pattem, it must also be large enough to refiect the radar energy back
to your aircraft. Large targets have big radar cross-signatures and are detected at greater ranges than small targets. For
example, cruise missiles like the Exocet or Kingfish, have very small radar signatures.
When targets are detected they appear on the RIO's Detailed Data Display (DOD) as ti ny green squares (or radar
"blips"). As long as you do not lock-up a target, your radar beam continues to sweep back and forth across the DOD,
continually updating target infonmation.
Always allow several seconds for target information to settle on the display.
Step 7: Perfonm an Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) check
Before you fire at a target (or group of targets), it is a good idea to conduct an Identification, Friend or Foe (I FF) check
You are severely penalized for shooting down friendlies and neutrals. To IFF check a target the target must be "highlighted" on
the TID (if your radar is in a Track-While-Scan mode) or locked (if your radar is in Pulse Doppler Search mode).
If your radar is in PDSRCH or RWS, lock the desired target directly from the DOD by moving your mouse pointer
over the DOD screen. Once the mouse pointer moves over the screen, it changes into an Acquisition "Ack" symbol. (The
"Ack" symbol appears as two horizontal bars). Move the "Ack" bars so that they straddle (above and below) the desired
target and click the left mouse button. The target is now locked. Note that your radar automatically changes to PDSTT
when a single target is locked.
In order to IFF check a target. the target must be locked. Press the IFF CD or use your mouse pointer to press the IFF
button in the rear cockpit. If the target is friendl y, you' ll hear a solid tone sound. If the target is an enemy or neutral aircraft
you do not hear the tone.
When an IFF check is made on a friendly target, two horizontal lines appear on the DOD which bisect the target's blip.
When neutral targets are checked a single line bisects the blip. When an IFF check is made on an enemy target, no lines
appear on the DOD.
134
If your radar is in TWS-A or TWS-M you can IFF check multiple targets on the TID by highlighting individual target icons.
On the TID, different target icons distinguish friendly, enemy, and neutral targets. See the TID section in Chapter 3.
To highlight a target, move your mouse pointer over the button marked HT at the bottom of the TID. Press the left
mouse button. The HT button tums red indicating you can now highlight target icons on the TID screen. Move your mouse
pointer over the desired target icon and press the left mouse button. The icon changes to a lighter shade indicating that it
has been highlighted.
You can now perform an I FF check on this target by pressing the IFF CD. The target icon changes its shape to indicate
its friendly, enemy, or neutral status.
For multiple targets, simply move the mouse pointer to a new target icon and press the IFF CD. Repeat this procedure
as many times as there are unidentified targets present on the TID.
Step 8: Select the appropriate weapon.
Having found a target (or group of targets), you must decide which type of weapon to use. The F- 14 has the capability
to carry three different types of AAMs and is also equipped with a multi-banreled 20 mm cannon.
To select a weapon, press either Guns CD, AIM-9 Sidewinder @, AIM-7 Sparrow @], or AIM-54 Phoenix 0 . Your
weapon selection appears on the bottom ofthe HUD along with the number of missiles (or rounds) you have remaining.
If your Moster Arm switch is off on X symbol is placed over your weapon selection indication.
Step 9: Conduct the attack
In Standard Mode, all the hard decisions were mode for you. All you hod to do was switch the radar to Track mode, thereby
"locking-up" the target. Once the target was locked, you Simply waited for it to get within range of your selected weapon.
In Moderate Mode, your method of attack differs greatly from that used previously in Standard Mode. Now, you must
consider your tactical situation (including choice of weapon) and select a radar mode accordingly. You have a choice of the
following radar attack modes; POSIT, TWS-A, TWS-M, BRST, and VSL.
PULSE DOPPLER SINGLE-TARGET-TRACK MODE
In PDSn, the target is locked (as in Standard Mode) so all you need do is wait until the target is within range, then fire
the weapon. Tactically however, it is unwise to use PDSn if other enemy aircraft are in the area. Your radar remains
focused on the single, locked target and loses track of all other potential threats.
All three missiles (Sidewinder, Sparrow, and Phoenix) can be fired using PDSn for guidance. Since the AIM-9
Sidewinder and AIM-54 Phoenix are "fire and forget" missiles, you can immediately break your lock after firing them by
pressing the Break Lock [8] if you desire. These missiles are self-guiding after launch. Only the AIM-7 Sparrow requires
further radar guidance, you must keep the radar focused on the target until the Sparrow actually hits (or is deemed a miss).
135
TRACK-WHILE-SCAN (AUTOMATIC AND MANUAL) MODE
Track-While-Scan mode gives you the abilrty to target and engage several targets at a time. Targets are designated on
the TID and given a numerical position within the firing sequence. All you need do is insure that the targets are all within
range before firing. If you are carrying Phoenix missiles (the recommended load-out), you can ripple fire your missiles. They
automat ically guide themselves to their individual targets.
TWS-M is a little more difficult. You must individually select and designate your targets on the TID using the mouse
pointer. The order in which you designate targets becomes the order in which they appear in the firing sequence. Once
you have finished designati ng your targets, you are ready to fire. As with TWS-A, all you need do is insure that the targets
are within range before firing. If you are carrying Phoeni x missiles (the recommended load-out) you can ripple fire your
missiles. They automatically gui de themselves t o the targets you have designated.
Step 10: Receive a "Shoot cue".
Obviously, you must wait until the target is within range of your weapon if you expect it to hit the target. In posn, the
maximum (Rmax) and minimum (Rmin) ranges of the selected weapon are displayed as tick marl<s on the HUO range bar.
The uppenmost t ick mark is the maximum range of your weapon, the lower tick mark is the minimum range of the weapon.
The target itself is shown as a range caret positioned on the left side of the range bar. When this caret moves between
the maximum and minimum range of your weapon, the HUO symbology begins to fl ash. This is a "shoot cue" indicating
that your target is in range, and that you are ready to fire.
In the Track-While-Scan modes, because you are able to fire on more than one t arget, it is possible that some of your
targets will be in range whi le others will not. In these modes, you must pay close attenti on to the target icons di splayed on
the TID to ensure that the targets are in range. If targets are in range of your selected weapon, their icons flash.
Step I I: Fire the weapon.
Once you receive a "shoot cue" you can fire your selected weapon. To fire a weapon press the Pickle Button
I Spacebar I or push Joystick button #2. After a brief delay, a missile leaps off the rail and heads toward your target. Your
vision wi ll be momentarily obscured by the missile's smoke trail. Note that your inventory of that weapon, as indicated on
the HUO, is reduced accordingly.
How to Handle Multiple (Moderate Mode) Targets
In Standard Mode, multiple t argets were handled easily just by switching to Track mode and cycl ing through all the
eligible targets using the Lock/Cycle Targets I Backspace I
In Moderate Mode, you cannot cycle through targets. The best way to handle multiple targets in this mode is by switching
to a Track-While-Scan mode (either Automatic or Manual) and by making sure you have plenty of AIM-54 Phoenix missi les
along. TWS modes all ow you to target and engage more than one aircraft at a time. Using POSIT when multiple bandits are
present is not recommended.
136
Data-Linked Targeting
Moderate and Authentic Modes give you the ability to engage targets using information fed to you from other aircraft
via data-link A data-linked target is one that has been detected by a friendly radar other than your own. That radar
information is then passed to your aircraft. Data-linked targeting allows you to launch missiles at enemy aircraft that you do
not detect. (You can even have your radar tumed off, to avoid giving yourself away, and fire at targets which are data-
linked to your aircraft.)
Because data-linked targeting is primarily a function of tracking targets on the Target Information Display, refer to the TID
section in this chapter for more details.
AUTHENTIC MODE RADAR
Authentic Mode is virtually identical to Moderate Mode, with one exception. In Authentic Mode, the vertical coverage
(number of bars) and width (azimuth) settings of your radar beam are adjustable. This allows you to tailor your scan
pattem (within certain limits) to suit your own tastes.
At the Moderate Mode level of difficulty, you were allowed to altemate between three radar scan pattems: Wide
(2 bar/65), Medium (4 bar/4(0), or Narrow (8 bar/2(0) when your radar was toggled to PDSRCH or RWS modes. When
your radar was toggled to a Track-While-Scan mode, you were allowed to altemate between Medium (2 bar/4CJl) and
Narrow (4 bar/2(0) pattems only.
At the Authentic Mode level of difficulty, you are no longer able to select pre-set wi de, medium, or narrow scan
pattems. You are responsible for shaping the parameters of your radar beam. In case you forget, however, the Authentic
Mode radar defaults to a radar scan setting of (2 bar/40).
Selecting a radar pattem is not an easy decision. For example, you could conceivably create a radar beam with an
azimuth of 65 and 8 bar vertical coverage. A scan pattem of this size would cover a tremendous amount of sky. The
drawback to a beam of this size is the length of time the radar would need to sweep the area. It might take up to half a
minute to completely sweep such a large pattem. An enemy aircraft can travel qurte a ways in that amount of time.
Likewise, you could create a scan pattem wrth an azimuth of 10 and I bar vertical coverage. Such a beam could
sweep this smal l patch of sky like a laser, updating your radar almost instantaneously. The drawback is, of course, you're not
likely to find any targets this way.
ADJUST THE VERTICAL COVERAGE (BAR SETIING) OF YOUR RADAR BEAM.
To adjust the bar setting press the Adjust Bar Scan [Home) You can choose a bar setting of erther I bar (the shortest), 2
bar, 4 bar, or 8 bar (the tallest). Note that the only way you are able to distinguish your current bar setting is by looking at
the EL bar indicator located on the RIO' s left control panel. You can view this indicator on the RIO's left side by pressing
the Left View []].
137
ADJUST THE HORIZONTAL COVERAGE (AZIMUTH) OF YOUR RADAR BEAM.
"
4 Bar/40'
\-----
,
,
,
,
,
,
" ..
,
,
,
,
.',
Figure 4-30: This diagrams shows the three most commonly used
azimuth and bar settings. In Authentic Mode, you can change the scan
pattem or your radar any way you like.
To adjust the azimuth of your radar beam press the Adjust Azimuth
~ You can choose between 100 (the narrowest), 200, 400, or 65 (the
widest) scan widths. You can see the width of your radar beam change on
the DOD. You can also view the cunrent azimuth setting on the AZ Scan
indicator located on the RIO's left side by pressing the Left View []J.
Note: Track-White-Scan modes function onty if the scan pattem is changed
to (2 bar/40) or (4 bar/20). Check the AZ and EL scan indicators to be sure
that you are in compliance with this requirement
138
CAMPAIGN MAPS
NORTH CAPE THEATER
-
I
,
..
139
MEDITERRANEAN THEATER
140
OCEANIA TRAINING THEATER
141
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JIII= ......

F- 14 FLEET DEFENDER
Campaign Notes and Commentary
MicroProse
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Al l rights reserved.
Copyright 1994 MicroProse
This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part, by mimeograph or photocopy or other means without penmission, with the
exception of quoting brief passages for the punpose of reviews
CHAPTER FIVE
HOW TO FIGHT ........................................................ .3
Missile Combat ................... .. .................................... 3
Missile Guidance .... .. .... ... .. ...... ....................... ... ....... 4
Missile Selection ...................................................... .5
Choosing a Weapon Load-out ..................... 8
Missile Defense ................... ... ................................ 9
Guns ... Guns ... Guns! ...................... ............................ 3
The M61 A I 20 mm Vulcan Gun .. ............ 3
Offensive Gun Combat................................... 4
Defensive Gun Combat.................................. 5
Air Combat Maneuvering ............................ .. ........ 6
Energy Management.......................................... 6
Situational Awareness ....................................... 8
Combat Tactics ............ ........ ........................................ 9
Pursuit Angles ............................ ............................. 9
Basic Fighter Maneuvers (BFM) .................. 21
Advanced Fighter Tactics (AFT) ................ 25
CHAPTER SIX
THEATERS OF PLA Y .............................................. 31
NORTH CAPE THEATER ........................ .......... 31
Theater Background .......................................... 3 I
Neutral Forces ..... .................................................. 33
Campaign Scenarios ......................................... .. 34
Scenario # I
Fighting Withdrawal ......... .. ...... ......... ... ... ........... 34
Scenario #2
Retum To Norway .. ........ .................................. .36
Scenario #3
Assault On The Kola Peninsula .................. 38
MEDITERRANEAN THEA TER .......... .. ...... ...... 40
Theater Background ........................................ ..40
Neutral Forces ...................................................... .42
Campaign Scenarios ........................................... 43
Scenario # I
Powder-Keg ............................................... ... ... ... ..... 4 3
Scenario #2
Operation EI Dorado Canyon .................. ..45
Scenario #3
Carrier Duel .............................................. ....... ....... 49
OCEANA TRAINING THEATER ................ 53
Fleet Readiness T raining .................................. 54
Radar Training ...................................... .................. 54
Dissimilar Air Combat Training
(DACT) Sorties .................................. ................. .59
Wing-man training ........ .. ..................................... 60
2
APPENDIX A
Aircraft ...... .. .................................. ..... .... .... ....... ..... ..... . 61
Threat Aircraft ................................................ ....... 61
Friendly/ Neutral Aircraft .............. .................. 72
APPENDIX B
Naval Vessels .............. ......................................... ... 79
Major Threat Vessels .............................. ........... 79
U.s. Aircraft Carriers .......................................... 82
APPENDIXC
Air-to-Air Missiles ...................... ...... .......... .... ...... 86
Threat Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs) ........... 86
Friendly Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs) ........ 89
APPENDIX D
Air-To-Surface Missiles
(ASMs) .......................................... .............................. 92
Threat Air-to-Surface Missiles
(ASMs) ..... ...... .. ...... ... ........................ ....... .... ... ............ 92
Friendly Air-to-Surface Missiles
(ASMs) ......... ............................................................... 96
APPENDIX E
Enemy Surface-To-Air Missiles
(SAMS) .. .......................................................... ............ 98
Land based Surface-to-Air Missiles
(SAMs) ................................................ ........................ 98
Ship based Surface-to-air Missiles
(NSAMs) .... ............ ... .. ......... .. ..................... ............ 100
APPENDIX F
Glossary ...................................................... ............. 102
Assuming that you have taken the time to read the instruction manual , you are now ready to "have a go" at the opposition. Well- it's a
cruel world out there. You don't get any points for second place. The taxpayers have paid a lot of money for that aircraft of yours, so
before you take on your first bandit there are a few more things you should know.
This chapter is designed to mold fl yi ng skills into practical combat techniques because it takes more than just fancy fl ying to make a
fi ghter pilot. You have to be able to make snap decisions in the heat of combat. and live with the consequences. A wrong decision could
ultimately cost you (and your RIO) the fanm.
MISSILE COMBAT
Before the invention of the air-to-air missile (AAM) , air combat
was always "up close and personal". Combat was so close, in fact,
that opposing pilots could often see each other seated in their
cockpits. Pilots were truly knights of the sky, engaging in aerial
jousts. Ideally, a dogfight was supposed to be a chivalrous contest
between gentleman. Soon, very soon, all that changed.
The air-to-air missile revolutionized aerial warfare in the late
I 950s by allowing a pilot to engage a target in any type of weather,
day or night. without ever actually seeing it. Theorists were quick
to conclude that the "human element" was no longer necessary in
this "push-button" type of warfare. They sunmised that, given the
3
ability to destroy one's opponent outside of visual range, the last
trappings of glory and honor surrounding the mystique of personal
combat would disappear.
The theorists were wrong. Technology did not remove the
pilot from the cockpit, in fact, it proved to do just the opposite.
High-tech equipment made having a thinking, decision-making
human onboard, al l the more necessary.
Although this section is primarily concerned with missile
technology and hardware, it attempts to focus on the decision
making going on inside the cockpit.
MISSILE GUIDANCE
Modem air-to-air missiles come in two basic fiavors: radar-guided missiles, such as the AIM-54 Phoenix and the AIM-7 Sparrow, and
heat-seeking (or Infrared) missiles such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder. It is important to remember that tactics which worl<. well with one type of
missile may be entirely inappropriate for another.
The enemy has access to the same type of missiles as you do.
Therefore, once you detect an incoming missile you must make an
effort to identifY how it is being guided. There are big rewards if you
guess right but even bigger consequences if you guess wrong. It
doesn't make sense to dump ~ a r e s out the bock when you're trying to
defeat a radar-guided missile!
Radar-Guided Missiles
Radar-guided missiles come in three sub-categories: beam riders,
semi-active radar-homing (SARH), and active homing.
Beam-riders are general ly surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) launched
from either fixed sites or mobile launchers. The missile follows the
path of a laser beam directed from the designator and aimed at the
target aircraft. In order for the missile to score a hit, the beam must
be held on the target throughout the missile's fiight
Semi -active radar homing (SARH) missiles require that the
firing aircraft keep the target continually illuminated (painted) on
radar. The missile guides itself using radar energy refiected back off
the target. Like the beam-rider, a SARH missile requires the firing
aircraft (or SAM site) to maintain a radar lock on the target aircraft.
Thi s means that the firer is essentially stuck with having to track the
target aircraft while the missile remains in fiight.
4
The third type of radar-guided missile is active homing. These
missi les transmit and receive their own radar signals which allows
them to track a target without help from the firing aircraft. Because
of this, active homing missiles are the most deadly. They are also
known as "fire and forget" because after they are launched, the
firing aircraft can forget about them and is free to maneuver.
Being able to escaping from a radar-guided missile primaril y
depends upon being able to break the controll ing radar's lock An
aircraft may accompli sh this by passive means, like fiying out of the
radar's envelope, or by relying on active measures li ke radar
jamming. Once a radar lock is broken, the missile simply heads off
in a straight line along its current trajectory. This is known as going
ballistic. The missile is essentiall y unguided at this point.
Figure 5-1: The SA-2 "Guideline" is a prime example of a beam-riding
surface-to-air missile.
Infrared (Heat-Seef<jng) Missiles
Infrared (IR) missiles use radiated heat as a means of guidance
rather than refiected radar energy. These missiles are equipped with
very sensitive cryogenically-cooled detectors abl e to distinguish
minute differences in temperature. They are light-weight, compared
to radar-guided missiles, and carry considerably small er warheads.
In order for a pilot to use a heat-seeker, the missile's detector
must first locate a heat source. Thi s generally requires that the
firing aircraft face the enemy aircraft so that there is a direct line of
sight between the missile's seeker-head and the intended target.
Once the seeker-head has "acquired" the target (known as "un-
caging" the weapon) it is then fired. The seeker-head guides the
missile toward the target by sending course corrections to
moveable fins on the missile's fuselage.
Like active radar homing missiles, heat seekers are also "fire
and forget". Once launched, the firing aircraft may forget about
them because the missile requires no further guidance from the
parent aircraft. The missile's own IR detector within the seeker-
head takes over.
Heat-seekers are completely autonomous, they often seem to
have a mind of their own. So use care when firing heat-seekers into
a general engagement, these missiles have no friends. If a heat-
seeking missile loses track of its original target, it will re-acquire the
first heat generat ing object that enters its tracking envelope. In a
MISSI LE SELECTION
AIM-54 "Phoenix" Radar-guided Missile
At first glance, choosing the AIM-54 Phoeni x missile over the
Sparrow is a no-brainer. Players will instinctively load up their aircraft
with these missiles 90% of the time. The Phoenix is the undisputed
missile of choice for engaging targets at ranges beyond their ability to
shoot back With a maximum range of over 100 nautical miles, it easily
outdistances all other air-to-air missiles. In fact, just as the A-I 0 tank-
busting "Warthog" was built around its GAU-8 gun system, the
Tomcat was really made to carry the AWG-9/Phoenix combination.
5
twisting, tuming dogfight, your wing-man could quite possibl y wander
into the missile's envelope by accident Given the right conditions,
your IR missile could begin to track him instead of an enemy.
Fortunatel y, the garden-variety IR missile is more easil y
countered than a missile guided by radar. Early models, developed in
the I 960s, were often fooled by natural heat sources such as the sun
or refiected cloud glare. They had trouble tracking targets at low
attitudes because of background heat radiating from ground objects.
These missi les had to be initially aimed at the hot exhaust of a
target's engines. Because of this, early heat-seekers were refenred to
as tail-ospea or tail-chasers. A few of these are still in service with Third
World air forces. Later generations of heat-seeking missiles do not
have this limitation. They can acquire and track a target from any
angle. These missiles are refenred to as all-ospect heat-seekers.
Keep in mind that heat-seeking missiles are not actually
tracking the target itself but rather the heat which the target is
generating through friction or exhaust. Countering a heat-seeker is
simply a matter of distracting the missile with a more attractive
source of heat. Such sources are readil y available. Generally,
fighter aircraft deploy fiares, hot gas balloons, or other incendiary
devices. Even so, the greater IR sensitivity of missiles buitt during
the last two decades allows them to be far more discriminating
and less easily fooled by ECM.
Figure 5-2: The AIM-54 Phoenix. Its long range and "fire and (orget "
guidance make (or a deadly combination.
Putting the range advantage aside, for the moment, this mach 5
air-to-air missile has other useful benefrts in combat. The AIM-54
gives pilots a tactical advantage over opponents that happen to be
equipped with semi -acti ve radar homing (SARH) missiles. It
possesses an active homing radar in its nose cone which makes the
Phoenix a "fire and forget" missile. Once the missile is fired, t he
launching aircraft is free to maneuver or even acquire a new target.
After the missile leaves the aircraft, rt fiies to a pre-set point in
space which is detenmined by an onboard inertial guidance package.
It then switches on its active radar, acquires the target and then
tracks it on its own. The F-14 can carry up to six (6) AIM-54
Phoenix missiles. Since these missiles are able to home in on their
targets independently, the F-1 4 could concei vabl y have al l six in
the air simultaneously.
So let' s recap. The Phoenix is an autonomous "fire and
forget" missile with a range far in excess of all the available
missiles. W hat's not to like? Well , before you rush to answer first
consider that selecting these missiles out of habit can lead to real
problems down the road. The Phoenix does not come without
it's share of disadvantages.
Fi rst of all, these missiles are very heavy. The AIM-54C weighs
in at a whopping 1020 Ibs., over twice the weight of the AIM-120A
AMRAAM. Even though an F-14 can carry six of these missiles, a
practical mission load usually never exceeds four (4). Carrying six
of these missiles would be like getting into a fist-fight with a tire
wrapped around your neck the extra 6, I 00 Ibs. is going to affect
your maneuverability and speed. When six are carried, it's usually
at the expense of something else (like fuel).
The second major drawback to the Phoeni x is that, despite the
literature, they are not designed wrth BFM in mind. The AIM-54
has a large minimum range (Rmin) . The exact Rmin of the
Phoeni x remains classified however FLEET DEFENDER has best
guessed the AIM-54's Rmin (for practical purposes) at 6 nm. If an
F- 14 finds itself in a tight BFM engagement. a pilot with only
6
Phoenix missiles wi ll spend most of the fight staring at a "Break X."
These missiles are best used against level non-maneuvering targets
like large strategic bombers.
The third drawback to the Phoenix missi le is the enonmous cost
of each of these missiles, over $1,000,000 a piece. The AI M-54
must be used sparingly. In fact, t hese missiles are so expensive that
relatively few have been built. The Navy could easil y use up its
entire inventory within several weeks (i f not days) of combat.
Fortunatel y the cost of these missiles doesn't adversely affect
game-play. FLEET DEFENDER does not require pl ayers to
purchase their weapons. Even so, players who use Phoenix missiles
indiscriminately may soon find the carrier has run out.
AIM-7 "Sparrow" Radar-guided Missile
The AIM-7 Sparrow is the other type of radar-guided missile
carried by the F-14. It is a semi-acti ve, radar-homing (SARH) missile
which means that the missile requires continual updates from the
aircraft's radar. The distinction between a SARH missile and a "fire
and forget" mi ssile like the Phoeni x is an important one. The
Sparrow requires that the launching aircraft keep its radar focused
on the target throughout the missil e's entire fiight time. A pilot
who launches a Sparrow is committed to that single target. He
cannot maneuver freely, drop his radar lock, or even acquire a new
target until his first missile hrts.
<:1
(]
Figure 5-3: The AIM-7 Sparrow. These missiles require the radar's complete
attention.
The ramifications of firing SARH Sparrows as opposed to
Phoenix missiles are not apparent until the first time a pilot goes up
against two bandits at once. With AIM-54s, the pilot simply "Iocks-
up" both targets, then ri pple fires two missiles at once. Both missiles
seek out their targets independently. With AIM-7s, the pilot must
"lock-up" the leader, fire, and then keep the leader in his beam until
the missile hits. Meanwhile, the leader's wing-man has closed to
within range and has probably fired a missile of his own.
Like the Phoenix, the AIM-7 possesses a significant range
advantage over most, but not all, of its Soviet counterparts. With a
maximum range of 21.4 nm, however, the Sparrow can only fly
about one-fifth as far as the Phoenix.
So, given all the disadvantages, who in their right mind would
ever choose to carry a Sparrow over a Phoenix? Well- the
Sparrow is not without its own positive features.
First, the Sparrow weighs in at less than half of what a Phoenix
weighs, 1020 Ibs. instead of 503 Ibs. This means that two Sparrows
can be carried for the same aerodynamic penalty as one Phoenix. The
Sparrow is also slightly faster. Granted, the extra 200 kts. might not be
that significant over a long distance, but at medium ranges the
difference is meaningful.
The Sparrow also has a shorter Rmin range than the Phoenix.
It becomes an active missile after only two (2) nm as opposed to
the six (6) nm for the Phoenix. In a close action BFM engagement
a lucky pilot can usually separate, then break back into the fight and
take a quick shot at just over the missile's Rmin.
Lastly, they're cheaper. Granted, this might not have meant
that much back in the days of the $600 toilet seats but in
FLEET DEFENDER there is less chance of running out of Sparrows
in an protracted campaign.
7
AIM-9 "Sidewinder" Heat-seeking Missile (Infrared)
The AIM-9 "Sidewinder" differs from the two previously
mentioned missiles. Unlike the first two, it is an Infrared missile,
guided by heat rather than radar. The Sidewinder is so named
because of its unique side-to-side jinking motion while in flight.
During development, it was dubbed "Ground-winder" because of
its tendency to track heat-reflecting objects on the ground. Early
models of this missile were tail-aspect only and required that the
target's heat-source (engine exhaust) be facing toward the missile's
seeker head. These "tai l-chasers" were eventually replaced by
more capable all-aspect models like the current AIM-9M.
cJ ~ 11"11
II II
Figure 5-4: The AIM-9 Sidewinder. These missiles ore inexpensive yet very
efficient
Although the modem Sidewinders are all-aspect missiles, a
straight head-on engagement should rightly be considered suicide.
The missile has a maximum head-on aspect range of
approximately 6 nm. Given the missi le's time of flight. it will be
hitting the target just as you reach it. Not good. Your target always
has a chance to get in a snap gunshot as it goes by. Sidewinders
are best employed from a tail-aspect or at least a high angle-off
deflection. Because of its severe range limitations the Sidewinder
almost guarantees a BFM engagement.
The first thing you hear when placing the Sidewinder in priority is
what's termed the "growl." This indicates that the missile's seeker-
head is active but has not yet acquired a target. The "growl" wil l be
replaced by a solid "tone" when the missile is ready to fire.
One of the main benefrts to using the Sidewinder is that the
missile does not require radar guidance. This enables you to sneak
CHOOSING A WEAPON LOAD-OUT
up on an unsuspecting target with your radar turned off Your
enemy, therefore, is not tipped off by a tell-tale radar spike.
No doubt you have heard actual cockpit transmissions where a
pilot is saying that he "doesn't have a tone." In military jargon, "not
having a tone" means that your heat-seeker has not yet acquired
the target.
The first thing you need to consider before setti ng out on a mission is your weapon loadout. On an actual mission, your load-out would
be assigned to you by the squadron SOP (Standard Operating Procedure). FLEET DEFENDER. however, gives you complete control over
the types and amounts of missiles you can take along.
Thi s initial selecti on of AAMs (Phoenixes, Sparrows, or
Sidewinders) is usually done quickly; just grab six AIM-54s and head
out the door. After all, who wants to spend time in the ARMING
Screen when there's a mission to fiy. Right?
Wrong! Choosing the proper weapon load-out is not an easy
chore, and since you have the luxury of selecting your own loadout,
it's worth a moment or two of careful analysis. There's much more
to it than just selecting the missiles with the longest range. Your
armament selections will , to a large extent, decide which tactical
approach you' ll be taking in combat. Each of the three air-to-air
missiles in FLEET DEFENDER comes with its own advantages and
disadvantages (Yes, there are disadvantages to using the Phoenix.D
Weapon load-outs are selected at the start of each mission from
the ARMING screen menu. You are asked to choose from six
different load-outs; three MiG CAP and three Fleet Defense
configurations. Each of these configurations represents a slightly
different mix of air-to-air missiles. (The M61AI gun with 675
rounds comes as a standard feature with each of these load-outs.)
Read the mission brief before selecting your mission load-out. It
is always a good idea to tailor your weapons to the specific job you
are being asked to do. For example, you don't want to be "caught
short" hunting Soviet "Bears" with Sidewinders or having to waste
precious Phoenix missiles against lowly helicopters.
8
Fleet Defense Alpha MiG CAP Alpha
Fleet Defense Bravo MiG CAP Bravo
Sidewinder
~
Sparrow
Fleet Defense Charlie MiG CAP Charlie
Phoenix
Reserve Fuel Tank
Figure 5-5: Before storting each mission, you are required to select one of six
missile configurations.
MISSILE DEFENSE
Depending upon the level of difficulty, every enemy missile, be it an AAM or SAM, demands your immediate attention. Mi ssi les are a
serious threat to your aircraft. Each one is a potential show-stopper. You can't afford to let a single missile hit your aircraft. Missiles which do
not destroy your aircraft outright wi ll inflict crippling damage and knock out many of your systems. Having to fly a damaged aircraft
hundreds of miles to get back to home is no fun.
There are two ways of dealing with enemy missiles: passive
defense, which includes fl ying avoidance profiles which emphasize
stealth; and active measures, such as evasive maneuvering or
deploying electronic counter-measures (ECM).
Passive Defense Measures
Passive defense measures are those things a pilot can do to
defeat enemy missi les that are both undetectable and effortless.
These measures include flight techniques designed to limit a radar's
ability to spot you (stealth) and practicing basic missile avoidance.
Obviously, you'll never have to worry about missiles being fired
at you if the enemy doesn't know you're in the area. Thi s means
"keeping a low profile". In other words, don't fl y directly over an
enemy SAM site at 25,000 ft. in broad daylight with your
afterbumers on. Low and slow is the way to go to avoid being
spotted. Passive measures are designed to keep SAMs on their pads
and fighters in their hangars.
The best passive defense is to remain alert at all times. When it
comes to flying defensively, the same rules apply as when driving the
family car. Watch out for the other guy, and expect the unexpected.
This requires that you maintain a high state of situational awareness.
Anticipating what is going to take place I minute, 5 minutes, even 10
minutes from now is the key. It costs you nothing and allows you to
stay one step ahead of the competition. If you're not aware of what
is going on around you, how can you be prepared to react to it?
9
Active Defense Measures
Passive measures are not always 100% effecti ve. Despite your
best efforts, the enemy will eventually find you and get a shot off
Once the waming lights start going off in your cockpit it is too late
to devise a strategy. You must fly with an "active" defense plan
already in mind. Active measures require that you, as a pilot, do
something. Let's explore your options.
Figure 5-6: Your TEWS jammer is an integral part of your aircraft's ability to
defend itself
Jamming Enemy radars
The first active measure to consider is radar jamming. This is
done by the Tactical Electronic Warfare System or TEWS. The
TEWS jammer is tied directly into the detection equipment and is
activated by pressing the Jammer Activate QJ Key. This key puts the
jammer in a "standby" mode. Once on mode, it automatically
counters any radar emissions directed at the aircraft. You do not
have to press the key each time a radar lock is detected, the
TEWS jammer functions independently.
Jamming interferes w ith radar signals in two ways; either by
overloading the signal with "white noise" or by deceivi ng the radar
with ghost images and false retums. "White noise" jamming acts
much the same way as background conversation. It makes it hard
to hear anyone particular person talki ng.
For example, let's say you' re at a night club and you (assuming
you're a guy) spot two pretty girls tal king to one another on the
other si de of the room. One girl looks up, notices you and
immediately says something to her girlfriend. Now you're curious.
You would like to know what they' re saying. If the room were quiet
you'd be able to hear what the girls were saying but because of the
loud music and conversation going on, you can't hear a single word.
Of course, as you move closer you're now able to pick-up bits
and pieces of their conversation in spite of the background noise. If
you were to go over and stand near them or even join in, you'd
hear everything they were sayi ng with little difficulty. Jamming
worlks the same way. It is more effective the farther away the radar
is from its target.
When a radar gets so close that it is no longer bothered by
jamming it is said to have bumed through. The exact distance at
which a radar is able to bum through jamming is a function of the
strength of the radar signal versus the power of the jammer.
Obviously, a strong radar, like the AWG-9, wi ll bum through enemy
jamming at a greater range than a weaker radar suite.
10
The other way in which jamming affects radar is through
deception. Deception jamming takes the energy emitted by a radar,
alters it, then retums it for collection. A radar can be deceived by
the spurious images or false retums created by deception jamming.
The radar "sees" a target in one locati on when it is actuall y
somewhere else. A pilot may spend time chasing after a ghost
retum when the actual enemy aircraft is sneaking up on him from
behind. A pilot may become confused, believe he is outnumbered,
and waste all his precious AAMs on targets which are not there
l
This method of jamming is more effective than simply saturating
a wide band of frequencies with noise but it requires that the
jammer be matched exactly to the type of radar encountered. This
makes deception jamming a "hit or miss" affair. If the two are not
properly matched the jamming wi ll have no affect.
Regardless of which form the jamming takes there is one big
drawback The excess "noise" generated by the jammer makes it
detectable at long ranges. In fact, the jammer shines like an electronic
beacon and has a tendency to attract a lot of unwanted attention.
Using the jammer is therefore a trade-off It can keep enemy radars
from getting a good enough fix on you to launch a missile but it gives
your position away. Continuously jamming enemy ground radars
just allows enemy fighters to be vectored right to your position.
Evasive maneuvering
The same BFM (Basic Fighter Maneuvers) used in dogfighting
can also be used to defeat enemy missiles. The job is somewhat
more difficult because a missile is faster and can withstand higher
G forces. But without a human pilot onboard, a missile onl y has
to be fooled once before it goes ballistic.
Put geometry to work for you. Just as small guys can use
leverage to defeat an attacker who happens to be bigger, a pilot
can use a missile's faster speed against it. Although missiles are
extremely fast, they sometimes tum like a truck, especially the
larger SAMs. Even so, because the closure rate is so high, you may
onl y have time to perform one maneuver. If you are not successful,
chances are you will not have time to perform another.
The best way to defeat an in-coming missile's tracking solution
is to keep it at a 90 degree angle to your direction of fiight. When
a radar-guided missile is in-bound you are able to follow its
progress on your TEWS display. Watch the small squares
(indicating radar-guided missiles) and tum so that they close on
you down your 3/9 axis. Only the last 5 nm of a missile's fiight are
important to you in terms of evasion. This is when you should
begin your evasive maneuvering and combine it with active ECM.
II
T
\
~
Figure 5-7: These diagrams show how playing the angles con defeat the
tracking solution of on in-coming missile.
g+--
- - - I . ~ 3
Figure 5-8.' The 3/9 axis
Electronic counter-measures
Like air-to-air missiles, electronic counter-measures (ECM)
come in two basic t ypes, those designed to fool radar-guided
missiles (chaff) and those used against heat-seekers (flares). It is
important to identify the type of missile tracking your aircraft so
that you are able to deploy the appropriate counter-measure.
Your supply of electronic counter-measures is limited so use them
sparingly. At the same time though, don't be shot down in an
aircraft with chaff and flares still onboard. It is never a good idea to
trust ECM entirely. It is always better to be maneuvering while
dumping chaff and flares out the back.
Chaff is stored within dispensers located inside your F-14. It is
used to defend your aircraft against radar-guided missiles. A cloud
of radar reflecting metal strips is released each time you deploy
chaff The strips of metal serve to confuse the enemy's radar retum
by cluttering it with hundreds of false images.
The classic technique for deploying chaff is to release a bundle as
soon as your RWR alarms. To release a bundle of chaff, press the
Release Chaff @) Key. Wfth luck, the chaff has a chance of breaking
the contact. If the missile continues to guide, wait to deploy additional
chaff until the missile is within three to five kilometers.
Even if you deploy chaff be sure to alter your flight path. Missiles
are ballistic and will continue to track along its last heading. If you
remain on your original course, the missile may re-acquire your
aircraft once it passes through the chaff
12
Flores
For defense against IR homing (heat-seeking) missiles, the F-14
is equipped with heat producing devices, commonly known as
Flores. Flares are used to decoy heat-seeking missiles away from
your aircraft. Like chaff, your aircraft carries only a finite supply of
these flares. To release a flare, press the Release Flare ~ Key.
A Flare bums for only a short time (5-10 seconds). During this
time, the IR missile hopefull y is lured away from your aircraft. Once
the Flare bums out, however, the missi le is free to re-acquire a
new target. It may re-acquire your aircraft if you have not
maneuvered out of its vi ew.
Heat-seeking missiles are hard to deal with because they do
not appear on the TEWS display. You do receive an audio
warning, however. Since the range of most "heaters" is li mited,
begin kicking out flares as soon as you receive the warning.
Chances are very good that the launching aircraft is already within
the 5 nm envelope.
Figure 5-9: An F- 16 being pursued by a heat-seeking missile, probably an AA-2
Atoll, kicks a rare out the back and begins maneuvering.
GUNS ... GUNS ... GUNS!
At the beginning of the Vietnam era, certain USAF fighters namely the FA Phantom II went to war without a cannon or gun. Believing
that the missile age heralded a new era in air combat theorists considered a gun unnecessary. To destroy an opponent a pilot needed only
to detect a target on his radar, select one of a number of missile options and push a button. The target woul d be destroyed moments later.
Air combat was intended to be very clean, very scientific now that pilots could carry AAMs. Missile proponents were quick to point out that
guns were useless except at very close range and that the speed of modem aircraft made close engagements unlikely. Furthermore, enemy
aircraft were to be kept at missile range and destroyed beyond visual range (BVR). Pilots were told not to expect the type of twisting and tuming
"fur-ball" engagements which were a common occurrence during Korea.
Well- history proved the theorists wrong. During the Vietnam war, MiGs proved to be very effective because our AAM technology
wasn't yet good enough to insure a high first-round kill percentage. Navy pilots unlucky enough to be driving certain model Phantoms went
to Vietnam without a gun and got creamed. Consequently, a gun was hurriedly redesigned back into the FA and since Vietnam, no front-
line U.s. fighter aircraft has been designed without a gun.
THE M61 A I 20 MM VULCAN GUN
The F-14B is equipped with a single General Electric M61 A I 20 mm (0.8 inch) Vulcan gun mounted under the cockpit and offset slightly
to the left. The M61 A I is a six barrel, Gatling-type gun able to fire up to six thousand rounds per minute or about 100 shells per second. At
this rate, the F-14 will expend all its ammunition in less than seven seconds (675 rounds). Keep in mind that although these statistics seem
impressive, the M61 A I is essentially 1950's technology.
The M61 A I has an effective range of 0.6 ki lometers (less than half
of a mile) with a maximum range of 3 kilometers (for strafing attacks).
Thi s pitifully short effective range is actually a benefrt The M61 A I gun
can operate well within the Rmin range of most missiles.
Two factors which influence the relative effectiveness of an
aircraft's gun are its rate of fire and the size of the round being
fired. Usually these two factors are at odds with one another.
Larger caliber shells (i.e. those with more mass and kinetic energy)
have lower rates of fire. Guns which fire smaller bullets can get
them out of the barrel faster.
Most Soviet-made aircraft you encounter are packing either a
23 mm or 30 mm gun. French-made 30 mm DEFA guns are found
on Libya's F-I s. Let' s make some cursory comparisons between
these weapons and the 20 mm gun your F-14 is carrying.
13
The 20 mm M61 A I has a higher rate of fire than those carried
by your opponents. The shells leave the gun quicker and travel at a
higher velocity. Therefore, more of your shells will impact the
target area and have a tighter dispersion (shot grouping). Many
bullets will be striking in rapid succession, making the chances of
scoring a hit greater than those of a larger caliber gun. However,
these rounds are relatively small and often lack the individual kinetic
punch necessary to inflict crippling damage.
The opposition's big 23 mm and 30 mm guns have no such
problem. These larger caliber guns pack an enormous punch even
though their rounds are traveling much slower. These rounds lack
finesse, they simply batter down an opponent. Their pattem of
dispersion is greater, however. The slower rate of fire allows too
much time to elapse between firing cycles so there will also be
fewer of these rounds hitting the target area.
To summarize the differences, the faster firing but smaller rounds
of the F-14's 20 mm gun have a better chance of hrtting the target
but a lesser chance of causing critical damage. Enemy guns are
completel y opposrte. They have less of a chance of hitting you but
have a greater capacity for causing fatal damage if they do.
One thing FLEET DEFENDER takes into account that has not
been covered in this section, is the structural abi lity of aircraft to
absorb damage. The same materials and construction techniques
that al low an aircraft to sustain multiple G forces also give it an
inherent resistance to battle damage. Unlike hrts from missiles which
cause catastrophic structural failures, damage produced by gunfire
OFFENSIVE GUN COMBAT
results from the sum total of accumulated hrts. An aircraft has a
better chance of remaining airworthy under these condrtions, when
damage is being done to rt piecemeal, rather than all at once.
With this in mind, U.S. aircraft have an advantage over their
Soviet counterparts. Soviet aircraft are mass produced, their quality
is derived from quantity. The philosophy is that their aircraft will fly
three or four missions before being shot down. The Soviets tend
to factor in their eventual loss when considering operations.
Materially, Soviet and western aircraft are similar. Structurally,
however, Soviet aircraft have design limitations which make them
more susceptible to non-catastrophic damage.
The use of gunfire in air combat has not changed since its inception during the early days of World War I. It is still a matter of
maneuvering to get in close to your enemy and then pumping lead into his aircraft unti l it goes down. The trick is to stay out of your
opponent's forward arc so he cannot fire back
The element of surprise is very important in gun combat
situations. Sneaking up on your opponent undetected presents
your best chance of inflicting critical damage before he can escape.
This usually requires you to come in from behind your enemy and
stay in hi s blind spot until you are ready to shoot. This six 0' clock
area directly behind the enemy is known as the "Slot position."
Once you are in the Slot posrtion the enemy pilot cannot see
you, cannot fire at you but at the same time, has to shake you off
his t ail before you can shoot him down. You command the fight
once you reach this position of advantage.
There's another reason for getting directly behind your enemy.
The Slot posrtion also gives you an opportunity to score muh:iple
hits on a target. By directing your gunfire along the target's line of
flight the enemy aircraft remains in the path of your gunfire for a
longer period of time, thus increasing the percentage chances of
scoring a hit. As the following diagram illustrates, more of your
rounds likely to hit the target when fired along the "grain."
14
FIRING FROM "THE SLOT"
DEFLECTION SHOOTING
(ANGLE-OFF FIRING)
~ . ( I i ~ e of ,.;) ~ . .. "::'G-29
~
Figure 5-1 0: The chances of scoring multiple hits on a target are increased by
shooting along its line of ffight Deffection shooting (against the groin) is much
more difficult and produces far fewer hits.
Even though a head-on attack would also be conducted along a
target's line of flight. this type of attack is not recommended. For one
thing, the target is able to shoot back when you approach it head-
on. Head-on attacks also give you much less time to aim because of
the high closure rate.
The next best firing position (a far di stant second) is the
shot (firing from a rear quarter). These shots are far less
likely to score hits because, unlike a tail aspect shot. both the firer
and the target are moving relative to each other. Since the line of
fire in a deflection shot runs against the target's grain, fewer bullets
have a chance to hit. Deflection shooting allows a target to fly
between the bullets like a child running between raindrops.
Deflection shooting, 0150 known as high ongle-off shooting. gives
you less time to line up the shot. Often it is best just to fire a
DEFENSIVE GUN COMBAT
stream of rounds ahead of the enemy. Thi s way you are creating a
wall of shells for him to fl y into. While effective, this technique is
also wasteful and you only have 675 rounds to play with.
On the positive side, gunfire has an almost instantaneous effect
on the target. Rather than having to wait up to half a minute for a
missile to hit, 20 mm shells begin striking your target in miliseconds.
This feature cuts down on a target's abi lity to escape.
For best results, the enemy aircraft should fill your canopy
windshield before you open fire. Unfortunately, because of the
speed and maneuverability of modem ai rcraft, waiti ng this long to
open fire could easily cause you to overshoot. If this happens, be
sure that you have careful ly studied the following sect ion on
defensive gun combat.
Basically, defensive gun combat is a repetition of the tactics used in offensive gun combat- only now the roles are reversed. Instead of
you being concemed with lining up on an enemy, he's lining up on you. The object of defensive gun combat is to make the job of shooting
you down more difficult. Skillful maneuvering is the essence of close-quarter combat, t ry to avoid being shot down whi le seeki ng an
opportunity to tum the tables on your opponent.
There is a simple and fool-proof way to keep from being shot
down by gunfire. All you need to do is stay more than 3 kilometers
away (the maximum gun range) from enemy aircraft. That's all
there is to it, just stay out of range. If you can manage to do this,
you'll never need have to worry about being shot down by a gun.
With all the airspace available to you in each theater, this should be
easy, right?
Okay, maybe not Some enemy aircraft are faster than your F- 14
so staying out of their reach may be difficult. There may be t imes
when you are taken by surprise or forced into a defensive fight
with multiple bandits. Under these circumstances, staying more
than 3 krn away may present a problem. Well, if you can't stay
away from them, you're gonna' have to fight 'em.
If you find yourself on the defensive in a guns engagement you
must constantly look for an opportunity to transition to an
15
offensive stance. Even a temporary neutral position of parity with
your opponent is better than remaining strictly defensive
throughout a fight. The longer you remai n defensive the greater
chance you have of maki ng that one fatal mistake.
Having an enemy tucked neatly in your "six" is not a good way
to start a dogfight. Depending upon your opponent's level of
expertise, it may take you awhile to tum the tables on him. In the
meantime, if you can't shake him, at least force him into taking
difficult shots with low hit percentages. Never fl y straight and level
for more than a couple seconds. Those few seconds may be all an
enemy pilot requires to saddle up to you and get in a burst of fire
along your line of flight. Play the angles and altemate your speed to
throw off his attempts to target your aircraft.
AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING
Modem air combat is a fast paced, vi olent. and confusing affair. A sky filled with dogfighting aircraft one minute can be vacant in the
next. A player in the middle of a such a fight might think that an air battle goes on essentiall y without rhyme or reason. Nothing could be
further from the tnuth. This section is designed to help the novice fighter pilot better understand what is going on around him because in
FLEET DEFENDER, unlike other fl ight sims, there's a lot going on.
The art of Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) is very much a technical skill. It is not unlike the thoughtful positioning of pieces on a Chess
board. Brains beat brawn in ACM. Finesse and style are essential. The following section is a quick look at some fundamental rules of air
combat maneuvering. It describes standard fighter tactics that all players can use to defeat the Soviet and Soviet-trained opponents you'll
meet during the course of a nonrnal campaign. It is offered as a brief overview and quick look into the world of modem air combat.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Energy Management is the art of balancing the four dynamic forces which act on all aircraft during flight; Uft, Drag, Thrust and Gravity
(weight). When a pilot manages energy he is merely attending to that balance. Just as personnel managers like to get the most from their
people, energy managers want to get the most from their available energy. They do this by manipulating the manner in which the principle
forces of flight act upon their aircraft. Good pilots are by necessity, good managers.
The principle of energy management is being able to maximize
the benefits derived from the Big Four. Used properly, the Big Four
can give you distinct advantages in combat. ignoring them only
leads to trouble. Not only do you need to remain aware of your
own aircraft's energy status, it is always a good idea to pay
attention to what the other guy is doing with his aircraft. If your
opponent has run his aircraft out of energy, you need to be in a
position to capital ize on his mistake.
Your Energy State
Simply put, your aircraft's energy state is the sum total of its
positional plus its kinetic energy.
Positional energy can be defined as the weight of the aircraft
multiplied by its current altitude. In a contest between two aircraft
of equal weight and speed, the one flying at the greater altitude is
said to have more positional energy. It is sometimes called Potential
energy because it represents energy that is potentially available any
time a pilot wi shes to make use of it.
16
Altitude, in this respect, is a measure of the energy which an
aircraft has on-call. The higher an aircraft travels the more potential
energy it will have to call on in the future. Aircraft flying at lower
altitudes have less positional energy because they cannot convert
as much 'altitude into energy. To make up for this deficiency, an
aircraft must increase its speed to replace Positional energy with
kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy deals with the energy derived from speed (i.e.
motion). An aircraft which is traveling at a high rate of speed has a
wealth of energy. Thi s energy can be spent perfonrning maneuvers
or used to gain altitude. The former option, performing maneuvers,
bleeds off the energy by increasing the load factor of the aircraft,
the latter method, gaining altitude, is a good way of trading kinetic
energy for positional energy.
As you can see, a pilot who is caught flying both low and slow
is a poor energy manager. If he should encounter trouble his only
option is to open up the throttle. Gaining energy in this manner
takes both time and fuel. The secret of good energy management
is not to get caught in this predicament in the first place. Unless a
pilot is escorting a group of slow-movers (like ASW helicopters), a
F- 14 should never fly at slow speeds down on the deck. (Of
course, when you're trying to avoid radar detection, low and slow
is your best bet. Just don't get caught flying low and slow when
enemy aircraft are about).
The Bonk
Energy to an aircraft is li ke havi ng money in the bank Although
gliders are able to fl y quite well without engines, no aircraft, not
even a glider can fly without energy. When fl ying, energy is
accumulated, saved up and then spent throughout the entire flight.
This process is repeated over and over again until the aircraft
lands. The secret of flight is knowing when to deposit and when to
withdraw.
Flight makes constant demands on your aircraft's bank account.
Energy is spent whenever you pull back on the stick, whether it be
climbing for altitude or making a high G tum. Unlike the federal
govemment , your aircraft will not let you continue spending once
your bank account is gone; flight doesn't allow for deficit spending.
A good pilot will t ry to minimize maneuvers which drain his bank
account but there are times when this is impossible. Once your
savings are used up, the ai rcraft wi ll stop fl ying (stall). At this point,
you wi ll have to make a quick deposit of fresh energy or go down.
Creating new energy to maintain flight is known as ''going to the
bonk." Usually, energy is created by simply pushing the throttles
forward (adding power) or by trading in altitude. Either way, pilots
usually try to minimize the number of trips to the bank they're
forced to make.
17
One sure way to win a dogfight is to catch your opponent
"going to the bank". Why? Because going to the bank is an
indication that your opponent does not have the energy necessary
to perform a desired action. In this condition, his ability to
maneuver wi ll be limited and his ability to climb will be nil. If you
can prevent your opponent from renewing hi s energy, he's as good
as gone, and you win the fight with style.
The Energy "Egg"
It used to be that the term performance envelope was a fairly
esoteric concept Today, it has become common practice to use the
term to describe everything from automobiles to tenni s shoes.
Hardly anyone is left scratching their head w hen the phrase is used in
day to day speech. When describing aircraft, the term performance
envelope simply refers to a set of specific flight characteristics and
parameters. How high can a particular aircraft fly, how far, how fast,
and under what conditions?
One thing to remember when considering a particular aircraft's
overall performance is that it varies widely according to the fl ying
environment Even though air is invisi ble (at least it used to be before the
industnal age) it is thick stuff While it appears that air is nothing more
than empty space, an aircraft must wade through the atmosphere
like a fish must swi m through water. Air is not homogenous. It
actually acts more like soup. Just as soup is thicker at the bottom of
the bowl; so too, is air thicker the nearer it gets to the surface of
the earth. For this reason, an aircraft's performance envelope takes
on a peculiar egg shape. Thi s is known as the energy egg.
In the horizontal plane, an aircraft will fl y a perfect circle if it
maintains a constant G force and speed. Think of the flight path as
the waist of the energy egg. When the same aircraft tries to fl y a
perfect circle in the vertical pl ane, it is distorted by gravity into an egg
shape. At the top of the egg, an aircraft will be nearing the end of its
energy. It will be traveling slowly and have a very tight tum radius.
Near the bottom of the egg, the aircraft will have picked up speed
during its descent and have a much longer and fl atter arc.
The shell of this egg is the area of maximum flight performance
and fuel efficiency. Aircraft chasing around the outer edge of the
egg are wasting energy by performing maneuvers which can be
accomplished more efficiently at a lower power setting, Those
aircraft flying without enough energy are said to be flying "inside the
egg." Such aircraft will be unable to perform critical maneuvers
when necessary,
"Corner" Velocity
There's a point in every fight where the adage "Speed is life" is
counter-productive and can get you into trouble, Some pilots think
that the faster they go, the better dogfighters they become, These
guys try to buy their victories at the cost of some jet fuel. This
brute strength approach to air combat misses the finer point to
SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
ACM, Pilots cannot shove the throttles all the way forward and
expect to maneuver crisply, Speed is a fine thing to have when
making slashing attacks, but when the enemy knows you're coming,
it's also nice to be able to swing the nose of your aircraft around at
a decent rate,
This balance of speed and maneuverability is known as an
aircraft's "comer velocity," It is the speed at which an aircraft makes
its quickest, tightest tums, A good energy manager will avoid the
temptation to peg his throttle open, Instead of powering through a
fight he will use the energy egg to give him a superior tuming ability
(rate of tum) and tight tuming radius as well. A pilot that blows
through a dogfight at 600 knots is just being a high speed
cheerleader, He is fl yi ng way outside the energy egg and he'll be
lucky if he gets close enough to wave as he goes by,
Although the phrase situational awareness has only recently become fashionable, the concept of SA has been around since the birth of air
combat Situational awareness is the ability of a pilot to mentally process the entirety of what is going on around him. It means knowing where your
wing-man is at all t imes and what he may be doing. It means keeping an eye on your "six" while going after the MiG in front of you,
One thing that separates veteran pilots from novices is SA
New pilots fall into the trap of focusing in on only their little part of
a battle, For example, a novice pilot might bear in for an easy kill
on one aircraft only to be taken out by another that he didn't see,
Like a detective arriving at a crime scene, a pilot must be able to
observe the whole setting while concentrating on just what is
important to solving the case,
A pilot with a good situational awareness can mentally place
himself in his wing-man's cockpit, A pilot with really good
situational awareness will place himself in the enemy's cockpit as
well. A significant part of SA is knowing what the other guy is
getting ready to do, Two-seat aircraft, like the F-14, have the
advantage of a second pair of eyes when it comes to SA In retum
for the free ride, a RIO must be able to spot enemy aircraft that
the pilot may have missed.
18
In FLEET DEFENDER, the best way to improve your situational
awareness is by being familiar with enemy formations, Know what
to look for so you can recognize it when you see it on radar,
Practice, practice, practice! There is an entire training theater
included in this simulation, It is here to help you, Use it
The AWG-9 radar gives you a distnct range advantage over your
opponents, The Iranians used their F-14s as mini-A WACS early on in their
war with Iraq, Again, use this range advantage to determine what is
going on around you, Don't become fixated on a single target
The next best way to enhance your situational awareness is by
simply looking out the window from time to time, (You know, just like
they did in the old days.) FLEET DEFENDER gives you a number of
different view perspectives, Use them all. Sometimes peering out the
side of the cockpit can payoff in big dividends, You might just spot a
bandit sneaking up on you that didn't show up on radar,
COMBAT TACTICS
PURSUIT ANGLES
The ultimate objective in every air engagement is to reach a position of advantage from which you can shoot at the enemy without him
shooting back. This usually means getting behind an enemy and pursuing him long enough to shoot your guns or launch a missile.
Maintaining the proper pursuit angle whi le you close in for the kil l is tricky business. Getting behind your enemy (i.e. getting in his "six") is
only the beginning, now you have to stay there. At the same time, your opponent wi ll be doing everything within his power to get away.
His wild maneuvering and abrupt speed changes are designed to throw you.
Choose a pursuit angle that allows you to close on an
enemy regardless of his maneuvers. Two things to consider
when deciding on a pursuit option are the relative disparity of
energy between the two aircraft and the engagement envelope
of your air-to-air weapons.
Judging the target aircraft's energy level will be difficult when
initially entering the engagement. Be careful. The worse thing you
can do is jump into a fight with a high level of energy, assume a
lead pursuit, and then proceed to overshoot the target.
Begin every pursuit involving closure in a pure pursuit profile.
Keep your nose pointed directly at the target until you get a feel
for the target's energy state. Once a stable closure rate has been
established, you can increase the rate of closure by pulling into the
target or fall back into a lag pursuit at your lei sure. Remember, it's
easier to loosen the screws than tighten so don't use up all your
energy assuming a pursuit profile you can't maintain.
19
The weapons you carry also have a great deal to do with
pursuit situations. For example, if you are out of AAMs and
equipped only with guns, you must position your gunsight ahead of
your target. Thi s means that you wi ll want to assume a lead pursuit
profile. A pilot equipped with rear-aspect missiles only will generally
prefer a log pursuit. His object is to reach a position within the six
0' clock arc of his t arget. This is the classic ACM "kill" position.
(Fortunately, you do not corry such limited weapons. Toil-chose heat-
seekers are only found on older model fighters belonging to Third
World notions.)
Ah:hough a pilot can best bring his weapons within constraints
from behind his opponent, all-aspect missiles give pilots greater
latitude in determining pursuit options. Pure, even lag pursuits can
be used effectively.
Lead Pursuit
A Lead Pursuit situation is one in which the pursuing aircraft
keeps its nose pointed ahead of the target throughout the tum.
Lead pursuits provide the pursuing pilot with the fastest means of
affecting closure. This is a dangerous chase position because the
pursuer is not always able to see his target. In tight tums, the line-
of-sight (LOS) to the target wi ll be blocked by the pursuer's own
aircraft. If the pursuer is not careful , this could lead to the target
being able to reverse on him.
In order for a pilot to maintain a lead pursuit situation he will
have to continually increase his turn rate. At the same time,
narrowing spatial distances (closure) will cause the pilot to fl y an
ever decreasing tum radius. Bear in mind that the G forces in this
situation are greater on the pursuer than the pursued. As the two
aircraft come together, the gap in G forces experienced by the
pilots can be significant. There's no point in getting right up on the
enemy if you're going to be asleep when you get there.
Pure Pursuit
A Pure Pursuit situation is one in whi ch the pursuing aircraft
keeps its nose pointed directly at the target throughout the tum. If
you can keep aimed at the target as he tums you must be doing
something right. You won't be able to affect a guns kill from a Pure
pursuit but you will be able to boresight a missile.
These pursuit situations generall y occur during transition
periods between Lead and Log pursuit profiles. A defender who
sees an attacking aircraft in Pure pursuit wi ll undoubtedly be spurred
to begin out of plane maneuvers like climbing, diving, jinking, or
making slicing tums.
Let him. All that maneuvering will begin to eat up his store of
energy. Meanwhile, you can continue to close in. Your rate of
closure won't be as fast as a Lead pursuit so use this extra time to
position yourself wel l. Your RIO will appreciate the few additional
moments to play with the radar.
20
Figure 5-/ /: Lead, Pure, and Lag pursuit curves
Lag Pursuit
A Log Pursuit situation is one in which the pursuing aircraft
keeps its nose pointed behind the target throughout the tum. This
t ype of pursuit is the easiest of the three for the pursuer. The
chase aircraft can alter (and even stop) the rate of closure by
making minor adjustments in nose-angle. It can be used to slide
into a Pure or even Lead pursuit profile as the range decreases. Thi s
type of pursuit is also used to prevent a possible overshoot if the
pursuing aircraft is traveling faster than its prey. Should the situation
warrant it, the Log pursuit also affords you the best chance to
disengage from the fight.
BASIC FIGHTER MANEUVERS (BFM)
Although the F-14 was intended merely as a platform for launching missiles, its swept wing design gives it a dual mission capability. Not
only does it launch missiles, but it is able to hold its own in a dogfight.
This section on Basic Fighter Maneuvers outlines some simple tricks to use against the enemy. You should also be on the look-out for
when the enemy decides to use these tricks on you.
Break Turn
A Break tum is merely an abrupt change of direction made in
response to an opponent's attack It is usually made in the direction
of the enemy aircraft to spoil his firing solution. If conducted
properly, the Break tum forces the enemy to take a high "angle-off'
gun shot. Even if your opponent is able to stay on your tail, his
aiming perspective makes you a difficult target. This maneuver is
also used to get inside the tuming arc of approaching missiles.
A Break tum is made with wings inclined at 90 degrees. It is a
high G maneuver which, if sustained, leads to a rapid loss of
airspeed. This may cause your opponent to overshoot, so be
prepared to take advantage of his mistake. In a sustained tum, your
wings will sweep forward if too much energy bleeds off. Use this as
an indication it's time to relax the stick
If you are "bounced", Break tums give you time to recover from
your initial surprise and start your own maneuvering. You cannot win
air combat by remaining in a defensive posture. Use the Break tum to
begin your offensive stradegy.
Figure 5- I 2: The Break or "Bot" tum. T ums like these expose the pilot to
extreme G forces.
21
Early Turn
F-1 4 is
turning
toward
MiG's tall
F-14 ,
#1
#4
~ 4 # 3 ~ t # 2
~ ~
II
#3
#2 Jt.
F-14
begins
early
turn
Figure 5- I 3: The Early (or Lead) tum. This is a tricky maneuver. It tokes a
delicate sense of timing to perform properly.
If the closure battle for position has resulted in a stalemate, your
opponent may decide to barrel straight in to bring about an
engagement. The early tum maneuver is used to counter this head
to head confrontation. As shown in the diagram, it is a transitional
maneuver used to get behind your opponent from a head-on
aspect. The trick to performing the earl y tum is to anticipate your
opponent's future position in relation to your own.
Inexperienced opponents usually fail to react to this
maneuver in a timely fashion. They are soon caught in a tuming
battle they can't win. The Earl y (or Lead) Tum depicted above is
actually the prelude to a "One Circle Fight." The winner of this
battle wil l be the first pilot able to bring the nose of his aircraft
to bear on the enemy.
Scissors
A Scissors maneuver is actually a series of tums and counter-
tums in which the opposing aircraft are each attempting to get
behind the other. Thi s naturally causes both pilots to fl y as slow as
they dare in order to tighten their tums. Whichever pilot forces
the other to take the lead in this type of battle comes out the
winner. Speed brakes and flaps help to slow you down, but as your
airspeed continues to drop the hard tuming will eventually lead to
a stall situation. Before that happens, disengage from the scissors
and reposition yourself
Disengaging from a scissors battle takes careful timing. Wait
unti l you are pointing away from your opponent in an outward
tum, roll inverted and di ve away to increase the separation
distance. Your opponent's airspeed wil l be low as well, giving
you time to escape.
22
#5
F-1 4 in firing pOSition
#7
-

