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American English and Accents

1.1. Comparison in Passage form
Passage in Indian Expressions About two weeks back, my husband was out of station for a while. I was pushing the babys pram along the pavement, past a block of flats near the city centre when Bobby said he had to use the toilet. We went in, but it was so dark we had to use a torch to change his nappy. The door slammed behind us and locked. It was very quiet and all I could hear was the rumble of the Lorries outside. I tried to call my mum on my mobile phone, but her line was engaged. I had to use a hair grip to pick the lock. Once wed taken care of that, Bobby wanted some sweets or candy floss or even jelly, but we settled for chips. I tried to pay by cheque, but they wanted cash. Afterwards, we threw the garbage in the dustbin. We took the decision to walk in the order to save on petrol, and besides we had a puncture. We had to wait at the railway crossing because of a passing goods train. After wed come up in the lift, I walked in through the French windows and kicked off my sport shoes. I hang my jumper in the almirah, and put my watch on the chest of drawers. My husband was wearing a vest, so he wasnt bothered by the heat. We had a nice lemon soda and some biscuCorporation. The tap was dripping, so I took a spanner and gave it a good whack. Same passage in American Expressions About two weeks ago, my husband was out of town for a while. I was pushing the babys stroller along the sidewalk, past an apartment building downtown when Bobby said he had to go to the bathroom. We went into a public restroom, but it was so dark we had to use a flashlight to change his diaper. The door slammed behind us and locked. It was very quiet and all I could hear was the rumble of the trucks outside. I tried to call my mum on my mobile phone, but her line was busy. I had to use a bobby pin to pick the lock. Once wed taken care of that, Bobby wanted some candy or cotton candy or even jello, but we chose chips. I tried to pay by check, but they wanted cash. Afterwards, we threw the trash in the trashcan. We made the decision to walk in the order to save gas, and besides we had a flat tire. We had to wait at the railway crossing because of a passing freight train. After wed come up in the elevator, I walked in through the French doors and kicked off my sneakers. I hang my sweater in the closet, and put my watch on the dresser. My husband was wearing an undershirt, so the heat didnt bother him. We had some lemonade and cookies. The faucet was dripping, so I took a wrench and gave it a good whack.

1.2. Greetings and Salutations

In India, its very common to address people by title. Men enjoy being referred to as Sir, but generally speaking, American women think that Maam makes them sound old. Except in the southern states, the habit has died out in America, and rather than conveying respect, its rather irritating. For this generation, in particular, Yes, Maam sound hokey.

Conversely, people do like the sound of their own name, so feel free to establish a professional rapport with expressions such as, Let me look up for you, Mr. Elwin.

1.3. Dos and Dont of a language

There is a common term in English these days --- political correctness or PC for short --- that is actually simple good manners and common sense. If you are all well brought up, this will never be an issue for you. If, for some reason, you absolutely need to refer to race, dont do it in a derogatory manner. All races are equal. Dont refer to women as inferior. Handicapped people are people, too. Poor people have the same basic rights as rich people. The only difference between old people and young people is age. No religion is any better than any other. People of non-mainstream gender orientations didnt ask to be that way and shouldnt pay a penalty. It really shouldnt even come up in conversation, unless clearly initiated by the other person. If someone feels free to share, I m a middle age Baptist from West Hollywood, you can always say, Really? Now, how are we going to get this mortgage payment straightened out.

1.4. American Slangs

"If you are in the USA or talking to Americans .............." U don't open conversation (on telephone) with a "Hello" but with a "Hi". The telephone is never "engaged", it's always "busy". U don't "disconnect" a phone, U simply "hang-up". U never "mess-up" things, U only "screw them up". U never have a "residence" tel. no., U have a "home" no. U never have an "office" tel. no., U have a "work" no. U don't stop at the "signals", but halt at the "lights". U don't "accelerate", U "step on the gas". Your tyre never "punctures", U may have a "flat" tire. The trains have "coaches" or "bogies, no more! But "carriages" or "boxes". There R no "petrol pumps", but "gas stations". "I don't know nothing", 2 negatives don't make a positive here. U no longer meet a "wonderful" person, U meet a "cool" guy

U don't pull the switch down to light a bulb, rather flick it up. U don't "turn on the heat", U "turn on the juice". There's no "Business Area" ... only "business districts", and no "districts" but "countries". No one stays "a stone's throw away", rather "a few blocks away". There's no "Town Side", it's "Down Town". In hotel U no longer ask for "bill" and pay by "cheque", rather ask for "check" and pay with "bill" (dollar). There R no "soft drinks", only "sodas". Life's no longer "miserable" it "stinks". U don't have a "great" time, U have a "ball". U don't "sweat it out", U "work Ur butt off Never "post" a letter, always "mail" it and "glue" the stamps, don't "stick" them. U no longer live in "flats", U live in "apartment". U don't stand in a "queue", you are in a "line". U no longer "like" something, U "appreciate" it. "#" is not "hash", it's "pound". U R not "deaf", U have "impaired hearing". U R not "lunatic", U are just "mentally challenged". U R not "disgusting" U R "sick". U can't get "surprised" U get "zapped". U don't "schedule" a meeting, U "skejule" it. U never "joke", U just "kid".

U never "increase" the pressure, U always "crank" it up. U never ask for a pencil "rubber" U ask for an eraser. U don't try to find a lift... U find an elevator. U no more ask for a route but for a "RAUT" U don't ask somebody "How r u?" U say "What's up dude?" or U say How U DOIN " U never go to see a game U go to watch a game. If U see "World" champions (or Series), read "USA" champions (or Series). There's no "zero" but "O", no "Z" but "zee". There's no FULL STOP after a statement, there's a PERIOD. If someone gets angry at U, U get "flamed". U Drive Ur car on Parkways and always park your car in the Drive Way! You do not ask for brinjal ... ask for Egg Plant. Also there are no ladys finger, Corporation Okra You do not say "He is a trouble creator". Rather u say "He's a pain in my ass"! U do not say, its a trivial job, you say its a seat of the pants work. Well u dont say life is boring u say LIFE SUCKS!!!!! In short U don't speak English, U speak AMERICAN

2. Effective E-mail Writing

2.1. Popularity of E-mail
Candidates world over are increasingly using E-mail as preferred way to contact due to
various reasons:

Speed It is sent and received in seconds or minutes at the most. Postal mail takes days
and is often called as snail mail in comparison. world.

Cost Its cheap and simply at a cost of a local call an email can be sent anywhere in the Accessibility can be sent and received even when on is traveling. Convenience E-mails are accessible at the click of a button exactly when u want to read
them, can be sent and received at ones own convenient time. No need to bother about time zones

Environmental friendly travel along telephone lines and dont require the use of paper.

2.2. Candidate Expectations

People are realizing that it is more convenient to write a quick email than to sort through an IVR, wait in queue and deal with potential transfers between Recruiters common symptoms of a telephone experience The instant nature of the e-mail, raises candidate expectations as well. He expects an immediate response to his email, at the maximum 24 hours. The candidate is looking for:

A speedy procedure Proper feedback More details about the opening, if any
Remember a negative e-mail can be quickly forwarded to many persons, thereby spelling disaster for a company or brand image. The converse is also true a well handled e-mail may be a good brand ambassador.

2.3. Composing E -Mails

An e-mail message has two basic parts, the "header" information the body of the message. A blank line separates these pieces. In most cases, you'll be interested only in the body, or the actual text of the message. The headers contain items such as "Date", "cc", "bcc", "From", and "Subject ".

2.3.1. E- Mail Addresses

An e-mail address, like a postal address, contains all the necessary information needed to deliver a message to someone. vikas@indosys.com i. e. it contains username at host server name E -Mail Address To Definition Use this option for the primary recipient of the message

Cc Means Carbon Copy. Enter the address of anyone you'd like to receive a copy of the message Bcc Blind Carbon Copy. If you want to send a copy of the message to someone without the original recipients knowledge. Make sure that the e-mail addresses are complete and accurate or else the people you have sent the email will never get it. If a mail bounces back, check to be sure you addressed it correctly. Subject A good subject description makes the person to whom you're Sending aware of the nature of your message. Keep the subject line short and relevant, and not vague.


Remember Though these e-mails are addressed to us, we are responding to them on the client's behalf. The candidate should be aware of this.

2.4.1. Responding to E-Mails

Responding to e-mails involves the following steps:

Retrieving the mail from the E-Mail Manager software Reading the mail Understanding the candidates query or requirement Searching the knowledge base for an appropriate response solution. Composing the reply using the right information (In case you are not able to answer the
mail, then escalate it to your Team Lead.

Checking the mail before sending it Sending and coding the mail as per client requirement. 2.4.2. Reading and Comprehending E Mails The first step to handling an e-mail is to read it carefully

Read the question the ENTIRE question Is there more than one question issue being raised? Do you understand what the candidate's problem is? Do you have an "Idea" of what they are asking about? Are you sure you understand the question? If you don't know what the candidate is talking about, respond to them them and ask
them for more information. your Team Lead.

If you understand the question, but aren't 100% sure you know the answer, escalate to If you are sure you understand the question and the answer, compose the answer. Remember, there is nothing more irritating than getting a standard "canned" response
that does not address your question completely. Be sensitive to the fact that sometimes the candidate will have been through one or more "auto-responders" and is not interested in a casual or incomplete answer - he wants a SOLUTION to his problem.

2.4.3. Replying to the E-Mail


Include original message so that the thread is maintained. Compose the reply strictly following the E-mail template format as standardized by the

Use the knowledge library quick text that is a resource made from answers to FAQ's
(frequently Asked questions) as a resource.

Customize and personalize the reply as per the candidates E-mail. 2.4.4. Following the E-Mail Template
The Client generally specifies what the E-Mail template should look like however, let us discuss some accepted norms:

Opening Salutation:
Greeting the candidate. Depending on how the candidate signs their e-mail, We will address the candidate by name supplied. If no name is given, just address the person as a candidate of the company. Initial Greeting: Thanking and acknowledging the candidate's e-mail. The Recruiter should always thank the candidate always at the beginning of a reply so the candidate knows that their business is appreciated. When we receive an e-mail from a candidate who appears to be very emotional (frustrated or angry), take sympathy, apologize, tell them that you'll do anything you can to help, thank

them for their unending patience etc. Position it in a way that they believe that you feel their pain. It may seem silly to you, but it makes a big difference to the candidate. Deal with the candidate in the manner in which you would like to be dealt with. Answer: Replying to the candidate's questions. The quality of the answer call be evaluated by how concise and how thorough the reply is. If a candidate e-mails us and that e-mail contains more than one question we need to answer those questions in the order in which they were asked. If not, it will be difficult for the candidate to follow the response. If a candidate sends us an e-mail with several questions and you can answer some or most of those question, please do. Let them know that you will follow-up with the question(s) that you were unable to answer and escalate the e-mail. The candidate would rather get some of the answers from you sooner rather than all of the answers from you later. Keep an eye on e-mail history. If you notice that you are going back and forth with a candidate via e-mail; escalate the situation with a detailed explanation or an attached e-mail history. Dont continue the ping pong game, as the candidate will only get frustrated with the situation. Remember the second goal... to address resolve the issue with the first e-mail.

2.4.5. Additional Information:

Offering additional services Here you can include links to websites and offer future services if there are further questions or concerns beyond the Recruiters reply. Something else to keep in mind is following-up with the candidate on outstanding issues make a big (positive) impact on the candidate they expect you to forget.

2.4.6. Before Sending

Re-read the question ... just to make sure that your answer makes sense and that you have addressed all the questions. Role-play: "If I were this candidate, would this answer make me very satisfied? If you are unsure, double check guesses can lead to disasters Check for LOGIC, SPELLING and GRAMMAR Send and Code Send the mail and code using the Client's specific instructions. It helps the client to see what-kind of mails and queries are coming in, so that they can manage mails in a better fashion.

2.4.7. Effective Writing and E-Mail Etiquette

As Business e-mail messages becomes even more pervasive, basic etiquette in how we write, takes on new meaning. There is nothing worse than creating a poor first impression. Here are some tips:

Put yourself in the reader's seat Put the most important/positive line on the top. Start with good news first! Structure logically Pay attention to the candidate's needs -- stated and unstated Avoid Poor Grammar and spelling typos: It is very irritating to receive e-mails, with poor grammar, or no grammar at all. Always make an effort to do a spell check prior to sending the message. Remember, you are aiming to be understood, not to be misunderstood. Write Short Paragraphs. Use simple everyday words. Avoid useless and unnecessary

Have you received mails, which ramble on from line to line? No punctuation, no paragraph breaks, no paragraph headings? Whenever you receive
such a mail, you go to the next mail with a promise to come back to this one later.

No guesses to what happens later. Writing short paragraphs ensures quicker action. Replies should be concise and to the point. Too Much Punctuation!!! Don't get caught up in excessive punctuation. Use the active voice Wait When You Are Angry, upset: When you write a letter, you have time to review it before mailing or faxing it. When you
write e-mail, you key in the words and hit the send button, all in one go.