/ t
---'If;- MiG sees enemy behind,
#6 turns toward him
F-14 ignores difficult
(
passing shot and
)
reverses again
F-14 sees MiG reacting,
reverses again to
#4 / #4 close scissors
F-14 reverses,
opening scissors
\
.4#3

'\. \\ F-14 turns toward enemy,
#2 him into a turn
\\
#1 A MiG behind F-14
but moving faster
Figure 5-14: Despite its size, the F- 14 has proven itself to be a master at the
scissors fight
Split-S
The Split-S is a reversal maneuver combining a half-roll and dive
to increase speed. It is a quick way of changing your direction 18oo
and is usually begun from level flight or slight climb. To perform a
Split-S, simply roll inverted. Once inverted, pull sharply back on the
stick to enter a dive. This maneuver causes you to lose considerable
altitude, so make sure you have at least 5,000 ft. to play with.
As you enter the dive, reduce your airspeed in order to keep
from losing too much altitude. The nose down attitude will
provide you with more than enough energy. Continue to pull back
on the stick until you are once again level with the horizon then
shove the throttles forward. You are now heading I 80from your
original heading with a reservoir of stored energy.
After years of watching old war-movies depicting WVV I air
combat, most of us continue to think of the Split-S as a defensive
maneuver. Actuall y, if you have an enemy fighter on your tail, going
into a Split-S is tantamount to suicide. If the bandit happens to be
low on energy and having trouble maintaining a pursuit, following
you through a Split-S solves that problem.
Smart pilots recognize that a Split-S is really an offensive
maneuver. It is used to transition into an attack profile, converting
altitude into energy for a low slashing attack.
Half roll
====}>
Figure 5- 1 5 The Split S.
23
Immelmonn Tum
The Immelmann turn is named after its inventor, Max
Immelmann, a German World War I ace. It is the exact inverse
of the Split-S. The Immelmann is a climbing half-loop used to get
on the tail of an enemy coming head-on. Speed is the critical
factor in performing an Immel mann tum. Check your air speed
to insure that you have enough to perform this maneuver
without stalling.
An Immel mann is best performed when begun from level
flight or a slight nose-down attitude. Simply pull back on the
stick, applying pressure until you reach the vertical plane. As
your ai r speed continues to drop off, you must judge for yourself
when to complete the pull-over. Once in level flight, a simple
half-roll returns you to a normal flight profile heading in any
direction you choose.
Like a Split-S, the Immelmann is also a conversion maneuver
used to transition into an attack. Don't ever use an Immelmann to
shake an opponent on your tail. In this instance, an Immelmann just
gives your opponent an early Christmas gift. Even a Yak, not
normally noted for its dogfighting prowess, can take advantage of a
Tomcat dumb enough to pull an Immelmann in front of it.
Figure 5-1 6: The Immelmonn Tum.
Loop
By now, you undoubtedly will have noticed that a Loop is
nothing more than combining a Split-S with an Immelmann, or vice
versa. Either half of the maneuver can be performed first
depending on the circumstances. Loops are performed to avoid an
enemy in your six 0' clock while trying to aim your guns at his tail
at the same time.
If you are traveling fast and wish to slow down, pull into an
Immelmann. Continue to apply constant back pressure while
reducing your throttle. Once the nose comes over the top, your
speed increases as you come down the back side of the Split-S.
Add or subtract power as needed.
If you do not have enough energy to perform an Immel mann
immediately start your Loop with a Split-S. Determine how
much altitude you wish to lose and adjust your throttle
accordingly. This provides you with additional energy for when
you pull into your climb. Note that you end up fl ying inverted
along your original heading.
24
Figure 5-1 7: Although popular at air shows, the missile has rendered the Loop
obsolete as a defensive maneuver.
ADVANCED FIGHTER TACTICS (AFT)
One Circle fights
A One Circle fight occurs when you and a single enemy
aircraft meet head-on at the merge, pass each other, then break to
the same direction. When this happens the dogfight becomes a
series of nose-to-nose engagements resulting in ever shrinking
concentric circles. Each of you will be attempting to convert thi s
head-on aspect into a tail chase position of advantage. Energy
management is critical in this type of fight because you're trading
energy for nose angle with each subsequent pass. One Circle fi ghts
easily stagnate into a fiat scissors reversals. Once there, the pilot
abl e to make the sharpest, tightest tum wi ll drop behind the other.
Less maneuverable aircraft woul d do wel l to avoid this type of
fight. One Circle fights are usually stationary. The merry-go-round
effect locks the two ai rcraft in one piece of sky. This makes it easy
for additional aircraft to find the dogfight.
25
f Mig-29
Mig-29 f
\ ~ F-14 , F-14
\ ~ Mig-29
~
AF-14
AF-1 4
Figure 5-18: The object of Q One Circle fight is to force the enemy to overshoot
It's Q race to see who con be the first to go slowest
Two Circle fights
The altemative to a One Circle fight is- you guessed it -0 Two
Circle fight A Two circle fight occurs when you and a single enemy
aircraft meet head-on at the merge, pass each other, then break in
opposite directions. The paths your aircraft take resembles a figure
eight (or two adjacent circles) when viewed from above. Again, the
object of a Two Circle fight is to convert a head-on approach
aspect into a tail chase situation. Initiall y, both you and your
opponent go to your respective comers. At this point it is easy for
one or both aircraft to disengage. Should you chose not to
disengage, it becomes a matter of getting the nose of your aircraft
around in time to point at the enemy first.
Speeds are generally kept higher than those in a One Circle
fight because the physical area of a Two Circle fight is greater. Both
you and your opponent are trying to speed around the circle and
wind up in the other guy's "six." Aircraft equipped with all-aspect
missiles will have an advantage. If you can get the nose of your
aircraft around, you can shoot a missile from across the figure eight.
Two Circle fights are far more difficult to manage. Most of the
time the aircraft involved will be pointed away from each other so
get used to looking over your shoulder or keep the enemy in sight
by using Padlock View m Key.
26
6
F
-
14
6
F
-
14
Figure 5-19: The Two Circle fight is a race to see who can be the first to tum
and fire.
Envelopment
An envelopment (also known as a Pincer ottock) is normally used
by a flight of enemy aircraft traveling in a Wall formation. It is actually
the preferred method of attack because the aircraft will already be
spread out in a linear fashion. The flight leader can immediately
execute this attack without having to bother wi th pre-attack
positioning. His aircraft will already be at their jump-off points.
MiG-29s
!
I


F-14s
MiG-29 s
Figure 5-20A: Here a four-ship of enemy aircraft split into two pairs for the
attack. No matter which way the target tums, at least one of the four attackers
is guaranteed a position of advantage.
27
The envelopment attack only works when the enemy has the
benefrt of surprise. If they are able to approach undetected, they
will break off into two pairs and attempt to overload a target by
attacking from many directions at once. The inner aircraft of the
formation wi ll pass by then reverse on the target's "six". The ourter
aircraft first separate from the fight then reverse to engage the
target from the flanks.
If, on the other hand, the four-ship is detected while still in
its Wall formation, its first response wi ll be defensive. As you can
see by the following diagram, each aircraft separates into a
different profile. Such a maneuver might well be termed a shot-
gun approach.
The MiG positioned second from the right has just detected
an enemy radar lock, it begins a post-hole spiral downward. The
flight leader calls for a "break" which causes the other aircraft in
the formation to separate. Some will go high, others wi ll go low.
The idea is to sucker an attacker into remaining fixated on the
spiraling target he has locked. The target itself hopes to draw the
attacker in while the other aircraft in the formation surround it.
II
--- !J
----
Figure 5-20B: The shot-gun approach sends each of the four aircraft off on its
own. Communication will be the key to reuniting this force.
The Champagne
2
MiG-29 s
F-14 s
3
MiG-29 s
~
I
v V
~ ~
~ G - 2 9
~
11
F-14 s
MiG-29 s
M i G - 2 ~
~
28
The Champagne is a tactical maneuver performed by an
enemy four-ship in Box fonmation. As depicted in the series of
diagrams, the Champagne is a double envelopment. The two
trailing aircraft swing outward in an attempt to sandwich your
two-ship. The leading aircraft maintain their heading but slow
down to give you time to enter the trap. If viewed from above
this maneuver takes on the appearance of a champagne glass,
hence the name, Champagne.
4
, ,
~ :J {\
f
'-
Figure 5-21.' The Champagne features a two-pronged attock One pair of
enemy fighters continues down the middle while another two attempt to
catch you in a pincers.
The Storburst
The Starburst is a tactical maneuver perfonmed by an enemy four-ship in Ladder fonmation. As soon as one of the aircraft detects your
radar attempting to "lock-on" it will begin a post-hole spiral downward. The other aircraft in the fonmation break in various directions as
depicted in the diagram. They will attempt to sneak up on you while your attention is focused on the post-haler.
MiG-29s
in Ladder
Formation
MiG-29s
Begin Starburst
Maneuver
u
Post-Hole
Spiral
Break High

t1

F-14 s
Figure 5-22: The Storburst is aptly named. Even on radar, it is a fascinating maneuver to watch unfold.
29
The Wheel Formation
The Wheel is a self-defense maneuver used by a formation
when attacked by superior numbers of fighters. This maneuver,
also known as a Lufberry, calls for the defending formation to
begin fiying in a tight circle. Pilots take up a nose-to-tail position
with the aircraft in front so that each member of the formation
has his "six" position covered by the pilot behind. This tactic
was often used in WW II and Korea. These "guns-only"
envi ronments required that an attacker actually fall in line
behind a member of the formation in order to attack. As soon
as an attacker lined up to fire he also would be engaged from
behind. The Wheel made it suicidal for an attacker to engage a
member of the formation.
Now that most fighters are equipped with medium to long-
range all-aspect AAMs the Wheel formation is far less effective.
An attacker is not required to enter the formation in order to fire
a missile. It can remain well clear of the circle and still attack.
Another drawback to the Wheel is that it roots the formation
to one point in space and makes it easy to spot. Even so, the
Wheel is still used by Thi rd World nations because it gives the
fiight leader some measure of control over his aircraft.
30
((

----, '
) )
'-
'.
"
'.
"
'.
Figure 5-23: The Wheel is a classic defensive formation. Each pilot is
responsible for protecting the aircraft in front of him. As you can see (rom the
arrows, no aircraft con be attacked (rom outside the Wheel without expOSing
the attacker's "six".
NORTH CAPE THEATER
THEATER BACKGROUND
In the two great world wars of this century, the German army overran millions of square miles of European territory. Yet, in the end
Germany found itself being gradually worn down and defeated by fresh men and material shipped across the Atlantic from the United
States. Unable to prevent war supplies from reaching Europe by sea, Germany could merely watch as her enemies gathered strength.
Control of the Atlantic all owed the nations allied against Germany to draw upon their colonial empires.
In both WVV I and WVV II, control of the Atlantic gave the
United States time to build up its forces then conduct an invasion of
Europe at a time and place of its choosing. During the I 980s, this
strategy was continually dnummed into Soviet naval officers. Their
Northern and Baltic Sea fieets would be expected to sever the sea
lanes connecting western Europe with the United States. It was no
secret that NATO exercises periodically tested the ability to move
troops and supplies from the U.s. to Europe in case of war.
31
These maneuvers were known in military parlance as
REFORGER (Return Forces to Germany) exercises. In case of a
Soviet attack. REFORGER troops would move by air and then marry
up with pre-positioned stocks of equipment. Preventing these forces
from reaching western Europe would be the Red Air Force's worry.
Airlifts alone would be unable to move enough of the
supplies needed to sustain combat operations, however. Heavy
equipment, POL (petroleum, oil and lubricants) and the majority
of combat vehicles would have to be moved by sea. This is
where the Soviet navy was expected to step in. Preventing
NATO convoys from ever reaching Europe was paramount. If
the Red Banner Northern fleet could stop NATO from
receiving sea-bome reinforcements, Soviet ground forces would
sweep across Genmany in weeks, perhaps days.
To this end, the Soviets starting holding exercises of their own.
Large scale naval maneuvers showed that they were indeed
capable of operating in the North Atlantic. It drove home the
message that NATO's hold on the Atlantic was tenuous at best.
The new Soviet Navy demonstrated just how easily it could disrupt
the Atlantic. Tens of surface ships and submarines surged out from
the(r home ports during these exercises. Lavish amounts of naval
air support including everything from reconnaissance platforms to
tactical coordinators and strike aircraft also took part.
Impressive as these exercises were to NATO officials, the key
to their success lay in whether or not NATO's carrier battlegroups
could be located and destroyed. NATO's abi lity to dominate the
sky over the Atlantic would ultimately prevent the Soviets from
conducting serious anti-shipping campaigns south of the GIUK
(Greenland-Iceland-United Kingdom) gap. Even north of this line,
an extended Soviet campaign in the face of NATO air power
would prove very costly indeed. Eliminate the carriers, however,
and the situation changes dramatically in favor of Moscow.
Removing carrier-based air power from the region almost
guarantees Soviet air supremacy.
32
Establishing air superiority would actually be just the first phase
of a more grandiose plan. The next phase would have long-ranged
Soviet bombers operating far out into the Atlantic. From thei r
bases on the Kola peninsula these aircraft would pose a serious
threat to NATO convoys. One way to further compound the
danger to NATO would be to move the bases closer to the
action. Unfortunately for the Soviet Union, the Kola peninsula is a
long way from the Atlantic shipping routes. The only way to get
bases closer to the action would be to use captured ports and
airfields in Scandinavia, particularly Norway.
,
..
North Cope Theater Mop
Situated on the left flank of the European theater of
operations, Norway is somewhat isolated. Its proxi mity to the
Soviet Union leaves it exposed and vulnerable to an overland
attack. The Soviets could conceivably conquer Norway just as
Germany did in 1940 if they coupled their land invasion with a
strong air/sea campaign. Sovi et bombers would then be in a
position to challenge NATO convoys in the mid-Atlantic by staging
sorties from captured Norwegian airbases.
The time is the mid- 1980's and World War III has broken out
Political pressure on the top Soviet leadership has been mounting in
recent months. The sluggish nature of the Sovi et economy fai led to
live up to the rosy expectations of the latest Five-Year plan drawn up
in Moscow. In the Ukraine, another poor harvest has added to the
rising discontent. Feeling the heat, party bosses within the Kremlin
have ordered the state security apparatus to go into operation but
even this has failed to stem the increasing tide of open dissent
Only one thing has historical ly united the Soviet people and
guaranteed their blind obedience- the threat of foreign invasion.
The Soviet Central Committee has decided to stage a national
crisis believing that the people will rally behind it. Accordingly,
those in power have engineered the conflict and blamed the west
for jeopardizing the security of Soviet citizens. The political in-
fighting and diplomatic intrigue behind this conflict are beyond the
scope of this simulation but suffice it to say that the purveyors of
power in Moscow are wi lling to risk starti ng World War III in order
to preserve their station in Soviet society.
NEUTRAL FORCES
Figure 6-1: MiG-29s "Fulcrums" heading toward Norway in a tight Cruise
(ormation.
The three North Cape scenarios in depict a powerful Soviet
campaign to capture Norwegian ports and airfields. The overall
objective of the assault is to secure operating bases on NATO's
weak northem flank If all goes well, these bases wi ll cut down on
wasteful transit time and al low Soviet ships and aircraft to roam far
out into the Atlantic. Eventuall y Norway may be used as a
springboard for an all-out attack on Iceland. If this happens, westem
Europe might be cut off completely from the United States.
Your squadron is one of the two F-14 equipped squadrons
assigned to the canrier in these scenarios. You are tasked with
assisting friendly ground troops in Norway. The carrier group
must still be defended at all times, however. Note that the three
scenarios can be played separately or linked toget her into one
gigantic campaign lasting for weeks.
The United States, United Kingdom, and Norway are the principle nations at war with the Soviet Union in this theater. Two additional
Scandinavian countries, Fi nland and Sweden, are neutral to the conflict. Unfortunately, these nations may not preserve their neutrality for long.
Finland and Sweden will not enter the conflict as long as their territorial sovereignty is not compromised. However, because these
nations lay between the major wanring parties, numerous violations of their airspace are expected to occur. Accordingly, both nations
have scrambled a limited number of interceptors to act as a deterrent to would-be intruders. As neutrals, these countries are
obligated to intercept aircraft belonging to both NATO and the Soviet Union. Because neither country seeks a confrontation intruders
wi ll be escorted out of neutral airspace. Violators that refuse to comply with their escorts wil l be fired upon.
33
Finnish interceptors are usually Soviet export MiG-21 s.
Although the "Fi shbed" is an older model aircraft, they carry
relatively modem (AAMs) air-to-air missiles. Swedish interceptor
squadrons are made up of SAAB Viggens as wel l as some
exported Soviet aircraft. They are known to use Sparrows,
Sidewinders, and Sky Flash AAMs.
Players that find themselves over neutral territory should
immediately turn around, Avoid unpleasant confrontations by
leaving the area- before an interception takes place. If intercepted,
players should take no hostile action and follow the instructions of
their escort. Do not fire on neutral aircraft! A player never receives
points for shooting down neutral aircraft. Leave that to the Soviets.
CAMPAIGN SCENARIOS
Scenario # I Fighting Withdrawal
Figure 6-2: Pictured here, a U.S. corrier at anchor inside a Norwegian liord in
the days just prior to the Soviet attock
Since early this moming, Soviet troops have been carrying out a massive air, sea and land assault on members of the NATO alliance.
The Soviet Union was given no choice but to undertake this unilateral action in order to preempt an attack by NATO. At least this was the
story being told to the Soviet people. No longer are the Soviet people to be held at bay by the evil forces of capitalism. The moral superiority
of the "New Soviet Man" is about to be proven in combat.
The Iron Curtain has been peeled back at last, only to reveal a
snarling monster. Tube after tube of Soviet arti ll ery- pre-registered
on their targets since 1945 -have begun belching forth a steady rain
of steel. Every yard of the FEBA (Forward Edge of Battle) has been
turned into a private Verdun. Behind this banrage of high explosive
shells Soviet anmor is advancing at great speed. All throughout
Europe long lines of T-72s and APCs are racing over the border
separating East and West Genmany. Overlhead, waves of Soviet
fighters and bombers can be seen traveling west- their contrails
plainly visible.
34
For the third time in this century, the Atlantic has become a
battleground. As before, the stakes are mortal. The success or
failure of the Soviet ground offensive depends on whether the
lifeline between Europe and United States can be severed. If the
U.s. can establish reliable sea routes for its reinforcements and
supplies, the Soviet gamble will almost certainly fail. If. on the other
hand, the Northern Red Banner Fleet can close down the shipping
routes, England wi ll be blockaded and Soviet land forces will sweep
forward to the French border. Most importantly, the Communist
Party leadership wil l remain intact. Basking in their military vi ctory,
the Soviet people can be persuaded to forget their empty bellies
and barren store windows.
The Kreml in's plan for deal ing with Norway is simple. Because
of its proximity to the Kola peninsula (and Soviet bases located
there), Norway is to be inundated by non-stop tactical airstrikes,
followed by a division-sized airbome assault. All airfelds in northem
Norway are scheduled to be overrun by paratroopers within the
first 36 to 48 hours of the operation. In addition, Spetznatz
commando teams have been inserted by submarine at various
critical points along the coast. Other submarines are to disrupt
Norwegian naval activity by laying mines off its principal anchorages.
While Soviet paratroopers descend over northem Norway like
snowfakes the airbases at Banak and Andoya are to be overrun by a
combined assault of naval infantry and Special Forces units. These
troops are to hold on to these key positions until reinforced by
airbome troops belonging to the 76th Guards Airbome Division.
The main assault on the ground is to be carried out by a
reinforced mechanized division pushing overland from Pechenga.
Once the Norwegian border town of Kirkenes has fallen, the
spearhead of the attack is to link up with various pockets. The
road-bound assault column of T-72 tanks is to push forward
relentlessly. Threats to the fianks of the column are to be ignored.
Instead, groups of Mi-8 "Hip" helicopters will transport lightly
equipped ainmobile units to deal with critical areas as needed.
Helicopters will provide much needed mobility that the tanks lack
At sea, the Soviets intend to move a powerful surface action
group (SAG) made up of ships of the Red Banner Northem Fleet
down the coast of Norway in support of the ground operation. It
is to assume a position off the coast and prevent reinforcements
from reaching Norway by sea. Because Norway is geographically
isolated from the rest of Europe, command of the surrounding
seas is critical. NATO's carrier based air power must be eliminated
earl y in the confiict before it has a chance to escape. Thi s, in a
nutshell, is the Soviet plan of operations in Norway.
35
A single U.S. ai rcraft carrier is currently conducting joint
exercises with ships belonging to ST ANAVFORLANT (Standing
Naval Forces Atlantic). If and when war breaks out, this carrier will
be caught well forward of the GIUK SOSUS network It will have to
hurriedly retreat in the face of any detenmined Soviet onslaught.
Wamed that the current political situation has made a Soviet attack
likely, NATO planners have decided against prematurely mobilizing
their forces. Such an event could exacerbate the situation, so
NATO ministers have been content to merely monitor Soviet
preparations by satellite. Therefore the CNO (Chief of Naval
Operations) has decided to allow the single U.S. carrier in
Norwegian waters to remain where it is for the moment.
You are an F-14 pilot assigned to one of the two fighter
squadrons onboard this carrier. As the scenario begins your
battlegroup is tempting fate by steaming several hundred miles off
the Norwegian coast. It is hard not to think of this tiny show of
force as a sacrificial lamb. Twenty Tomcats are all that stand
between your carrier and the full weight of a surprise Soviet attack
Regardless of how wel l you do personally, how many aircraft you
shoot down or missions you complete, in order for you to win this
campaign, the carrier must remain operational -signifying a successful
escape. (Operational in this case is defined as being afioat and able
to launch and recover aircraft.) Good luck!
Figure 6-3: The Soviet BeGN f<jrov pictured here with on escort at anchor just
prior to the start of the operation.
Scenario # 2 Return To Norway
The all-out Soviet assault on Norway outlined in Scenario # I
has been largely successful, although the majority of the country
south of Orland remains in friendly hands. The small Norwegian
navy, consisting mainly of frigates and coastal defense vessels, has
been either sunk or forced to retreat along wi th the rest of
NATO's forces. Vessels able to make the trip to ports in the UK
have been saved. The rest of Norway's navy now lies at the
bottom of various fjords.
A small portion of the Norwegian air force has also escaped to
the United Kingdom. Norwegian airfields came under heavy attack
from the outset. Banak and Bardufoss stood little chance once the
Soviets knocked out the HAWK batteries surrounding them. Only
the airfield at Andoya, separated from the mainland, was able to
hold out for long. It , too, was eventually stormed, though a heavy
toll of naval infantry was extracted.
Of the airfelds in northem Norway only Bodo -located on a
tiny peninsula, was able t o remai n operational for long. F- 16s were
able to fi y from its cratered runway for several days into the war.
Its garrison surrendered only after Soviet tanks pushed onto the
high ground overlooking the airfeld. While the Norwegians were
being taken prisoner, a huge explosion rocked the peninsula. It
seems that the Norwegians were able to detonate an
underground cache of munitions pre-positioned beneath the
airstrip itself. Tons of high explosives went up simultaneously
completel y chewing up a 120 ft. section of runway. Clearly, Bodo
would be out of action for some time to come.
On t he ground, Norwegian army units were involved in fierce
fighting around population centers and key choke points along the
roads leading south. The ferocity displayed by Norwegian troops
during the heroic rear-guard action at Kirkenes surprised the Soviets
and disrupted their timetable. Although the defenders at Kirkenes
were ovenrun in the end, the Soviet drive never recovered the
36
momentum it had lost. Even so, following the battle at Kirkenes all
organized NATO resistance above battalion level ceased. NATO
forces that remained in country fought a series of hit and run
engagements trying to wear down the Soviet troops.
Logistics proved to be far more of an impediment to Soviet
plans than any active resistance offered by NATO. In fact, there
was nothi ng keeping Soviet troops from occupying the rest of
Norway except the inability to supply their troops once the
operation was concluded.
With NATO lines in central Europe falling back under severe
pressure, very little can be spared to defend so-called "secondary
fronts. " Despite its importance, Norway has been placed in the
category of a secondary front, a sideshow, if you will. The eNO in
Washington disagrees strongly with this decision. He knows that in
order to maintain his "bridge" of ships across the Atlantic NATO
must not only hold its current position but retake the territory in
Norway previously lost.
After the initial retreat U.s. and NATO forces reorganized their
strategic positions along the GIUK (Greenland-Iceland-United
Kingdom) line. In general, the line held but a number of Soviet attack
boats did manage to slip past and enter the Atlantic. On the ground,
the Soviets were limited to occupying only the northernmost
territory in Norway. This territory included some major airfelds as
far south as Bodo. The Soviet drive also overran Narvik -an
important port and key to suppl ying any further drive south.
The Soviets must not be given time to consolidate their gains.
The captured Norwegian facil ities have sustained some battle
damage, but will be operational again shortly. Those airfelds that
survived the initial strike have been overrun intact by Soviet
airbome units. It has become apparent from satellite intelligence
that these airfields are now going to be used to stage further raids
on the UK and far out into the Atlantic.
NATO depends upon its Atlantic lifel ine. Reinforcements from
the US must travel the Atlantic either by sea or by air. If this
"bridge" between Europe and North America is severed even for
a short time, the West will lose the war in Europe. The U.s VII
Corps in Bavaria is being pushed steadily back. There are just too
few of the latest M- I Abrams tanks to stop the flood of T-72s
pouring through the Fulda Gap. As Soviet anmor and mechanized
divisions pour across the plains of northem Genmany, the urgent
need for reinforcements is painfully evident.
With Norwegian airfields finmly in Soviet hands, a knife is being
held to the throat of NATO forces in Europe. NATO ports of
disembarl<ation in southem France are now open to attack from
long-range naval aircraft. If the Soviets are allowed to complete
their preparations, it is anticipated that the bulk of Soviet naval
aviation based on the Kola peninsula will be transferred to Norway.
From these new staging areas, the distance to targets in the United
Kingdom is literally quartered.
To preempt this eventuality a large force of U.s and Royal
Marines is to conduct a surprise amphibious operation designed to
retake Narvik. Once this is accomplished, the beachhead will be
rapidly expanded to cut off Soviet forces farther south. A single
carrier battlegroup is all that can be spared. This meager resource,
one carrier with its air wing of 90 aircraft, has been tasked with
providing air cover for the invasion.
37
Figure 6-4: A Newport Class LST off-loads vehicles in the harsh weather
conditions near Narvik Actually, the low clouds and snow fall prevented some
Soviet airstrikes tram targeting these ships.
In this scenario, you assume the role of an F-14 pilot in one of
the two fighter squadrons onboard. Your carrier battlegroup is
steaming just off the Norwegian coast so that it can provide the
required close air support. Being this near to the coast, however, is
li ke placing your head in the lion's mouth. Your ships are well
within range of hundreds of Soviet fighters and bombers. Your
squadron has a two-fold mission: protect the carrier group and
assi st friendly amphibious forces on the ground. If this operation
succeeds it will be the first step in retaking all of Norway.
Scenario # 3 Assault On The Kola Peninsula
Within days of war breaking out. northern Norway was
decisively ovenrun by the Soviets in a mutti-divisional assautt. The
stubbom defense of Kirkenes, however, delayed the early stages of
the invasion. For many crucial hours, the heroic last stand around
the Kirkenes roadblock gave the rest of NATO time to retreat in
good order. Norwegian forces rallied quickly despite suffering a
continuous pounding from the air. The front line eventually
stabilized just south of Bodo. The Soviet drive had run out of
steam. Southem Norway was safe for the moment
The war in Norway now entered a new phase, as outlined in
Scenario #2. It became obvious back at higher headquarters in
Murmansk that Soviet troops, their ammunition and supplies
exhausted, were occupying a dangerously exposed position.
Fortunately, from their perspective NATO forces in Norway were in
equally bad shape. Just the same, Soviet officers fearec that the entire
campaign might tum into a snowy guenilla action. They desperately
wanted to avoid this type of fighting, after all they had a previous
bad experience with it during the Winter War of 1940. (The Red
Anmy suffered grievious losses at the hands of Finnish ski troops.)
U.s. and Royal Marines in southem Norway called it "Injun
fighting." All along the front. ski-patrols were inserted behind Soviet
lines to wreak havoc. Anything smaller than a reinforced platoon
was immediately ambushed by Marines as it tried to move.
Nothing was safe. Truck convoys were shot up, communication
lines destroyed and large numbers of prisoners were taken. Soviet
morale plummeted. The troops sought out protective shelters
then remained there. More and more, Soviet units became
immobilized and isolated pockets of resistance in a sea of li ghtly
equipped NATO forces.
The Soviets were not without successes of their own during
this period. One notable victory came as a pair of Su-2S
"Frogfoot" aircraft caught a company of Norwegian infantry out in
38
Figure 6-5: A friendly column of NA TO anti-tonk vehides moves out over snow-
covered roods. These hard-hitting but lighdy equipped forces are headed for
"Injun country" and another ambush behind Soviet lines.
the open. The company had just assembled for rations when the
two fighters made a single pass overhead. In a matter of seconds,
the Norwegian unit was reduced to a handful of screaming
survivors. Hundreds lay dead and dying, their supply vehicles
buming heaps of wreckage.
The heaviest combat of the campaign took place not along the
front, but near Narvik, some 100 miles behind the lines. After weeks
of stagnant and stalemated fighting, Marines from the United States
and UK came ashore in a bold amphibious operation. Immediately,
the Soviets recognized the danger their troops were in as a resutt
of this move. They threw everything they could at the beachhead
in an attempt to keep the Marines pinned down. After suffering
heinous casuatties, greater than anything experienced in the Pacific
during WW II , the Marines that landed outside Narvi k finally took
the town. When this war is studied by future historians, favorable
comparisons will be drawn between MacArthur's landing at Inchon and
the Narvik operation. Both proved to be turning points.
Figure 6-6: Amphibious assault croft come ashore near Narvik. These
landing croft are getting ready to off-load supplies desperately needed
in-land.
Soviet forces unlucky enough to be caught south of the city
were instantly isolated by the operation. Cut off from their source
of supplies, they yielded territory easily and surrendered. After days
of intense combat Soviet resistance collapsed, NATO forces
pushed northward to link up with the Marine beachhead. The
counter-offensive paused briefly to take on additional supplies at
Narvik The attack quickly resumed, however, although by this time
it was more of a foot race than an assault. Soviet troops reeled
back toward Kirkenes with our forces in hot pursuit.
Assisted by carrier-based air power the Marines retook all but
the north em most sliver of the country. Bled white by their refusal
to discard dubious and outdated tactics, the Marines managed to
push the Soviets back as far as Kirkenes before grinding to a halt.
The hard-fought campaign for Norway was over. The effectiveness
of Soviet forces had been reduced in Norway by a general lack of
supply. They had no choice but to give ground slowly. As the
assault neared the Soviet border, however, resistance grew steadily
and a deadlock ensued.
39
Figure 6-7: U.S. Marines in snow comouffage toke cover in a frozen trench near
Narvik as a plume o( smoke rises (rom a near miss. Soviet airstrikes took a
heavy toll o( NA TO (orces in the beachhead.
This stalemate condition does not extend to the war at sea A single
U.S. carrer battlegroup has been moved to within striking distance of
Soviet bases on the Kola peninsula The war has now come full circle,
For the first time NATO air power will be used to prosecute an
extended campaign against the Soviet Union itself The carrier will be
taking the fight to the enemy, attacking the Soviets on their doorstep.
As an F- 14 pilot you are assigned to one of two fighter
squadrons onboard the carrier. You wi ll be participating in a series
of air strikes against a wide range of industrial and military targets.
The objective of this air campaign is to destroy the war making
potential of Soviet facilities in this region. Fonmer Secretary of the
Navy John Lehman once referred to the Kola peninsula as "the
most valuable piece of real estate on earth,"
Your job is to help tum this valuable piece of real estate into a
low-rent zone. The F-1 4's role in this campaign will be to escort
friendl y aircraft on strike missions as well as establishing air
superiority over this critical airspace. This high risk venture will
expose the carrier group to enormous danger but if the mission is
successful, Soviet forces in Norway will whither on the vine.
MEDITERRANEAN THEATER
THEATER BACKGROUND
When people gather to debate modem air combat one analogy is made quite often. A close-quarters dogfight between supersonic
fighters is referred to as a knife fight in a phone booth. Despite the fact that this well-wom cliche has become tiresome, it remains an
accurate enough representation. Taking it one step farther, the military situation in the Mediterranean can be li kened to a knife fight in a
phone booth inside a bathtub. Naval officers transferrng from the Pacific Seventh Fleet often find themsel ves suddenly suffering from
claustrophobia when called upon to conduct tactical maneuvers in "the Med."
Supersonic aircraft can make a north-south trip across the
Med in under an hour. Many single engine strike aircraft have the
ability to cross the Med and retum without refueling. This means
that the air defense of naval surface groups must contend with
the large numbers of less capable aircraft owned by the Third
World nations in this region. A 360
0
air defense zone
surrounding a battlegroup is mandatory because there's
nowhere to retreat to that the enemy can't reach.
The short distances involved make attacks from any direction
equally likely. The difficuh:ies of maintaining an adequate air defense
posture are further magnified by the preponderance of civilian aircraft
in the region. Sorting all these radar retums must make life aboard an
AWACS or A8N aircraft somewhat hectic. Presumably in time of
war civilian flights would be canceled or at least re-rDuted out of the
combat zone. However, one cannot always count on this. Mistakes do
happen. One need only recall the tragic Vincennes incident in which a
U.s. cruiser downed an Iranian Airbus over the Straits of Hormuz.
It is not unheard of for an attacking aircraft to mask its
approach by using a marked civilian route. By masquerading as a
civilian airliner following a scheduled flight plan an enemy aircraft
could easil y get close enough to a group of ships to launch a crui se
missile. Smart pi lots have also found ways to beat enemy radars by
" piggy-backing" with large wi de-body jets when necessary. F-1 4
pilots have to use extreme care when engaging BVR targets in the
Med. The inabi lity to positi vely identify targets at long ranges may
hamper the use of the AIM-54 Phoenix in certain instances.
40
As you can see the Mediterranean Sea is very nearly a lake.
Naval forces not indigenous to this region can only enter or exit at
one of three points. Each of these entry/exit points also happens
to be a natural choke point, a narrow sea-l ane which can be easily
be denied to a hostile fleet in time of war.
Mediterranean Theater Map
The most commonly used entry point for European based
navies is the Strait of Gibraltar, located at the Meditenranean's far
westem end. The Bosphorus and Dardanelle narrows, known
collectively as the Tuoosh Straits, is another common entrance to
the Meditenranean. This body of water divides Turkey into two
parts and connects the Black Sea with the Med. Soviet shi ps are
effectively cut off from the Med unless Soviet ground forces are
able to occupy the adjacent land mass. This has kept the Black Sea
fleet bottled up and vexed Russian naval strategy for centuries.
The third and final entrance point is the Suez canal. This route into
the Med is even more important to global trading partners than the
Panama canal in the westem hemisphere. It li nks the Mediterranean
with the Red Sea and makes the long sea voyage around southem
Africa unnecessary. The Suez canal facilitates the transfer of military
forces between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The Persian Gulf
War in 199 1 dramatically proved the practicality of such transfers.
This region of the world is a powder keg ready to ignite at any
moment. No less than 15 nations border on the Meditenranean
Ocean. Such political congestion has caused this region to become
a diplomatic morass. Most of the world's great religions have
overlapping and competing interests here which keep this area in
constant turmoil. It has been a battleground throughout human
history and remains volatile today.
Fortunately for t he United States and westem Europe, the
Soviet strategic position in this region has never been very good.
Syria and Libya have proven to be the only two nations willing
to allow the Soviets to regularly make use of their facilities. With
Turkey controlling access through the Dardanelles, Soviet
warships wishing to enter the Med must usuall y do so through
the Strait of Gibraltar. Supplyi ng these same ships would be
impossible in time of war making free access to foreign ports
crucial to Soviet planning.
The Soviet air force must contend with the same problems of
access and resupply as the navy, albeit to a lesser degree. In time
of war, Soviet aircraft will have to fight their way through hundreds
41
of miles of hostile airspace just to reach the Med. Once again only
Syria and Libya have proven to be steady allies. Even so the eastem
Med is well within range of Soviet bombers based in the Crimea.
These powerful aircraft could potentiall y block air/sea access to
Israel in time of war.
Three Meditenranean campaign scenarios accurately portray a
mix of strategic and tactical challenges. The first features US. canrier
operations in the central Med. This set of missions assumes that
Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon (Operation Peace (or Galilee) has
touched off a wider Syrian involvement. Having won the initi al
rounds, Israel is pushing slowly on two Arab capitals simultaneously,
Beinut and Damascus. The Arab world has tumed to the Soviet
Union for help.
Embarrassed by the failure of their military equipment and
pushed into a political comer, the Soviet Union has decided to
intervene. As expected, this controversial move is vehemently
opposed by both Israel and the United States. Both si des are
hastily preparing for battle. Predictably, Libya has joined with the
Soviets and Syria and hopes to embarrass the US for the downing
of its jets the previous year. With only one canrier battlegroup
currently on hand the U.s. Sixth Fleet has been tasked with
preventing Soviet forces from reaching Israel by sea.
The second campaign scenario is Operation EI Dorado Conyon
and contains historical mi ssions actuall y fiown during the 1986
airstrikes on Libya. These raids were meant to send a message
to Libya's ruler, Col. Qaddifi, that the United States would
respond aggressivel y to terrorism. You'll be participating in the
joint USAF- Navy air operations calling upon canrier-based F- 14s
to protect F-I I Is fi ying in from t hei r bases in the United
Kingdom. Forced to fiy a tortuous route around the Iberi an
peninsula, the tired "Aardvark" crews are depending upon your
squadron for air cover. You'll have to escort them to their
targets in Libya and then stand by to defend the canriers in case
of retaliation.
The third and final Meditenranean campaign. Carrier Duel. is a
futuristic scenario set early in the next century. This hypothetical
conflict is intended to ill ustrate the tactics of modern carrier
warfare from now until well into the next century. It is a "what-if'
campaign that if fought in reality would represent the first true
carner vs. carrier battle since the Second World War. Although
the equipment and weaponry have evolved dramatically. the tactics
of air/sea combat have remained relatively unchanged (as you will
soon discover).
Carner Duel assumes that the 1989 break-up of the Soviet
Union never occurred. The attempt to oust Gorbachev from power
while he vacati oned on the Bl ack Sea was successful. Hard-line
communists. along with their KGB mentors. retum to power in
Moscow and immediately begin a crack down on reform minded
NEUTRAL FORCES
Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia
These nations are neutral parties to the Meditenranean confiicts
described in the scenario briefs. In time of war. however. there is
no doubt the Soviet Union would be able to exercise a great deal
of political infiuence over them. Bulgaria and Romania. in particular.
are vulnerable to a military response from the Soviet Union should
their govemments displease officials in Moscow. Because of the
threat posed by Soviet troops these nations have granted Soviet
aircraft free passage through their airspace. This right of passage
has not been extended to U.s. or NATO aircraft.
Should your F-14 stray into their airspace expect to be treated
as a hostile intruder. The Soviet MiG-2 1 "Fish bed" is the main
interceptor flown by these nations. Their pilots are trai ned
according to Soviet doctrine and will use standard Sovi et tactics.
Instead of MiGs. the Yugoslavian Federal Air Force (remember.
these scenarios take place prior to the present day Bosnian crisis)
has a number of J-22 Orao and Soko GA Galebs. These aircraft
are probably not well maintained.
42
Y e ~ i n supporters. With Gorbachev in Lefortovo Prison and Y e ~ i n
in hiding. opposition to the coup has been cowed into submission.
Outside Russia. the various republics show no signs of declaring
independence. In fact. there is some measure of support for a retum
to the Stalinist methods used to maintain law and order. At least in
those days the country was strong and there was food to eat
All this takes place with the military's blessing. As a reward. the
military has been given a carte blanche to purchase whatever
equipment they deem necessary to hold on to eastem Europe.
Armed with an almost unlimited budget, the military has renewed
its interest in acquiring big-ticket items. For the Soviet navy, thi s
means completing the three aircraft canriers begun in the mid-
I 980s. In this scenario, you have a unique opportunity to meet
these ships in battle.
Greece, Italy, Turkey
Despite being members of NATO, Greece, Italy and Turkey
have in the past refused to get involved in U.S. political
entanglements. In the case of Greece and Turkey. they are much
more likely to fight amongst themselves then assist the U.s. against
a third party. Unless directly threatened these nations prefer to
stay out of foreign affairs involving the use of military force. Fear of
international terrorism is enough to keep the respective
governments of these nations from joining in any retaliatory
operation against Libya. Likewise, these nations will also stay out of
any Middle Eastem crisis involving either Syria or Israel.
As far as these three are concemed neither country is worth
confronting the Soviets. Because they are members of NATO, the
U.S. has demanded that these nations offer at least a token
resistance to any Soviet aircraft that stray into their airspace.
Therefore, Sovi et aircraft which overfiy these nations wi ll be met
by FA and F-I 6 fighters. Authorization to fire must be given on a
per case basis due to the sticky political situation.
Egypt
Egypt, while not a member of NATO, has cast its political
future with the United States and westem Europe since casting
out its Soviet advisors in 1972. Desprte Egypt's participation in the
Yom Kippur War against Israel, relations have remained good.
Egypt' s help in Operation Desert Shield/Storm in 1990-91 was greatly
appreciated by the U.s. and Muh:i-national forces. Egypt has been
equipped with F-16 fighters but may have some Soviet equipment
still lyi ng around. Be sure to use your IFF when fi ying near Egypt.
You may find yourself confronted by Egyptian pilots fi ying MiGs or
Libyans fiying French buih: Mirage F-I s! Air combat can get to be
very confusing at times!
CAMPAIGN SCENARIOS
Scenario # I Powder-Keg
Tunisia
Like Egypt, Tunisia has the misfortune to be one of Libya's
closest neighbors. It is also the home away from homeland for the
PLO, so don't expect rt to help the U.s. defend Israel. Tuni sia is a
neutral party in all the Med scenarios ah:hough rt wi ll intercept US
and allied aircraft. For political reasons, Tunisia chooses to pretend
not to see Libyan or Soviet ai rcraft that accidentally venture into rts
airspace. Fortunately for the United States, F-S "Tiger lis" are the
best fighter aircraft rt can muster. Stay away from Tunisia and it'll
remain a non-player.
On June 6th, 1982, Israel sent a muh:i-divisional task force into southem Lebanon for the purpose of clearing out the PLO (Palestine
Liberation Organization) sanctuaries located there. This move came in response to repeated cross-border provocation during the
preceding months. Prior to the invasion, PLO guerri ll as bombarded Israeli settlements in northem Galilee with rockets and heavy artillery on
numerous occasions.
Israel 's answer to these terrorist acts was characteristical ly
quick in coming, but because there was no wish to provoke Syria it
was limrted to a few airstrikes only. The raids caused many civil ian
casualties and leveled a few villages, but did little to stop the
shel ling. Palestinian attacks actually intensified, emboldened by the
lack of Israeli success in stopping them.
In desperation the Knesset (Israel's Cabinet) approved a plan
drawn up by Israel 's mil itary leaders in which Israeli ground forces
would enter southem Lebanon and drive the guerrillas out. Once
this was accomplished a semi-permanent "security zone" woul d be
established and policed by "Free Lebanese" troops under
command of Major Sa'ad Haddad. Known as Operation Peace (or
Galilee, the Israeli plan called for a limrted incursion only, no farther
than 40 kilometers from the border. As it tumed out Israeli troops
would be required to go all the way to Beirut.
43
The original plan envisioned a brief three-day engagement.
Elements of seven Israel i di visions would charge across the
Lebanese border in a massive frontal assault. As usual, the attack
would be supported by lavish amounts of self-propelled artillery
and backed up by total air superiority. An amphibious landing
would be made halfway up the coast to Beirut just in case PLO
guerrillas managed to escape the initial attack. At the end of the
battle all of southem Lebanon up to the Awali river would be free
of PLO guerrillas and safely under Israeli control.
In the meantime, Israel i communiques would make rt clear to
the Syrians that thi s operation was intended only to eliminate the
PLO infrastructure in southem Lebanon. Syria's position inside the
country was not going to be jeopardized by Israel's invasion. But,
Damascus was wamed that if its forces moved to interfere they
would be deah: with accordingly.
The plan looked promising on paper and in fact did clear the
PLO from southem Lebanon. Military equipment was captured
from the guerri ll as but the cost soon soured the victory. If anything,
the Israeli plan fell victim to rts own success. Such overwhelming
force was used that the PLO was discouraged from standing and
fighting. Instead, with its leadership in fiight northward, organized
guerrilla resistance collapsed within the first 18 hours of the
operation. Fearing encirclement, PLO fighters simply melted away
in small groups or as individuals.
Many guerrillas fied north seeking safety in Beirut but most
retumed to the densely populated refugee camps dotting southem
Lebanon. Once among the civilians they became difficult to dig out.
The Israeli s would have to choose between using firepower
indiscriminately or sending in ground troops and risking protracted
street-fights.
Although Syria received assurances from Israel (and U.S. envoy
Philip Habib) that the Israelis had no desire to widen the war, on
June 7th Syria moved to reinforce its troops in Lebanon. These
reinforcements unfortunately included three additional SAM
batteries which brought the total number of batteries to 19. To
Israel, the establishment of such a strong air defense zone, parts of
which actually extended into northem Israel was a virtual cousus belli.
Until now the two sides had only been involved in minor incidents,
light skinmishes or desultory artillery exchanges. Now that the Syrians
were moving fresh men and equipment (including the 3rd Armored
Division) into the area all that was about to change.
On June 9th, Israeli aircraft and long-range artillery began a
serious of airstrikes on the Syrian SAM installations which amaze
and confound military analysts even today. Using mainly F-15C
" Eagles", F-4E "Phantoms" and A-4 "Skyhawks", Israel destroyed
17 out of the 19 SAM sites in the Bekaa valley. An air battle
involving hundreds of aircraft soon developed. Within hours, Israel
had won an astonishingly one-sided victory, shooting down 30
Syrian MiGs. All Israeli aircraft retumed safely.
44
Here the Powder-keg scenario departs from the actual events
In 1982 and hypothesizes that the Israeli-Syrian confrontation in
Lebanon escalates into a full scale war involving both the United
States and Soviet Union. Events depicted in this scenario closely
mirror the real-life situation in 1973 when late in the Yom Kippur
War Israel pushed across the Suez canal opposite Cairo and was
simultaneously advancing on Damascus.
Having won the initial exchanges, Israel is busily chasing the
escaping PLO remnants northward into Beirut. Now that the
Syrians have entered the conflict, large scale tank battles have
broken out not only among the hills of southeastem Lebanon but
along the Golan Heights "cease-fire line" as well. Well supported
by the IAF (Israeli Air Force) now that the SAM network is
destroyed, Israeli tanks have caught the Syrian 3rd Armored
division strung out along the Beirut-Damascus highway. Hundreds
of latest Soviet-supplied T -72s have been left buming.
Along the Golan, hunter-killer teams of Israeli attack helicopters
have broken up columns of advancing armor. Stung by the magnitude
of their losses, the Syrians are falling back followed closely by Israeli
mechanized unrts. With Israeli forces pushing slowly on two Arab
capitals simultaneously, the Arab world has appealed to the Soviet
Union for help. Clearly embarrassed by the poor performance of
their equipment the Soviet Union has been pushed into a political
comer by rts Arab allies and decided to intervene militarily.
Planeloads of men and equipment are off-loading at Syrian
airlbases around the clock. The bulk of the Soviet forces being sent
to the Middle East must travel by sea, however. Accordingly,
aircraft based in the Crimea and ships of the Soviet 5th Eskadra
have been tasked to insure the safe passage of a huge amphibious
t ask force. Over 35,000 Soviet naval infantrymen are boarding
various transports along with all the supplies needed for an
extended operation.
Figure 6-8: Men aboard the U.S.S Ticonderoga watch their Aegis radar screens
for any new developments off the coast of Israel and Lebanon.
A strong Soviet SAG (surface action group) consisting of the
Kiev-class camer Minsk, the helicopter-cruiser Moskva (Moscow) and
several guided-missile cruisers has just transrted the Dardanelles and
entered the Aegean Sea. Now clear of the strarts, this group has
been ordered to rendezvous with other Soviet surface ships now
forming up south of Crete.
The few Soviet vessels remaining in Syrian ports have been
directed to form their own action group southeast of Cyprus. In
the Crimea, a large force of Soviet bombers and support aircraft is
assembling at various strongly defended airfields. Backed by the
additional Soviet aircraft in Syria, the amphibious force is well
defended along its entire route.
Predictably, Libya has joined the Soviet-Syrian coalition and
hopes to embarrass the U.s. for the downing of rts two jets the
previous year. It is situated squarely on the flank of our SLOC (Sea-
Lane of Communication) leading through the Medrterranean. Its air
and naval forces have been put on a high state of readiness. Wrth
all our attention focused on the Soviet threat. the Libyans hope to
catch our ships by surprise.
45
Presently, the Sixth Fleet has only one carrier group in the
Mediterranean. Due to the nature of this crisis, it has been decided
to confront the Soviets with the forces on hand rather than awart
reinforcements.
Ah:hough, your camer will be fighting outnumbered the CNO
has calculated that the odds remain in our favor. The mission:
prevent the Soviets from reaching Syria by sea. They are not to be
allowed to land ground troops and equipment in erther Syria or
Israel. Failure to stop this move using conventional means will force
the United States into a comer. It will have no recourse but to use
nuclear weapons.
Scenario #2 Operation EI Dorado Canyon
One of the United States' most steadfast and vociferous
opponents in the Mediterranean is Libya's Colonel Muammar
Qaddifi, head of that country's Jamahiriya (Greater State of the
Masses) movement Not only has Libya been hostile to the U.s. ,
but Qaddifi has at one time or another threatened most of his
Arab neighbors.
As a national leader Qaddifi has not always been the most
stable of individuals. Known for wearing high-heeled shoes and
lipstick to state functions, Qaddifi's erratic nature has both
frightened and angered the West on many occasions. For example,
in 1973 he personally ordered the captain of an Egyptian
submarine to attack the luxury liner Queen Elizabeth II as it made
for the Israeli port of Ashdod.
The submarine left Tripoli to intercept the QE II as it sailed
eastward across the Mediterranean. Tragedy was narrowly
averted at the last moment when the captain decided to radio
home for confirmation. Egyptian officials immediately
countermanded Qaddifi's orders and instructed the captain to
retum to Alexandria.
Since 1973, Qaddifi has insisted on claiming the entire Gulf of
Sidra for Libya. The U.s. has challenged this contention on
numerous occasions. Thi s diplomatic struggle over the Gulf of Sidra
has led to several shooting incidents between U.s. and Libyan
aircraft. In 1980, an unarmed U.s. C-130 "Hercules" transport
barely avoided being shot down by a pair of Libyan fighters over
the Gulf That same year another C-I 30 was surrounded by Libyan
MiGs and had to be rescued by F-14s.
In August 1981, a carner group consisting of the US.S. Nimitz and
U.S.S. Forrestal challenged Qaddifi's contention that the Gulf of Sidra
was Li byan territorial water. Over sixty Libyan aircraft were
intercepted on the first day of the exercise. They were escorted
away from U.s. ships by F-14s without a single shot being fired. The
next day, however, two 'Tomcats" from VF-41 "Black Aces" were
attacked without waming by a pair of Su-22s. The lead "Fitter" fired
an AA-2 Atoll which missed. Both "Fitters" were then immediately
shot down after a brief BFM engagement. Almost ovemight bumper
stickers sprang up proclaiming, "U.s. Navy: 2, Libya: 0",
Although Libya lost this round, it soon counter-attacked using
terrorism as a weapon against the U.s. and western interests
around the world. Libya's role as a sponsor of international
terrorism in the 1980s was undeniable. The entire country was
opened as a training ground for terrorist groups opposed to Israel
and the West. Using profits from the sale of oil, Libya's enratic
leader Muammar Qaddifi bank-rolled many extremist groups
throughout the Middle-East.
In 1985, a TWA airliner was hijacked with 153 people on-
board. The incident was resolved 17 days later but a young Navy
di ver was ruthlessly murdered and dumped on the tarmac in
Beirut. The rest of the passengers were released unharmed. The
terrorists escaped into Beirut.
46
The Ital ian cruise-ship Achille Lauro, was likewise hijacked
several months later (Oct 1985). Again the matter was resolved
but only after an elderly handicapped passenger was murdered.
Taken from his wheel chair, he was shot t wice then thrown
overboard. One month later a Boe ing 737 carrying the
mastermind of this operation, Abu Abbas, and members of hi s
group was intercepted by four F-14s belonging to VF-74 "Be-
devilers" off the USS Saratoga, The airliner was then diverted to
the military airfield at Sigonella, Ital y. Unfortunately, the Italian
government refused to extradite the terrorists to the U.s. and
allowed them to go free.
Also in November 1985, another Boeing 737 belonging to
EgyptAir was hijacked on a fi ight from Athens to Cairo, A gun
battle erupted in mid-air between the hijackers, bel ieved to be part
of Abu Nidal 's network of terrorists, and Egyptian security officers
aboard the fiight. At least one bullet penetrated the outer skin of
the fuselage, forcing the airliner to make an emergency landing at
Luqa airport on the island of Malta. Egyptian commandos later
stormed the airliner but failed to surprise the hijackers, Almost
sixty civilians died in a hail of bullets as the terrorists ran through
the airplane's cabin throwing hand-grenades,
In December 1985, Abu Nidal's shadowy network struck two
airports simultaneously, Rome and Vienna. Many civilians were
kill ed and injured in the twin attacks. After being blamed for the
attacks, Libya wamed the U.S. that "suicide squads" were poised to
take the war "into the streets of American cities."
By 1986, the United States was spoi ling for a fight. Americans
were frustrated over the govemment's seeming inability to protect
its citizens from terrorism. The villains were hard to find and even
when caught they always seemed to get away. Foreign
govemments were reluctant to cooperate with the U.S. for fear it
would only make them a target for future terrorism.
In March, ships of the Navy' s Sixth Fleet conducted a "freedom
of navigation" exercise similar to the one in 1981 . Code-named
"Prairie Fi re", rt was intended to reestablish the right of maritime
traffi c to operate wrthin the Gulf of Sidra. It is equally li kely that the
operation was designed to goad Qaddifi 's air force into coming
out to play. Wrth three carriers in the area, USS Coral Sea (CV-43),
US.S. J<j tty Hawk (CV-63) and US.S. America (CV-66) there was
more than enough air power on call.
On the moming of March 24th a three ship SAG consisting of
the USS Ticonderoga (CG-47), US.S. Scott (00G-995) , and
USS Caron (00-970) crossed the 32 30' N latrtude across the
Gulf of Sidra, Libya's so-called "Line of Death." Overhead, F-14s
from the carriers maintained a constant CAP. Libya's response was
to fire SA-5 missiles at the F-14s and dispatch fast patrol boats to
attack the U.s. SAG. Strike aircraft from the carriers attacked and
destroyed the offending surface-to-air missile srtes near Sirte. The
patrol boats were also quickly sunk before becoming a threat to
either the SAG or the carriers.
On March 24th, the Libyan Guided-missile patrol craft (PTG)
Waheed was attacked and sunk by two A-6s belonging to VA-34
"Blue Blasters". The Waheed, a La Combattante-class patrol vessel,
was struck by at least one Harpoon and several Rockeye munrtions.
The next day (March 25th), three additional patrol craft were
attacked by VA-55 'Warhorses" and VA-85 "Black Falcons." After
inflictng these losses, the U.S. called off the operation early. U.s. ships
wrthdrew from the Gulf two days later, having made their point.
On April 2nd, a bomb exploded aboard a TWA fiight en
route from Rome to Athens. The bomb caused four passengers to
be blown out of the aircraft. Autopsies perfonmed on the bodies
detenmined that three of the four survived the explosion only to
fall to their deaths. The fourth was killed in the explosion. The
incident was linked to Libyan supported tenrorists.
47
Three days later another bomb exploded inside a crowded
Berlin nightclub killing two American servicemen. The April 5th
bombing of La Belle discotheque provoked a stonm of outrage.
Messages between Tripoli and its embassy were intercepted by
U.s. intelligence assets. They confinmed who was behind the attack
The attack on the TWA fiight and the nightclub bombing in
Berlin galvanized the Reagan administration into taking direct action
against Libya. On the moming of April 14, 1986, the Unrted States
attacked a number of strategic targets inside Libya. The targets
included command centers where Colonel Qaddifi was likely to be
found. Operation EI Dorado Canyon was an attempt. in President
Reagan's words, "to make the world smaller for the tenrorists."
The principal strike aircraft in this attack were twenty-four F-I I I s
and fi ve EF-I I I s. These aircraft took off from bases in north em
England. They were supported by two aircraft carriers; the
US.S. Coral Sea and US.S. America located in the Medrtenranean at a
patrol point known as Mad Dog Station. F/A-18s and A-6 aircraft
from these carriers were ordered to attack various targets in
eastem Libya while the F-I I I s struck Tripoli.
Covering the entire operation were F-14 "Tomcats." They
were tasked wrth "delousing" the strike packages during their post-
strike egress from Libya. The procedure was simple. Retuming
strike packages would pass through a cordon of F-14s charged wrth
ensuring that no bandrts were tailing them.
Because the F- I I I s were refused penmission to overfly France,
they were forced to take a circuitous route around the Iberian
peninsula. Thi s fiight path added hours and many tedious mid-air
refuelings to the mission. (Twenty-eight refueling tankers
accompanied the F-I I I s.) By the time the F-I I I s reached their
targets, they had already fiown over 2,500 nautical miles.
Figure 6-9: An F-I I I "Aardvark" on a low level pass drops high drag Mk 82
"Airs" the old-fashioned way.
The fact that EI Dorado Canyon was a joint Navy/Air Force
operation put inter-service coordination at a premium. All were
afraid that any deviation from the operation's split-second schedule
could alert the Libyans prematurely. According to the plan, fi ve
military targets inside Libya were to be hit in an operation lasting
less than twelve minutes. Sixty tons of bombs would be dropped
before the Libyans knew what hit them.
The most important of the fi ve targets was Qaddifi's command
center within the Bab al Azziziyah army compound outside Tripoli.
Nine F-I I I s attacked the site in three waves of three. Each wave
was given its own code-name: "Remit", "Elton", and " Karma." The
only aircraft lost in this operation was an F-III ("Karma-52'). Qaddifi
was not home. He escaped the raid apparently no worse for wear.
Two other targets linked to tenrorist activity were struck near
Tripol i. U.S. intelligence had identified the Sidi Bilal naval base as being
a training ground for tenrorist commandos. Three F-I II s (code-
named "Jewel ") struck the base causing slight damage. The final
target near Tripoli was the Intemational Airport Six F-I I I s ("Puffy"
and "Lujac") dropped the bombs which would be seen later on
newscasts around the world. Twelve of their Mk 82 bombs were
filmed landing amongst fi ve Soviet-built 11-76 "Candid" transports.
48
These three attacks took place in and around Tripoli in
westem Libya. In eastem Libya, aircraft from the U.s.s. Coral Sea
and U.s.S. America attacked two military targets near the port of
Benghazi. The first of these was the Jamahiriya army banracks. Thi s
compound, like Sidi Bi lal, was being used to train tenrorists. It was
destroyed by twelve A-6 "Intruders". Four MiG-23s were also
destroyed at nearby Benina airfield. Military planners believed these
interceptors would be used to attack the strike packages.
EI Dorado Canyon was over within the allotted twelve minutes.
The actual damage caused by this attack was negligible; a few
buildings were demolished, a few aircraft were destroyed. Like the
"Doolittle raid" on Tokyo in 1942, the psychological impact of the
raid was enormous, however. Americans believed they had finall y
struck a meaningful blow against state-sponsored tenrorism. The raid
received widespread approval back home.
Qaddifi managed to survive the attack Only a fraction of the
bombs meant for his command post were actuall y dropped. Visibly
shaken, he appeared on Libyan television hours later to denounce
the raid which allegedl y killed one of his adopted daughters.
Despite his threats and posturing, Qaddifi remained relatively quiet
following the raid. The level of Libyan support for tenrorism was
dramatically curtailed.
Figure 6-1 0: This F-I 4 spots its own shadow on the sand. Does this mean six
more weeks of bombing?
The following order of battle lists the three aircraft carriers
involved in "Prairie Fire." The U.S.s. Saratoga, listed here, left the
Mediterranean on April 5th. It was present for "Prairie Fire" but
could not be recalled in time for Operation EI Dorado Canyon.
USS. SARATOGA (01-60)
Carrier Air Wing-I 7
F-14 Squadrons: VF-74 "Be-devi lers", VF-I 03 "Sluggers"
A-7E Squadrons: VA-S I "Sunliners", VA-S3 "Rampagers"
A-6E Squadron: VA-S5 "Black Falcons"
E-2C AEW Squadron: VAW-125 "Tigertails"
EA-6B EW Squadron: VAQ-137 "Rooks"
S-3A ASW Squadron: VS-30 "Diamondcutters"
SH-3H ASW Squadron: HS-3 "Tridents"
USS CORAL SEA (CV-43)
Carrier Air Wing-I 3
2F/A-IS Squadrons: VFA-131 "Wildcats", VFA-132 "Privateers",
VMFA-314 "Black Knights", VMFA-323 "Death Rattlers"
A-6E Squadron: VA-55 "Warhorses"
E-2C AEW Squadron: VAW-127 "Seabats"
EA-6 EW Squadron: V AQ-I 35 "Black Ravens"
SH-3H ASW Squadron: HS-17 "Neptune's Raiders"
USS. AMERICA (01-66)
Carrier Air Wing-I
F-14 Squadrons: VF-33 "Tarsiers" (Starfighters), VF- I 02
"Diamondbacks"
A-7E Squadrons: VA-46 "Clansmen", VA-72 "Bluehawks"
A-6E Squadron: VA-34 "Blue Blasters"
E-2C AEW Squadron: VAW- 123 "Screwtops"
EA-6 EW Squadron: VMAQ-2 "Playboys"
S-3 ASW Squadron: VS-32 "Maulers"
SH-3H ASW Squadron: HS-II "Dragon Slayers"
49
The Operation EI Dorado Canyon scenario in assumes that Libya
responds much more aggressively to the U.s. raid. With the
Saratoga gone, only two F-14 squadrons (from the America) remain
to protect the fleet. Will they be enough? Because the Coral Sea is
unable to carry F-14s it has been removed from this scenario also.
This leaves you with only one carrier to worry about.
Libya has a large airforce and many airbases protected by
modem air-to-surface missiles. Ah:hough their pilot training is poor in
comparison to ours, used properly, their air force can pose quite a
danger. As a ''Tomcat'' pilot your mission in this campaign is escort
the various strike packages. Once they hit their targets, you are to
defend your battlegroup from the expected Libyan counter-attack
Scenario # 3 Carrier Duel
Up until the mid-seventies Soviet naval doctrine dismissed our
emphasis on naval aviation and the need to maintain expensive
aircraft carriers. Aircraft carriers were overly vulnerable in time of
war. Because U.S. carriers attract so much attention, their presence
in a region is difficuh: to conceal.
So much of a carrier's air wing is devoted to self defense that
little room is left over for staging offensive missions. If this is the
case, Soviet naval observers argue, why invest so much when
cheaper means exist to accomplish the same thing? Of course the
Soviets have a point but the question really must be answered in
terms relative to each of the respective navies.
As a superpower with global responsibilities, the United States
after WW II required a navy that would allow for unlimited force
projection. This mission could only be fulfilled by possessing fast-
moving aircraft carriers able to "go anywhere and do anything."
Through its carrier battlegroups the United States could i n t e ~ e c t
friendly air power into a region without regard for the availability of
land-based facilities.
The Soviet Union, on the other hand, had an entirely different
set of national objectives. Although the Soviets proclaimed
themselves to be a superpower, in truth this status was merely
contri ved. Stalin's empire in 1945 was a regional powerhouse and
nothing more. It domi nated eastern Europe, but could do little if
anything militarily in other parts of world. Its primary concern was
holding on to the territory it gained in VVW II.
The Soviet navy reflected this priority. Built for coastal defense
Soviet surface ships could perfonrn only local operations close to
home under cover of friendly land-based aircraft.
Since 1945 it has become an accepted practice among career
officers of the Soviet navy to disparage the military effectiveness of
our carriers. Soviet officers must denigrate carrier-based aviation.
Such thinking allows them to ignore the fact that their own naval
forces could never perform missi ons such as those routinel y
performed by the U.sN. Aircraft carriers have provi ded the U.S.
wrth a sea-based striking power that the Soviets lack.
Rather than build ai rcraft carriers the Soviets took a different
track. It has historically emphasized submarine warfare instead of
naval aviation. Although the submarine is usually linked to Genrnany
and its U-boat campaigns against England, it is important to
remember that the Sovi et navy actual possessed 3 times as many
submarines as Germany in 1939. Today, this reliance on
submarines is in keeping with the primary mission of the Soviet
navy, sea-denial and interdiction.
Whi le the Unrted States developed carrier warfare after VVW II ,
the Soviets cultivated the art of undersea warfare and cruise missile
technology. Is there substance to past Soviet claims that our reliance
on big, expensive aircraft carriers is a military liabil rty? Or were our
detractors merely jealous of the technological superiority needed to
produce and maintain such vessels. Can our aircraft carriers be
defended or are they just obvious and vulnerable targets?
50
It becomes hard to see the Soviet commentary as anything
more than just sour-grapes. In the late 1960s the Soviet Union
suddenly did an about-face on the need for naval aviation.
Construction began on several new vessels able to carry and
operate aircraft at sea. Did aircraft carriers all of a sudden become
less vulnerable for some reason or was this change in Sovi et
thinking due to a change in mission?
The Cuban Mi ssile Crisis proved to the Soviets that a strong
independent navy was required if it was ever going to compete
wrth the United States on a global scale. The ease at which the U.s.
carrier-led naval forces cut them off from thei r Cuban ally in 1962
was embanrassing. It also showed how close the world could get to
nuclear Anrnageddon if it tried.
Wrth the U.s. deployment of a new generation of missile-carrying
submarines the Soviet Union suddenly found rtself vulnerable to a
nuclear first strike. At the same time, without a means of deployi ng
air power at sea the Soviets could not adequately defend their
coast from the under water leg of the U.s. nuclear triad.
Figure 6-/ /: What's this, a near miss on one of our corriers? No -just a routine
shock-test conducted by the Navy.
The Soviets began their commitment to naval aviation by
producing "aircraft carrying ships" for the express purpose of
conducting ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare). Two tear-drop hulled
vesse ls, the Moskva in 1967 and Leningrad in 1968 were
constructed at the Nikolayev Ship Yard on the Black Sea. Armed
as standard cruisers fore with a clear helicopter deck aft, these
hybrid ships were labeled "anti-submarine cruisers." Although they
could carry up to 18 helicopters these Moskva-class ships were
unable to operate fixed-wing aircraft.
In 1970, construction began (also at Nikolayev) on a new class
of vessel. The keel was laid for a second generation of ship
devoted to naval aviation. Six years later, the first of four Kiev-class
"aircraft carriers" (Kiev, Minsk, Novorossiysk, and Baku) was in
service with the Soviet navy. With the deployment of the Kiev, the
Soviet Union finally could boast of having a ship capable of
operating fixed wing aircraft at sea. On closer inspection, however,
the Kiev-class of ship is hardly the equal of what we, in the West,
would consider a true aircraft carrier. It is only able to carry an air
wing consisting of 20 helicopters and 15 VTOL (Vertical Take-off
and Landing) aircraft.
The Kiev-class vessels like their predecessors, the Moskva-class
helicopter-cruisers, are primary intended to conduct ASW
operations. Yak-38 VTOL aircraft give the Kievs only a marginally
better strike capability than that derived from the SSMs they carry
on-board. As interceptors go, the contingent of "Forgers" is hardly
imposing. Still, the Kiev-class vessels represent a first step for a
nation who has made the move to sea-based air power late.
The Kiev class CVH vessels, are in keeping with the old saying
that in order to run, one must first leam to walk. Operating these
ships has given the Soviets much needed experience in deck
handling and recovery operations. At the start of the I 980s, all that
remained was for the Soviets to begin construction on a full-sized
aircraft carrier.
51
Figure 6-/2: A Soviet J(jev-dass CVG. This picture is actually the Novorossisk.
sistership to the J(jev. Note the heavy anti-surface and ASW weaponry forward
of the superstructure.
In 1983 the Soviets began building the first of three fieet carriers
vaguely comparable in size if not striking power to our own. The
65,000 ton Admiral Kuznetsov was launched five years later and
began sea trials in 1989. The Kuznetsov was not equipped with a
catapult. Instead of power-assisted launches it utilizes a 12 ski-jump
ramp to get its complement of nearly 60 fixed wing aircraft airlbome.
In addition to operating Yak VTOL aircraft as expected, naval
versions of the MiG-29, Su-27, and Su-25 have been confirmed.
Following the launch of the Kuznetsov in 1985 her sistership,
the Varyag, was laid down. After most of the hull structure was
complete, work. on this vessel was halted due to the break-up of
the Soviet Union. Legal ownership of the Varyag has since been
contested by Ukraine. It is likely that the ship will be offered for
sale to foreign buyers or scrapped. (The Chinese have expressed
an interest in purchasing the vessel intact)
The largest of the three planned fleet carriers, the 76,000 ton
Ulyonovsk, was never completed. Agai n, construction of this vessel
was interrupted by the 1989 revolution. The hull was scrapped at
Nikolayev shipyard after only 40% of the work was done. Had thi s
carrier been launched it would have had a complement of
approximately 75 fi xed wing aircraft and been the closest thing to
a U.S. style carrier yet produced by the Soviet Union.
By the year 2000, over fifty years will have elapsed since the
last great carrier battles. Many within the naval community (in both
nations) believe that the day of the aircraft carrier has passed. They
point to the introduction of the long-range cruise missiles as proof
of the carrier's vulnerability.
FLEET DEFENDER gives you the opportunity to discover for
yourself whether or not the aircraft carrier remains a viable
weapon into the next century. Carrier Duel assumes that the 1989
revolution in the Soviet Union never occurred and that the three
fleet carriers entered service as scheduled. Having made these
admittedly ahistorical concessions we can now proceed to set up
the following imaginary carrier vs. carrier battle.
Figure 6-13: The Kuznetsov. The Soviet Union's only corrier to conduct
operational trials. Note the angled ski-jump deck. The Soviet designers
were obviously by the success of British corriers in the FalkJands-
Malvinas War.
52
Figure 6-14: Your wing-man by as reports of hostile action begin to
come in. It's time to see just how good Ivan really is!
You are assigned to an F-14 fighter squadron aboard a carrier
that has been patrolling an area north of the Gulf of Sidra. You
have been at sea for some weeks and everything has gone
routinely well. The constant pattem of take-offs and landings has
continued with mind-numbing regularity. Suddenly, reports of a
clash with Soviets fighters are coming in. Soviet fighters .. .this far out
to sea? What's going on here?
Your carrier goes to Battle Stations just as a burst of ELF traffic
is received on the bridge. The Soviet Union and the United States
are apparently at war. The Soviet surface action group that passed
through the Turkish Straits 18 hours ago has been spotted by
satellite moving toward your carrier battlegroup at high speed. It is
thought to contain at least two aircraft carriers plus numerous
other ships. Soviet intentions are unclear at this point but the CAP
surrounding your carrier has been doubled just in case.
Despite being outnumbered 2-1 in aircraft carriers and at least
130-90 in aircraft, the men of your group are ready. If the Soviets are
looki ng for a fight they' ll get it. Officers on the bridge are clearing for
action because somewhere over the horizon a Soviet carrier force is
fast approaching. In the next couple hours the sky will fill with ai rcraft
and missi les. Once again, all eyes will be looki ng t o the few available
F-14s on-board to see t hem safely through t he battle.
OCEANA TRAINING THEATER
Welcome to Oceana Naval Air Station, Virginia Beach, Va. Oceana is the training base for the Navy's east coast F-14 squadrons. In
FLEET DEFENDER, Oceana is a training theater al so. There are no campaigns to fight here. Instead, thi s theater gi ves you the opportunity t o
study various tactical problems and culti vate the fl ying/fighting skills you'll find necessary later on.
Select the Oceana training theater as you would either of the other t wo campaign theaters. You are then given the option to
select the t ype of training that you believe you need most; Radar Training, Wing-man training, DACT, etc. There are eight training
options for you to choose from.
Figure 6-15: An F-14A landing gear extended, coming in (or a landing.
Carrier qualifications are the biggest part o( a naval aviator's carrer in
the Navy.
53