Remember: If you write when you are angry, your words will reflect your feelings. Avoid abbreviations or emotions Review your letter and correct mistakes Read over your e-mail before sending it. Although e-mail is a more informal method of
communication than writing a letter, be sure you make your points clear and concise. Use a spell checker if available.

2.4.8. Some Definite Donts Never send e-mail in all UPPER CASE. Use of upper-case words is the equivalent of
shouting in some one's ear.

Never make a comment about grammar or punctuation. Nobody wants to feel like they
are exchanging e-mail with their eighth-grade English teacher.

2.5. International E-Mail Etiquette

Over 100 countries are using e-mail today, and it is no wonder, as using e-mail for international communications means no international phone bills, no waiting for letters to cross the globe, and no embarrassing phone calls at midnight. However, it is necessary to keep the following cultural nuances in mind when sending e-mail abroad. .

Patience: At times you will send an e-mail that will arrive during your recipient's off

work hours, or on a holiday you don't know about, and won't be responded to for a few days. Be patient before re-transmitting the same message or sending a follow up message. to translate using date and time conversions for the appropriate country.

Date/time: When sending an international e-mail that includes dates and time, be sure Sarcasm/humor: Be cautious when using humor and sarcasm in international mails.
Different countries and cultures have different perceptions of what is funny or appropriate. humor.

Many points have been missed and international contacts lost due to misunderstanding of Contact information: Always provide proper international dialing telephone codes and contact information
when sending e-mail overseas.

Monetary translation: When using currency figures, be sure to use either countries
currency or the terminology used in the country the financial dealing takes place. email.

AHT (Average Handling Time): The average time a CSR takes to send a response to an Auto responders (Mail bots) Automated programs, which are established to return a prewritten message upon receipt
of email. Program will grab the return address from the "header" of the message. Typically, these programs will send out the canned message within seconds of receipt.

Aliasing (redirecting) Using a fictitious address with which to send and receive e-mail. Typically done to avoid
having people write to long "real" e-mail addresses or if underlying e-mail address is subject to change. Provides a permanent address to the world.

Backlog: E Mails that have been received but not yet processed Bounced Message: A return, cannot deliver e-mail message. CPH: Completes Per Hour Detect: An error or an undesired result that is different from the planned or expected
outcome. overuse.

E-mail Acronyms: When sending off a quick message, these acronyms can help. Do not


too late as a matter of fact as far as I know bye for now by the way correct me if I'm wrong see you later for what it's worth in any case I know what you mean in my humble opinion In other words know what I mean laughing out loud no basis in fact on the other hand rolling on the floor laughing read the f." '" manual special interest group thanks in advance thanks ta ta for now

Also referred to as smiley, these symbols help convey the tone, or emotions on an online message, Examples: : -) :) :-( ;-) :-0 :-> :/ happy smile Sad wink shocked, surprised Devilish hmmm


just won the lottery

A method of sending binary (non-text files) with e-mail messages, Common encoding options include: Mime, Bin Hex, UUencode, etc. Sender and receiver must both use the same method.

Frequently Asked Questions: Usually, this is a document that lists frequently asked questions on particular topic and gives answers to the questions.

All angry or rude e-mail messages, often posted as a public response on a discussion group you become the target of a flame, avoid responding or you might incite a flame war.

The first part of a received e-mail message which contains information about the routing of the message while traversing the Internet. Much of this may not be displayed if the e-mail software program keeps it hidden (usually an option).

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol): A method to access and manipulate e-

mail that is stored remotely on another computer. Messages do not get transferred to the users computer, making it easier to manage e-mail when accessing from multiple computers.

To observe an online discussion without participating. Good idea when first joining a mailing List.

Mailer Daemon:
Program used in the management of e-mail messages. Not generally encountered by a user unless the user gets a bounced message

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions): A structured formal for messages

which allows a single message to contain many parts.

Someone who controls the postings of messages in a Mailing List to ensure conformity with the topic and list policies.

Reviewing the style, format, professionalism, knowledge and accuracy of information as it is provided by CSRs to end-users. For e-mails, this is usually reviewing the CSR's written responses to candidate inquiries.

Network Etiquette. Acceptable practices of using various Internet resources. Example: DONT USE ALL CAPS. IT APPEARS AS IF THE WRITER IS SHOUTING.

There are many definitions for "mail server". It can be a host computer that uses the SMTP protocol, or simply software that uses the SMTP protocol. In some cases, it refers to a host system that holds a message store.

Service level Agreement (SLA):

Written contracts or agreements with suppliers of products or services. These usually consist of agreed upon measurement of actual performance.

Signature Line:
A set of 4 - 8 lines of text placed at the end of a mail message to provide the reader with the author's contact information, favorite quote, special of the month, auto responder/web site address etc. The signature line is composed and placed into the e-mail software's signature file for automatic appending.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): The most common protocol used for
transferring e-mail across the Internet.

Scope of Work (SOW):

A definition of requirements created by a client that clearly delineates the work product to be delivered by the Call Center.

To send unsolicited commercial e-mail, usually in large amounts and indiscriminately, to discussion groups or subscriber bases.

Typically a quantification of a requirement (e.g., respond to 95% of e-mails within 24 hours of receipt.

A written conversation on a particular topic in a larger group discussion.

2.6. Some useful websites E-Mail Glossary"

http://everythingemail.net/email_glossary.html Technical terms used in Internet Mail http://www.imc.org/terms.html Beginner's guide to effective email http://www.webfoot.com/advice/email.top.html Information on MIME http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/issues/1601/pcmg0033.htm What readers hate http://www.thebee.com/bweb/itnfo43.htm Netiquette http://www.logan.net/help/netiquette.html Beginning E Mail


2.7. Defensive and Offensive Techniques

It is often very easy to misunderstand and to be misunderstood in chat. There are no vocal or visual clues to lend context to what is said. Without these clues, many things that are said innocently or as teasing can be taken as offensive. Your best defense in chat is to make sure you always include a smile or some other way to indicate that you are not being sharp or short or angry. If in doubt, always assume the other person is being friendly and/or teasing (at least until you KNOW better). If you are just dealing with someone who is in disagreement over a comment of yours, you can remedy the situation very cleanly by being polite and asking them why they disagree. Now, if you are in the wrong over your comment, then be cordial and quick to apologize about what was said. These are two ways to effectively diffuse a potential flame war between you and other chatters over something very trivial. Sometimes, when dealing with the perpetrator or perpetrators, it's a good thing to have a quick and reflexive wit or a very good humorous mind. Spur of the moment humorous comments will sometimes shut people up and at other times it will just aggravate them, making the whole situation even worse than before. Don't sink to their level if they use a lot of profanity, very vulgar references, and mama jokes.