Oceana Training Theater map
FLEET READINESS TRAINING
After graduating from a basic flight school, prospective aviators are sent to Oceana for Fleet Readiness Training. In order to considered
ready for sea duty aboard a carrer, they must demonstrate their proficiency by perfonming a number of successful carrer landings. To a
naval aviator, being able to perfonm a carrer landing is a little like leaming how to parallel park a car to you and me.
Fleet Readiness Training (FRT) allows you to practice your landing techniques to your heart's content in a simulated combat
environment. There are no hostile forces to be encountered, only lots of friendly aircraft taking off or retuming from missions. You can fly
both day and night approaches in all types of weather conditions.
RADAR TRAINING
Target Identification
Being able to identify targets on radar is e xtremel y
important, after all, your F-14 is equipped with a powerful air-to-
air missi le able to hit a target at ranges exceeding 100 nm. It
woul d be a shame to waste such a sophisticated system by
waiting until you have a positive visual ID. That defeats the
whole purpose of the AIM-54.
When your radar beam detects other objects in the sky, the
retum echo fonms small rectangles on your radar screen. These
images (or bl ips) are difficult to identifY because one bl ip looks li ke
every other, you could be looking at anything from a DC- I 0 to a
cnuise missile. As part of your overall radar training it is necessary
for you to distinguish what you are seeing on your radar display.
One method of target identification is through a process of
elimination. If a target is moving fast or fl ying high you can nule out
heli copters with a fair degree of certainty. Another means of
identifYing targets is by size. Large targets are more easily spotted
on radar and at greater ranges. For example, a four-engined
bomber has a radar signature like a proverbial bam door. Your
AWG-9 should have no trouble detecting these aircraft several
hundred miles away. But your radar is hard pressed to detect a
fighter-sized aircraft at the same range.
Fighter-sized objects will begin to show up on your radar
display only as the range decreases. Cruise-missiles are even
smaller still. From a head-on aspect, their tiny cross-section makes
them almost undetectable except at very close range.
54
As part of your radar training, you are given a chance to
practice identifYing various objects on your radar. In each sequence
a number of different objects have been placed directly in front of
your F-14. The objects begin several hundred miles away but
because the objects are headed at you, you have only a limited
amount of time to distinguish between them.
The figures on the following table are modeled on a MiG-21
or comparable-sized target. Targets this size represent a radar
cross section of approximately 5m
2
(54 ft2). Thi s table should
be used as a guideline only. The actual range at which your
radar can detect a particular target depends upon its size,
altitude, and speed.
Radar Mode Detection Range
Pulse Doppler Search (PDSRCH) li S nm
Pulse Doppler Single Target Track (PDSTT) 95 nm
Range While Search (RWS) 90 nm
Track While Scan (TWS) 90 nm
Boresightl Vertical Scan Lock-On (VSL) 5 nm
Formation Identification
The next step in your radar training is being able to identify
enemy flight formations on radar. Because enemy aircraft
perform ACM based in part upon their formation configuration,
recognizing these vari ous formations gives you distinct tactical
advantages in combat.
In each sequence, an enemy formation has been placed directly
in front of your F-14, just outside its maximum radar range. You are
to identify the enemy formation then use that knowledge to your
advantage in any subsequent combat. Since your F-14 is considerably
outnumbered in these sequences, it has been made impervious to
enemy missiles and gunfire for t he purposes of this training.
Enemy Formations
Here is a brief look at the four common enemy formations
that are encountered in. They are the Wall, Box, Ladder, and
Cruise (Echelon) formations.
WALL FORMATION
The Wall formation is a flight of aircraft brought on line.
Seemingly unsophisticated, this formation requires good radar
co-ordination and discipline to be effective. The Soviets often
anrange fl ights of MiG-3 1 s in Wall formations to take advantage
of their powerful Foxhound radars. Third World air forces
generally lack the level of training necessary to make the Wall
formation work properl y. Nevertheless, these nations use the
Wal l for command and control purposes.
A typical Wall formation may extend up to 8 nm horizontally
and as much as 10,000 ft. vertically. It is easy to mistake a Wall
formation on radar at ranges between 25-50 nm. Unless your
radar is beaming at a very wide azimuth your radar may not detect
aircraft on either end of the formation.
55
OVERHEAD VIEW
..... 1-------- 6 - 8 nm. -------l .. ~
FRONT VIEW
10,000 k.
j
Figure 6-/6: The Wall is one of the easiest formations for a ffight leader to
maintain. It is a line-abreast formation which staggers aircraft at variaus
altitudes.
BOX FORMATION
The Box formation consists of four aircraft flying in a
rectangular fonmation. The leading aircraft are positioned 8- 10,000
ft higher than the two trailing aircraft so that the trailing aircraft can
keep an eye on the leading pair's blind zones. Because of the
difference in altrtude, your radar may miss one or the other pair of
aircraft. What seems to be only a single pair of bandits may
surprise you and suddenly tum into a four-ship. To keep this trom
happening, it is important to adjust your radar's bar setting in order to
scan the entire (ormation.
f
1
E
MiG -295
c
(0
,
.;.
!
...... 1----- 2-3 nm. -----
Aircraft flying in a Box fonmation use a tactic known as the
Champagne. When a member of the fonmation detects an enemy
aircraft or radar the fonmation splits up in an attempt to encircle
the attacker. A detai led descri ption of the Champagne maneuver is
outlined in Chapter Five.
~
- ~
t
8 -10,000 ft.
MiG -295
~
- ~
Figure 6-1 7: The Box Formation consists o( (our aircraft able to respond quickly to a variety o( threats.
56
LADDER FORMATION
The Ladder formation is simply a vertical stack of aircraft. The
Leading aircraft assumes the highest altitude. Each successive
aircraft in the formation is positioned I nm behind and 3,000 ft
beneath the one in front. The biggest danger in confronting a
Ladder formation is not knowing how high or how low rt: extends.
When attacking a Ladder rt: is always best to engage the upper half
of the formation first.
MiG-29s
2-4nm.
Aircraft fiying in a Ladder formation use a tactic known as the
Starburst. When a member of the fonnation detects an enemy
aircraft the formation breaks apart in order to overwhelm and
confuse an attacker. A detailed description of the Starburst
maneuver is outlined in Chapter Fi ve.
I ~
MiG-29s
10,000 ft.
I
Figure 6-18: Because of the vertical separation between aircraft the Ladder formation is frequently mistaken for something else. It is hard to detect all
the aircraft in a vertical stack with just one radar sweep.
57
THE CRUISE FORMATION
Cruise formation is used when the flight leader does not
expect to encounter enemy aircraft. It is a tightly bunched
formation which is difficult to spot on radar. Once detected,
however, the close grouping of aircraft is unmistakable. This
formation is often adopted by Third World air forces because it
allows the flight leader to keep a close eye on his aircraft.
500 ft.
j
When aircraft in Cruise formation enter combat, they usually
break into two pairs. Each pair wil l attempt to encircle an attacker
by converging on him from opposite flanks. This pincer-like
movement can be effective but it is an act of desperation. It is
hard for a group of fighters to begin a combat sequence from
Cruise format ion.
~ ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 0 0 0 f t . - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~
Figure 6-1 9: Cruise formation is a common traveling alignment used by aircraft when not in combat It is designed for ease of command and control.
58
DISSIMILAR AIR COMBAT TRAINING (DACT) SORTIES
Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT) missions are designed to test your combat skills against a variety of different aircraft. (The F-14
has been included in these DACT missions just to see how well you'd do against another Tomcat.) You are given a chance to take on not
only enemy aircraft, but some of our own models as well. Even though you can shoot at friendlies during these sorties, it's all right. No one
gets hurt and no one will hold anything against you if you happen to down a few.
There are four categories of DACT sorties: Advantaged, Disadvantaged, Neutral and Miscellaneous. Each group refers to the initial
starting position of your F-14 vis-a-vis your opponent(s). Within each category are two types of sorties: I v. I (one versus one) missions
which test your skill versus a si ngle opponent and I v.2 (one versus two) missions. You may be faced wrth three or more in the case of
miscellaneous sorties. All of these sorties are considered over once you have destroyed your opponents or have been shot down yourself
Simply exit the sortie to start the mission over or choose a new one.
Advantaged DACT Sorties
Advantaged DACT sorties begin with your F-14 holding
some sort of tactical advantage over your opponent. In some
cases you are given an altitude advantage while in others you are
given an energy (or speed) advantage. A few of these sorties
start out by placing your F-14 in the enemy aircraft's "six
o'clock" firing arc.
Regardless of what type of advantage you begin wrth, it is in
your best interest to finish off your adversary quickly. If these
sorties do nothing else they will demonstrate just how fast an
advantage can be lost in ACM. Your adversary(ies) wil l be
attempting to evade you from the very beginning of the fight. If
they can successfully escape, the tables will suddenly be tumed.
You wi ll be put on the defensive. Don't play around. Finish off your
opponent(s) early.
In the I v. 2 sorties, the second adversary means double-
trouble. You must decide for yourself how best to engage one
enemy while keeping the other at bay. Don't become so
focused on getting a ki ll , however, that you allow the other guy
to get the upper hand.
59
Neutral DACT Sorties
Neutral sorties are once again designed to test your combat
skills only this time you start from a neutral position (parity) with
the enemy. Both you and your adversary(ies) start at exactly the
same altitude, speed, and tactical placement.
You must start maneuvering for advantage from the very start
of play. The enemy(ies) will be trying to do the same. The first pilot
to get a drop on the enemy will usually win. Don't let these fights
get away from you. It is very hard to recover once you are placed
on the defensive.
Disadvantaged DACT Sorties
The most difficuh: situation you can face in air combat is to be
put on the defensive by a competent enemy pilot. It is almost
impossible to get away, and for this reason disadvantaged sorties
have been included as part of your readiness training. Be
forewamed, however, that these fights are not much fun. In most
cases the enemy should wi n rather quickly. To have an even
chance at winning you must evade the enemy immediately or spoil
his opening attack at the very least.
Figure 6-20: A Soviet Tu-95 "Bear" out to locate our carrier group and prove a
point This Bear came up short Two F-I 4s are making sure this Bear finds its
way back home.
WI NG-MAN TRAI NING
As if being bounced by one enemy aircraft wasn't bad enough,
how about two? Some of the sorties have both a ~ i g h t leader and
wing-man boring in on you for the kill. If you win one of these
matches, you should count yourself very lucky indeed.
Miscellaneous DACT Sorties
These miscellaneous sorties test your reaction to a variety of
combat situations not normally encountered by F-14 pilots. Each
sortie requires that you to be on your guard at all times. Who
knows what you may run into out there. Since the element of
surprise is important to these missions you'll just have to ~ y 'em if
you want to find out any more. They should prove very
interesting- not just your run-of-the-mill interceptions.
Your wing-man is an important contributor to the overall success of your mission but too often he is overlooked in the heat of battle.
During campaigns your wing-man's skill level increases as does your own. Using up wing-men as bait or cannon fodder negates this
important advantage.
The ten wing-man missions are designed to get you in the habit of using your wing-man to his full potential. Each mission presents you
wrth a different tactical challenge requiring you to consider the deployment of your wing-man. You cannot win these missions per se. There
are no wi nners or losers. The one thing you can do is evaluate your own performance and that of your wing-man.
Before you tackle these missions, be sure to review the wing-man section of this manual. This section outlines the various commands
you'l l need to know in order to control your wing-man and complete these missions.
60
THREAT AIRCRAFT
An-22 "Cock"
The Antinov n "Cock" was first displayed in public at the 1965 Paris air
show. It is classified as a strategic heavy-l ift transport and features a split tail ~
design facilitating On/Off loading through the rear cargo doors. The An-n has ~
a crew of 5 and can carry up to 28 passengers plus cargo totaling a maximum ~ 0 0 ( ~
of 175,000 Ibs. Its rear doors can open in flight for large scale air drops if ~
required. The An-n is able to carry al l Soviet MBTs plus some mobile SAM
systems. Until the U.S. C-5 "Galaxy" entered service, the An-n was the largest aircraft ever built. It has a cruising speed of 350 knots
and a maximum range enabling it to reach any of the worl d's trouble spots unrefueled.
An-26 "Curl"
Li ke the An-n, the Soviet Union's Antonov-26 was first shown in public at
the 1969 Pari s air show. It is classified as a light tactical transport much like our C-
I 30 "Hencules." It is the standard transport used by the Sovi et Union and its allies
for conducting airbome operations. This aircraft is able to transport up to 12,000
Ibs. of palletized cargo or 40 passengers plus their gear. The An-26 is designed to
operate from unpaved, rough strips common among Third World nations. It is
equipped with an electric winch and conveyor system for rapid on/off loading.
The An-26 has a crew of 5 and boasts a cnuising speed of over 300 knots.
61
8e-12 "Moil"
The Beriev-12 "Mail" is one of the world's few remaining military fioat-planes
and is classified as a maritime patrol and ASW aircraft. To rt.s Soviet crews, it is
known as the Tchoik.o or seagull because of its gull-shaped wings. These wings
give the Be-12 an impressive lift capacity which rivals that of the An-26. This
aircraft normally carries ASW weaponry including bombs, torpedoes, and
sonobuoys. In calm sea conditions, the Be-12 can conceivably land on the water's
surface and search with its own sonar. Although the "Mail" is getting a little fang
in the tooth by contemporary standards, it will likely remain in service for some time as a SAR platform. It is currently used only by the
Soviet Union Northem and Bl ack Sea fieet. Thi s fiying boat has a cruising speed of 350 knots and a maximum range of 2,500 nm.
G-4 Super Galeb (SeagulO
The G-4 Super Galeb is designed and constructed by the Yugoslavian firm
SOKo. These two-seat light attack aircraft are left over from the Yugoslavian
national air force. They are now being operated by Serbian pilots. The Super
Galeb is very restricted in the amount of ordnance it is able to carry. It can carry
a maximum bomb load of only 1,800 Ibs. on each wing. In addition, the Super
Galeb usually carries a centerline 23 mm GSh-23 gun pod. Although it is not
billed as such, the Super Galeb is capable of counter-insurgency (COIN)
operations. It is perfect for use against guerrilla or para-military forces deployed in mountainous terrain found throughout Yugoslavia. It is
not, however, a good choice for precision bombing. The Super Galeb is a nimble aircraft but slow (500 knots). It does not have the ability
to fight other aircraft nor the speed to run away.
1/-38 "May"
The Ilyushin-38 "May" is a maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare
(ASW) aircraft like the U.S. P-3 Orion. Whi le it probably does not have all the
sophisticated systems inherent in the Lockheed P-3, it does feature a magnetic
anomaly detector (MAD) boom. This device can be seen protruding aft of the
fuselage. Surface searches are conducted using the "Wet Eye" radar mounted in
a radome under the nose. Development of the IL-38 took place in the mid-
sixties and coincided with the deployment of increasingly capable U.S.
submarines. This aircraft probably represents an intermediate step in the evolution of Soviet ASW aircraft. It certainly is an improvement
over the Be-12 but is overshadowed by the T u-142 " Bear F" The 11-38 has a crew of at least nine, included technicians. It has a modest
cruising speed of 350 kts.
62
)-22 Orao (Eagle)
The J-22 Orao is a single seat ground support aircraft designed and built
jointly by Yugoslavia and Romania (SOKO). While its main role is that of
reconnaissance and light attack the J-22 Orao doubles as a low level interceptor.
In FLEET DEFENDER, all of the J-22 Orao aircraft encountered are J-22D Orao I
models. These aircraft are the Yugoslavian equivalent to Romania's IAR-93B.
They feature two GSh-23L cannons each with 200 rds per gun. There are fi ve
external stations for mounting ordnance. The total weapons payload for this
aircraft is less than 3,500 Ibs. As an interceptor this aircraft is outmatched by most
(if not all ) fighter aircraft at medium altitudes. The J-22 can potentially beat a larger and more capable opponent down low, especially over
mountainous tenrain. Although the single seat versions are equipped with an afterburner, the maximum sustained speed this aircraft can
manage (with ordnance) is roughly 500 knots.
Ko-25 "Hormone"
The Kaminov-25 "Hormone" is a twin engine helicopter deployed on most
Soviet naval vessels. Its principle role is that of aerial over-the-horizon (OTH)
Figure A-I : The Kaminov-25 anti-submarine
warfare helicopter. Note the chin-mounted
radar radome and Yogi ESM antennae.
reconnaissance. In this role, the Ka-25
acts as a radar picket which can be off-
set from the mother-ship. There are two
main variants of the "Hormone." The
"Hormone-B" appeared first in 1961 and
is a OTH targeting platform for missiles launched from other aircraft or surface vessels. The
"Hormone-A" appeared afterward. This variant is an ASW platform which features a dunking
sonar, MAD device, and one, possibly two, ASW torpedoes carried intemally. The Ka-25 has two
stacked co-axial rotors and two 900 shp engines. Despite its compact size the Ka-25 is
underpowered and can only manage a cnuising speed of 120 knots. These helicopters have a
maximum range of less than 400 nm. If spotted at sea, you can count on a Soviet surface vessel
being in the neighborhood.
63
Ko-27 "Helix"
The Kaminov-27 "Helix" is designed as a replacement for the older Ka-25. The
"Helix" has the same basic design as the Ka-25 but features an extended cabin and ~
greater weapons outfrt. Like the "Honmone" there are numerous "Helix" variants.
The "Helix A" model is an ASW platfonm which carries a dunking sonar, MAD ~ , 1- 0
device, and search radar. These helicopters usually operate in pairs; one tracking the ~
submarine, whi le the other deploys ordnance. The "Hel ix B" has been redesignated
Ka-29. It is a heavily anmored version of the Ka-27 used for seabome transport of
assauh: troops. The Ka-27 was exported to Yugoslavia during the 19S0s and was redesignated Ka-2S. h: is believed these helicopters are the
"Helix A" ASW variants. The Ka-27 features a crew of three and has a sustained cruising speed of approximately 120 knots.
MiG-21 "Fishbed"
Known in Soviet circles as "Eagle", the MiG-21 is a testament to Soviet
engineering. This ubiquitous delta-winged fighter aircraft is still in service after 25 ~
years. In the I 960s, this aircraft was the Soviet Union's principle interceptor. It
rem,in, in ,e",ice with m,ny Thicd World mtion, tod,y de,pite it, limited ~ [lUi ,9
avionics because of the ease at which it can be maintained. The delta wing gives ~ ~ ~ ~
the MiG-21 good low speed control but causes a rapid loss of energy due to the
increased drag. All "Fishbeds" encountered in FLEET DEFENDER are assumed to
be MiG-21 bis-B ( "Fishbed N"). The single-seat MiG-21 bis features a GSh-23 23 mm cannon and up to four AAMs. Both radar-guided AA-
2s and heat-seeking AA-2 or AA-S missiles can be carried. The MiG-21 bis mounts a "Jay Bird" search radar along the centerline. The single
T umansky turbo-jet engine gives the MiG-21 a maximum speed of725 knots in a clean configuration.
MiG-23 "Flogger"
The MiG-23 "Flogger" is a single seat swept-wing fighter/bomber. It was first
displayed at Domodedovo Airport near Moscow in 1967 and entered ~
operational service with the Soviet airforce in 1973. It was the first Soviet fighter
to demonstrate a "Look down-shoot down" capability. To a large extent, the ~ I g
MiG-23 has been replaced by MiG-29 and Su-27 fighter aircraft. Outside the
Soviet Union, export versions of the MiG-23 still remain in service with several
Third World air forces. In fact, the lion's share of Libyan air force is comprised of "Flogger E" and Flogger F" variants. Almost 100 MiG-23s
are based throughout the country. The "Flogger E" is a single seat export version of the "Fl ogger B" with a "Jay Bird" radar adaptation. The
"Flogger F" is a single attack fighter/bomber equipped with a laser rangefinder and AS-7 "Kerry" ASMs. The MiG-23 carries a GSh-23L
23mm gun in addition to four radar guided or heat-seeking AAMs. Its afterbuming T umansky turbojet gives this aircraft a maximum speed
of almost 700 knots.
64
MiG-25 "Foxbot"
The MiG-25 "Foxbat" was the tirst Soviet aircraft to really scare Westem
military experts. It was produced to combat the intended deployment of a mach
3 high altitude bomber by the U.s. in the early I 960s. By 1964, the Soviets had
produced a MiG-25 prototype capable of mach 3 even though the U.S. bomber
program was long dead. By concentrating on altitude and speed, the Soviets had
to sacrifice in other areas. As a result, the MiG-25 has impressive straight line
perfonmance but can't dogfight worth beans. Therefore, the "Foxbat" is classified as an interceptor rather than a true fighter. It seeks to
avoid close combat and, like the F-14, relies on long range missiles to shoot down opponents. The MiG-25 is at its best only when flying
within a narrow perfonmance envelope (i.e. speeds above mach 2.5 and altitudes greater than 50,000 ft). Once the aircraft is forced to fl y
outside this envelope, it perfonms like a "truck." Because of this, the MiG-25 has been relegated to high altitude reconnaissance duty, and is
rarely seen as a tighter.
MiG-27 "Flogger D"
The MiG-27 "Flogger" is identical to the swept-wi ng MiG-23 except for a
protruding nose window which houses an air-to-ground radar. This radar is used ~
for precision targeting. There is also a covered radome which contains a laser ~
sight for LGB delivery. Intemally, the MiG-27 has been restructured to withstand ~ g '_
higher buffeting at low levels. Its G tolerance is still limited to 8 Gs, however. T h e ~
lack of an all-weather strike capability or air intercept radar limits the effectiveness
of the MiG-D. It does carry a GSh-6-30 30 mm Gatling gun, however. While this gun is primari ly used to strafe ground targets, it could
easily be tumed on an unsuspecting air target. The "Flogger D" also cannes up to four heat-seeking missiles on extemal hard points for self-
defense. The MiG-27's single afterbuming turbofan gives it a maximum sustained speed approaching 700 knots.
MiG-29 "Fulcrum"
The MiG-29 "Fulcrum" is a single seat, all-weather fighter with a limited
ground attack capability. Two versions of the MiG-29 are represented in FLEET
DEFENDER. The tirst version is the land-based MiG-29 "Fulcrum A." The
"Fulcrum A" is the standard production model which entered service in 1985. It
features a GSh-30 30 mm gun in the right wingroot and can also carry up to six
AAMs mounted on pylons, three per wing. The usual weapon configuration for
thi s aircraft is four AA-I 0 "Alamo" and two AA-I I "Archer" missiles although it can also carry AA-9 "Amos" and AA-8 "Aphid" missiles as
well. The other versi on of this aircraft is the naval variant "Fulcrum K." The "Fulcrum K" has been redesigned to allow it to operate off the
Soviet Union's fleet canner, Admiral Kuznetsov. Both versions have impressive perfonmance records and a maneuverability which rivals the F-
16 Falcon. The MiG-29's two afterbuming Klimov turbofans give it a sustainable top end speed at sea level of 750 knots.
65
MiG-3/ "Foxhound"
The MiG-31 "Foxhound" is a two-seat, all-weather, high-altitude strategic
interceptor based on the earlier MiG-25 design. The "Foxhound" is said to have a
"look down- shoot down" capability. Its "Flash Dance" radar is able to engage
Figure A-2: The MiG-3 I, was the last front
line, production fighter to be produced by the
Soviet Union prior to the 1989 break-up.
Mi-8 "Hip"
multiple targets simultaneously. The
MiG-31 retains the MiG-25's basic
outward appearance but has been
significantly strengthened to enhance its performance at low altitudes. Despite the changes the
MiG-31 retains some of the negative attributes of the MiG-25. Instead of carrying the AA-6
"Acrid", the MiG-31 carries the more capable long range AA-9 "Amos." With better missiles and a
more powerful radar, the "Foxhound" can remain far away from a dogfight and still infiict casualties.
MiG-31 s are sometimes used as substitute AWACS aircraft. A number of "Foxhounds" get on line
and use their "Flash Dance" radars to cover an enormous amount of airspace. These aircraft pack a
single GSh-6-N23 23 mm gun with 260 rounds. If used correctly, these aircraft should never get
close enough to enemy aircraft to use it.
The Mi l-8 "Hip" is a multi-purpose utility helicopter first fiown by the Soviet
Union in 1961. The standard production model features two I ,500 shp engines
which drive a five-bladed single shaft rotor. The "Hip" has a maximum forward
speed of 145 mph and an average cruising speed of 125 mph. The Mi-8 has a
crew of three and can cany up to a platoon (32 men) of heavily armed troops or
almost five tons of equipment. As an assault platform, the "Hip" carries twin racks
for 57 mm rockets. It can lay down suppressive fire to keep a defending force pinned down as it lands its troops. The Mi-8 was widely used
by Arab anmies throughout their wars with Israeli. This helicopter was instrumental in the 1973 Egyptian crossing of the Suez canal. In
FLEET DEFENDER, the "Hip" is used to transport Soviet assauh: troops and Spetznatz commandos behind our lines in Norway. In Libya,
the Mi-8 is used to move men and equipment around the country. If you're lucky you may even catch Qaddifi on a sight seeing trip.
Mi-/4 "Haze"
The Mil-14 "Haze" is nothing more than a float-equipped Mi-8 with a boat hull
undercarriage. h:s weight, appearance and performance are similar. h:s role is that of
dedicated ASW. The fioats give the Mi-14 an amphibious capability that the Mi-8 lacks.
h: also features an ASW radome undemeath its nose, dunking sonar and an magnetic
anomaly detector (MAD) device. The "Haze" carries a crew of four plus a full array
of sonobuoys, torpedoes, and depth charges. It has a cruising speed of 120 knots.
66
Mi-24 "Hind 0 "
The Mil-24 " Hind D" is a heavily armored attack heli copter tirst deployed by
the Soviet Union in 1975. It is intended as an anti-tank platform much like the
AH-64 "Apache." However, unli ke westem attack heli copters, the Mi-24 is larger,
heavier, and can also canry a squad of troops. Al l versions of the "Hind" have
multi-barrel Gatl ing type guns mounted under the nose. The "Hind D" also
carries four anti-tank missiles and up to four 57 mm rocket pods. The "Hind" has
~
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been nicknamed the "fl ying tank" because it is so heavil y armored. There are even two tandem armored glass canopies for both pilot and
co-pilot. All this armor drives the loaded weight of the helicopter over 22,000 Ibs. In FLEET DEFENDER, the "Hind D" can be found
escorting flights of Mi-8s or conducting raids on our armor concentrations. It has an average cruising speed of 140 knots but can manage a
maximum speed of almost I 80 knots.
Mirage F-/
The Mi rage F-I is a single seat al l-weather tighter/bomber. The French built
Mirage F-I is a new generation in Dassault aircraft design. It represents a
departure from the familiar delta-wi ng configuration of the earlier Mirage aircraft.
This retum to a more traditional wing design has created a more stable platform.
The aircraft has better short-field TOl characteristics as well as an improved
dogfighting agility. Surprisingly, many Third World nations seem to prefer the
delta wi nged Mirage III or Mi rage 5 over this aircraft. Even so, over 500 Mirage F-
I s were delivered to foreign buyers prior to 1974. Since that time sales of the F-I have been eclipsed by the newer Mirage 2000 although
the F-I made something of a name for itself during the Iran-Iraq war. The F-I became Iraq's principle air defense tighter and tigured
prominently as an attack platform during the "Tanker War" campaign. It was a Mirage F-I which hit the U.S.S Stork in 1987 with an Exocet
missile. The F-I 's Atar 9k-50 turbojet gives it a maximum sustainable speed of 650 knots at low to medium altitudes.
Su-/ 7 "Fitter"
The Sukhoi-17 " Fitter" is a si ngle seat tighter/ bomber tirst displayed at
Domodedovo airport near Moscow in 1967. The Su-17 differs little in extemal
appearance from an earl ier Sukhoi design, the Su-7. However, the Su-17 has a tuming
radius almost half that of the Su-7 plus better low speed handling and endurance. Its
l yulka AF-21 F-3 afterbuming turbojet engine gives the Su-1 7 a maximum speed of
700 knots at low altitudes. As an interceptor, the " Fitter" is somewhat outclassed
by newer Soviet designs, especially t he Su-27 "Fl anker." Still, there is something to be said for quantity and there are hundreds of Su-17s
assigned to Soviet Naval Aviation units. The Su-22 "Fitter D" is the designation given to the Su- 17 when contigured for export. The avionics
in the export version are inferior to the standard Su-17 "Fitter C' used domestically. However, the Su-22 does seem to be relegated to an
air-to-ground role. As a strike tighter in the hands of Third Worl d nat ions, the Su-22 is probably limited to dropping free-fall bombs.
67
Su-24 "Fencer"
aircraft. It was first displayed publicly in 1971 . The Su-24 entered operational
The Sukhoi-24 "Fencer" is a very capable two seat. all-weather ground attack
service in 1977 and represents the first Soviet aircraft since 1945 to be -fi;S
solely as a tactical strike aircraft. In time of war the "Fencer" is expected to strike !JiMtp
NATO airfields in throughout westem Europe. Using a Hi-Lo-Hi flight profile, this
aircraft is quite capable of performing this mission from its bases inside the Soviet Union. Because of the "Fencer's" all-weather capability, it
is likely to replace the MiG-27s remaining in Soviet inventory. This capable aircraft is almost certainly a copy of the F-I II design. It even
duplicates the same tandem seating design error. It probably cannot perform the same type of low level penetrations expected of the F-I I I,
however. The Su-24 packs a GSh-23 23 mm gun and a wide range of air-to-ground ordnance. It lacks an air-to-air capability and must rely
on speed to escape would-be attackers. A maritime reconnaissance version exists known as the "Fencer E." Operational service began in
1985. It will eventually replace the Baltic Fleet's T u-16s.
Su-25 "Frogfoot"
The Sukhoi-25 "Frogfoot" is the Soviet equivalent of the USAF's AI 0 tank- #
killing "Thunderbolt II." As a ground attack aircraft the Su-25 is heavily armored
ood feature; a titan;,m "bath-t,b" mckpIT. Be""e th;; a;cccaft ;peod; mo;t of " I
time in close proximity to enemy ground fire, crew survivability is put at a . :
premium. Like the "Warthog", the Su-25 is primarily used to attack enemy armor
formations. It carries a panoply of munitions including AT missiles, rockets, and
armor piercing cluster bombs. While it is feared by enemy ground troops the "Frogfoot" has little air-to-air capability. Lacking an air
intercept radar, this aircraft is limited to heat-seeking self defense missiles (usually AA-8 "Aphids"). Though this aircraft is slow by fighter
standards, it is very maneuverable even when loaded. The "Frogfoot" loves to fl y at low altitudes and uses the tenrain for cover very well. A
naval version of the Su-2S is assigned to the Soviet carrier Admiral Kuznetsov . In FLEET DEFENDER, the naval version is used to provide air
support to Soviet amphibious forces.
68
Su-27 "Flanker"
The Sukhoi-27 "Flanker" is a single seat all-weather interceptor which entered
service in the mid-'80s after a difficult developmental period. It is perhaps the ~
most capable air-to-air platfonrn in Soviet inventory. Like the F-14, it is very large, ~
over 50% larger than the MiG-29. It carries a track-whi le-scan Doppler "Iook- ~ -
down- shoot down" radar of great power plus all the latest Soviet AAMs. The - 0
Su-27 has been deployed to the Kola peninsula in substantial numbers. Despite its
size the "Flanker" remains an excellent dogfighter with demonstrated slow speed maneuverability. Its ability to tail slide at air shows has
impressed audiences. The Su-27 carries a GSh-30 30 mm gun with 150 rds in the right wing root. It has a combination of pylons and hard
points able to accommodate 10 AAMs. At least some of these missiles are slaved to a target designator in the pilot's helmet. A naval
version ofthe Su-27 has been built for operations off the Soviet Union's fieet carrier, Admiral Kuznetsov.
Tu-I 6AIDIG/HijiL "Badger"
The venerable T upolev-16 "Badger" is an intenrnediate range bomber which
has been converted to perfonrn a number of specialized maritime tasks. It first fiew
in the early I 950s. Shortly afterward, the T u-16 was declaned obsolete with the
introduction of the more capable T u-22 and T u-22M aircraft. Most were
Figure A-3 The T u- I 6 "Badger viewed trom
a toikhase position. The twin 23 mm toil-
mounted guns would make an interception
from this aspect unhealthy.
transferred to Soviet Naval Aviation
during the I 960s. It became the Soviet
Navy's first missile carrying aircraft in 196 1. Since that time the T u-16 has since been exported to
many of the Soviet Union's client states. The "Badger A" is the standard production model strategic
bomber. It is able to carry conventional or nuclear fneefall bombs. The "Badger D" is a maritime
reconnaissance platform notable for the three tandem radomes undemeath the fuselage. The
"Badger G" is a strike version similar to the "Badger A" yet able to carry two stand-off ASMs. The
"Badger H" can usually be found accompanying a strike force. It is an ECM aircraft which carries up
to 20,000 Ibs. of chaff The "Badger J" is an ECM active jammer which also accompanies a group of
bombers. In FLEET DEFENDER, the "Badger" Hand J models will be found in most large groups of
T u-16s. They will be using their specialized functions to protect these bomber groups. The
"Badger L" is yet another electronic neconnaissance platfonrn outfitted much like the T u-95 "Bear D."
69
Tu-22 "Blinder"
The T upolev-22 "Blinder" is a twin engined supersonic strategic bomber with a
crew of three. Development of this aircraft began in the late I 950s when it became
apparent. that the subsonic T u-16 was nearing the end of its usefulness. In 1961 , a
Tu-22 was seen carrying a missile during a Moscow fl y-by. Like its predecessor, the
T u-I 6, the "Blinder" has been overtaken by technological advances. Again the
majority ofT u-22s were transferred to maritime duties or sold to the Third World.
I ~
o 0
The "Blinder" is one of the few post 1950s bombers to actually participate in combat. Libyan "Blinder A" models have dropped bombs in
both Tanzania and Chad. A second variant, the "Blinder B" is configured to carry a single ASM (usually an AS-4 "Kitchen.") The most
common variant is the "Blinder C" used by Soviet Naval Aviation as a maritime reconnaissance platform. The T u-22's normal cruising speed
at mission altitude is approximately 400 knots. It features a tail mounted radar controlled NR-23 23 mm gun used for self defense.
Tu-22M "Backfire"
The T upolev-22M "Backfre" is a twin engine swept-wing strategic bomber.
Development of this aircraft began in the late 1960s but it wasn't until 1970 that
prototypes began being spotted near Kazan. This aircraft has been the subject of
much heated debate. U.s. officials consider the "Backfire" a nuclear-capable
intercontinental strategic bomber able to reach targets throughout the United
States with in-flight refueling. The Soviets, on the other hand, look upon the
T u-22M as an intermediate range strike platform. In 1980, the Department of Defense stated that the "Backfre" bomber was more of a
threat to trans-Atlantic shipping than the Soviet submarine fleet. The T u-22M normally carres one or two AS-4 or AS-6 anti-ship missiles. It
has a crew of four and a comprehensive ECM suite. For self defense, there are a pair of tail-mounted radar controlled 23 mm guns. The
"Backfire" is designed for low level penetration at supersonic speeds.
Tu-9S0/G/F "Bear"
The Tupolev-95 "Bear" is a four engined turbo-prop strategic bomber and
maritime reconnaissance aircraft. It has had the longest production run of any
combat aircraft in history. The T u-95 was declared operational as early as
1956. Since the time, the "Bear" has undergone several major modifications.
The "Bear D" is an unanmed reconnaissance and OTH targeting variant. It can be
recognized by the large ventral radome (Big Bulge) and smaller chin-mounted
search radar. The "Bear G" is the missile carrying version of the same aircraft. It is configured to carry two AS-4 or AS-6 missiles. The T u-
142 "Bear F" is a dedicated ASW aircraft and has a second stores release point aft of the wings. The T u-95 has a remarkable endurance
and a combat radius of almost 4,500 nm. They are sent ahead of a main strike force to pinpoint targets and coordinate attacks. Their tell-
tale "Big Bulge" radars are a dead give-away. Certain "Bear" aircraft are used as T ACAMO platforms and trail numerous VLF antennas.
70
Tu-126 'Moss"
The T u-I 26 "Moss" is a Soviet AWACs aircraft based on a T u-I 14 fuselage.
A rotating saucer above the fuselage houses a "Flat Jack" radar believed to have a ~
m<D<im"m mge of 250 em. Accmuieg to NATO "'""5 thi, "doc i, ieeffective r ~
over land and only slightly better over water. While this mayor may not be true ---e:= --Vli@ [I eF ~
the T u-126 is certainly less capable than our own AWACS aircraft. The "Moss"
carres a crew of 12 including technicians. Its four turbo-prop engines give it a
cruising speed of 350 knots. This ai rcraft is intended to work with a specific group of fi ghters. It is probably not able to bind a defense
together like our E-2C "Hawkeye." Fewer than 10 of these aircraft remain in service today. Taking out one of these aircraft would be a
major accomplishment for an F- 14.
Yok-38 "Forger"
The Yakovlev-38 "Forger" is a single seat VTOL (vertical take-off and
landing) fighter/bomber. The "Forger" was first deployed in 1976 when it was
spotted on the deck of the Soviet CVH Kiev. This ai rcraft is designed for light
attack, reconnaissance, and limited air-to-air operations. It is equi pped with two
pylons on each wing for mounting up to 8,000 Ibs. of extemal ordnance. The
"Forger" has no ai r intercept radar. For self defense, two AA-8 "Aphid" heat-
seeking missi les are generally carred along with a GSh-23 23 mm gun. Although the "Forger" appears to mimic the British Hanrier, the
Yak-38 is far less capable. It wil l be hard pressed to hold its own agai nst a t rue fighter aircraft. The "Forger" has a maximum speed at sea
level of only 525 knots.
71
FRIENDLYI NEUTRAL AIRCRAFT
A-6E "Intruder"
The Grumman A-6E "Intruder" is a carner-based, all-weather strike aircraft. The
cunrent production model is known as A-6EfTRAM (Target Recognrti on Attack
Multi-sensor). The TRAM all ows the bombancier/nav officer to acquire the target on
radar then use the system's FUR to visually identi1j it. Once identified, the TRAM can
laser designate the target for precision bombing. The A-6E has 5 extemal hanc points
and can mount a variety of weapons including Harpoon missiles. These aircraft make
up the heavy attack squadrons of a carrier's air wi ng. Three t ypes of A-6
configurations are represented in FLEET DEFENDER There is the standanc attack A-
6E, the EA-6B "Prowler" electronic jamming aircraft, and finally the KA-6D refueling tanker. The Prowler is unarmed except for HARM missi les
cunrently frtted on some models. The KA-6D tanker carnes no weapons. Instead the KA-6D carnes up to 2,000 gallons of fuel which can be
transfered in-flight. At the start of each campaign, there are ten (10) A-6Es, four (4) KA-6Ds and five (5) EA-6Bs on board your carner.
A-7E "Corsair"
The Vought A-7E "Corsair" is a single-seat carrier-based, light attack aircraft.
The "Corsair", based on the Navy's F-8 "Crusader", was produced to replace the
Navy's aging A-4 Skyhawk in 1964. The first models were built to carry heavy
Figure A-4: Two A-7s overfly the U.S.S.
Nimitz (CVN -68). This picture was taken in
1985, probably during one of its
Mediterranean deployments.
payloads for very long distances. They
had no all -weather capability. The E
models have been upgraded with the
addrtion of a FUR. The A-7E mounts the
same gun as the F-14 and can carry
twice as much ammunition. There are three pylons on each wing plus a fuselage mount for a total
of eight weapons stations. The maximum load for the aircraft including fuel is approximately 9,500 Ibs.
When full y loaded the aircraft is limited to 5 Gs or less. At sea level, the "Corsai r" can manage a
sustained level speed of almost 700 knots. Throughout the I 980s, the A-7 has been gradually
replaced by the F/A-18 "Homet." In FLEET DEFENDER, A-7Es will be present only in those
campaigns taking place prior to 1985. Two squadrons (24 aircraft) are assigned to your carrier at
the start of each pre- 1985 campaign scenario.
72
B-52G "Strotofortress"
The Boeing B-52 "Stratofortress" is one of the oldest aircraft in the USAF
inventory. Generally they are older than the men who fly them. The basic B-52
"Stratofortress" is a long range strategic bomber able to canry both conventional
and nuclear payloads. These aircraft though aging, have kept pace with
technological advances. Periodic modemization programs have upgraded their
avionics as well as their ECM suite. They carry a crew of six; pilot, co-pilot,
o 0
navigator, radar operator, ECM tech and dedicated gunner who operates a 20 mm Vulcan gun mounted on the tail. In FLEET DEFENDER,
only the B-52G model is represented. The B-52G is used as a maritime reconnaissance and cruise missi le launch platform. Besides ALCM
(Air Launched Cruise Missiles) the B-52G also is equipped to fire Harpoon missiles at naval targets. In some scenarios, they will be equipped
with conventional bombs. These aircraft have a service ceiling of 55,000 ft. and a maximum speed of 500 knots. Low level penetration runs
can be made at 400 knots.
C-130 "Hercules"
The Lockheed C-I 30 "Hercules" is a tactical transport aircraft which has
taken on numerous other roles over the years. Almost 2,000 of these aircraft
have been produced. The C-130 is in service throughout the world. It is rugged,
reliable, and inexpensive which are three things that make it attractive to the
Third World. In FLEET DEFENDER, there are three different models of ;.
"Hercules" present. The most common version is the standard C-I 30H
transport. This version is able to drop men and equipment with pinpoint
accuracy. The second variant an EC-130Q T ACAMO (Take Charge And Move Out), is responsible for coordinating and orchestrating
battlefield operations. The third variant found in FLEET DEFENDER is the EC-130H Compass Call. Compass Call is a jamming platform
which is directed at disrupting enemy Cll. All three of these models are unarmed and travel very slowly. They are easy kills for enemy
fighters unless given adequate fighter escort. The C-130's average cruising speed while transporting cargo is approximately 350 knots.
E-2C "Hawkeye"
The Grumman E-2C "Hawkeye" is a carrer-based Airbome Early Waming
(AEVV) aircraft. It entered service aboard the US.s Saratoga in 1974. This aircraft
normally carres a crew of five. The heart of the E-2C is its ANI APS-145 radar
which can cover up to 2,000 targets simultaneously out to a range of 250 nm.
Both surface vessels and air targets (incl. cruise missiles) can be detected with up
to forty contacts processed at one time. The E-2C can make passive detection of
air targets out to almost 500 nm. Five (5) of these aircraft are normally carred
aboard an aircraft carrer. One of these is aloft continuously. In FLEET DEFENDER,
73
the "Hawkeye" is your best means of detecting incoming enemy aircraft. It acts as a pair of all-seeing eyes which bind the various CAP
formations into a single cohesive defense unit. It will generally fiy to a pre-determined point off-set from the carrier so that its radar
emissions do not disclose the carrier's actual location. From there it can direct the "outer air battle" going on around the battlegroup. In this
respect, the E-2C is the single most important aircraft onboard an aircraft carrier. It has an endurance time of up to 6 hours at a normal
cruising speed onoo knots.
F-4 "Phantom"
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 "Phantom II " is arguably the most recognizable
tighter aircraft in the history of air combat. It is one of those classic aircraft that
has managed to capture the imagination of air enthusiasts the world over. Like
the confrontation between Spitfire and Me-109 during the Battle of Britain in
1940, the F-4 has come to symbolize the cold war air battles fought against
Soviet MiGs. In the I 980s, the F-4 "Phantom" was surpassed as a front line
tighter/interceptor but remains in service as a "Wild Weasel" SAM suppresser and jammer. Hundreds still remain on active duty as fighters
with NATO and alli ed nations. In FLEET DEFENDER, the United Kingdom, Turkey and Greece all use the F-4 to supplement their force of
F-16s. Their "Phantoms" are equipped with both AIM-7 Spanrows and AIM-9 Sidewinder missi les. All are equipped with a 20 mm Vulcan in
the nose. The F-4's maximum air speed for high altitude interceptions is approximately 700 knots.
F-SE 'Tiger II "
The Northrop F-SE "Tiger II ", although built in the United States, was never
adopted for service with the USAF except in specialized "Aggressor squadrons."
It is characterized as being an economical light attack tighter with the emphasis on
the word economical. The F-S lacks the expensive avionics which would drive
the cost up. For Thi rd World nations, the F-SE represents an aerodynamically
clean platform which can be expanded upon. They carry a 20 mm gun plus