2.8. Common Courtesies

There are common courtesies to follow when in chats. Following them will put you, in other chatters' eyes, as being cordial, polite, and a nice person. Some of those courtesies are as follows: Don't type all in CAPS. That is considered as shouting. Be kind to people who are new to chat. Be friendly and welcome them. Be respectful of other views or opinions. It often pays to listen more than chat. Don't be bossy or monopolize the chat.

2.9. Final Notes

Chats are fun to be in, especially if they involve a special topic you're interested in or if you're just looking for a nice conversation without all the in-your-face hassle. Just remember how to behave yourself while in them and you'll do just fine. Just remember to have fun, enjoy the discussions, and watch out for them 'darn typos!!'

3. English Writing Skills

Learning Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to:

Recognize and avoid common grammatical errors Recognize and avoid common punctuation errors Recognize and avoid common spelling mistakes Use an effective business writing style


Basic Principles: Rule: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. Examples: My brother is a nutritionist. My sisters are mathematicians. Bad subject/verb agreement with contractions Wrong: She don't like loud concerts Wrong: Wasn't you there at the party? Right: She doesnt like loud concerts. Right: Werent you there at the party.


Using wrong verb with "have"

Wrong: The boys should have went. Wrong: We should have knew. Choosing subject incorrectly

Right: The boys should have gone. Right: We should have known.

Wrong: The box of chocolates were on the table. Wrong: Singular subject, plural verb Right: The box of chocolates was on the table. Right: Singular subject, singular verb The subject is box, not chocolates. The phrase of chocolates just describes the box. _________________________________________________________________________ Some examples Anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs. Examples: Everyone has done his or her homework. Somebody has left her purse, All, some - are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to Examples: Some of the beads are missing. Some of the water is gone. None can be either singular or plural Examples: None of you claims responsibility for this incident? None of you claim responsibility for this incident? None of the students have done their homework. Each, everyone and everybody are always singular. Examples: Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library. Everyone has finished his or her homework. Together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and Examples: The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison. The mayor and his brothers are going to jail.

Neither and either are singular and require singular verbs. Examples: Neither of the two traffic lights is working.

Which shirt do you want for Christmas? Either is fine with me. When nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. Examples: Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house. Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house. Are either my brothers or my father responsible? Is either my father or my brothers responsible? Words such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural unless they're preceded the phrase pair of Examples: My glasses were on the bed. My pants were torn. A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet. Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular Examples: The news from the front is bad. Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women. On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are plural. Examples: My assets were wiped out in the depression. The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically. Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.

3.2. The Grammar Gorillas

Follow the link given below and learn about the parts of speech. http://www.funbrain.com/grammar/index.html Our friends, the Grammar Gorillas need help identifying parts of speech. If you click on the right word in the sentence, our friends get a banana. And you know a gorilla with a banana is a gorilla with appeal. Try the advance level. Help Regan the Vegan make fresh salad. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.

3.3. Word confusion

Help Regan the Vegan make fresh salad. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. http://www.funbrain.com/whichword/index.html

3.4. 2 Bee or Nottoobee

2Bee and Queen Nottoobee need flowers to make honey. Help them find flowers by choosing the correct verb to complete the sentences. http://www.funbrain.com/verb/index.html

Articles must always agree with the noun. The articles in grammar are: "A", "An", and "The" A and an are used if the noun can be counted Examples: I ran into a post. (How many posts did you run into? Just one. Therefore, use a.) I ate a piece of cake. I saw an eagle. Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels) An with nouns starting with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) Examples: A boy An apple A car An orange A house An opera

The is used when the noun cannot be counted. Examples: I ran into the water. (How many waters did you run into? The question doesn't make any sense because water is not countable. Therefore, use the I ate the rice. I saw the milk spill. The definite article is used before singular and plural when the nouns when the noun is particular or specific. Examples: A dog (any dog) The dog (that specific dog) A book (any book) The book (that specific book)

3.6.1. The Apostrophe
The apostrophe is used: To create possessives Examples: The mayor's car Pedritos sister The boy's hat Charles's car Dumas second novel Socrates ideas To show contractions Examples: I have been working on the railroad. = I've been working on the railroad. I am a student here = I 'm a student here. To create some plural forms Examples: My father's moustache Joe Kennedy's habCorporation The boy's hats (one boy possesses more an one hat) OR Charles' car Jesus birth Illinois' legislature

The word Mississippi has four ss. She got three A's and two B's last semester. If you can split the word up into two words and the sentence still makes sense, use an apostrophe. "It's" and "Corporation " "You're" and "your" Examples: One boy's hat Two boys' hats Two women's hats Two actresses' hats Two children's hats The Smiths' house One woman's hat One actress's hat One child's hat Ms. Smith's house "They're" and "their" "Who's" and "whose

3.6.2. Comma
Rule 1: Use a comma to set off the elements of a series (three or more thing), including the last two. Examples: The beads Marla used are red, yellow, and blue.

Rule 2: We do not use a comma to separate items in a list when we are listing adjectives that each belong to a different category, and are all positioned right before the noun. Examples: Rule 3: Examples: Marla used big green square beads. Use a comma to set off introductory elements. Slowly, she became conscious of her predicament

Rule 4: Use a comma 'to include a phrase which can be removed from a sentence without changing Corporation meaning or making it ambiguous (also called as interrupters). Examples: Rule 5: Robert Frost, perhaps Americas most beloved poet, died when he was 88. Use a comma to set off states and countries, years (in a full date), titles etc.

Examples: The conference was originally set for Geneva, Switzerland, but was then rescheduled for Calcutta, West Bengal. Their wedding date was set for August 5, 2000, in the college chapel in Gurgaon, Haryana. Tashonda Klondike, Chair of the Parliamentary Committee, submitted the committee's final report. We met in December 1985 in Chandigarh. (no comma) Rule 6: Examples: Use a comma to set off quotations. "I'm so tired," Melissa said.

3.6.3. Period
Rule 1: Examples: Examples: Dr. (Doctor) Mr. (Mister) Rule 2: period. Examples: Please shop, cook, etc. I will do the laundry. I know that M.D. She is my sister-in-law. Exceptions-universally understood abbreviations. These do not require a period. Examples: Influenza DNA memorandum RNA Etc. (etcetera) Co. (Company) If the last word in the sentence ends in a period, do not follow it with another A Period is used to indicate a full Stop at the end of a sentence or abbreviation. The girl went to the market.