Sidewinder AAMs for self defense. While their main role is that of ground attack, F-SEs are fiown as tighter/i nterceptors by some neutral
nations. They are difficult to spot in combat because of their size. They are nimble and better than average dogfighters despite the lack of
an air intercept radar. The United States uses these aircraft to simulate combat with Soviet MiGs. In FLEET DEFENDER, the F-SE will be
encountered in the Mediterranean and Training theaters.
74
F-I 6 "Falcon"
The General Dynamics F-16 " Falcon" is a single seat fighter considered by
many to be the preeminent dogfighter in the world. Nicknamed the "electric jet"
because of its fly-by-wire controls, the F-16 easily outperforms most fighter aircraft
when rt comes to ACM. The first prototypes were ordered in back in 1972. By
1975, four European nations (in addrtion to the USAF) had placed orders for the
F-16. The first operational "Falcon" was delivered in 1979. The F- 16 has many
features which make it a pilot's dream machine, including a Head-up Display and
HOT AS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) technology. It has a 3600 degree bubble canopy which gives the pilot unlimrted visi bilrty. These
aspects of aircraft design are crucial pilot aids yet often overlooked. The F-16 has a positi ve thrust-to-weight ratio which gives it a
remarkable ability to make sustained climbs. It can tum on a dime and give you back change. The F-16 does have limitations, however. It is
not a BVR (Beyond Visual Range) platform. It is good in close but lousy at long range combat. In FLEET DEFENDER, F-1 6s are an int egral
part of campaigns flown in both combat theaters.
FIA- IB "Hornet"
The McDonnell Douglas F/A- 18 "Hornet" is a single seat (A model) mutti-
role aircraft which combines excellent fighter and strike characteristics. Atthough
not as maneuverable as t he F- 16, the FI A- 18 is capable of delivering a variety of
air to ground ordnance. In t he 1980s the Navy began repl acing t he A-7E aircraft
with the F/A- 18. The " Hornet" can carry a wide assortment of air-to-ground
ordnance including Harpoons. In FLEET DEFENDER, twenty (20) F/A- 18s are
assigned to your carrier at the start of each post- I 985 campaign. These dual role aircraft are invaluable. Not only can they perform strike
missions but they can provide their own escort as well. The "Hornet" has nine external hard points for mounting ordnance. In addit ion to a
M61 A I 20 mm gun with 570 rds the " Hornet" also carries both Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles.
F-I I I "One Eleven"
The General Dynamics F-I I I "One Eleven" began its career back in the 4
I 960s. tt was billed as an aircraft that could do everything, fight like a fighter, bomb =
like a bomber and have the range of a heavy transport. In trying to be all these ~ '
things the F-I I I design got caught up in Congressional procurement squabbles. --::::::::: ~ d @ I,%? I
The on-again off-again nature of this aircraft's production didn't help, either.
Defense Secretary McNamarra had tried to save money by having one aircraft perform many tasks but in the end he was accused of "buying
the second best aircraft at the higher price." The F-I I I became the first aircraft able to penetrate enemy airspace using tenrain fol lowing radar
(TFR). In this respect, the F-I I I can be looked upon as the fore-runner to the B-1 bomber. In FLEET DEFENDER, F-I I I s are based in the
Unrted Kingdom. They will be conducting low level strikes on Soviet troop concentrations in Norway as well the historical 1986 Libyan strikes.
75
CH-53E "Super Stallion"
The Sikorsky CH-53E "Super Stallion" is a heavy-lift transport helicopter used
by the Marine Corps for amphibious assault operations. It features a crew of
three and can accommodate up to 55 passengers plus their equipment. A
hydraulic ramp in t he rear of the helicopter can be lowered for quick
loading/unloading. In FLEET DEFENDER, these helicopters are used to move
troops from shi p to shore. They are also useful in removi ng damaged aircraft
from the fi ight deck of your ai rcraft carrier. The CH-53 is unanmed and has a
nonmal operating speed of 130 knots.
Nimrod
The British Aerospace (BA) Nimrod is a maritime reconnaissance platfonm
simi lar to the U.S. P-3C "Orion." It is intended to remain in service with RAF
Strike Command into the next century. The Nimrod has a crew of twelve
including technicians. It carries the latest in ASW sensory equipment. With its
MAD equipment the Nimrod can both detect and attack enemy submarines. Up
to nine ASW torpedoes can be carried intemally along with a number of active
sonobuoys. The Nimrod combines medium altitude perfonmance with outstanding low level handling characteristics. The Ni mrod has four
turbofan engines and can remain on patrol station for up to twelve ( 12) hours. It can carry Harpoon ASMs as well as heat-seeking AAMs
for self defense.
P-3 "Orion"
The Lockheed P-3 "Orion" is a land-based, long range maritime
reconnaissance and ASW aircraft. It nonmally carries a crew of ten including
technicians. The "Orion" carries a variety of ordnance; everything from Mk. 82
bombs, ASW torpedoes, to sonobuoys and nuclear depth charges. These aircraft
have a mission radius of almost 1,500 miles and may stay on station for almost 3
hours. Nonmal patrol speed for these aircraft is 300 knots. The "Orion" has good
medium altitude handling but it is particularly adept at low level operations. Two heat-seeking Sidewinder AAMs are usually mounted for
self defense. There have been four major upgrades to the original P-3C since 1974. In FLEET DEFENDER, all P-3Cs meet Upgrade IV
standards and feature the latest sonobuoy receivers, an IRDS (Infrared Detection System) for tracking targets, and Harpoon missi les.
76
S-3 "Viking"
The Lockheed S-3 "Viking" is a carner-based ASW aircraft. It replaced the
Navy's S-2 "Tracker" in 1986. FLEET DEFENDER assumes that the S-3 has already
replaced the S-2 in each scenario. Ten ( 10) of these aircraft serve aboard your
aircraft carner. The "Viki ng" carnes a variety of anti-submarine ordnance including
torpedoes, Mk 82 500 Ibs bombs, and depth charges. They can also carry a pair
of Harpoon ASMs for light strikes. The "Viking" has no air-to-air capability. These
aircraft will perfonrn routine ASW duty throughout your campaign. If a submarine
is spotted, additional S-3 aircraft or helicopters are automaticall y vectored to the area. These aircraft will need the protection afforded them
by having F-14s around. At sea level, their maximum speed of 525 knots is not fast enough to evade enemy fighters.
SH-2F "Seasprite"
The Kaman SH-2F "Seasprite" is a shi p based multi-purpose helicopter. Its
principle duties inciude SAR (Search and Rescue), ASW, mi ssile targeting and ~
observation. The "Seasprite" was first deployed in 1971. Since that time the SH-2F
has been brought up to Mk I LAMPS (Light Airbome Multi-Purpose System) fl . :_ .
standards. In this configuration the SH-2F can carry up to two ASW torpedoes, ~ _
DIFAR and DICASS sonobuoys. The SH-2F has been upgraded and redesignated
SH-2G. The SH-2G "Super Seasprite" has a better avionics fit than the F model.
The G model includes a FUR This helicopter began service in 1987. In FLEET DEFENDER, the SH-2G appears in the later scenarios only.
Both the F and G model Seasprite helicopters have a maximum operating speed of I 30 knots.
SH-3A "Sea King"
The Sikorsky SH-3A "Sea Ki ng" is based on an earlier Sikorsky design, the S-61 ,
first flown in the I 950s. The S-61 was redesignated the SH-3 in 1962. The "Sea
King" is both an ASW and SAR helicopter. It has a crew of four; pilot. co-pilot,
and two sonar operators. It is equipped wrth a dipping sonar along wrth a number
of active and passive sonobuoys. In addition, a MAD boom runs the length of the
fuselage. A automatic hover system is used when conducting sonar operations.
The "Sea King" is anrned with two ASW torpedoes or depth charges. It has a maximum operating speed of 140 knots. The watertight boat-
hull, retractable landing gear and flotation pontoons allow this helicopter to land on the surface of the water. In FLEET DEFENDER, these
helicopters are used in ASW, SAR and transport operations.
77
SH-60B "Seahawk"
The Sikorsky SH-60B "Seahawk" began development in 1982 after winning a
Navy competrtion to replace the LAMPS II. It is an ASW and anti-ship targeting
helicopter able to operate in adverse weather conditions. The "Seahawk" is
similar to the UH-60 "Blackhawk" used by the U.s. Army. It is able to undertake
SAR operations and act as a communications picket and relay if necessary. The
"Seahawk" can data-l ink its displays with those on-board the mother-ship. It is
equipped with a MAD "bird" and armed with two ASW torpedoes. These helicopters are found on several classes of U.s. Frigates,
Destroyers, and Cruisers. They can remain on station for more than an hour longer than the LAMPS I hel icopters they are replacing.
Tornado GR. I, Mk3
The Panavia T omado GR I is a twin engined, all-weather strike fighter. It is
designed for low level supersonic battlefield penetration. The Royal Air Force
received its first T omado GR I in 1982. It features a variable swept wing and a
precision TFR (Terrain Following Radar). The Tornado GR. I is a versati le
platform allowing for a variet y of mission configurations. Its maximum speed
whi le mission loaded is just over 600 knots. The T omado Mk3 ADV (air defense
~
o 0
variant) is equipped with the very capable pulse-Doppler Foxhunter radar. It carries up to four radar-guided Sky Flash missiles plus two
heat-seeking Sidewinders. In FLEET DEFENDER, the GR.I will be conducting low level strikes on milrtary installations whil e the Mk3 wi ll be
assigned to air defense duties.
78
APPENDIX B: Naval
MAJOR THREAT VESSELS
Kuznetsov closs (Aircraft. carrier)
The Admiral Kuznetsov represents the fonmer Soviet Union's first attempt at deploying a true fixed-wing aircraft carrier. The ship's keel
was laid down in 1983 at the Crimean shipyard of Nikolayev. Thereafter, construction was watched closely by interested observers in the
West. With the addition of this vessel the Soviet Navy was making a transition from coastal defense force to one capable of sustained
global operations. The Adm. Kuznetsov, (and her sister ship Voryog) compare poorly to aircraft carriers belonging to westem navies. The
Soviets have yet to gain practical experience operating their carriers under wartime conditions. This ship has had few sea trial s since joining
the Northem Fleet in 199 I . Its four steam-driven turlbines give it a maximum speed of 32 knots.
Kuznetsov class carri ers have a 1000 ft. fli ght deck which ends at the bow in a 12 "ski jump" ramp. A below deck hangar is able to store
up to 60 ai rcraft. Nonmally these ships can operate 24 naval versions of the Su-27 Flanker or MiG-29 Fulcrum. This mix of fixed-wing
aircraft seems more suited for interception rather than strike missions. If a heavy strike wing is needed Yak-38 Forger and Su-25 Frogfoot
aircraft can be substituted. The real offensive potential of these ships lies in their SS-N-19 "Shipwreck" missi les. For ASW and targeting
purposes up to 18 Ka- 25/27 helicopters are also carried. Air defense is provided by multiple batteries of SA-N-9 and SA-N- I I missiles.
Complement: est. 2200
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Kiev closs (V/STOL Aircraft carrier)
Kiev class V/STOL carners are not be considered true aircraft carriers by Westem standards. The four shi ps of this class (f<jev, Minsk.
Novorossiysk. and Baku) are more correctly designated as anti-submarine carriers and are equipped with numerous ASW weapons (including
torpedoes!) These ships normally carry 15 V/STOL Yak-38 aircraft plus another 15-17 helicopters. All aircraft can be stowed in a large below
deck hangar. The Kiev class features an angled deck with the island located to the right of the flight line. The deck is level and is usually marked
with landing spaces for seven helicopters. Kiev class carriers also carry SS-N-12 Sandbox missiles, a twin SUW-N- I ASW launcher and two
RBU-6000 ASW mortars. These carriers also carry a formidable array of SAM launchers (including SA-N-3, SA-N-4, and vertical launching SA-
N-9s). Each ship is steam-driven by four turbine engines which can generate a maximum speed of 32 knots.
The Kiev, flagship of this class, was first seen on her maiden voyage in 1976. Deployed to the Mediterranean in Jul y of that year the ship
was subsequently moved to the Murmansk area. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, two ships of this class (Minsk and Novorossiysk) are
being broken up and sold for scrap.
Complement: I ,600
Moscow closs (Cruiser-helicopter carrier)
The Moscow class helicopter carrier was originally designed as a counter to the U.S. Navy's submarine program. Alarmed by the
advances made in submarine-launched strategic missile technology the Soviet Union built two ships of this class (Moscow and Leningrad)
before abandoning the effort. Moscow class helicopter carriers should rightly be classified as hybrid ASW cruisers. Forward of the
superstructure t hey are configured as cruisers. The aft section consists of an open flight deck to designed to accommodate helicopters.
They feature a poorly designed hull which causes the ship to ride down in the bow. The elongated tear-drop shape hull reaches its widest
point aft of amidships.
The aircraft component of these ships consists of 12-15 helicopters, usually Ka-25 Hormones. The elevators cannot
accommodate larger aircraft. Mi-14 Haze have been spotted aboard these ships but must be serviced on the flight deck The
normal mission for the helicopters aboard the Moscow is ASW although SSM targeting missions are possible. In addition the
ship is also equipped with a twin SUW-N-I ASW missile launcher and a pair of RBU-6000 ASW mortars.
Following the break-up of the Soviet Union only the Moscow remains in service. With the development of the Kiev class
carriers, the Moscow class hel icopter carrier has been rendered obsolete and will likely be scrapped in the mid-1990s. The
Moscow first put to sea in 1967 and by today's standards this ship would be a liability to its battlegroup. Its air defense is limited
to two twin SA-N-3 batteries. Even when operating at peak performance (unlikely) its two steam-turbines only give it a top
speed of 30 knots. This means other ships in the battlegroup will have to slow down to remain with it.
Complement: 850
80
Kirov closs (Bottlecruiser)
Except for aircraft carriers, Kirov class battlecruisers are the largest surface warship buitt since World War II. Two of these battlecruisers
(Kirov and Frunze) entered service during the mid-1980s. These ships represent the best of Soviet naval engineering and design. Two
pressurized water nuclear reactors combine with conventional oil-fired boilers to produce a maximum speed of 32 knots. These ships have
an almost unlimited cruising range but resupplying the ship with normal supplies and ammunition will hamper extended operations.
The deck of the Kirov class battlecruiser is literally jammed with weapon systems of all types. It carries two 100 mm guns (130 mm in
the Frunze) for shore bombardment or surface engagements. The main striking weapon is the SS-N-19 missile. These ships are outfrtted
with twenty launchers and have the distinction of carrying the largest number of anti-ship missiles carried by any warship afioat. SS-N- 14s,
torpedoes, and RBU mortars are carried to conduct anti-submarine warfare. Three Ka-25129 helicopters are kept aboard for ASW and
targeting purposes. The anti-aircraft defenses of these ships are impressive. The Kirov has both SA-NA and vertically launched SA-N-6
missiles. The Frunze is equipped as the Kirov except that the SS-N-14s have been removed to make room for SA-N-9 launchers.
Complement: 800
81
u.s. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS
Forresto/ closs (Aircraft Carrier)
The Forrestal was the first class of aircraft carrier to be
constructed after the demise of the Navy's plans for a fiush-deck
"super-carrier." Congressional budget constraints caused the
Fonrestal class to be dramaticall y scaled back from the original
100,000 ton design that the Navy had originall y hoped for. The
Fonrestal class of shi ps really owe their existence to the fall-out
from the "admiral 's revolt" in 1949. They are the first post 'WW II
carriers to be built from the keel up and are named after James V. Fonrestal, former Secretary of
the Navy. Four Fonrestal class aircraft carriers are cunrently in service with the USN. Three of the
four are present in FLEET DEFENDER, the US.s Forrestal (CV 59), US.s Saratoga (CV 60), and USS
Independence (CV 62). The fourth ship US.S Ranger (CV 61) is currently on duty with the Seventh
Fleet in the Pacific and home ported in Yokosuka, Japan.
Fonrestal class carriers have a overall length of 1,039 feet and a beam width of 130 feet. They
have a draught of 37 feet and displ ace 79,000 tons when full y loaded. The ships are powered by
four Westinghouse steam turbines which generate over 260,000 shp. Steam for the turbines is
created by eight conventional (non-nuclear) Babcock & Wilcox boilers. This propulsion system
Figure A-5: Shown here, the U.S.S. America gives these carriers a maximum speed of 33 knots and a sustained cruising speed of 20 knots. To
at anchor.
put things in perspective, the rudder alone weighs almost as much as an M-I tank (45 tons).
The greatest change to accompany the Fonrestal carriers was a move to an angled fiight deck Most of the problems associated with
operating high speed jet aircraft were immediately solved by this new fiight deck configuration.
Now if an aircraft overshot the runway it would not endanger the rest of the ship, it would simply
go around. The angled portion of the fiight deck is 250 feet long on the Forrestal, 270 feet long of
the other three ships of this class.
The air wing aboard these carriers is comprised of over 85 aircraft. Four elevators move these
aircraft between the fii ght deck and below deck hangar area. The port side elevator is positioned
poorl y so that it blocks the two port side catapults when in use. These design fiaw has been
conrected on Kitty Hawk class carriers. There are a total of four catapults on the fiight deck which
are capable of launching four aircraft per minute.
Each ship in this class has gun and missile systems for use in destroying incoming missiles. Originally they were
equipped with eight 5-inch DP Mk 42 guns. These were subsequently removed and replaced by three
Mk29 Sea Spanrow launchers and three Mk 15 20 mm ClWS guns.
82
Figure A-6: The stately U.S.S. Independence
(eV 62) with most of her aircraft on deck.
pictured here in 1982.
Kitty Hawk closs (Aircraft carrier)
The Kitty Hawk is the second major class of aircraft carner to
be designed following WW II. The design concept. though similar
to t he Forrestal class, shows some major revisions. For example,
the flight deck is somewhat larger, allowing for more aircraft to
remain top-side. The port elevator, which had interfered with
catapult operations on the Forrestal carners, was placed aft of the
catapults. These ships were originally designated as Aircraft Carner-
Attack (CVA). They were subsequently redesignated as multi-mission carners (CV) in 1974-75 following modifications which allow them to
conduct anti-submarine warfare.
Following the Korean War, aircraft carners had to be designed to accommodate jet aircraft. Kftty Hawk class carners have a total length of
Figure A-7: Namesake of the Kitty HavvI<. dass,
the US5. J<jtty Hawk pictured here in 1992.
Note the two parked F-I 45 on Ready Five.
I ,045 feet and draw 37 feet of water. Fully loaded these carners displace almost 8 I ,000 tons, a
significant increase over the Forrestals. This increase represents the ability of Kftty Hawk carners to
store more aviation fuels and munitions. There are four Kftty Hawk carners currently in service.
Three of these carners are represented in FLEET DEFENDER; the U.S.s /(jtty Hawk (CV 63), U.S.S.
America (CV 66), and the U.S.S. John F. Kennedy "Big John" (CV 67). The fourth carrier USS.
Constellation is currently stationed in the Pacific.
Like the Forrestals, Kitty Hawk carners have four catapults and four elevators. As previously
stated, they have been arranged differently on the flight deck The superstructure has been moved
aft so that only one elevator is forward of the island. The ships are powered by eight 1,200 psi
Foster Wheeler boilers connected to four steam turbines. These turbines produce 280,000 shp
giving these ships a maximum speed of 33 knots.
The air wing of Kftty Hawk carners is roughly the same
as that of the Forrestals. There are over 25 pumping stations
on the flight deck and inside the hangar so that aircraft can
be rapidly refueled. The angled portion of the flight deck is
251 feet long (266 feet on the Kennedy). The hangar area is
considerably larger (740 ft.) than that of the Forrestals.
Each ship in this class is equipped with three Mk29 Sea
Sparrow launchers and three Mk 15 20 mm CIWS guns.
The Kennedy has been officially designated as a separate one ship class though it is usual ly
lumped in with the Kitty Hawk carriers. "Big John" is longer than the other three but more F' A 8 Th U 5 5 J h F K d
Igure -: e ... 0 n . enne y
narrow in the beam. The hangar deck is much smaller, only 688 ft long and 25 ft high. One pictured here at anchor in 199/.
notable external difference is the smokestack canted t o starboard to keep smoke from
interfering with flight operations.
83
Nimitz closs (Aircraft Carrier)
There are two Nimitz class aircraft carriers represented in
FLEET DEFENDER; the US.S Dwight D Eisenhower "Ike" (CVN 69)
and the U.S.S Theodore Roosevelt "Big Stick" (CVN 71). This class of
carrier was ordered as a replacement for the Navy's aging Midway
class carriers in the mid-I 960s. The first Nimitz class carrier, U.S.s
Nimitz (CVN 68) took seven years to complete. It finally entered
service in 1975 after much Congressional wrangling.
There are a total of six Nimitz carriers currently in service.
These vessels are the largest warships ever built, with a length of almost I, 100 feet and a beam width of 135 feet. When fully loaded these
ships have a draught of almost 38 ft. and a displacement of 94,000 tons. Nimitz class carriers are powered by two Westinghouse A4W
pressurized water nuclear reactors. Connected to these reactors are four steam turbines producing the equivalent of 280,000 shp. Despite
their immense size, Nimitz class carriers are able to sustain 32 knots.
Figure A-9: Stem view of the "Big Stick" An F-14 is
about to be cot shot off the deck of the US.S.
Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 7 I). Note the blast
deffector being raised.
Calling these ships fioating cities is no small exaggeration. There are over 6,200 people
on-board at anyone time. This requires the ship's mess to cook almost 19,000 meals and
produce 400,000 gallons of distilled water every day. To make sure everyone stays in touch
there are over 2,500 telephones spread throughout the ship. The angled fiight deck on the
Eisenhower is 253 feet long (258 feet on the Roosevelt). The total length of the flight deck is
I ,092 feet. Undemeath the flight deck is a large hangar/ maintenance area over 680 feet
long. Between the fiight deck and the hangar, over 85 aircraft are parked, serviced, and
stored. Four elevators are used to move aircraft from the hangar deck to the flight deck and
vi ce versa. Three of the elevators are located along the starboard side, one on the port
side. The four steam catapults are capable of launching one aircraft every twenty seconds.
The carrier relies primarily on its component aircraft for self defense. Even so it is
equipped with gun and missiles systems for knocking down the incoming missiles that
manage to get through. Each Nimitz carrier has three Mk. 29 Sea Sparrow SAM launchers
as well as three Mk. 1520 mm Phalanx ClWS (Close-In Weapon System).
84
-;::
ill
Figure A-I 0: Displayed here are the three classes of United Stotes aircraft corriers which normally corry F-14 squadrons
for self-defense.
85
FOrTestal class deck plan
Kitty Hawk class deck plan
Nimitz class deck plan
THREAT AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES (AAMS)
AA-2 Atoll
The M-2 Atoll was originally designed and produced during the I 960s. It was a
repmduction of the early AIM-9B Sidewinder heat-seeking missile. Since the missile
has been periodically upgraded. There are now two versions of this missile; the
improved heat-seeking AA-2D and radar-guided AA-2C. Despite the
impmvements, the M-2D may only track targets from a tail-chase aspect only. The
M-2D uses a solid pmpellant and has a maximum range of 2 nm. The M-2C
incorporates a semi-active radar homer and has a maximum range of 4 nm.
AA-6 Acrid
The M-6 Acrid is a Soviet-made missile which entered service in the early
I 970s. It is one of the largest air-to-air missiles in the world. There are two
versions of the M-6; the radar-guided A model with a range of 22 nm and the
heat-seeking B model which has a range of 14 nm. Both models use a solid
propellant. The Acrid-A uses a semi-active radar guidance although impmved
models may contain an active radar seeker. Production of these missiles stopped
in 1982. The M-6 was specifically designed for use aboard the MiG-25 Foxbat
but many have been exported to Iraq, Libya, and Syria. In foreign countries the
AA-6 is carried by Su-22 Fitters.
86
M-7 Apex
The AA-7 Apex was first detected by Westem sources in the mid- 1970s.
this missile; the AA-7 A radar-guided version and the heat-seeking B model. <:JC:@ I I I 0,
It is a third generation Soviet medium range missile. There are two versions of ~
Both have a maximum range of 10 nm. The radar-guided Apex is superior in (J
performance to the U.s. AIM-7 Sparrow and boasts a "Iook-down-shoot
down" capability. The missile is equipped wi th a semi -active J-band radar
seeker which is very effective against low fiying targets. The warhead represents approximately 15% of the missile's overall weight and
is fitted with an active radar fuze. The heat-seeking version is an all-aspect missile with improved ability to ignore counter-measures.
Like other advanced AAMs the Apex has been exported to most client states of the former Soviet Union.
M-8 Aphid
The AA-8 Aphid was designed as a replacement for the aging Soviet inventory
of Atoll missiles. earned in pairs by most Soviet fighters, the Aphid is a heat-seeking
missile with a maximum range of 4 nm. Although radar-guided versions of this
missile have been reported, to date only the IR model has been seen on Soviet
fighters. Early Aphid models had only a tail-chase engagement aspect but later
repnoductions have been frtted with an electno-optical fuze. This addition gives the
missile a much bnoader tracking envelope. Aphid missiles are found in the inventory of many Thi rd World states. The former federal air force
of Yugoslavia is known to have purchased a number of these missiles.
M-9 Amos
The AA-9 Amos is a fourth generation Soviet AAM intended to perform a
mission similar to that of the AIM-54 Phoeni x. An obvious design infiuence is also
noticeable in the physical appearance of the Amos. Development of this missile
began in the mid-1970s when the need to counter U.s. carrier-based AEW
aircraft became apparent. Like the Phoenix, these missiles are able to engage
targets at extremely long ranges. The Amos has a range of 55 nm making it the
I ~
I
second longest ranged missile in the game (next to the Phoenix). Four AA-9s are carned by the MiG-31 . The Foxhound's powerful I-band
radar pnovides mid-course corrections to the missile during its fiight. Unlike the Phoenix, it is not a "fire and forget" missile.
87
AA-IO Alomo
The AA-I 0 Alamo is a fourth generation Soviet AAM. There are actually six
different Alamo missiles although only the three major versions are represented
in FLEET DEFENDER. The three AA-I Os in the game are the semi-active radar- ~ II ( 0 0 : ~
gui ded AA-I OA, the heat-seeking AA-I OB, and a longer range radar-guided ~ . r
version known as the AA- 10 Alamo C. The A and C models have ranges of 26
nm and 45 nm respectively. Both have semi -active J-band monopulse radars. An
active seeker for this missile is currentl y under development and can be expected to enter service shortly, The heat-seeking Alamo B
version has a range of 21 nm. Thi s is extremely long for an Infrared tracking missile. It features an improved IR head which is less susceptible
to counter-measures.
AA-I I Archer
The AA-I I Archer is also a fourth generation missile. The Archer is an
Infrared (heat-seeking) missile which entered service with the Soviet Air Force in
the late I 980s. The Archer is carried by only the most advanced Soviet fighters. It <=c I g II :=:=3
has been selectively exported to only a small number of client states since the
1989 break-up. In the MiG-29, the missiles are slaved to the pilot's helmet-
mounted designator, This allows the pilot to engage targets at a high off-angle.
The Archer has a short range, all-aspect engagement envelope and is able to track fast-moving, highly-maneuverable targets. It canres a
large warhead equipped with an active radar fuze. The maximum range for this missile is believed to be around 12 nm.
AA-X-12
The AA-X-12 is the CIS's (fonrner Soviet Union) latest AAM. This missile has
not as yet entered service. It is so new that details on its perfonrnance are hard to
obtain. It has been included in FLEET DEFENDER so that players can get an
opportunity to look at the next generation of AAM technology. You will actually
be the first in the west to go up against this missile. The AA-X-12 is believed to
be powered by a two stage solid propellant engine. Its maximum range is
estimated to be 40 nm. The missile is guided by a mid-course inertial system which switches to an active radar seeker for tenrninal flight
guidance. It this respect it is much like the AIM-54 Phoenix. Delivery date for this missile is believed to be 1994.
88
FRIENDLY AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES (AAMS)
AIM-9 Sidewinder
The AIM-9 Sidewinder heat seeking AAM is the most widely used AAM in
the westem world. Over I 10,000 of these missiles have been produced and are ~ 8
currently in use by 28 different nations. In fact, the Soviet Atoll is believed to have a II; ,II II I II
been designed using the AIM-9 as a model. The missile was named Sidewinder
because of the snake-like side-to-side motion it makes whi le tracking a target.
Early Sidewinders were given the name "Groundwinder" because of their inabi lity
to track targets near the ground.
Some estimates have placed the Sidewinder's hit probability as low as 40%. Subsequent modifications have eliminated many of the
problems which plagued this series. The AIM-7 has even acquired an all-aspect sensitivity. The current AIM-9M production model features
an improved resistance to electronic counter-measures and an ability to track targets against a hot back-drop. Since the Vietnam War
Sidewinder missiles have used a reduced smoke propellant making aerial detection more difficult. The maximum engagement range for thi s
missile is 4.5 nm.
AIM-7 Sparrow
The AIM-7 Sparrow is a medium range, radar-guided missile. The origin of the
Sparrow famil y of missiles dates back to the late I 950s. The first Sparrow used by ~ ~
the U.s. Navy was the AIM-7C Since the '50s numerous improvements have c:II = = ~ E ~ = = = : ~ = = = = ~ = = ~ = 1
been made to the Sparrow. Each successive change has been given its own letter
designation. The AIM-7P model depicted in some scenarios features a mono-
pulse, semi-active seeker head which allows it to operate in a heavy ECM
environment. It has a 39 kg. warhead and a range of 24 nm.
These missiles are designed to intercept low fl ying aircraft against a backdrop of ground clutter. In particular, the AIM-7P model is able
to track sea-skimming anti-ship missiles. To fire the missile the launching aircraft must first obtain a radar " lock" Once the target is " locked"
the missile is fired. The launching aircraft must continuously illuminate (or "paint") the target with its radar. If the target is able to maneuver
out of the launching aircraft's radar envelope the missile will miss. A surface-launched variant, known as Sea Sparrow, is currentl y in service
with the U.s. Navy.
89
AIM-54 Phoenix
The AIM-54 Phoenix is a long-range air-to-air missile developed in the late
1960s for the US Navy. The AIM-54A entered front line service in 1974. It has a ~
CW semi-active radar homer and an active homer used during the missile's ~ II I ~ [ I I
tenminal flight phase. If the missile encounters ECM jamming it is designed to '------- % ~
home-in on the source of the jamming. The AWG-9 radar carried by the F-14
allows up to six of these missiles to track independent targets simultaneously.
Although the F-14 can physically carry six AIM-54s, it rarely does. At $1 million each, the Phoenix is an expensive missile. It is nonrnally
employed agai nst non-maneuvering targets such as high altitude bombers or reconnaissance craft. The AIM-54C features an active radar
fuze, solid-state components, and improved ECCM. It uses inertial guidance during its flight to back-up the semi-active homer. Both the "A"
and "C" models have a maximum range in excess of SO nm. The Phoenix is a "fire and forget" missile and does not require the aircraft's
radar to "paint" the target after launch.
AIM-I 20A AMRAAM
The AIM-120A Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)
began development ;n 1975. Pmdoruon beg,n ;n the "te 1980,,, ""ond 180 ~ @
missiles per year. It entered service with the US Air Force in 1991 followed by <::::: 1 =1111 1[-___ )
the Navy in 1993. The AMRAAM represents a generational improvement over
the AIM-7 Sparrow it was designed to replace. Unlike the Sparrow, the
AMRAAM does not require post-launch guidance from the launching aircraft. It is
a "fire and forget" missile which relies on inertial guidance. When a target is within range (26 nm) the missile goes into tenrninal mode and
switches on its own I-band active radar. The AMRAAM is faster than the Sparrow and more resistant to ECM. The missile also features a
low smoke propellant which allows it to go unnoticed in combat. The AMRAAM warhead weighs approximately 22 kg. and contains an
active radar proximity fuze. When the fuze detects a target within a pre-set distance the warhead detonates.
In FLEET DEFENDER, your F-14 is not equipped to carry the AMRAAM. Other friendly aircraft, like the F/A-IS and Norway's F-16s do
carry this missile. In fact, Norway is experimenting with a land based version of the AMRAAM to replace its existing HAWK batteries. It is
the most modem AAM deployed by the U.s. Air Force and was designed to replace the AIM-7 Sparrow. No doubt the Gulf War in 1991
speeded the development process somewhat. This missile has figured prominently in the air battles that have been taken pl ace over Iraq.
Three of these missiles have been fired in combat. two have hit their intended targets. US F-16C fighters downed a MiG-23 on 17 Jan 93
and a MiG-25 on IS Jan 93.
90
Sky Flash
Development of the Sky Flash AAM began in 1973. This missile is essentially
a retooled AIM-7E although numerous modifications and improvements have
been made outside the U.S. The Sky Flash entered service with the U.K's Royal
Air Force in 1978 and with the Swedish Royal Air Force in 198 I. The Sky Flash
missile is J-band, semi-active radar-guided missile designed specifically for use
agai nst fast, low fiying aircraft. It has a maximum range of 27 nm and a minimum
range of 2 nm. It is faster than the U.s. Sparrow and less susceptible to enemy
counter-measures. In FLEET DEFENDER, the Sky Flash is used by Sweden's
Viggen aircraft as well as the UK's Mk 3 T omado fighter.
91
THREAT AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES (ASMS)
AM-39 Exocet
From time to time a piece of military hardware gains a notoriety which extends into the civilian world. The Exocet ASM is one
such weapon. It became the United Kingdom's great boogey-man during the Falklands-Malvi nas War in 1982 even though Argentina
possessed only fi ve of these missiles. Outside the military community the Exocet became something of a wonder weapon, something
that the manufacturer, France' s Aerospatiale, did little to discourage. In real ity, the air launched Exocet is an early generation ASM
which entered service back in 1979. France exported these missiles widely during the 1980s especially to countries in the Middle East.
A pair of Exocet missiles (accidentally) struck the U.s.S. Stark in 1987. Note that while the ship was heavily damaged it did not sink..
These missiles are sea-skimmers with a maximum range of 38 nm. They hug the surface of the water and only "lock-on" to their
target in the last (terminal) phase of fiight.
92
AS-4 "Kitchen"
The AS-4 "Kitchen" is an air-to-surface missile originally designed in the 1960s to carry nuclear warheads. In the I 970s a newer version of
this missile appeared which was believed to carry a large conventional 1000 kg. HE warhead. The AS-4 is released from the parent aircraft at a
very high ah:itude. The missile stays at this ah:itude so that it consumes less fuel. Once it reaches the vicinity of the target the missile tips over
into a steep dive. It then plunges into the target from a near vertical angle. The anti-ship version of this missile relies on inertial mid-course
guidance followed by a passive radar-homing seeker. h: has a maximum range of 220 nm. These missiles have been spotted on T u-9 5 " Bear
G' and T u-22 "Backfire" bombers belonging to Soviet Naval Aviation.
AS-5 "Kelt"
The AS-S "Kelt" is an anti-ship missile which was developed in the 1960s as a successor to the AS-2 "Kipper." The Keh: is capable of
delivering both nuclear and conventional payloads out to a maximum range of 180 nm. Nonmally carried by T u-I 6 " Badger" strike aircraft,
the AS-S uses a temperamental liquid fuel propellant rather than the more stable solid propellant used in later models. The Soviets have
been gradually phasing this missile out of service over the last two decades. It has been exported to Soviet allies in the Middle East and was
used by Egypt to attack Israel in 1973. The Keh: can operate in a sea-skimming mode like the AM-39 Exocet or use a high altitude flight
profile like the AS-4.
AS-6 "Kingfish"
The AS-6 "Kingfish" is an anti-ship missile similar to the AS-4 in appearance and mission perfonmance. Like the Kitchen, the AS-6 has
both nuclear and conventional configurations. In its conventional fonm the Kingfish carries a 1000 kg HE warhead. The missile is released
from the launching aircraft at a very high altitude. It remains at this ah:itude until reaching the target whereupon it enters a tenminal dive. The
AS-6 uses solid fuel as propellant and has a range of approximately 180 nm. The conventional anti-ship version of this missile has an active
radar homer but receives inertial guidance for its mid-course conrections. It is carried by Badger and Backfire bombers belonging to Soviet
Naval Aviation.
AS-7 "Kerry"
The AS-7 "Kerry" is a short-range missile able to be carried by a number of single engine fighter aircraft. It is command-guided using a
radio data link and flown by means of a joystick The pilot must keep the missile (and target) in sight until impact. This means that the
aircraft is committed and cannot evade once the missile is launched. A flare on the missile itself aids the pilot in tracking it. The range of this
missile is only 2.5 nm. In practical tenms, using this missile is tantamount to suicide. Any aircraft forced to close to within this missile's
effective range will likely be destroyed by the target's CIWS guns. No longer used by Soviet aircraft, the AS-7 is still operational in some
Third World air forces, like Libya and Syria.
93
AS-9 "Kyle"
The AS-9 "Kyle" is a medium range anti-radar missile. It is designed to home-in on shipboard radar systems, especially those radars
associated with fire control. Tactically, these missiles would be launched just ahead of the main strike to "take away the eyes" of the fleet at
the critical moment when an attack is in progress. The Kyle resembles the AS-4 in outward appearance. It uses a liquid fuel to give it a
range of almost 50 nm and carries a conventional 2000 lb. warhead. On radar, it mimics the flight profile of other ASMs. It has been
exported to both Iraq and Libya in large numbers and can be easily adapted to frt a variety of strike aircraft.
AS-IO "Koren"
The AS- I 0 "Karen" is merely an improved version of the AS-7 "Kerry." Like the "Kerry" it is short-ranged (5.5 nm) and may be carried
by single engined fighter aircraft. The warhead of this missile is smal l by comparison, weighing in at only 250 lb. of high explosive. However,
it may be guided to the target by laser if designated by the firing aircraft. This is a distinct benefrt over the "Kerry" when used in a high ECM
environment. Unfortunately, the launching aircraft must still close to within dangerous proximity to its target. An attacker would be better
off using LGBs and delivering them from a higher ah:itude. These missiles are cunrently in service with a number of Thi rd World air forces.
AS-I 2 "Kegler"
The AS-12 "Kegler" is a anti-radar air-to-surface missile designed to be launched from a low level flight profile. It is likely that the AS-12
is viewed as an eventual replacement for the AS-9. The "Kegler" entered service in the late I 970s. It has been mounted on fighter aircraft
such as the MiG-27 and Su-17. The AS- 12 is also carried by larger bomber aircraft such as the T u-16 "Badger" and T u-22 "Backfire." These
mi ssiles are guided by the target's own radar emissions. If the target shuts down its radar the missile can conti nue to guide itself by homing
in on the target's last known location. The "Kegler" can carry a 250 lb. fragmentation warhead out to a maximum range of 25 nm.
AS-I 5 "Kent"
The AS-IS "Kent" is an intermediate range nuclear cruise missile similar in mission performance to the U.s. Tomahawk. Although not
much is known about this missile it is believed to carry a 200 kiloton nuclear warhead. The "Kent" can be carried by a variety of multi-
engined bombers as well as the "Bear" family of reconnaissance aircraft. It is propelled by a single turbo-fan engine and has an estimated
range in excess of 1600 nm. The "Kent" uses inertial guidance with periodic updates provided by a TERCOM tenrain-matching radar
system. It is a sea-skimmer, meaning that it hugs the surface of the water (or land) during its flight. Immediately after launch the missile drops
to around 300 ft. AGL and stays there until it reaches its target.
94
Kh-3/ P
The Kh-31 P is a medium range, anti-radar missile designed to perform a mission similar to the AS-9. It has onl y recently entered seNice
after being publicly displayed in 1991. It has an uncharacteristic appearance for a Soviet designed missile which suggests that the Soviets may
have been aided by espionage. The missile is estimated to have a 500 lb. HE warhead and a range exceeding 80 nm. The guidance system,
therefore, probably has an inertial back-up in case the target stops emitting radiation. Normally, the missile guides itself by means of a
passive homer which detects operational radars. These missi les will likely be launched just prior to the main attack forcing the target to shut
off its radars to preserve them.
AS-/6 "f(jckbock"
The AS-16 " Kickback" is a long-range, radar-guided missile canred by the " Backfre" bomber (and perhaps the "Bear H"). The Backfre
stores these missiles on a special rotary launcher mounted intemally. The missile itself entered service with Soviet naval aviation in the late
I 980s. The " Kickback" is fueled by solid propellant giving it a range of over 100 nm. It can carry either a conventional 650 lb. HE warhead
or a 350 kiloton nuclear warhead. The missile uses inertial guidance while in fiight. It is unclear whether these missiles possess a terminal
guidance feature. An anti-radar version may exist.
95
FRIENDLY AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES (ASMS)
AGM-62 "Walleye II "
The AGM-62 is actually an unpowered glide bomb, not a missile. It is nicknamed the "Walleye" because of the large lV camera lens in
its nose gives it a fish-like appearance. The "Walleye" is linked to the launching aircraft by a data link pod. The operator locks-on to the
target visually then releases the ordnance. The bomb steers itself as it glides toward the target image. The range of this weapon depends, of
course, upon the distance it is able to glide. Since this bomb is unpowered the glide distance is a function of altitude. The "Walleye II " has a
I ton (2,000 Ibs.) high explosive warhead. In FLEET DEFENDER, the "Walleye II" is carried by A-6E and A-7E strike aircraft.
AGM-84 Harpoon
The AGM-84A Harpoon is an air launched, medium range, anti-ship missile
with a maximum range approaching 60 nm. It is designed as a sea-skimmer, flying
very low over the surface of the water using inertial guidance. Once in terminal
mode, the missile activates a phased-anray J-band radar seeker in order to acquire
its target. The missile is usually fired after the range and bearing of a target is
known. However, the Harpoon may be launched using a technique known as
Bearing Only Launch (BOL). In this case the missile is simply launched along a
particular bearing with its radar seeker looking for any target within a 45 degree
search arc. Its 220 kg. warhead is more than enough to cripple or sink a medium
sized warship with a single hrt:.
AGM-86C ALCM
Figure A-I I: Next to the Swcet the Harpoon is one of the more
famous and-ship missiles to enter service during the I 980s.
The AGM-86C ALCM (Air Launched Cruise Missile) is an intermediate range cruise missile. The C model ALCM is a conventionally
armed adaptation of the nuclear tipped AGM-86B. In FLEET DEFENDER, the ALCM is carried by B-52G bombers and used to conduct
strategic airstrikes on both air and sea targets. The missile has a maximum range exceeding 1000 nm. It uses a turbofan engine and follows
a low level flight profile. Once launched the ALCM is inertial guided with periodic updates from its GPS (Global Positioning System). Six of
these missiles can be canried by a single B-52G.
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AGM-88 HARM
The AGM-88 HARM (High-speed Anti-Radiation Missil e) is currentl y replacing both the Shrike and Standard ARMs. It entered service in
1983 and was first used in combat during the 1986 strike on Libya. HARMS are used exclusively to suppress or destroy enemy radar
installations. The AGM-88A can be programmed to attack pre-selected targets or launched on a set bearing to engage targets of
opportunity. Used extensively during the Gulf war, over 1,000 were fired mainly by FAG Wild Weasels. The HARM causes hostile radars
to cease emitting radiation or risk a direct hit. They carry a 66 kg. fragmentation warhead and has a range of 15 nm. In FLEET DEFENDER,
some aircraft out of each strike package may release HARMs to knock out enemy radars ahead of the main strike.
Sea Eagle
The Sea Eagle is a long range, sea-skimming air-to-surface missile developed by the United Kingdom. This missile entered service with the
RAF in 1985 and is normally carried by T omado GR.I strike aircraft. The Sea Eagle uses inertial mid-course guidance then switches to a J-band
active radar during its terminal phase of flight The missile is a sea-skimmer which means that it hugs the surface of the water after launch making
detection difficult h: can carry a conventional 230 kg. armor-piercing high explosive warhead out to an impressive maximum range of 60 nm. In
FLEET DEFENDER, T omado GR.I s in the North Cape scenarios carry the Sea Eagle.
97
LAND BASED SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES (SAMS)
Crotale Self-Propelled SAM
The French-made Crotale is a mobile surface-to-air missile system designed for all-weather operations against low fl ying aircraft. A
typical Crotale battery consists of a single radar acquisition unit and three missile launchers. The acquisition radar is an E-band pulse-
Doppler system with a maximum detection range of 20 nm. Up to twelve targets can be tracked at one time. The missile launchers are
equipped with J-band monopulse tracking radars and four missiles in the ready-to-Iaunch position. The Crotale missile has a maximum
range of 5 nm. It is highly maneuverable and can withstand a load factor exceeding 25 Gs. In FLEET DEFENDER, Libya is equipped with a
number of Crotale batteries stationed near its military installations.
SA-2 Modified "Guideline" Fixed-Site SAM
The SA-2 "Guidel ine" is one of the oldest SAM systems still in service. It was a "Guideline" which shot down Gary Power's U-2 spy
plane in 1960. During the Vietnam war, the SA-2 was nicknamed the "flying telephone pole" by U.S. flight crews. The missile is a beam-
rider and may be command guided by an E-band Fan Song radar. The SA-2 has a slant range of 25 nm and can engage targets up to IS,OOO
feet. Accuracy has always been this missile's greatest problem. Therefore, these missiles are generally fired in salvoes forcing the target
aircraft to at least react to each launch. The Guideline has terrible acquisition problems at low altitudes and lacks the ability to make drastic
course corrections. The warhead is command detonated once the missile comes within proximity of its target. The first U.s. aircraft lost
during the Persian Gulf war was an F/A- IS downed by an SA-2 over westem Iraq. In FLEET DEFENDER, the SA-2 is deployed in belts of
SAMs stretching across likely avenues of approach.
98
SA-J "Goo" Fixed-Site SAM
The SA-3 "Goa" is a two-stage SAM designed as a point defense system for use against low fi ying aircraft. The SA-3 uses an I/J band
radar for fire control and a C-band acquisition radar known by the NATO code name Flat Face. It has a range of I 0 nm and an operational
ceiling of 13,000 feet. Targeting data is provided by a Low Blow radar system able to guide two missiles simultaneously. The Low Blow radar
has been retrofitted with a back-up TV camera for command guidance when jammed. U.s. intelligence analysts got a first hand look at the
SA-3 when a number of Egyptian batteries were captured intact in 1973 by the Israeli army. The SA-3 carries a 60 kg. high explosive
fragmentation warhead which can be detonated when the reaches proximity to the target. The lethal blast radius is less than 50 feet.
SA-5 "Gammon" Fixed-Site SAM
The SA-5 "Gammon" is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile
system. It was designed as a long range area defense system to combat the latest
generation of U.s. strategic bombers in the late I 960s. The number of missile
sites inside the Soviet Union grew to a peak of 130 sites in 1985-1986. An SA-5
battalion is comprised of an E-band Barlock radar search and acquisition radar
backed up by a H-band Square Pair fire control radar. The "Gammon" has a
maximum range of 125 nm and a minimum range of 20 nm. Mid-course
corrections are provided by the Square Pair radar. Terminal guidance provided
by an active radar homing seeker. Syria received four battalions of SA-5 missiles
in 1982 following the disastrous confrontation with Israel in the Bekaa Valley.
SA-6 "GainfUl" Self-propelled SAM
Figure A-12: In 1985, Ubya received three full brigades ofSA-5s just
in time to launch a few at u.s. aircraft during EJ Dorado Canyon.
The SA-6 "Gainful" is a self-propelled surface-to-air missile system designed to engage targets at low to medium altitude. Each launch
vehicle carries three missiles mounted on an ASU-85 chassis data linked to a Straight Flush radar. A SA-6 regiment consists of a singl e Thin
Skjn radar, two Long Track radars and five SA-6 batteries. Each battery consists of a Straight Flush radar and four launch vehicles. The Straight
Flush radar is equipped with a back-up optical TV camera with a range of 16 nm in case of jamming. Initial target acquisition is made at long
range by Long Track E- band surveillance radar. Targeting information is then developed by the Straight Flush radar assisted by height
information provided by the Thin Skjn radar. The missile has a maximum range of 12 nm. Final guidance to target is provided by a semi-
active homing seeker in the nose of the missile. Like the SA-5, the Gainful was also used in 1982 by Syria and again in 1986 by Libya.
99
SHIP BASED SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES (NSAMS)
CADS-N-I "Close Air Defense System- Novol"
The CADS-N-I is the latest in naval based air defense. It features a missile and gun combination like that of the land-based 2S6
mobile SAM. The gun portion of this weapon is a new multi-barrel 30mm "Gatling" type ClWS. Straddling the gun are two (possibly
four) missiles which have been designated as SA-N-I I s. Not much is known about this system beyond that which can be determined
from aerial surveillance (T ARPS missions). The CADS-N-I system has been installed on the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov and certain Kirov
class battlecruisers. There are eight CADS mountings on the Kuznetsov and six on the Kirovs. The SA-N-I I missiles have a maximum
range of 5 nm.
SA-N-3 "Goblet"
The SA-N-3 "Goblet" is the first Soviet SAM designed purely to fulfill a naval air defense role. It is an radar-guided area defense missile
which was first deployed in the early I 960s. The "Goblet" remains in service on Kiev and Moscow class helicopter canrers. Various guided-
missile cruisers are also equipped wrth this SAM. There are two versions ofthis missile, the SA-N-3A and SA-N-38. The 3A model is found
on most ships and has a range of 16 nm. The 38 model, installed on Kiev class vessels, has a range of 30 nm. The "Goblet" has a speed
approaching mach 2.5 and an altitude envelope which reaches as high as 70,000 feet. The target is first acquired by a D-band Top Sail radar.
The missile is then guided to the target by a F/H band Head Light fire control radar.
SA-N-4 "Gecko"
The SA-NA "Gecko" is a point defense SAM system found on most Soviet warships. After entering service in 1970, the missile
was wi dely exported to Third World client states. The missile was designed to engage fast moving aircraft at extremely low altitudes.
It has a slant range of 8 nm and travels at a speed of mach 2.5 nm. A Pop Group fire control radar acquires the target then guides the
missile to the target. The "Gecko" is used on a number of Soviet vessels including the Fleet Replenishment ship Berezina. It is currently
in service on Libyan Koni class frigates and Nanuchka corvettes as well as Split class frigates owned by the former Yugoslavian navy.
SA-N-6 "Grumble"
The SA-N-6 "Grumble" is an area defense SAM system. It is a naval version of the SA-I 0 "Grumble." The missile is expected to
perform the same tactical mission as the SA-N-3 "Goblet" long range coverage of a multi-ship task group. It has a slant range out to
50 nm if used against targets at high altitudes. Against sea-skimming targets, 100 meters AGL or less, it has a range of only 15 nm.
On the Kirov, 96 SA-N-6 missiles are slaved to a Top Steer fire control radar. The missile itself has a solid fuel propellant and a 90 kg.
HE warhead. Once the missile nears the target a semi-active radar seeker acquires the target and guides the missile during its
terminal phase.
100
SA-N-7 "Godffy"
The SA-N-7 "Gadfly" is a point defense SAM system pattemed after its successful land-based cousin, the SA-II. The missile is fueled by a solid
pmpellant and can reach speeds in excess of mach 3. The "Gadfly" has a 70 kg. HE warhead and a maximum range of I 0 nm. As you can see this
weapon is designed for point blank local defense. After the target is detected by search radar it is then passed to a Front Dome fire control radar.
The Front Dome tracks the target whi le the missile is in flight The missile then switches on its semi-active seeker during its terminal phase.
SA-N-9 TOR-MI KJinok
Like the "Gadfly," the SA-N-9 is a point defense SAM system. It is designed for local air defense of individual ships or small surface
groups. Once a target is detected it is passed on to a pair of Cross Sword fire control radars. The missiles are first ejected verticall y from
sealed containers then the missile's solid propellant ignites once it is clear of the ship. The SA-N-9 is then command guided to the
target. Electro-optical devices are available ifthe missile is fired in a heavy ECM environment. These missiles have a maximum range of
6 nm. They have small high explosive warheads, only 15 kg. However, this is more than enough to deflect or destroy in-coming
missiles.
101
A
AM: Anti-Aircraft Artillery or T riple-A
ACLS: (Automatic Canrier Landing System)
ACM: Air Combat Maneuvering (dogfighting)
ADA: Air Defense Artil lery
A8N: Airbome Early Waming
AGL: Above Ground Level (referring to ah:itude)
AIM: Air Intercept Missi le (i .e. AIM-120A, AIM-54)
Air Boss: officer responsible for all fiight deck and hangar
operations
ASL: Above Sea level (referring to ah:itude)
Angle of attack the angular difference between the aircraft's
mean chord line and the relative wind
ARM: Anti-radiation missile
ASM: Air-to-Surface missile
Aspect angle: angle between defender's fiight path and
attacker's flight path (measured from defender's
six o'clock) usage: AIM-9L is an all-aspect missile.
ASW: Anti -Submarine Warfare
AWACS: Airbome Waming and Control System
AWG: Airbome Weapons Group
102
B
Bandit: an enemy (hostile) aircraft
BDA: Bomb damage assessment (or ah:ematively Battle
Damage Assessment)
BFM: Basic Fighter Maneuvers
" Bingo": radio call that aircraft only has enough fuel remaining
to retum to base
" Blow Thru": high speed closure with enemy fonmation
indicating no intention of tuming to engage
Blue Water Ops: canrier operations taking place out of range
of altemate recovery sites on land
" Bogey": a radar/ visual contact of unknown identity
" Boh:er": an aircraft which fail s to hook the anresting cable on
landing
" Break": radio call indicating an immediate high G tum,
an evasive maneuver
" Buster" tenm used for Full Military Power, means to hurry up
or expedite
BVR: Beyond Visual Range
c
C31: Command, Control, Communications and
Intelligence (read as Cee Three Eye)
CAG: Commander Air Group
CAP: Combat Air Patrol
CAS: Close Air Support
Cat shot: catapult assisted take-off from a canrer deck
"Catching a three wire": a perfect canrer landing
CBU: Cluster Bomb Unit
Cell: Two or more tankerslbombers flying in formation
Chaff: passive form of electronic countermeasure, usually
canred in a pod or dispenser aboard an aircraft and
released to disrupt radar tracking andlor acquisition
ClC: Combat Information Center
ClWS (pronounced See-Wiz): Close-In Weapon System
" Phalanx" multi-barreled 20 mm chain gun with a
extremely high cyclic rate of fire
Closure: relative rate at which approaching aircraft draw near
to you
"Cold Nose": term meaning your radar is tumed off, KA-6
Tanker crews get upset if you refuel with the radar
on.
D
DASH: flight profile maximizing speed, usually a very high
altitude straight line flight
"Double-Nuts": aircraft number 100 or 00, usually belonging
to the CAG
"Double-Ugly": less than fiattering nickname for the less than
beautiful FA Phantom II , a.k.a " Rhino" , "Smokin'
Thunderhog"
Down: a broken or usable part
103
E
ECM: Electronic Counter-Measures
" Electric Jet": nickname for the F-16 because of its Fly-By-Wire
flight controls
Elevator: portion of flight deck which transports aircraft
between decks
EW: Electronic Warfare
F
" Flying Telephone Poles": SA2 surface-to-air Mi ssiles
FM: F***ing Magic, a difficult concept that is hard to
understand, naval equivalent of the Air Force term
"cosmic"
FOD: Foreign Object Damage- a loose object which is sucked
into an engine causing damage
F-Pole: distance from launching aircraft to the target at
the time its missile impacts
Fouled Deck any situation in which the flight deck is unready
to land aircraft
Fox 1/11: launch of radar guided missilel infrared missile
"Furball": multiple aircraft engagement (a dogfight)
G
G force: measurement of gravity force; two Gs would be
twice normal gravity
GIUK: Greenland-Iceland-United Kingdom
Glidepath: the descent path of an aircraft while landing
"Gomer": an enemy pilot
Green Shirt: flight deck crew-member responsible for
readying aircraft for take-off
H
Hard Deck an imaginary altitude restriction used for
safety reasons during training exercises
"Hawk" : staying above an engagement
HAWK: (Homing All the Way Killer) a US made surface-to-air
missile
Helo: Navy tenm for helicopter
Hook arresting hook which is deployed from the aircraft on
landing
Hot Pump: refueling an aircraft whi le the engines are
nunnlng
IR: Infra-Red
JBD: Jet Blast Defiector
Jinking: erratic defensive maneuver designed make a firing
solution difficult, looks to an observer that the aircraft is
"fishtailing"
K
Ka: Kaminov, fonmer Soviet design bureau
KIAS: Knots indicated air speed
"Knock It Off' : tenminate fighting maneuvers immediately,
usually used only in training
104
L
LAMPS: Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (helicopter)
Lawn Dart: refers to the F-I 6 because of the high accident
rate during development
"Long lines-Little hooks" : the proper method of dogfighting
LSO: Landing Signals Officer
Lufberry: a circular track fiown by opponents who cannot
close with one another to achieve a firing solution
M
Manking: leaving contrails or otherwise making aerial detection
easy for opposing aircraft; (FA Phantom was a famous
case, nicknamed the Smokin' Thunderhog)
"MeatBall": carrier landing aid set to produce a 30 glideslope
MiG: Mikoyan-Gurevich, fonmer Soviet design bureau
Mi: Mi l, fonmer Soviet helicopter design bureau
MSA: Minimum Safe Altitude
MSL: Mean Sea Level
Mule: small tow vehicle used to move aircraft around the
hangar and fiight decks
N
NFWS: Navy Fighter Weapons School (the Navy's TOP
GUN course)
nm: nautical mile
No Joy: opposite of Tally, no visual contact with opposing
aircrew
"Nugget": freshman aviator on his first tour
o
Oh-dark.-thirty: very early in the moming
OTH: Over-The-Horizon (targeting)
overshoot: potentially dangerous posrtion of being forced out
in front of an opposing aircraft
p
Package: group of aircraft combined to perform a single
mission
"Padlocked": crew cannot take eyes off of target without
losing it
Pickle: releasing ordnance
Picket: a ship positioned on the outer edge of a task
force designed to provide early radar information
Pipper. small dot in the center of the target reticle.
represents the line of sight
"Pit": the back-seat ofthe F-14
Pk: probability of kill
Pucker/Factor. method of rating particularly hazardous
missions or activities
Purple Shirt: fiight deck crew-member responsible for fueling
aircraft
R
Ready (or Alert) Five: manned aircraft in alert status which are
able to be airbome within 5 minutes
Red Shirt: fiight deck crew member responsible for arming
aircraft
RIO: Radar Intercept Officer- the F-14's back seater
ROE: Rules of Engagement
RWR: Radar Waming Receiver
105
SAR: Search and Rescue
SAM: Surface to Air missile
s
SARH (semi-active radar-homing) radar guidance provided to
a weapon by illuminating the target with radar
Scramble: quick take-off
Shooter. designated aircraft that will release ordnance
Slick: the aircraft is fiying wrth no extemal equipment to create
drag
"Smash": power. juice. energy
Snap Shot: high-angle gun shot
Sortie: one fiight mission by one aircraft
SOSUS: Sound Surveillance System
"Speed Jeans": nickname for a pilofs G-suit
"Speed 0' heat": fi ying wrth the afterbumer Irt
Splash: air to air kill or weapons impact on ground target
SSM: Surface-to-Surface Missile
Su: Sukhoi. former Soviet design bureau
T
T ally-Ho: sighting of a confirmed target. opposite of No Joy
Target Rich Environment: area of operations has many
eligible targets
T ARPS: Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Pod System
TLAR: method of bombing. shooting. or landing; acronym
meaning (That Looks About Right)
Top Off fill tanks wrth fuel
Trailer. last aircraft in a formation
Trap: successful canrer landing
Tumbleweed: a request for information. no Tally. no contact
T u: T upolev. former Soviet design bureau
Two-ship: standard fiight of two aircraft. lead and wingman
v
V/STOL: Vertical/ Short Take-off and Landing
Vmax: maximum possible speed for that altitude
Vuh:ure's Row: obseNation deck on the island
w
Wave-off: an order from the LSO telling pilot to not to land
White Shirt: fiight deck crew-member responsible for
inspecting aircraft prior to a cat launch
Winchester: no ordnance remaining, essentially unarmed
WOW switch: weight on wheels switch which disables
various systems while the aircraft is on the ground
y
Yak former Soviet design bureau Yakolev
Yellow Shirt: director responsible for aircraft movement on
the fiight deck
z
Zulu time (i.e. 0455 hrs Zulu): Greenwich mean time
106
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright 1994 by MicroProse Software, Inc. ,
all rights reserved.
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107
108
INTRODUCTION
Klaxons wake you from a well deserved rest. Crewmen begin to scramble
outside your quarters. You jump to your feet and begin to stumble into your
fl ight suit. Your wingman bursts through your door and motions for you to hurry
up and get ready. With one final zip, you' re ready for action. You bolt through
your door, bounce off the far wall, and run up the ladder to the flight deck.
Your RIO is already being hooked in when you climb up into the cockpit.
Men are running back and forth across the flight deck, catapulting planes into
the air as quickly as possible. To your right you see the redshirts of the arming
crew swarming around a Seahawk - antisubmarine weapons. "Simple," you
say to yourself as you settle into your seat and wait as members of the flight
crew strap and hook you in. Your mission is to protect the Seahawk so it can
destroy the incoming subs.
After a few nervous minutes, the blast shield lowers and a yellowshirt
signals for you to taxi into position on the steam catapult. The final checkers
walk down both sides of your vision, scanning the fuselage for any problems.
They skirt the intakes as you taxi forward, and you can almost feel them
doubling back underneath once they reach the rear of the aircraft. All the
while, at the command of the Cat Officer, your engines are spooling up.
Yellowshirts are standing by the cat, just in case.
You can't see him, but you know that the greenshirt under your nose has
hooked you to the catapult; another has attached the tension bar to the rear
of the aircraft. When they give the Cat Officer the first thumbs up, he signals
for you to go to full military power (the greenshirts bolt out of the way) .
When the final checkers complete their walk, they give their first thumbs up,
and the Cat Officer signals you again - time for the control wipeout. You
stick forward and back, moving the rear stabilators up and down to the limits
of their range, then stick side to side. You kick the rudder all the way back and
forth, then pop the flaps and spoilers all the way out.
If the Cat Officer gets the second thumbs up from the checkers, he
motions you to afterburner. You run it through all five stages, knowing that the
final checkers are back there watching for trouble. If their thumbs stay up, the
Cat Officer in his khaki pants looks up at you. You're more than ready, so you
give him the traditional salute. (At night, you would turn on your lights.)
He gives you the final thumbs up and turns toward the man with his hands
raised over his head - the man on the firing button. That man double-checks
that your way is clear; the final checkers huddle behind your aircraft, holding
their thumbs in the air. The Cat Officer drops his hand, the man at the button
drops one hand to the control panel, and the checkers cover their heads. By
the time the hand on the firing button is raised into the air again, you're riding
a column of superheated steam straight at the end of the deck.
2
In seconds, you' re in the air, climbing slowly as the extended wings grab air
to give your fighter some lift. At 300 knots and 7,000 feet, you turn and circle
the carrier to see if the Seahawk has lifted off from the deck yet. It has and is
on its way.
Ten miles away from the carrier, your HUD picks up multiple targets
coming in from the north. You ID them as four MiGs, coming in white-hot.
Your RIO deals with the necessary controls, locking up one of the MiGs, and
you immediately let loose with an AIM-54. Watching the missile trail jet off to
the horizon gets your adrenaline pumping, even as you maneuver for a better
position on the other three MiGs. What a great day to be flying!
Welcome back to F-14 Fleet Defender. Now you can return to the
pilot's seat feeling refreshed, because the F-14 Scenario Disk is here with new
missions for you seasoned pilots. What's so new in this disk? For starters,
there are the Pacific Squadrons. Also, we've included two new theaters in
which to campaign. Do you think you can keep North Korea from invading
South Korea, or prevent India from regaining the land now known as Pakistan?
Lastly, you can create all sorts of new, custom missions in any theater with the
Mission Builder.
Be prepared for what awaits you in the skies over India and Pakistan. Keep
the peace - with a big stick - in Korea. Take a crack at the kind of missions
that are dreams and nightmares for actual F-14 pilots and, most of all, have fun!
3
GETTING TO THE NEW STUFF
As stated in the Introduction, there are several new features in the
F-14 Fleet Defender Scenario Disk for your use. The first of these is t he
Pacific Squadrons.
PACIFIC SQUADRONS
On the Squadrons screen, you'll find a new button: Pacific. To change
over to the new Pacific squadrons, click on this button (the text on the button
will change to Atlantic).
To see and choose from the west coast squadrons, click the LMB on the
Squadrons button. This brings the Squadron Roster to the screen. You can
do everything with these new squadrons that you could with the original
Atlantic groups.
NEW CAMPAIGNS
There are two new theaters: Korea and India/Pakistan
There are two new combat theaters. You can fly these two theaters -
Korea and India - only using the new Pacific Squadrons.
To begin a campaign in either of these new theaters, click the LMB on the
Campaigns button in the Squadron Roster for one of the Pacific Squadrons.
The names of the two theaters are listed at the top of the screen. Click on the
desired theater to view the campaigns available for that theater. (Note that,
unlike some of the Atlantic campaigns, none of the new campaigns are linked
4
together to form larger situations.) Click on the campaign you want to
experience, then leave the screen by clicking OK. You are now ready to play in
the new campaign.
Also, in the briefing map of a mission, it is possible for you to see which
objects are which. To do this, click the LMB on the desired object. This
brings forth a window with the names of all the craft represented by that
object. If you want to see the path for a specific object, click the LMB on the
objects name in this window. You can now see the paths and waypoints for
that object.
THE MISSION BUILDER
The final feature that has been added to F-14 Fleet Defender is the
Mission Builder. This util ity allows you to create your own missions in any of
the combat theaters, then fly them yourself or have your friends test drive
them for you. (Note that this friend must also have the Scenario to be able to
load and fly the missions you design.)
5
NEW THEATERS
To activate the Mission Builder, simply click on the Mission Builder option
at the Main Menu.
Two entirely new theaters of operation have been added to
F-14 Fleet Defender - the India/Pakistan and Korea areas. Each of these
situation theaters includes three new campaign scenarios - six in all - and
every one of these scenarios will have you flying several challenging missions.
The briefings that accompany the new campaign scenarios provide all the
information you need to successfully complete your duties, of course, but only
that. For those of you who'd like a more detailed background, we've prepared
an in-depth briefing on the tense situations with which you' ll be faced. Those
briefings follow.
INDIA
In the past century (among others), religious differences have been the
cause of much bloodshed in the nations of India and Pakistan. Pakistan was, in
fact, a part of India until 1933. The idea of separation was first brought up by
Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the head of the Muslim League in India. He proposed
that a new, independent state should be created that would be predominantly
Muslim in religion. It was not until after World War II that Britain, the long-
time colonial ruler of India, separated India into two independent and distinctly
different countries. These new countries became India and Pakistan.
6
A mass exodus of over fifteen million people - Muslims leaving India for
Pakistan and Hindus leaving Pakistan for India - began with the separation of
the two countries. Along with this exodus came much fighting between the
two groups. Many hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims were killed in
the religious clashes that occurred during the long marches of emigration.
Following the news of these deaths, members of the two religions became
even more intolerant of each other. In the I 960s, India was further aggravated
when the Chinese - seized by the "need" for expansion - invaded India and
captured much territory.
Soon after their invasion, the Chinese withdrew from the newly conquered
lands. Still, India was left in a state of paranoia. This paranoia led to a large
military buildup and to a new policy of strength - in direct contradiction to
the nonviolence accords of the revered Mahatma Gandhi. During the military
buildup in India, border clashes between Pakistani and Indian forces became
more frequent. India, with its new-found strength, initiated a dispute over an
area of land in East Pakistan, saying that it had been wrongfully taken during the
post-war separation of the two nations. Over time, these border disputes led
to the beginning of the Indo-Pakistani War. The fighting that made up this
sporadic war (it took place over 1965, 1971, and 1972) allowed India to regain
portions of the disputed land . Later, this territory was to become the
sovereign state of Bangladesh.
Currently, the Indian subcontinent is becoming more and more a land
sharply divided into conflicting political, economic, and religious regions. With
the detonation of its first nuclear explosive in 1970, India proved to be a force
that could be a serious threat to what little stability there is in world politics.
India is also one of the few countries in the world that has significant carrier-
based forces at its disposal. All this, combined with the history filled with
religious clashes between the Hindu and Muslim forces, makes this volatile area
a perfect, realistic campaign theater for F-14 Fleet Defender.
There are three campaigns that take place within the Indian Theater. Khyber
Rifles, 90s Style posits a religious confrontation with the added complication of
modern day aircraft. The second campaign, Indian Ocean Cruise ... The Kasimir
Sweater, begins with an Indian task force loitering near the coast of Pakistan -
you can imagine where it goes from there. The last of the Indian theater actions,
Indian Rope Trick starts when a MiG Fulcrum decides to fire on a U2
surveillance aircraft in suborbital flight.
7
Friendly, Enemy, and Neutral Forces
The United States, Pakistan, and India are the principal forces active in the
Indian campaigns. No other NATO forces take part in any of the missions or
campaigns. The United States and the Pakistani forces are considered Friendly,
while the military of India is treated as the Enemy. No Neutral forces exist in
any of the three campaigns.
The base map for the Indian Theater, including ground targets
8
Scenario # I Khyber Rifles, 90s Style
For centuries, the area that today includes India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and
southern China has been plagued by bitter, religious and political border
disputes. The weapons have changed with advancements in technology, but the
character of the conflict has not. In fact, this area has proven to be an excellent
test-bed for new weapons developed by various military powers.
The Ganges and Indus rivers have always been natural sources of life and
destruction for this volatile area. A severe cyclone has devastated much of
southern India, and the swollen Ganges has flooded most of the central
portion of the country. Border skirmishes have been on the rise between the
Pakhtyn tribal forces of Peshawar and Pakistani regulars. In fact, newly acquired
F-16s have been used to strafe the advancing tribesmen. Military supplies from
Russia and North Korea have been arriving almost daily, via Bombay, in
massive shipments. These are supposedly relief shipments, aid for the flood and
famine victims.
Pakistani and U.S. foreign affairs spokesmen have expressed their unease
with the inclusion of military supplies in the overtly humanitarian endeavor,
and security officials have recently become concerned over the increased
activity at the nuclear plant at Murandnagar, northeast of New Delhi.
In response to rising suspicions, the U.S. 7th Fleet has begun its Indian
Ocean cruise by staging a joint exercise with the Pakistani Air Force. This
exercise is code named Southern Calm; it is a barely covert watchdog force
with some political Significance. The Eisenhower and its battle group are making
for the Strait of Hormuz. Under the guise of escort for a convoy of relief
supplies, an Indian Glory class carrier, its contingent of Kashin class destroyers,
and several Kil class submarines are shadowing the American battle group.
At 0915 hours, Pasha 0 I - a Pakistani EC-121 from Islamabad on its daily
monitoring run near the frontier - noted an increase in the air activity at
Adampur. This northern Indian airbase is where several newly-acquired
MiG-29 Fulcrums are known to have been recently stationed. Mongoose 32, a
flight of Pakistani F-16s from Sargodha, was also on the monitor, on their way
to one of the tribal staging areas. Without preliminaries, Pasha 0 I reported
tracers being fired across his nose and the leader of a flight of Fulcrums
(presumably Indian) motioning him to descend and vector northwest back
to Ahmadabad.
The nervous pilot of the EC-121 reported compliance, turning the
lumbering aircraft toward home. Two minutes later, the Fulcrums disappeared
as qUickly as they had come. Pasha 0 I immediately turned around and resumed
course, and it detected several Emergency Location Transmitters (EL Ts) .
Mongoose 32 was nowhere to be found.
9
The Fulcrums are all vectoring southeast toward home. It is 0921 when the
Hawkeye 22 reports to CIC that two Pakistani F-16s have been splashed.
Ready five is launched. Southern Calm has been disturbed.
In this scenario, you assume the role of an F-14 pilot in one of the two
fighter squadrons onboard the carrier Eisenhower. Your battlegroup is taking part
in the Southern Calm exercises when it receives the splash message from
Hawkeye 22. Your objective throughout is to protect the carrier group from any
form of Indian attack and, hopefully, to help prevent India from invading Pakistan.
Scenario #2 Ind;an Ocean Cru;se ... The Kas;m;r Sweater
The disputes between India and Pakistan have been a blister on the skin of
international politics for most of the twentieth century. With the recent influx
into this region of refugees from the Afghanistan and Persian Gulf wars, the
food and land resources have been strained to meet the requirements of the
increased populations in both countries.
India has long struggled with the conflicts between Hindu teachings and the
realities of modern-day life. The strong friendship this nation has forged with the
former Soviet Union has definitely placed India on the opposite side of the fence
from the U.S. India, once its ties to the British Empire had been severed, wanted
as little dealings with the West as possible. In fact, India has viewed itself as the
major superpower of southern Asia ever since acquiring nuclear capability.
Since Desert Storm, the strong U.S. presence in the Indian Theater of
Operation (ITO) has precluded any forceful actions by India against Pakistan.
However, with the death of Kim II Sung in North Korea, India has begun to
detect an air of distraction in the U.S. forces, as if the plodding India/Pakistan
situation was no longer their primary concern. The Eisenhower task force seems
to be at a low-level defense posture and has been operating well out to sea.
An Indian task force has positioned itself just outside the coastal waters
near Jamnagar and has begun exercises which appear amphibious in nature;
they are running games that are reminiscent of the Falkland Islands War. Air
cover is provided by Fulcrums from Adampur, deployed to Ahmadabad.
Su-15's are running air-to-ground missions from Jodhpur in conjunction with
Harrier attacks from the sea. MiG-21 fighter aircraft from Jamnagar are
providing much of the defensive force. Curious, the American task force has
launched an E-2C Hawkeye and the "Recce" Tarps F-14s to monitor the
Indian exercises.
Pakistani Airways Flight 210 from Dhahran was vectored for a standard
approach into Karachi International. The air traffic controller, overwhelmed by
the airspace congestion, allowed this crowded aircraft to stray too far south
- into the airspace where the combat exercises are taking place. Two MiGs
- one Pakistani, the other Indian - were sent out to escort the off-course
airliner out of danger. Unfortunately, both planes got in much too close -
10
dangerously close - to the airliner, forcing it to make a violent and potentially
catastrophic maneuver. In the process of repositioning his fighter afterward,
the rookie Indian pilot fired a few errant bursts from his 23mm cannon.
Whether accidental or not, no one will ever know. The bit of gunfire was
more than enough provocation for the seasoned Pakistani pilot. A well placed
Aphid missile put a quick end to the Indian's short career. The controllers on
the Hawkeye quietly looked at each other; their weekend leave in Karachi was
about to be put on hold.
As an F-14 pilot, you are assigned to one of the two fighter squadrons
located on board your carrier. Your objective in this campaign is to protect the
carrier group from any Indian attack. Also, you have the secondary priority of
ensuring that the Indian armed forces do not gain an advantage over those of
the Pakistani government.
Scenario #3 Indian Rope Trick
The Indian acquisition of MiG-29 Fulcrums has caused the scales on the
balance of power to quiver. The deployment of these assets in a perennial
hotbed has caused considerable consternation in Washington. Although the
Chinese are seemingly friendly on the economic front - having retained their
"most favored nation" status - they still hold their cards close to the chest
when it comes to military intelligence.
The recent failure of a solar shield on one of the U.S. military spy satellites
has created a temporary gap in their observation of India' s military
development. The Black Cats, a squadron of U2s deployed at Osan Ab, Korea,
that would normally fly patch missions to fill in the hole, requires that one of
their planes go in for maintenance. The closest facility capable of working on the
U2 is in Diego Garcia. A power projection exercise, code-named Trolling Lance,
has been launched from Kadena AB, Okinawa. This is an exercise designed to
dissuade any sort of military exercise in the ITO while the hole in U.S.
intelligence coverage exists. The Trolling Lance force includes eight F-I 5s, two
DC-lOs, and one RC- 135 Rivet Joint. These aircraft are working in conjunction
with the Navy and staging out of Diego Garcia for the next several weeks.
The Eisenhower battle group has been working with the Pakistani Air Force,
developing MiG sweep tactics and intercept procedures with the F-14s. The
CVBG is on station several hundred miles west of Karachi. The Indian SAG has
been monitoring this training exercise from a position off the coast of Bombay.
Indian MiG-29 aircraft have been working in concert with the SAG on
intercept training for their MiG-25s, flying from Bareilly and recovering into
New Delhi .
II
Constant border overflights and high speed passes of Pakistani MiG-19s
from Kamra and Indian MiG-21 s from Bhuj have been disrupting skirmishes
along the frontier. The U.S. Moxie 44, an RC-135 from Diego Garcia, has been
picking up some very interesting communicat ions traffic from India.
Maintenance on the Black Cats' U2 was quickly completed, and a flyover
mission ordered. At 0645, the sleek surveillance aircraft began its steep, slow
climb northeast out of Diego. Two Tomcat CAPs were launched at 0745 with
no particular mission - just carrier operations as normal.
One MiG-25 was out at 25,000 feet (FL250). As in every training flight for
the past few days, the pilot was playing the role of the mouse while an
incoming flight of MiG-29 Fulcrums played the hungry cats. As he passed
FL350, the MiG-25 pilot saw that the training flight was running an extremely
cold intercept that would miss him by several miles. By FL450, he knew that he
was no longer the target of this exercise. Indian Ground Control Intercept
(GCI) crackled through the UHF; there was a U2 approximately 40 miles away
to his right, heading 020, altitude FL670.
Moxie 44 kept the U2 informed of the intercept's position and vector from
the time the Fulcrum flight came into radar contact. The U2 flew a defensive
posture while the Fulcrums ran a less-than-optimum intercept. Frustrated, the
Fulcrum pilot powered up his radar, locked up the U2, and wildly pulled his
aircraft's nose 20 degrees in order to obtain a firing solution. This violent
maneuvering flamed out the Fulcrum' s starboard engine, and the aircraft
quickly departed from controlled flight.
The young wingman in the Fulcrum flight saw the flame from the
compressor-stalled aircraft engine and (conveniently ignoring what his radar
told him) assumed that his leader had been fired on. He immediately ripple-
fired two missiles at the U2, both of which went wide, but set off the U2' s
Radar Warning Receiver (RWR).
The U2 pilot calmly nosed over, turned 30 degrees left, and made a radio
call which set the rest of the situation into action. "Missiles inbound from
intercepting fighters ," the call read. At FL250, the lead Fulcrum pilot got his
engines restarted, vectored southward, and he and his wingman headed for
home. Two Tomcats at his 3 o' clock. traveling at 550 kts. are up around FL I 00
loaded for bear. It's just not a good day to be a Fulcrum pilot.
You are a pilot in one of the two squadrons on the carrier. You are going
to be involved in the coming battles between the Indian and the Pakistani
governments. Your objectives include protecting the carrier and making sure
that the Indian government does not take any of the "lost" territory
from Pakistan.
12
KOREA
Korea, like India, was a colony before World War II. The two Koreas had
been a single colony of japan for 32 years before the outbreak of the second
World War. With japan's surrender came the liberation of the Korean
Peninsula. It was decided by the United States and the Soviet Union that the
U.S. would accept the japanese surrender south of latitude 38 - the 38th
parallel - and the Soviet Union would accept it north of the parallel. It was
difficult for the Koreans to accept this plan, for they had fought 36 long years
to gain their independence from their colonial rulers.
Shortly following the surrender of japan, the United Nations met to discuss
the formation of a national government for a united Korea. Communications
were sent out about this plan to both the North and the South Korean military
commanders. The South replied favorably, while the Soviet commander in the
North refused to acknowledge that he had received the communications at all.
Since communications with North Korea remained impossible, it was decided
by the United Nations to hold free elections in South Korea, which resulted in
the creation of the Republic of Korea. In answer to this development, North
Korea created its own Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Kim II Sung
was the president.
The United Nations responded to the creation of a North Korean
government by recognizing the Republic of Korea as the only legitimate
government of all Korea. Early on the morning of june 25, 1950, North Korean
forces crossed over the 38th parallel and invaded South Korea. By june 28th,
Seoul, the capital of South Korea, had fallen to the Communists; they
continued their march southward. The United Nations decided to give the
Republic of Korea as much military assistance as they would need to repel the
invaders. What they started with that resolution was the "Korean Conflict" -
the Korean War - that lasted until july 27, 1953. The end result of this
conflict was that the two countries remained separated by the 38th parallel ,
exactly where the United States and the Soviet Union split the country after
World War II.
Korea is not likely to remain a divided nation. The populations of these
countries are the same historically, ethnically, and culturally. The question is
how the two halves are going to become a whole, something both sides desire.
North Korea, which has the resources and the labor, needs South Korea for
their industry, technology, and ports of call. South Korea, on the other hand,
needs those iron ores and precious metals that the North Koreans possess.
13
Reunification can come about for Korea in several different ways. The first
possibility could begin in South Korea. When the older generation of leaders
of the Republic of Korea retire from government and the younger generation
become the law makers, the new leaders of the South may try to create better
relations with their northern cousins. Proof that this sort of thinking is
prevalent among the younger generation was clearly demonstrated during the
violent riots staged by college students in the late I 980s.
A second way that reunification might occur is in the hands of the North.
With the death of Kim II Sung in 1994, there is a new leader of the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea - Kim's son. This man may choose to reform his
communist government and create a more stable and popular democratic
republic. Changes that hint that this may be a workable possibility can be seen
in the newly-reunified Germany and the Commonwealth of Independent
States, formerly the Soviet Union.
Most of the possibilities involve peaceful negotiations between the North
and South, but the rest are not so peaceful. Three of these remaining plans are
the situations that the campaigns for Korea in the Fleet Defender Scenario
work from. The first campaign, titled Return To The ROK, is based largely
on the North Koreans' defiant refusal to allow nuclear inspectors into some of
their facilities. The second campaign, entitled Push 'EM Back, Push 'EM
Back, Way Back!, deals with a sudden invasion of South Korea. The last
campaign, entitled Pick A Card ... Any Card, starts with military exercises by
the United States and the South Koreans that become more than your
standard drill .
None of these campaigns are interlinked, meaning that each one is meant
to stand alone. Though based on fact, these campaigns are fiction; they in no
way represent any actual plans on the part of any U.S. military agency. Enjoy!
14
Base map for the Korean Theater
Friendly, Enemy, and Neutral Forces
The United States and the South Korean (ROK) forces are considered
Friendly for the three Korean campaigns. The Soviet Union and China are
considered Neutral most of the time, but they do become possible enemy
targets near the beginning of the third campaign. The constant Enemy force in
these missions is the North Korean military.
Scenario #1 Return To The ROK
North Korea has begun to flex its muscles in light of the complexities of
the current world situation. The only superpower, the United States, has
proven in recent years that it is a country unwilling to make strong decisions
on a course of action regarding the peninsula. The U.S. acted without resolve
during the Somalian Civil War, spoke out loudly and reacted slowly to the
outbreak of fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The military coup in Haiti proved
that a country near U.S. waters could become a threat without fearing any
form of retaliation, and the civil war in Yemen was practically ignored by the
United Nations. Under these seemingly uncaring eyes, North Korea has
decided to put the resolve of the United Nations to the test.
The first nuclear reactor in North Korea was built in the ancient city of
Yongbyong. It was supplied by the Soviet Union and became fully operational in
1967. Twenty years after that first reactor came on line, two more reactors
were completed. All three of these reactors are of the old-fashioned
gas/graphite type, which can be used to reprocess fissionable materials into
weapons-grade plutonium and enriched uranium.
15
For years preceding the time when North Korea obtained their first
nuclear reactor, the United Nations, under the Nuclear Nonproliferation
Treaty, tried to curb the spread of nuclear technologies. This treaty allowed
the newly-formed International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) access to all
nuclear reactor sites. North Korea was induced to sign this treaty by the
Soviet Union in 1985. In return for their cooperation, the USSR gave them
their nuclear power plant at Simpo.
As is typical of Stalinist regimes in Asia, all information on the reactors was
shrouded in secrecy. However, many reliable defectors brought international
attention to North Korea's nuclear program. Although the North claimed that
all their research was for peaceful purposes, the United Nations did not believe
their story. Forced into the open, North Korea must now either allow the IAEA
inspectors into their reactors or deny them entry and prepare for possible
retaliation. In anticipation of hostilities, the U.S. has positioned a second carrier
task group in the area - one in the Sea of Japan and the other in the Yellow Sea.
Quietly, yet with great interest, China and the Soviet Union watch.
At the moment, all parties are jabbing at each other as two boxers in the
beginning round of a prize fight. The aging heavyweight champ, the U.S., is set
against the bantamweight North Korea with a horseshoe in his glove. Diplomatic
attempts to open the nuclear plants to inspectors have been fruitless. The U.S.
has decided to heighten Team Spirit exercises with South Korea and increase
U2 flights over the North. The North counters with a provocative exercise of
its own that aggressively wards off American observation.
As an F-14 pilot, you are assigned to one of two fighter squadrons onboard
your carrier. You will be participating in a series of air strikes against a wide
range of industrial and military targets. The objective of this air campaign is to
ensure that North Korea and their allies do not retake South Korea as they
almost did early in the Korean Conflict. As always, you must protect the
carrier group from any inbound attacks.
Scenario #2 Push 'EM Back. Push 'EM Back. Way Back!
With the demise of the Soviet Union, South Korea's establishment of full
diplomatic ties with the People's Republic of China, and an economic situation
bordering on desperation, North Korea is starting to feel all alone in a big world.
China, who once championed their cause in the conflict with the South, is now
on a cash-only basis for technology and equipment sales. The North Koreans
are a desperate people, and some of their leaders feel they have nothing left to
lose. With their nuclear program stepped up, as well as their missile
technology, this is their final hope for financial growth - nuclear proliferation.
16
The U.S., in anticipation of some sort of move, has positioned a second
carrier task force in the area and has stepped up the Team Spirit exercises
with South Korea. The exercise had been postponed when the North labelled
it as an act of war. The U.S. initially complied, but has since decided to bring
the operation to full scale. The United Nations is riddled with indecision and
totally absorbed in the civil wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Daily, the U.S. forces in and near Korea fly many sorties and hundreds of
hours of observation. This morning, the 0130 DMZ flight of the Army OV-I
Mohawk Chesty 69 was not routine. The UHF radio call blared out in the Tree
House, "Hot Dog. Hot Dog. Aircraft heading south, bear ing 360 fo r 60,
authenticate Whiskey Zulu." Everyone on the carrier knew that whatever was
flying 60 nautical miles away was not the Chesty 69. Moments later, explosions
silenced the klaxon alarms that were going off at Kunsan. The alert birds that
were ready to take off became just so much scrap metal. More explosions
destroyed the runway at Osan. The North Korean Special Forces had done
their job, and the next battle for South Korea had commenced.
As an F- 14 pilot in one of two squadrons onboard the carrier, your
objectives are to protect the carrier from all possible threats and protect your
South Korean allies.
Scenario #3 Pick A Card ... Any Card
The Korean peninsula has become a veritable time bomb, now that the
North Koreans are seriously developing their nuclear potential. This has
caused the U.S. to maintain a constant presence in the Korean Theater. The
South has been making attempts to open diplomatic relations with the
Chinese, but to no avail. The failing Soviet Union views North Korea as its last
vestige of hope for the continued proliferation of the communist political
experiment. In another war with the South, North Korea would be backed up
by China and the Soviet Union in much the same way as Viet Nam was backed
up in their war. Unfortunately for North Korea, state of the art weapons and
aircraft are sparingly given because of the North Koreans' stubborn refusal to
let any of the larger powers' troops land in their territory.
To add to North Korea's anxieties, the time has come for the Team Spirit
exercises to commence in South Korea. This annual source of irritation has
gone on long enough, they've decided. This year, the North has been able to
exert enough international pressure to assure that the U.S. had to succumb
and start the exercises a few months later. This afforded the North the
preparation time that was needed for their ambitious plan to take effect. As
Team Spirit kicked off, North Korea, China, and the Soviet Union began an
unprecedented joint exercise called Red Orchid. Red Orchid included an
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amphibious operation on the China/North Korea border. Also, naval and air
exercises were coordinated with the Soviet SAG out of Vladivostok. With
these operations going on, North Korea added maneuvers along the DMZ
between them and South Korea.
Meanwhile, CAPs from the U.S. carrier America were kept busy keeping
track of the increased Soviet activity associated with the SAG forces involved
in the Red Orchid operation. CAPs from the Eisenhower have been vigilantly
watching the amphibious operations. P-3 aircraft from Iwakuni have been
constantly monitoring submarine activity from the Koreans, the Chinese, and
the Soviet Union. Needless to say, both exercises were watched very carefully
by all forces.
As the two sets of exercises approached the third day, intercept
complacency began to set in. AWACs were in a routine phase, and the Tree
House monitored ai rcraft movements on a regular basis. Felix 33, a U2 from
Osan, took off on its regular run. The SAM sites were inordinately active, but
t he patrol was to continue on schedule. Two hundred nautical miles northeast