3.6.4. The Question Mark

Question mark is placed at the end of a sentence to indicate a question. Use a question mark only after a direct question. Examples: Will you go with me? I asked if he would go with me.

3.6.5. Exclamation Marks Use exclamation marks to show emphasis or surprise. Do not use the exclamation point in formal business letters. 3.6.6. Semi Colons
A semicolon indicates a degree of separation greater than that of a comma, but less than that of a period. If the two clauses arent independent, we cannot use a semicolon. The "Furthermore Test" is used to determine if the semicolon can be used. Add the word furthermore when you want to join two independent clauses. It makes sense, and then we can use a semicolon. Examples: Mama Napoli adds basil to her sauce to mellow the flavor; she adds paprika for zest. Examples: Mama Napoli adds basil to her sauce to mellow the flavor; furthermore she adds paprika for zest.

3.6.7. Hyphens
Use hyphens to connect words to make adjectives, to write the numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, to show word breaks at the end of typewritten lines, and to spell certain compound words. Examples: Mother-in-law Co-director Forty-seven twenty-one ninety-nine

3.6.8. Parenthesis
Parenthesis is used to insert information into the middle of a sentence that is sort of related to the sentence but not that important. Rule 1: Don't put a comma before an opening parenthesis. Punctuate the stuff inside parenthesis as you normally would. If the stuff inside parenthesis has an end mark, put it inside the parenthesis if it belongs to there ... and outside the parenthesis if it belongs to the sentence as a whole. Rule 2: Examples: Use parentheses to enclose words or figures that clarify or for an aside. I expect five hundred dollars ($500).

3.6.9. The Colon

The colon comes at a point in the sentence where the sentence could come to a complete stop.

Rule: Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as namely, for example, or that is do not appear. Examples: You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans and warm clothing. I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour. A colon usually means, "here it is", or "here they are.

Tense shifts are improperly switched tenses of the verbs midway through a sentence. We must pay attention to the consistency of the verbs and make sure all verbs are in the same tense. Examples: The show opened with a big musical number that involves fireworks. A tense shift has occurred in this sentence. Notice the verbs opened and involves. They are not the same tense. Opened is past tense, and involves in present tense. There are two ways we can correct this. We can make both verbs past tense, or make both verbs present tense. Examples: The show opens with a big musical number that involves fireworks. The show opened with a big musical number that involved fireworks. Both of these examples are correct. The verb tenses are the same in each sentence.


Use the active voice. It is Specific Personal Concise Emphatic Use passive voice only: To avoid personal messages To stress the object of the action when the doer isnt important Rule 1: Examples: Vague Concrete The weather was of extreme nature on the West coast. California had very cold weather last week. Use concrete rather than vague language.

Rule 2: verb. Examples: Active

Use active voice whenever possible. Active voice means the subject is doing the

Barry hit the ball.

Passive The ball was hit. (Notice that the responsible party may not even appear when using passive voice) Rule 3: Example 1: Correction: Avoid overusing there is, there are, it is, It was etc. There is a case of meningitis that was reported in the newspaper. A case of meningitis was reported in the newspaper.

Even Better: The newspaper reported a case of meningitis. (Active voice) Example 2: Correction: important. It is important to signal before making a left turn. Signaling before making a left turn is important OR Signaling before a left turn is

Even Better: You should signal before making a left turn. (Active voice) Example 3: Correction: There are some revisions which must be made. Some revisions must be made.

Even Better: Please make some revisions. (Active voice) Rule 4: confusion. Example: Correction: Avoid using two negatives to make a positive because they cause too much He is not unwilling to help. He is willing to help.

Rule 5: Use similar grammatical form when offering several ideas. This is called parallel construction. Correct: Incorrect: You should check your spelling, grammar, and punctuation. You should check your spelling, grammar, and punctuating.

Prepositions show relationships between other words, usually nouns. They show how words relate in terms of time and space. Examples (space): (time): Darla will find her missing watch among the turkeys. Mildred always finishes her meatloaf before Mark.

List of common prepositions About Above Across After Against Around At Before Behind Below Beneath Beside Besides Between Beyond By Down During Except For From In Inside Into Like Near Of Off On Out Outside Over Since Through Throughout Till To Toward Under Up Upon With Without According to Because of By way of In addition of In front of In place of In regard of In spite of Instead of On account of Out of

Rule 1: Examples:

Between refers to two. Among is used for three or more.

Divide the candy between the two of you. Divide the candy among the three of you. Rule 2: Examples: Sally walked into the house. Sally was waiting in the house Cut the pie into six slices. (The knife enters the pie) Ending Sentences with Prepositions Ending sentences with a preposition is an acceptable error. Remember to avoid this in formal writing. Examples: I have a window that I like to lean out of. This sentence ends in the preposition "of". Switch the sentence around to avoid ending it with a preposition. Into implies entrance, in does not.

Examples: I like to lean out of this window.

Rule 1: Rule 2: directions. Examples:

Capitalize the first word of every sentence Capitalize names of specific persons, places, and geographical locations but not

My brother Charlie, who used to live in the Middle East and writ books about the Old West, now lives in Jaipur, Rajasthan. They moved up north, to the southern shore of Lake Erie. Rule 3: Examples: He said Treat her as you would your own daughter. Look out! she screamed. You almost ran into my child. Rule 4: Example: Rule 5: close Examples: Capitalize titles War and Peace Capitalize the first word of a salutation and the first word of a complimentary Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.

My dear Mr. Smith: Very truly yours

Rule 6: Capitalize names of days of the week, months, and holidays, names of historical events, names of religions and religious terms, but not seasons. Examples: Valentines Day, which is always on February 14, falls on Saturday this year. Next fall, before the winter storms begin, were heading south. Rule 7: such words. Examples: Somalia, Swedish, English muffin, Irish stew, Japanese maple, Jews harp, French horn Capitalize the names of nations, nationalities, languages, and words based on

Rule 8: Examples:

We usually dont capitalize white and black.

There are very few blacks in this predominantly white community. Rule 9: Examples: Dean Arrington introduced President Carter to Secretary Boggles worth usually not after a name . . . . Joe Chuckles, who was chairman of the board of directors in 1995, has since retired. Capitalize titles when they precede names.


A run-on sentence is when two sentences, or complete thoughts, are put into one sentence without the proper punctuation between them. Examples: I usually eat too many candy corns on Halloween and get stomachache how about you? I usually eat too many candy corns 0n Halloween and get a stomachache. (This is a complete thought.) How about you? (This is another complete thought) Since these two sentences do not have the proper punctuation between them, they are a runon sentence. The easiest way to fix this error is to break the sentence in two. Examples: I usually eat too many candy corns on Halloween and get a stomachache. How about you? Avoid run-on sentences. They are grammatically incorrect, and hard to read and understand.


Rule 1: Incorrect: Correct: If you start a sentence with an action, place the actor immediately after. While walking across the street, the bus hit her. While walking across the street, she was hit by a bus. OR

She was hit by a bus while walking across the street. Rule 2: Incorrect: Place modifiers near the words they modify I have some pound cake Mollie baked in my lunch bag.


In my lunch bag, I have some pound cake that Mollie baked.


Rule 1: The numbers one through ten should be spelled out; use figures for numbers greater than ten. Examples: I want five copies. I want 15 copies. Rule 2: With a group of related numbers where one number is above 10 in a sentence, write them all in figures. Use words if all related numbers are 10 or below. Correct: Incorrect: Rule 3: Examples: Rule 4: sentence. Examples: I asked for 5 pencils, not 50. I asked for five pencils, not 50. Always spell out simple fractions and use hyphens with them. A two-thirds majority. A mixed fraction can be expressed in figures unless it is the first word of a We expect a 5 1/2 percent wage increase. My two cats fought with their one cat.

Five and one-half percent was the maximum allowable interest. Rule 5: Examples: Correct: Incorrect: Rule 5: Examples: Rule 6: Use the simplest way to express large 4 million dollars OR $4 million OR four million dollars (not $4, 000, 000) You can earn anywhere from $500 to $5,000,000. You can earn anywhere $500 to $5 million. Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. Forty-three people were injured in the train wreck. Do not hyphenate one hundred, two hundred

Be careful to be consistent within a sentence.


Words That Sound Alike

There They're

Their implies possession. There refers to a place. Theyre is a contraction of "they are." Corporation Corporation implies possession. tail. It's is a contraction of "it is." Were Where refers to a place. Were is a verb. Were a contraction of "we are." Your Your implies possession. Youre a contraction of "you are." To To is a preposition. Too means also or very. Two is 2. Than Than is used in comparisons. Also, Than indicates degree. Then indicates something in the past. Also, Then indicates order. Example: Also, Then can mean "in that case." Accept Where

Example: Example: Example:

They picked up their books. The car is here, not there. They're eating lunch It's

Example: Example:

The dog wagged Corporation

It's a snowy day in Colorado. We're

Example: Example: Example:

Where did you put the gas bill? The kids were screaming all day. We're all going skiing. You're

Example: Example: Too Example: Example: Example: Then Example: Example: Example: Example:

Your printer isn't working Please tell me why youre crying. Two He handed the football to me. It's too hot on the beach We spent two hours waiting in line.

I am smarter than most people. Do more than ten sit ups. Back then, we had no TV. when I see it, then Ill believe it. Except Example: Number He accepted the bride.

First delete the file, then reboot your Computer.

Accept is a verb meaning to receive or agree. Amount

Except is a preposition meaning "all but" Or "other than" Example: Everyone came, except me.

Amount is used to indicate a total sum of things. It is usually used to refer to items that cannot be counted. Number is used to refer to items that can be counted. The amount of food consumed is amazing. (Food cannot be counted) The number of hamburgers consumed is amazing. (Hamburgers can be counted.) Angry at, with Because You are angry with a person and angry at a thing. Do not use because to introduce a noun clause. Awkward Better because I had too much to do is the reason my paper is late. My paper is late because I had too much to do.

(Because introduces an adverb clause.) Awkward Better Being the reason I left is because I was tried I left because I was tried.

This completely acceptable present participate is most safely used as part of the main verb. Used as a modifier it creates extremely awkward sentences. Being as and being that are not satisfactory substitutes for since or because. Beside means at the sides of. Besides means in addition to. Larry's dog rode beside him in the front seal. There are other rewards besides the money. Between cannot be followed by a singular noun. Substandard Standard Substandard Standard Between each bite, he sipped his cocoa. Between bites, he sipped his cocoa. Between every page, Jack inserted a paper. Between all the pages, Jack inserted a paper.

Beside, Besides

Between each

Different from

In most situations different from is better usage than different than. However, there are some situations in which than must be used to avoid awkward expressions. Gils book is different from ours. The school is much different than it used to be.

Fewer, less

Fewer is used to describe things that can be counted. Less refers to quantity or degree. Jack has fewer colds than he used to have. There is less snow today than yesterday. This lamp gives less light than the other.

Good, Well

Good is used only as an adjective to modify nouns and pronouns. Well is an adjective when it means in good health, of good appearance, or satisfactory. Well is used as an adverb to modify an action verb when it means that the action was performed properly or expertly. Mrs. Thatcher looks well (adjective) That hat looks well with that dress (adjective) The car runs well now. (Adverb)

Hanged, hung

Criminals are hanged. Things are hung on the walls, hooks, or elsewhere. The mob hanged the horse thief. The doctor's diplomas hung on his office wall. A speaker or writer suggests or implies something. The reader, listener, or observer concludes or infers something based on what sees and hears.

Imply, infer

The speaker implies that we are lazy. I infer that you disagree with the speaker. In, into In means inside something. Into tells of motion from the outside to the inside of something. Substandard Standard Substandard Standard Ingenious, Ingenuous Lay, lie The verb lay means to put or place something. The verb lie has many meaning, all of them having in common the idea of being in a horizontal position, or to remain, or to be situated. Lie is always an intransitive verb. It never has an object. La is a transitive verb. It almost always has an object. The principal parts of these verbs are as follows: Present Lay Lie Lend, loan Lend is a verb: Loan is a noun. business. Past laid lay Past participle laid lain The books fell in the mud. The books fell into the mud. Jane ran in the house. Jane ran into the house.

Ingenious means clever and resourceful. Ingenuous means frank and honest.

please lend us a hand. If we can get a loan from the bank, we can stay in

When could have, might have, must have, and similar phrases are spoken, they usually come out as contractions: could've, might've and so on. Because the contracted form 've sound like of, some persons write mistakenly could of, might of, must of. Substandard Standard Someone might of seen you. Someone might have seen you.