of Osan, over the Sea of Japan, two Soviet-made SU-I 5s began what looked
like a standard pushoff of the U2.
An observant LTJG on the Aegis cruiser in the America task force noted
what appeared to him to be an intercept and warned the U2, meanwhile
vectoring in a flight of Tomcats. The SU-I 5s were 40 nautical miles north of the
U2 and closing, while the Tomcats were 60 nautical miles to the south. The
forewarned U2 - at 70,000 feet - began a slow arcing turn to the southeast.
Just then, the lead SU-15 fired an AA-3 Anab missile. Twenty-five seconds
later, that same aircraft was destroyed by an AIM-54 Phoenix launched by one
of the incoming Tomcats. The AA-3 went ballistic without a lock and eventually
tumbled aimlessly to earth. The fourth day of the exercises would be a whole
different ball of wax.
You will assume the role of an F-14 pilot in one of the two fighter
squadrons onboard the carrier. Your objectives are to protect the carrier task
force and prevent the combined forces of North Korea, China, and the Soviet
Union from overrunning South Korea. If full-blown hostilities commence
between these various nations, a nuclear confrontation may be the end result
of the fighting.
18
THE MISSION BUILDER
You've completed all of the predesigned missions in both the original
Fleet Defender and the scenario disk. You' ve shot down more enemy
aircraft than you care to think about. What now? Well , why not design your
own missions?
There is a Mission Builder feature included with the new campaign
scenarios. Using this, you can renew the challenge of the game by creating your
own, original F-14 missions - tougher than the canned missions, just like you are.
The new Main Screen
19
AT FIRST GLANCE
The primary Mission Builder screen is broken up into several areas.
There is a map of the world, used for determining the geographic positioning
of forces and objects. In the upper, right-hand corner of the screen is the
Mission Information Window, which gives you a quick summary of what's
already in the mission you' re designing. Below this are three buttons: Files,
Mission, and Objects. These activate several features vital to the design of
your missions.
The theater map and Mission Information Window
MISSION INFORMATION WINDOW
This useful little window helps to remind you what you've put into a
mission. It's a simple, quick reference that you should find handy. Listed in this
window are:
the number of objects already on the map, along with the total number of
objects the mission builder allows;
the number of ground targets on the map, along with the total number of
ground targets allowed;
the number of paths (complete sets of waypoints) you've set, along with
the total number allowed;
the number of waypoints you've set, followed by the total number
allowed; and
the number of actions you' ve commanded, versus the total number
allowed.
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Any time you add an object or command to a mission, the amount in that
particular category goes up automatically. Once the total number for any
category has been reached, the category is highlighted in the window, and you
cannot add any more of that category to the mission. (For example, there are
70 objects allowed per mission in the India theater; therefore, you could not
add the Light Brigade to this mission, as there are too many of them.)
THE MISSION MAP
One of the most important tools used in the creation process is a visual
representation of what is to be created, a blueprint, a sketch, or just a mental
image. To help with your mission building, maps of the Indian, Korean, Oceana,
North Cape, and Mediterranean campaign areas are displayed on the screen
for you to use. Anyone of these can become the backdrop for one of your
missions, but first you need to know a little about reading the Mission
Builder version of these maps.
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The player's always in the center of these rings
Distinguishing between the friendly and enemy forces and commands is
probably a good place to start. Friendly forces are always blue, while the
enemy forces are red. Neutral forces, if there are any, are displayed as tan
icons. The paths you have set for these forces are green for friendlies, pink for
enemies, and yellow for neutrals. Note that the color of any path will change
to white when you are editing that path.
Along each path are little triangles called "waypoints". A waypoint is a
marker for a place where you've commanded that the force following the path
do something - an "action" in mission builder terminology. Examples are:
beginning a CAP pattern or changing direction.
You' ll be able to spot the F-14 that the player is to fly by the two rings
surrounding it. These rings are for your convenience. The first one marks a
100 nautical mile radius, and the second marks off 200 nm. Any object that lies
within the first ring is a possible target for the weapons systems of the F- 14.
Objects within the second ring are potential threats to the integrity of the
player's aircraft.
The Show Menu
A little further on, you' ll find out how to place objects onto the map, and
thus into the mission. Before you get there, though, there's a useful little utility
menu - the Show Menu - on the map that can help you to stay organized
when building complex missions. Since it's part of the Mission Map, it's
explained here.
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The Show Menu lets you dec/utter the bulder screen
To call up this menu, click the RMB on the map when there are no other
menus open. The Show Menu includes the following options (Note that
whatever text is displayed on a line denotes the current state of affairs, not
what will happen if you click on that line.):
Show (Hide) Moving Objects: To hide all of the moving sea and air objects
on the map, click the LMB on this option. To uncover them once hidden,
click on this line again.
Show (Hide) Ground Targets: To hide all of the ground targets on the
map, click the LMB on this option. To uncover them once hidden, click on
this line again.
Show (Hide) Allied Objects: To hide all of the allied (friendly) sea, air and
ground objects on the map, click the LMB on this option. To uncover
them once hidden, click on this line again.
Show (Hide) Enemy Objects: To hide all ofthe enemy objects on the map,
click the LMB on this option. To uncover them once hidden, click on this
line again.
Show (Hide) Neutral Objects: To hide all of the neutral objects on the
map, click the LMB on this option. To uncover them once hidden, click on
this line again.
Show (Hide) Waypoints: To hide all of the waypoints on the map, click the
LMB on this option. To uncover them once hidden, click on this line again.
Show Object Class with Name (Hide Object Class): By clicking the LMB
on this option, you can hide the class listing of all the objects on the map. An
object's class will then only be displayed when that object has been selected
for viewing. Click on this option again to redisplay the object classes.
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Hide An Object: Sometimes, you might want to remove only one or two
objects from the map, not all of a particular type. To do so, click on this
option. Once you've done this, you'll be prompted to choose an object to
hide. Click the LMB on the object of your choice. To cancel hiding an
object, click on an area where there are no objects. To redisplay the
hidden object, choose to show all of the objects of that type.
Show (Hide) One Path: To hide a single path on the map, click on this
option. You will be prompted to select a path to hide. Click on any
waypoint on the path or the object associated with the path to select the
path. To cancel hiding a path, click on an area where there are no paths,
waypoints, or path-associated objects. To redisplay the hidden path,
choose to show all paths by pressing the LMB on this option again.
Show (Hide) Summary Information: To remove the Mission
Information Window from the screen, click on this option. To return
the window to the screen, click on this option again.
When you've finished hiding and uncovering things. click on the Done button
at the bottom of the menu. This will close the menu and return you to the map.
The Object Window
Another source of information available to you on the map is the Object
Window. Click on any object on the map to open this window. This handy
reference lists all of the objects in the area on which you clicked. Each object
listing includes the number, name, and type of object. This is especially useful
when several objects overlay each other in one small area of the map.
The Object Window
24
You can also click on any of the object listings to view the ordnance carried
on board that object. The type of guns, number of missiles, name and type of
missiles, and minimum and maximum ranges of the listed missiles will all be
noted. Click on the OK button to close the ordnance list.
THE BUILDING BUTTONS
Knowing how to read and manipulate the map is only a part of the process
of creating a mission. The rest of the mission set-up is covered by the "Building
Buttons": Files, Mission, and Objects. Each of these activates a full menu of
mission design options.
Files
Click the LMB on the Files button to open the Files Menu. There are
three options on this menu, all concerned with mission files. To use an option,
select it, then click on the OK button. To leave the menu without doing
anything, click on the Cancel button.
NEW MISSION
This is the option you want if you' re ready to begin work on a new
mission. Once you've clicked on OK, the Mission Theater selection appears.
You must choose a theater in which the mission will take place. You can select
the North Cape, the Mediterranean, Oceana, India, or Korea. The map of the
theater you choose will replace the existing map.
Note that if you were in the middle of editing a mission and did not save it
before you chose to begin work on a new mission, you will be prompted to
save your old mission.
As soon as you've selected a theater, you must place the home aircraft
carrier on which the player's F-14 will be based. A red box appears on the map
where the carrier was stationed during the original missions in this theater.
Click and hold the LMB on the box, then "drag" the carrier to its new
position. Release the LMB to place the carrier. Once you've done this, you can
begin placing other objects on the map at your own discretion. For more on
that part of mission building, read the Objects section below.
LOAD MISSION
You can, of course, load previously saved missions and edit them. This is
the option that allows you to do so. In the Load Mission Window, select
the drive and directory in which you store your custom-made missions. Then
select the mission you wish to load from the displayed list.
2S
You can load existing missions or any you have created
If you prefer, you can simply type in the path and filename of the mission
instead. To do this, click on the File area, then enter the name of the mission.
No matter how you select a mission, once you have done so, click on the
Load button. The mission will be loaded into the Mission Builder.
SAVE MISSION
To save changes to a mission that you have been building, click on the
Save Mission option, then on OK. If the mission is one that you loaded, the
default save name will be the existing name of the mission. Simply click on the
Save button to save your changes.
To save the mission under another name, select the drive and directory in
which you want to save the mission file. Click on the file name near the top of
the window, then enter the name you wish to give this mission. Click on Save
to save the mission.
Missions
After you've created a new mission or loaded an existing one, what's left is
the meat of mission building - setting up the mission information. To begin, click
on the Mission button. The next thing you see will be the Mission Info Menu.
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The Mission Information Menu
This menu is your primary tool for setting the important features of any
mission. The options are Description. Time. Weather. Time Aloft. Edit
Briefing. Edit Objective Text. and Edit Mission Objective. To change
anyone of these from its default setting. click on the option to highlight it. then
click on the Change button.
DESCRIPTION
The description is simply the name of the mission. which will be displayed on
the top of the mission briefing. Edit the text of the name using the keyboard. then
click the OK button or press I Enter I . The new name takes effect immediately.
TIME
You can choose a specific time for the mission to begin. Use the
chronometer to set the exact time of day you want. or click on the red button
to have a random time chosen for you. (When the random time feature is
active. the button will light up with an "R" in it.)
To specify a time. click and hold the LMB on the clock hand. "Drag" the
hand to the time you want. then release the LMB. Repeat this for the other
hand. You can also set the time using the up and down arrows on your
keyboard. Click on the OK button to accept the mission starting time or use
the Cancel button to leave the time unchanged.
27
WEATHER
As is the case with time, you also must specify some sort of weather for
the mission. The weather setting switch allows you to make things Stormy,
Clear, Overcast, or Random for your mission. Click on the type of weather
you want, then on the OK button. (You can also use the up and down arrows
on your keyboard to set the weather.) To cancel your weather selection, use
the Cancel button.
TIME ALOFT
In some missions, what is important is merely to remain aloft long enough
to fulfill your mission orders. To design this limit into a mission, you must set a
minimum time aloft using this option. When you click on this, a chronometer
will appear.
To specify a time, click and hold the LMB on one of the clock hands.
" Drag" the hand to the time you want, then release the LMB. Repeat this for
the other hand. You can also set the time using the up and down arrows on
your keyboard. Click on the OK button to accept the minimum time aloft or
use the Cancel button to leave the limit unchanged.
EDIT BRIEFING
This is where you enter the text of the mission briefing the player pilot will
see. (Note that some information may be pre-entered for you:) Edit this text
as you see fit, deleting and adding whatever information you like. To switch
back and forth between pages, use the red arrows (up or down) . You can also
use the keys (Home I and [End I to go to the beginning and end of the text,
respectively. Once you have entered all your changes, click on the OK button
to verify the new briefing text.
EDIT OBJECTIVE TEXT
The mission objective, as it is presented to the player pilot, is completely
under your control. (Of course, it should probably be relevant to the actual
objective of the mission.) This information is editable text, and this is the
option you use to edit it. When your changes are complete, click on OK. To
cancel your changes, use the Cancel button.
EDIT MISSION OBJECTIVE
This is the option you can use to change the actual mission objective. There
are three types of mission objectives, and which type you choose to use will in
great part determine the overall personality of the mission. The three are:
Must Live ..... . . .. . player must protect something(s)
Must Die .. . . . . . .. . player must destroy something(s)
Must Reach Goal .. . player must make sure that circumstances allow one
or more objects to reach specified goals
28
Click on the type of mission you want to create, and you will be presented
with the Add Objectives Window for that type of objective.
Add Objectives Window
At the top of this new window, the number of the current page and the
total number of pages in the entire objective list are displayed. You can turn
the pages by clicking the LMB on the arrows to the right and left of these page
numbers. Each page represents a group of objects.
Below the page numbers are two totals for the current page. The first is
the total number of objects on this page that you have added to the objective.
The second is the total number of objects on the page. You can use the
ar rows to the right and left of these totals to change the number of objects on
the page that are part of the objective. For example, if there are six Harriers
on the page, but only four need to survive the mission, you should click twice
on the left arrow to make the total read, "4 of 6 must live."
You may sometimes feel that it would be easier to recognize specific pages
in the objectives list if they were named. Thus, you can name the pages of
these lists. The name that you choose appears in the pilot's debriefing. To give
a page a name, click on the Description line. Edit the name as you see fit,
then press [Enterl to accept the new name.
29
Included at the bottom of this window are four buttons, as follows:
Clear . . . .. .. . . . .. . click twice to remove all objects in the current page
Add . ... ... .. ..... . select objects from a list to add to the objectives
(note that objects already on the Must Live or
Must Die list will not be available for inclusion on
the opposite list)
Delete ... .. ....... remove selected objects from the list of objectives
OK . . ... . .. . .. .... accept the list of objectives as modified
When you choose to add an object to the objectives list, you might be
presented with a Weapons Load-Out Selection Window. This window
appears if there is more than one group of the type you selected. Double-click
on the load-out that matches the group you want to add to the objective list.
Different groups are differently armed
Must Reach Goal objectives entail one further complication. You may
only add objects to this list which have a specified goal at one of their
waypoints. For details on goals and actions at waypoints (and on creating the
objects that you may eventually add to any of the objectives lists), see the next
section - Objects.
Once all the objectives on every page are to your satisfaction, click on the
OK button to return to the mission map.
30
The Objem Menu is important for making interesting missions
Objects
"Objects" are the things that make missions interesting, things like enemy
planes, friendly planes, SAM sites, etc. Without them, every mission would be a
boring, monotonous CAP. When you click on the Objects button, you' ll see
the Objects Menu. Use the options on this menu to manipulate the objects
you want to include as active parts of the mission (or just sprinkle around the
theater, to add an atmosphere of realism).
ADD OBJECT
This option allows you to add an object to the theater. The first thing you
must do is choose the type of object you wish to add. The Pick Object Type
Window contains every type of object available for missions, and it lists the
category of each type. These categories denote what sort of duty each type is
capable of performing.
A Fighter is an object used for destroying air targets, such as other planes or
cruise missiles.
Attack objects are responsible for bombing ground and sea targets.
Transports are objects that are used to carry cargo or people from one area
to another.
Helicopters are objects that have multiple functions, including transport,
defense, attack, and escort.
A Radar Plane is used to make observations of enemy targets, as well as to
keep all friendly objects in constant contact.
31
Ships are objects that are sea-based.
Missiles are cruise missiles used to destroy land and sea targets. (Note: you
should only add missiles as objects if you want to start a missile in the air.)
The designation code for ships is:
CG Cruiser
BCG Large Cruiser
CGH Cruiser with helicopter pad
DDG Destroyer
FF Frigate
FFG Frigate with guided missiles
LST Landing Ship, Tank
Raft Raft
SSN Submarine
CY Aircraft Carrier
CYH Helicopter Carrier
PTM Patrol Boat with Missiles
AFS Resupply ship
Yirat Indian Aircraft Carrier
Those ships with a SOy prefix to their designation belong to the Soviets.
Names that end with an SK belong to South Korea, and objects with an NK
suffix belong to North Korea. If the name is followed by a PK suffix, the object
is under Pakistani control. Objects with an IN suffix belong to India. Finally,
objects with a CH at the end of their name belong to China.
Use the More button to page through the view to see all of the available
objects. Clicking the LMB on this button moves forward through the list, and
clicking the RMB moves backwards.
To choose an object to add to the mission, click the LMB on it. After that,
click on the OK button (note that double-clicking on the object will also
work) . You'll be presented with the Weapons Load-out selection. Click on
the load-out you want to assign to this object, and you will be returned to the
mission map.
32
The Add Object Window
You now must place the object where you want it to start at the beginning
of the mission. Click the LMB on the position where you wish to place the
new object. If you want to have the object follow or otherwise stay near
another object, you can set its position to an "offset" position from another
object. Do this by moving the new object to the target object and then clicking
the RMB. Next, you must select the target object that you want the new
object to follow. The offset map that appears next allows you to place the new
object at the desired distance from the target object.
EDIT OBJECT
This option opens another menu - the Edit Object Information
Menu. You can change any of the information for an object simply by selecting
the corresponding option.
Object lets you replace one object with another. You' ll need to choose
the new object, and it will immediately replace the existing object. The
information for the object will not change.
Side is what you use to change whether an object is Friendly, Neutral,
or Enemy.
Number allows you to turn a single object into a group, and vice versa.
Once you've selected Number, every time you click on the Change button,
another object will be added. Note that the number can only be increased to
ten. If you continue clicking on Change past ten, the number will cycle back
to one.
33
Type lets you change the type of the object. There are several different
types for an object. Standard sets the object to follow its flight plan with no
complications. Player denotes the friendly F-14 to be controlled by the player.
(There can only be one F-14 object set as the playing fighter.) Ready-5 places a
specified object on alert; this means that they are ready to launch at any point
in the mission. Wingman sets a friendly F-14 to be the player's wingman during
the mission. Damaged means that the object starts the mission hurt. CAP sets
an object into a CAP Combat Air Patrol , while Escort has the object lead other
objects. Finally, there is Nonhostile; this means that the object will not engage
unless it has been fired on.
Name is used to create a name for a specific object. A cursor appears
where you can type in the new name. Creating a name for an object helps you
keep track of which object you are editing when you are working with one
specific object in a group.
Move lets you move an object from one position to another. A small box
appears on the map where the object was originally placed. Move the object
with the mouse, then click the LMB when the mouse cursor is on the new
position. If you want to have the object follow or otherwise stay near another
object, you can set its position to an "offset" from another object. Do this by
moving the object to the position, then clicking the RMB. Next, you must
select the target object that you want the moved object to follow. The offset
map that appears next allows you to place the moved object at the desired
distance from the target object.
Chance of Appearing lets you add a random factor to a mission. You can
give an object a certain percentage chance of appearing during a mission. When
you do this, you must select one of three possibilities presented to you. Add to
Random Group puts the object in one of the ten slots for random appearance
objects. Note that you can put different objects on the same list. At the start of
a mission, the computer randomly selects one of the slots as the object that
appears. If there is no object in that slot, then no object appears. Give Random
Chance of Appearance allows you to set a percentage chance that the object will
appear. Always Appears sets this percentage to 100%.
DELETE OBJECT
If you decide to remove an object from the mission, choose this option.
You are prompted to select an object to be deleted. To do this, move the
mouse cursor over the desired object and then click the LMB. If there is more
than one object in an area, you are then prompted to select which object you
want removed. The object will be immediately deleted from the mission. If you
change your mind and do not wish to remove an object at this time, simply
click the LMB anywhere on the map where there is no object.
34
EDIT PATH
The path an object is to follow is more than just a vector. In Fleet
Defender, a path is a set of orders, complete with decision points and
allowances for changes in the situation.
Editing paths is easier than it seems
The Edit Path option allows you to set and change the path for an object.
First, you'll be prompted to select an object or a waypoint to edit. After you
choose one, the Edit Path Menu appears. Use the options on this menu to edit
the path for the selected object. When you're done, click on the Done button.
Waypoint - A waypoint is a point in an object's path where a change of
direction or some other action takes place. This option simply shows you the
number of the waypoint on which you are currently working. Any time that
you change to a different waypoint, the number here changes to reflect it.
Add New Waypoint - To create a path, you need to create at least one
waypoint (in addition to WayPoint Zero, the starting position). Choose this
option, and you will be prompted to place a new waypoint on the map. Use
the mouse cursor to position the new waypoint, then click the LMB. Once
this is done, a path line will link the previous waypoint to the new
waypoint. No commands will be attached to the new waypoint until you
specify them.
Note that you can choose an object as the waypoint by using the RMB
instead of the LMB. If you do, you will be prompted to offset the path object
from the target object, just as if you were positioning the path object.
35
Delete This Waypoint - If you need to remove a waypoint from an
object's path, choose this option. The current waypoint will be removed
from the map, and the path is automatically modified to reflect the change.
Move This Waypoint - To move a waypoint from one position to another,
use this option. Choose a new position, then click the LMB. The waypoint
immediately assumes the new position, with all the necessary paths altered
to compensate. You can use the RMB to move a waypoint to an offset
position from a target object.
Add Action - At any waypoint, you can place an action command for the
object to perform prior to o r as it reaches the waypoint. You will be
prompted to choose from a menu of the possible actions. You can assign
more than one action to a single waypoint. The actions are:
AWACs Pattern .. . . .. commands a plane (usually a radar plane) to take up an
oval pattern around the waypoint, to spot other planes
and ships.
Bomb Area . . . . . . .... tells a plane to drop free-fall bombs on the waypoint.
CAP .. . .. . . ..... .. .. sets a fighter plane to fly a pattern and watch out for
enemy targets.
Comm jamming . . . . . . causes an enemy object to jam the Hawkeye
information coming to the player's F-14.
Cover Aircraft . .... .. . tells the object to act as escort for a target object.
Crash This Object . .. .. sends the aircraft object down to the surface to crash
at the waypoint.
Damage This Object . .. causes damage to the object at the waypoint. Most
likely, this damage will cause all weapon systems to
malfunction.
Destroy Object . . . . . . . says that once the object reaches the waypoint, it will
blow up.
Drop Paratroopers . . . . is only applicable to planes with paratroopers inside.
Once the plane reaches the waypoint, the paratroopers
will be dropped off there.
Elevation . .. .. . .. . ... sets the altitude at which the plane should be when it
reaches the waypoint.
Engaging Training . . . . . sends a plane into a descending spi ral. It will not deviate
from this action, even if fired upon. This is primarily
used when training new pilots on how to keep planes
within their sights during four-G turns.
Form On .. ...... . . . . tells one group of objects to join with another group of
objects in formation.
36
Formation
ID Training . ... . ..... makes all objects invisible to each other and prohibits
them from firing on the player's F-14. This is used in
training to teach how different formations react as they
approach a target.
Go Refuel ..... .. . ... sends the object to gas up if a refueler is available.
Goal ... .. .. .. .. .... designates the waypoint as one of that object's mission
goals. Once the object reaches this area, the objective
has been completed.
Heading . .... . .. ... . sets a new heading for the object at the waypoint.
Useful at the first and last waypoints or to tell a CAP
which direction to look for a threat.
Hover ..... . ........ commands a helicopter or harrier to stay in one place
for a specified time period.
I'm Escortable . ... ... . sets an object to not become offensive when a plane
approaches. If the player flies near an object in this
mode, roughly maintaining the same heading, speed, and
altitude, then the object begins to follow the player.
Land . .............. sends a plane to the closest airport of the same side
or back to the carrier.
Launch Missile ... . . . . commands the object to launch a cruise missile at the
waypoint as soon as it is within effective range.
Message .. .. . .... . .. commands the object to send a message to the player
once it begins heading for the waypoint. Up to ten
different messages can be sent in anyone mission. To
include the object's number in the message, use the
symbol H%%%" where you want the number. This
means that the object tells you that it is number three
in a group, for example, then repeats the message that
numbers two and one sent.
Missile Flight . . . ...... commands a missile already in the air to go active on a
target at the waypoint as soon as possible. (i.e., destroy
this waypoint).
New Formation . ...... orders the object group to form into the Bomber, Box,
Combat Spread, Cruise, Ladder, Parade, Strike, or Wall
formation. If you set the formation for Combat Spread,
the plane remains hostile even if the type was set at
Nonhostile or I' m Escortable.
New Player Path ...... tells the game to give the player new orders when the
object begins heading for this waypoint . After you place
this action, you will need to set up the player' s
secondary path.
37
Choose an action for the current waypoint
No Formation . . .. .. .. commands the object to break out of formation and go
independent.
No Kills . . .. . . ....... puts the game into a mode in which no kills are allowed.
Peace .............. changes the current situation from war to peace. (Every
mission begins in a state of war.) The instructions the
player receives from the Hawkeye will differ depending
on the situation. This action can only be ordered at one
of the waypoints for the player's F-14.
SAR . .. .. .. ......... orders the object into Search And Rescue operation.
This sends the object to a lower elevation, near the
waypoint, to look for survivors of a battle. If on the
deck, the object will remain stationary until SAR
is needed.
SAR CAP .. . ...... . .. sets up a CAP around the waypoint or target object,
searching for downed survivors of a battle. This sort of
CAP is triangular in shape.
Set Hardeck . .... . . .. denotes a lower limit of altitude at which combat will
always stop. This is used in training mode.
Speed . .. ...... ... .. orders the object to attain a certain speed by the time
it reaches the waypoint.
Submerge .. .. .. .. . . . makes a surface object invisible (a submarine, that is -
submerging ships and aircraft is not recommended) .
Take Off . ... .. .... .. orders airworthy objects to get off the deck and into
action.
38
ASWITorpedo . . . .. . . . orders submarines and other objects with anti-
submarine weapons to launch at a target near the
waypoint. The target is automatically hit once this
weapon is launched, and submarines are always
destroyed by the antisubmarine weapon.
Training Mode .. .. ... toggles training mode on or off.
Delete Action - If you want to remove an action from the command list
associated with a waypoint, choose this option. Simply select the action you
want deleted and click on the OK button (or double-click on the action) .
Edit Action - If you decide to change the settings of an action that is
presently in the command list for a waypoint, use this option. You'll need
to select which action you want to alter, then click the Change button.
The setting control relevant to that type of action will appear, allowing you
to choose a new value.
ADD GROUND TARGET
This option is used to add new ground targets or to return deleted ground
targets to the mission. There is a limited selection of possible ground targets
for each mission theater, and you will be prompted to select which one you
want to add.
EDIT GROUND TARGET
If you decide to change a ground target's Side, Name, or Type, you can
do so using this option. You will be prompted to select the target that you
want to change (you must pick from the targets that are currently in the
mission theater).
Side lets you choose whether the site is to be Enemy, Neutral , or Friendly.
Name is used to give a name to the target. Type cycles through the available
weapons that can be assigned to that site (With AAA sites, Without AAA
sites, and the actual weaponry that exists at the real site).
DELETE GROUND TARGET
This option allows you to remove a ground target from the mission
theater. After choosing to delete, select the target with the LMB. If there are
multiple targets in an area, you are prompted by the Mission Builder to
select the correct target from a list.
39
TRY MISSION
If you desire to playa mission that you or anyone else has created, load it
into the Mission Builder and then click the LMB on the Try Mission button.
This prepares the mission for play. The next screen that appears is the
Mission Preparation Screen. Here you can see all the pertinent
information for that specific mission. On the right hand side of the screen are
three buttons. You can change the time, weather, and the squadron by
pressing the appropriate button. When you' re ready to fly the mission, click
the LMB on the Take Off button.
Mission Preparation Screen
FOR EXAMPLE ...
Running through all of the options and how to use them is a good start, but
most people understand something a little better if they' re offered an example
of the process - it helps to cl arify things. Therefore, we' re going to make a
couple of missions right now. If there was anything that wasn't too clear in the
technical discussion, pay attention - it should be covered here.
We've worked out two examples to help you with creating your missions.
The fi rst one is set in Korea, and is a matter of the player defending the carrier
against multiple incoming cruise missiles. The second one has the player pilot
flying a simple CAP when something unexpected and sinister happens.
40
One: Scramble! Incoming!
The first thing to do when we're creating a mission is click on the Files
button. We select New Mission to generate a brand new scenario - a blank
slate. A list of the five theaters appears, and we decide to set this mission in
Korea. Right away, we have to place the aircraft carrier Nimitz at its starting
position. To keep things uncomplicated (for now), we move the Nimitz to the
standard starting position, shown by the red square near the bottom left-hand
corner of the screen.
The dangerous Korean Theater, with a/l ground targets visible
Now, let's place a few extremely dangerous Silkworm missiles in the air on
a course to intercept and damage the carrier. Just to make things interesting.
we' re going to place two separate flights of these missiles. First, we need to
click on the Objects button. In the menu that opens, we choose Add Object
to get to the list of objects. We search until we find the Silkworm missile, then
select it. Now, we have to place this first flight of missiles on the map. Using
the mouse pointer as a placement tool , we start the missiles near the southern
coast by clicking the LMB there. Near this coast is fair, since the missiles will
begin already in the air, but at a distance such that the player's forces have a
chance to destroy them before they hit the carrier.
How many missiles are in this flight is the next question we have to ask
ourselves. We click the LMB on Number a few times, until the number of
missiles reaches six. Six missiles seems like a good round number, so we leave
it at that. We also need to let the missiles know which side they're on, so we
click on Side until "Enemy" is displayed. Now, all we need are movements and
actions to make this flight complete.
41
Using Edit Path, we choose the Actions option. We click on Speed and
set the missiles' starting velocity at 550 knots. A click on Elevation lets us set
the starting altitude to 10,000 feet. Now, with that done, we need to create
some waypoints. Click on OK to return to the previous menu, then select
Add New Waypoint. We' re prompted to place the waypoint, so we move
the mouse cursor to a point closer to the carrier, but at a bit of an angle away
from it, and we click the LMB.
Incoming missile flight
We repeat the process to add another waypoint, but this time we place it
near, but offset from, the carrier itself. We do this by clicking the RMB, not the
LMB. Since the carrier is the only other object on the screen, the offset list
shows only the Nimitz. We select it, and a map with the carrier in the center
appears. A green triangle denotes where the missiles are to go, and we leave it
on the carrier. We need one last action for these missiles - the command to
arm themselves, or "go active". We do this by selecting the Missile Flight
action as the last action for this, final waypoint.
So much for the first flight of missiles; setting up the second flight is similar,
except for one or two things. There will only be four missiles, and they will be
starting off northwest of the carrier. These four are going to be the missiles
that the player has to primarily worry about. As far as actions go, we' ll set these
up the same way as we did the first flight. We' ll set the middle waypoint closer
to the carrier, at an angle towards it. Again, use the RMB to "offset" the last
waypoint on top of the carrier, and we add the final action of Missile Flight.
42
Now that the bad guys are all set, we need some friendly air support. In
order to handle the first flight of missiles, we set up a group of F-14s flying
CAP northwest of the carrier. We once again go to Add Object, choose F-14
MCA from the list, then place the flight halfway between the carrier and the
group of missiles. Next, we change the number of planes to four (using
Number) and make them friendly (using Side).
More missiles mean more headaches for the player
Following that, we go to Edit Path and choose Add Action. Using
Speed, we set the velocity at 350 kts., and Elevation lets us set the altitude
to 20,000 feet. Also, we need a reason for those planes to be flying around out
there, so we tell them to fly CAP. A heading is very important with CAP, since
it commands the planes to search in a particular direction. A Heading of 340
(north-northwest, just west of due North) sends the planes in a direction that
is reasonable for searching for incoming threats.
To start things off, we decide that the player is going to start on the deck of
the carrier. Using the Objects button, we choose Add Object. The list comes
up, and we choose the F-14 MCA again. After we place the plane on the carrier
(not offset), we need to tell the Mission Builder that this is going to be the
player's F-14. To do this, we have to go to the Edit Object Information
Menu and choose Side. We choose Friendly, then we move to Type. The
Type we need is Player, so that's what we choose. This makes the current F-14
the player, and prohibits that plane from being deleted until the type is changed.
43
Now, we need some actions. Through Edit Path, we go to Add Action. From
the list, we choose Take-off, so the F-14 can get into the air to intercept the missiles.
Next, we move back to Add New Waypoint. We offset the waypoint directly
on the second flight of missiles, so the player's target data will stay up-to-date.
Now that we have the primary objects in the mission and programmed, we
need to create the "window dressing" - the mission specifications. We can
accomplish this using the Missions button. We'll need to give the pilot a mission
briefing, so we select Edit Briefing and click on the Change button. We type in
something dramatic and inspiring to let the player know that missiles are headed
in and that if they' re not intercepted, the pilot will have no runway to return to.
Next, we need to enter the objective for the mission - though it may
seem obvious to us, the Mission Builder has to be told. In Edit Objective
Text, we write a message to the pilot, stating that the carrier must survive for
the mission to be a success. Now we need to tell the Mission Builder. We
go to Edit Mission Objective to create the official objectives for the mission.
Though we could have several, the only one for this mission is that the carrier
must survive. Using Must Live Objectives, we choose the carrier as a "Must
Live" object by first clicking on the Add button. We now move the mouse
pointer to the carrier and click the RMB on it. This brings up a list of all the
objects near the pointer. The player's F-14 and the Nimitz are the only objects
in the area, so we click on the Nimitz to select it. This adds the Nimitz to the
list of "Must Live" objects.
After all this is done, we have created a mission. We could add other
objects (for atmosphere) and change the weather or the time, but this is just a
simple, general mission intended as a training exercise.
Two: Three Little MiGs or Big Bad Breath?
Our second example sets a stage in the Mediterranean, including a possible
encounter with a mythical creature. The Nimitz has lost communications with a
Hawkeye E2C radar plane. It could be a faulty radio, or it could be something
that could threaten the carrier group. It is the mission of the player to
investigate the situation.
To start creating this mission, we first click on Files. We select New
Mission from the menu that appears, then select the Mediterranean theater
for our new mission. We place the carrier near the center of the theater, far
away from the coasts of Africa and Europe.
Next, we' re going to set up all the possible encounters the F-14 pilot could
have. The first will be the Hawkeye. We click on the Objects button, then the
Add Object option. From the list of objects, we choose the E2C Radar Plane,
then click on OK. We now move the E2C over Greece and click the LMB. In
the window, we set the Type to "Damaged", the Side to "Friendly", and the
Name to "Hawkeye", Next comes the fun part - Chance of Appearing.
44
It's a crapshoot which one will appear
When we click on Chance of Appearing, we can make the chance that
the E2C will show up random, 100%, or we can link it into a "random group".
We choose the random group option, which essentially guarantees that at
least one of the objects in the group will appear, because we want other
objects to show up if the radar plane does not. By clicking on two of the slots
available in the ten slot group, we set the chances for the Hawkeye at 20
percent. We leave the other 80 percent undecided for now. We have to tell
the F-14 pilot that the E2C is out here, so at the first waypoint for the object,
we place the action New Player Path.
This means that if the E2C does appear, then the F-14 gets a new set of
waypoints. With this action, we're prompted to place a new waypoint for the
F-14. This waypoint is placed directly offset from the E2C. A last waypoint is
placed offset from the carrier to show where the F-14 has to go with the
Hawkeye. Notice that these new player paths are shown in black. We are
going to go through this procedure for each of the possible objects.
Now that we have created the E2C, we're going to need some actions and
some paths to make the role complete. Using Objects and the Edit Path
option, we can edit the path of the object. We click on Add Actions, bringing
up the list of all available actions for this object. We choose an Elevation of
2000 feet, and a Speed of 250 kts.
Leaving the list, we set up a few waypoints. Our second waypoint starts the
plane toward the carrier, and our third is directly offset from the carrier.
45
Actions for WayPoint Two include a Message sent by the radar plane that
reads, "Comsshhzhhzz down, shxzeed escoshzz shzzz carrier," and announces
a change of elevation to 1000 feet. WayPoint Three has Land as its only
action, since this waypoint is directly on the carrier. That is about all for the
limping radar plane, so now we need to add some other objects for the
player's F-14 to (maybe) find.
Instead of the Hawkeye, the player could find the reason for its
destruction. A group of three MiG-21 s cruising in from the northeast could be
responsible. In Objects, we choose Add Object to get to the list. We
choose MiG-21 from the list, then we place it at approximately the same
location as the radar plane (not offset from the radar plane, since it may not be
there). As for the object information, we change the Number to 3, the Side
to "Enemy", and we go to the Chance of Appearing.
We choose Add to Random List for the three MiGs. By clicking on
four of the available slots, we set the chance of the MiGs appearing at 40
percent. With that done, we can now add some waypoints and some actions
for these planes.
Our second waypoint (the starting position is the first) leads the MiGs
across the southern coast of Italy. The third waypoint has the three turning
toward the sea and heading out toward the Nimitz. The actions we set for the
starting position of the MiGs are: Elevation of 5000 feet, Speed of 450 kts,
and a Message. The message is actually being sent out by the player's carrier,
but it will only be sent out if the MiGs appear in the mission . It says ,
"Investigate Loss of Radar Plane Communications." This is enough to catch the
player's eye and to make him go and investigate. No more actions or
waypoints are necessary for the three MiG-21 s, so now we need the Dragon.
From the list of objects, we select the Dragon and place it very close to the
Hawkeye and the three little MiGs. We change the Side to "Enemy" and then
go directly to the Chance of Appearing option. We click on Add to
Random Group. Filling up the four remaining slots with Dragon, we give the
player a 40 percent chance of encountering a hostile Dragon.
Even a Dragon needs waypoints and actions. We place one waypoint
directly offset from the Nimitz by clicking the RMB on the carrier. From the list
that appears, we choose the Nimitz, then we offset the Dragon directly on the
carrier. Now, the Dragon will follow the Nimitz wherever it may go. We set
the actions for the Dragon's starting point as: Elevation of 5000 feet, Speed
of 200 kts, and a Message. The message is the same as the one for the MiGs,
so we can just copy it into the Message List. No other actions are necessary
for this object, so now we need to place the player's F-14.
46
An F-/4 to the rescue
From the object list, we choose the F-/4 FDe to represent the player in
this mission. For the object information, we set the Side to "Friendly", the
Type to "Player", and the Name to "You". We want the player to have no
idea what to expect from this mission, so we offset him from the Nimitz about
SO nautical miles. Next, we add the action CAP and the Heading of 310 to
his list. Sometime during his flight, the player is going to receive one of two
possible messages. What his next actions are going to be depends entirely on
the player and which of the messages he receives.
Now that we have all of the primary objects for the mission, we need to
create the mission particulars. As always, we place the Nimitz in the list of
"Must Live" objects. Next, we create the Briefing text to give to the player;
something that notes the fact that he is going to be flying a standard CAP
should be sufficient. The Objective text should tell the pilot that the carrier
must survive to the end of the mission. Next, we need to give the pilot a
minimum Time Aloft. We do this by clicking the LMB on Mission, then on
the option Time Aloft. Setting the minimum time to 20 minutes should give
the objects enough time to send their messages to the player. After this is
done, we leave the Time and Weather categories set to "Random" to give
the game some replay appeal.
The mission is complete. Now all we need is some victim to spring it on.
47
Producer
Scott Spanburg
Programming/Design
Scott Elson
Ned Way
Technical Consultants
CREDITS
Manual Layout & Design
Cesar Novoa
Joe Morel
Quality Assurance Management
David Ginsburg
Lt. Col. George P. Wargo USAF (ret.)
Quality Assurance
Bob Abe
Lead Artist
Nick Rusko-Berger
Artist
Terrence Hodges
3D Artist
Max Remington
Manual Writers
Ted Paulsen Jr.
John Possidente
Photographs courtesy of:
Jim Hendry
Vaughn Thomas
Scott Zlotak
Jim Smith
Russell Clark
Brian Hellesen
Mike Wise
Quentin Chaney
Mr. Chuck Porter, Naval Imaging Center, Washington, D.C.
Mr. "Zip" Rausa, Wings of Gold Magazine
Mr. Chris Martin, Naval Air Warfare Center (VF-33 "Starfighters")
48
j
"
Primary Flight Controls Key Control
Misc. Flight Controls Key Control
Front/Back Seat Toggle
0
Escape/ Menu Selection lEse!
Accelerate
G
Quit
Full Military Power IShift !G
Pause