To understand word stress, it helps to understand syllables. Every word is made from syllables. Each word has one, two, three or more syllables. Word Break-up of word Dog Dog Green Green Quiet Qui-et Orange O-range Table T-able Expensive Ex-pen-sive Number of syllables 1 1 2 2 2 3

Interesting Realistic Unexceptional

In-ter-est-ing Re-a-lis-tic Un-ex-cep-tio-nal

4 4 5

Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i, o or u) or vowel sound. There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But the rules are rather complicated! Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try to develop a feeling for the "music" of the language. When you learn a new word, you should also learn Corporation stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe (') just before or just after the stressed syllable. Look at (and listen to) this example for the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable # 1 is stressed.

3.12.1. "Rules for Syllable Stress in English"

There are two very simple rules about word stress: One word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one-word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary], stress, and is only used in long words.) We can only stress vowels, not consonants. Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It is better to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally. Stress on first syllable Rule Most 2-syllable nouns Most 2-syllable adjectives Stress on last syllable Rule Most 2-syllable verbs

Example CHIna, TAble, Export SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy

Example To exPORT, to deCIDE, to beGIN

Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end) Rule Example Words ending in ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, Geologic Words ending in sion and -tion teleVIsion, revelation Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)

Rule Words ending in cy, -ty, phy and gy Words ending in al

Example deMOcracy , dependability phoTOgraphy, geology CRItical, geological

Compound words (words with two parts) Rule For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part

Example BLACKbird, GREENhouse bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned to underSTAND, to overflow

3.12.2. "Why is Syllable stress Important in English?"

Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example, pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis. Other languages, English for example, use word stress. Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want. It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and accurately, even in difficult conditions. If, for example, you do not hear a word clearly, you can still understand the word because of the position of the stress. Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo. Which word is it, photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which word it is because in reality you will hear either PHOto or phoTO. So without hearing the whole word, you probably know what the word is (PHOto...graph or phoTO...grapher. It's magic! (Of course, you also have the 'context' of your conversation to help you.) This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. There are many, many other examples because we use word stress all the time, without thinking about it. Exercises: Put the following words into the proper category based on the syllable count intonation. Count the number of syllable and decide which one is stressed. Words No. of Syllable Stressed Syllable Competitor Business Mistake Spend Calculate Argentina Production Spent Wall street Privacy laws

January Terminated Analysis Laboratory

3.12.3. Liaisons and Glides

As you know words are not pronounced one by one. Usually, the end of one word is attached to the beginning of the next word. Part of the glue that connects sentences is an underlying hum or drone that only breaks when you come to a period and sometimes not even then. You have this underlying hum in your own language that makes you sound like a native speaker. This chapter is going to introduce you to the idea of Liaisons; the connections between words, which allows us to speak in sound groups rather than in individual words. Exercise: Spelling and Pronunciation Read the following sentences. The last two sentences above should be pronounced exactly the same; no matter how they are written. It's the 'sound' that is important, not the spelling. The D. I think the D. I think the D likes it. I think that he likes it. Words are mainly connected in four different ways: 1 Consonant / Vowel 2 Consonant / Consonant 3 Vowel / Vowel 4 T, D, S, or Z + y Liaison Rule 1: Consonant I Vowel Words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word starts with a vowel sound, including the semivowels W, Y, and R. Exercise: Word Connections two 'years' ago [too 'yir' zgo] a principle of 'bu'siness [a prinsplv 'biz'ness] Im in a meeting [ai min 'mee'ding] Its on your desk [Corporationanyr desk] In the first example, the word year ends in a consonant sound [z], and ago starts with a vowel sound [], so yirgo just naturally flows together.

Exercise: Spelling & Number Connections. You also use liaisons in spelling and numbers: l, m, n, o, p, q ella meno pee kyu May eh may 'why' half ay chay yel lef Peterson pee ee tee ee are esso wen Valencia vee ay all ee en cee eye ay WalMart dubya ayel emay are tee Pearl Harbor pee ee ay areI, ay chay are bee oh(w)'are'. Los Angeles eh lo(w) 'ess', ay yen 'gee' ee elly ees' 880 ay day dee (661) 254-9090 sick sick swun, too five 'for', nyno ny'no' 510-02-5088 fy Vwunoh, oh too, fy voh ay date 2: 15 pm too fifteen pee(y) em 8:30 ay(t)'thir'dee 400,000 'for' hundr'd 'th'ae'o'znd 6 1/3 sicks' n' th'rd Exercise: Consonant / Vowel Liaison Practice Reconnect the following words. On personal pronouns, it is common to drop the H. Tell him about it. ['tell'im bow dit] a factor of a million [a faektro rv mily'n] Bob insisted on it. [babin sist danit] Practice Lesson: 1. basic economics _______________________________________________ 2. national average _______________________________________________ 3. more efficient _______________________________________________ 4. an excellent idea ________________________________________________ 5. over an acre

_______________________________________________ 6. to move out _______________________________________________ 7. cooked in an oven ______________________________________________ 8. monoclonal antibodies _______________________________________________ 9. not an option _______________________________________________ 10. decide on an alternative _________________________________________________ Liaison Rule 2: Consonant I Consonant Words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word starts with a consonant thats in a similar position. What is a similar position? Let's find out. Exercise: Consonant / Consonant Liaison Say the sound of each group of letters out loud (the sound of the letter; not the name: [b] is [buh] not [bee]. There are 3 general locations - the lips, behind the teeth, or in the throat. If a word ends with a sound created in the throat and the next word starts with a sound from that same general location, these words are going to be linked together. The same with the other 2 locations. Repeat after me. Behind the teeth In the throat At the lips Unvoiced Voiced Unvoiced T D K Ch J H L Voiced G Ng Unvoiced P F Voiced B V m

4. Mouth Exercises
Practice these sounds, feel the complete muscular movement for each sound. Pronounce them more than you would in ordinary speech: OOKT OOGD OOPT OOBD OOMD OOLT OOLD OOLZ OHKT OHGD OHPT OHBD OHMD OHLT OHLD OHLZ AWKT AWGD AWPT AWBD AWMD AWLT AWLD AWLZ AYKT AHGD AHPT AHBD AHMD AHLD AHLD AHLZ EEKT EEGD EEPT EEBD EEMD EELT EELD EELZ

5. Introduction to American Plosives & sounds of different letters

5.1. Sounds of different letters i.e. P; T; K;
There are certain letters in Consonantal Structure which needs to be stressed upon to get the right American sounds and these letters come under the umbrella of Plosive Sound. Important Plosive sounds are P, T & K.