Throttle Back
G
Accelerate Time (2-8x) I Shift !ITl
Cut Throttle [Shift !G
Nonmal Time (I x)
ITl
Speed Brake Toggle [ID
Training mode

Afterbumer Engage
0
Resupply (T rng mode only)

Automatic Pilot [J
Clock Advance

Stick Trim Up
OJ
(T rng mode only)
Stick Trim Down IT]
Clock Reverse

Auto Trim [Shift IOJ
(T rng mode only)
Rudder Left
Q
Landing Cheat Toggle [ID
Rudder Right
0
Radar Control Keys Key Control
Directional Controls Arrow Keys
(non-joystick)
Radar On/Off Toggle
llil
Eject I Shift ![ID
Change Radar mode IDelete!
NAV (Navigation) Mode @J
Identification Friend/Foe (IFF) IT]
Waypoint Toggle

Lock/Cycle Targets IBaekspaee !*
Break Lock
0
Secondary Flight Controls Key Control
BoresightlVSL Toggle lEnd!
Extemal Lights Toggle I Shift I[b)
Beam Elevation Up 2 IPgupl
Jettison Extemal Tanks I Shift 10
Beam Elevation Down 2 [PgDnl
Landing Gear Toggle @)
Adjust Bar Setting [Homel***
Landing Hook Toggle [BJ
Adjust Azimuth

Hawkeye Picture I Shi ft ! [J
Zoom Controls Key Control
VDIITCS Toggle

HSDITID Toggle I Shift !llil
Zoom In (IJ
Request Landing Clearence
Zoom Out
0
TOMCAT- Ball

* denotes Standard Mode only
*** denotes Authentic Mode only
Weapons/ECM Controls Key Control
Master Arm Switch Toggle

Guns (in Priority)
OJ
AIM-9 Sidewinder (in Priority) @
AIM-7 Spanrow (in Priority) [2J
AIM-54 Phoenix (in Priority) @]
Fire Guns [ Ent er]
Pickle Button (Fire Missile) [spacebar ]
TEWS Jammer Toggle
QJ
Release Chaff [9
Release Flares
0
HUD Controls Key Control
Increase Display Brightness @Iill[EJ
Decrease Display Brightness [Shift ][EJ
HUD Filter Toggle
Declutter Toggle [Q]
Simulation Views Key Controls
Foward View (inside cockpit) [ill
Full Front View [ill
(outside cockpit)
LSOView [ill
Air Boss View [ill
Remote View
[ill PTZ
Full Motion Pilot View
mPT
Missile View
(ill PTZ
Padlock View [ill
Tactical View
[ill PTZ
Reverse Tactical View
[FlO] PTZ
Map View Toggle
0
PTZ denotes the ability to Pan, Tilt, Zoom
Pilot/RIO Views
Look Ahead
Look Down
Look Left
Look Right
Look Rear Left (225)
Look Rear Right (I 35)
RIO Map View (In flight)
0364014050294
Key Control

Keypad @
Keypad @]

Keypad IT)
Keypad [2J
o
Wing-Man Controls Key Control
Go Tactical
Attack my Target
Formation
Bracket
Request Assistance
Sanitize

Call Target
Status
Rejoin Formation
Retum to Carrier (RTB)
Ready 5 Assist [Shift ] [ill
PROMOTION SCHEDULE
Rank Points needed
Lieutenant JG At Start
Lieutenant 6,000
Lt. Commander 18,000
Commander 40,000
Captain 60,000
Commodore 80,000
Awards & Decorations Bonus toward
Promotion
MOH 7.500
Navy Cross 6,000
Silver Star 5,000
Distinguished Fl ying Cross 3,500
Air Medal 2.500
Navy Commendation Medal 1.500
Purple Heart None
National Defense Service
Medal None
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HARDWARE & SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
To play Fleet Defender Gold, your computer must have:
a 386 processor or better (For best play, we recommend at least a full 486
with a system speed of 33Mhz or more.),
a CD-ROM Drive.
at least 566Kb of free conventional memory.
at least 3Mb of free EMS (expanded) memory,
VGA graphics or better and an SVGA (256 color) video driver for Windows.
MS-DOS version 5.0 or higher.
Microsoft Windows version 3.1 or later. and
a mouse.
For best play, we suggest that you have a sound card (one supported by
Windows) and a joystick.
Note: For you to hear all of the digitized speech in the Fleet Defender game, your
system must have at least 3.5Mb of free EMS memory.
Fleet Defender ~ o l d supports most of the available flight add-on
hardware. If you have a problem using a particular device with the game, please
contact MicroProse Customer Support for assistance.
INSTALLATION
To install Fleet Defender Gold:
Start Microsoft Windows.
Place the Fleet Defender Gold CD in your CD-ROM Drive.
From the File menu, choose Run.
Type the letter of your CD-ROM drive, followed by install.exe (For
example: d:\setup.exe), then press IEnterJ .
Follow the on-screen instructions. The installation program installs the
Fleet Defender game a'nd Microsoft Video for Windows, then creates a
program group and icon.
CONFIGURATION
As part of the installation process, you are required to designate selections
for music, digitized speech, and controller.
You can also use this configuration process to change your selections if you
add, delete, or modify your system equipment.
When configuring the sound set-up for the game, it is necessary that you
enter in the correct DMA channel and IRQ settings for your sound card. If you
do not know these numbers, consult the documentation that came with the
sound card.
2
STARTUP
To run Fleet Defender Gold, double-click on the Fleet Defender Gold
icon in the Fleet Defender Gold program group. After a brief pause, you will see
the title sequence, followed by the Main Menu. Simply click on the module you
want to explore.
To play the Fleet Defender game, click on the "Play Fleet Defender"
button. Fleet Defender Gold will launch the game and will return you to
Windows automatically when you are finished.
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