5.1.1. P Sound
Mouth Formation Upper lips make a slight contact with the lower lips and with the release of the contact we find a controlled gush of air which accompanies it. Tongue plays no major role in American P. American P is different from the Indian PH Sound, which is very heavy. In former, we find a control gush of air whereas in latter there is a burst of air. Passage Reading Read the passage with the right P sound. 1) Pauline, Peter and Patrick were all perfect in their professional college. Patrick pretty much knew it all. Pauline and Peter picked up their degrees prior to Patrick. Pave our path for prosperity was their pledge. Patrick and Pauline would dream of places where they could procure peace and harmony. People would always pity the poor kids, for how much they would pressurize themselves in their studies. 2) A pilgrimage pondered and wandered. Plowing through peals of apples, Polishing and picking and poking, Hoping to find one promising. Tongue Twister A peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked, If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper, Wheres the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked. Exercise: Practice these words with right P Sounds. Paul Pamela Plymouth Patricia Pittsburg Providence Poker Payment



5.1.2. T Sound
Mouth Formation In American T the tip of the tongue hCorporation the upper palate and releases a control gush of air at the same time. This results in the formation of a hissing sound which finally leads to the creation of American T Sound. Here are four simple T rules: T at the beginning of a word is a sharp T. Exercises: It took ten times to try the telephone. Stop touching Teds toes. Turn towards Stella and study her contract together. Tell Tyler to take two turns this time. Tina tried to tame Teds tiger on Tuesday. T in the middle position, between two vowel sounds should be pronounced as a soft D. Exercises: What a good idea. Get a better water heater. Put it in a bottle. Betty bought a bit of better butter. Go get a letter opener. T at the end of a word is a held T. Exercises: Take it. Its what they want to get. Put them back in the pot. What did you find at that site? She hit the hot hut with her hat. T becomes N or remains silent if its after N in a word.

Exercises: Internet Percentage Printer Twenty Enter Sentences: He interrupted twenty interviews in Toronto. There were a large percentage of international students. He wont even interfere with the interaction. Hes at the Intercontinental Hotel. He wasnt even helping was he? T Passage 1) Trevor, Todd and Teresa would tie up together every night, and go out for the movies. Their favorite movie was The teacher taught the truth to Tony. Todd and Teresa were quite fond of tourism, in fact they thought of touring together to twenty different tourist spots. Trevor, however was a typical untidy person, so for him packing for tour seemed terrible. Tongue Twister Tick tock, tick tock, the clock ticked A timeless ticking and tricking A tremendous effort, but time Always won what mattered Truly rural, purely plural, truly rurally, purely plurally Thirty thrifty three toms watched the tower. = Innernet. = Percennage = prinner = Twenny = Enner

5.1.3. K Sounds
Mouth Formation American k sounds is different from heavy KH sound. American K sound can be explained with the presence a small h sound next to K i.e. Kh sound. Passage Reading Read the following passage with the right K sound.

1) Catherine, Katy and Kelly were quite close when it came to being companions. Kelly and Katy, could not keep a secret, they couldnt care much for privacy. Catherine, kept a close contact with Katys brother, cooper, who stayed in California. Cooper co-operated a lot to cope with Catherines habit of cake baking. She would bake a cake for Cooper and Kelly, but would fall short to keep a slice of cake for Katy. 2) The Kite that beat the kite, That was the other kite. That shifted kites to the other kit. That was a kittens ball of kitty wool. Tongue Twister Coughing through the corridor Carefully coping With clusters of people What a cold I have

5.2. V & W Sounds

V is a true consonant, because the lips come in contact with the teeth. W is a glide or semivowel; because of the lips dont come into contact.

5.2.1. V Sounds
Vision View Vulnerable Vacant Vagabond Vial Validate Valid Virtual Value Valid Valentine Victory Vamp Vampire Vanish Vanilla Vacant Pivot Heave Venice Vehicle Prove Envelope Revive Provision Veal Invade Invest Revision Divide Vision Violate Connive Deviate Version Exercise: Victor Vickerson voted to review the very vilest version of the veto to avoid a controversy. Even Evan reviewed Virginias available provisions for the vacation as inevitably devoid of value. Evan eventually arrived at the village and saved the day with vast amounts of venison & veal.

5.2.2. W Sounds
Wine Window Wide Wilt Went Where When Wizard Wellington Willful Wonderful Winner Dwell Twist Tweezes Swindle Wild Whichever Sweat Owlish Own Flower Wild Wash Owlish Brew Question Width Waiter While

Whirl Winter Wager Wafer Wag Whisker Exercise: Where were we in the World War I? On one wonderful Wednesday, we were wandering in Westwood with a wonderful woman from Wisconsin, whose name was Wanda for weeks, and we were wondering when we would wear out our welcome. Ive been waiting since winter.

5.3. TH; R sounds

5.3.1. TH sounds
Can be categorized into 2 parts: Breeze of Air or Unvoiced TH sound The unvoiced TH is like the S between the Teeth. Most people tend to replace the unvoiced TH with S. Instead of Thing, they say sing. Exercise: Thursday Throw Thelma Thomas Thank you Buzzing sound or voiced TH sound The voiced TH is like a D, instead of being in back of the teeth, Corporation 1\4 inch lower and forward between the teeth. Most people tend to replace the voiced TH with a Z sound. Exercise: That Them Those Brother Father

5.3.2. R Sounds
The American R is like a vowel because it does not touch anywhere in the mouth. In Korean, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, Greek & many other languages, the R is a consonant because it touches behind the teeth. The American R is produced deep in the throat. Like the French R and the-German R, the American R is in the throat, but unlike those two consonant sounds, it doesn't touch. Let's contrast two similar sounds: [a] and [r].

Hold your hand out in front of you, with your palm up, like you are holding a tray on it. Slightly drop your hand down, and say ah, like you want the doctor to see your throat. Now, curl your fingers up slightly, and say [r]. Your tongue should feel in about the same position as your hand. CAR CARE DARE DEER DEAR BEER TEAR TYRE BORN YEAR LAYER HAIR WATER NEAR CANDIDATE HIGHER BLOWER POWER DEVOUR HOUR PAMPER PAPER CARETAKER PRAYER SNIPER SNIPPER HYPER SHOWER LEATHER LATHER PAVER PACER MOVER SHAKER GREATER LOWER POKER TESTER MAILER GOAFER MUFFLER DREAMER

5.4. S or Z Sounds
The sound of the letter S is [s] only if it follows an unvoiced consonant. Otherwise, its a Z in disguise. When an S follows a vowel, a voiced consonant or another S, it turns into a [z]. The following exercise will let you hear and practice S with Corporation dual sound. There are many more Z sounds in English than S sounds. When S Becomes Z Under Contrast, in the list that follows, notice how the voiced word is drawn out and then repeat the word after me. Both Voiced and unvoiced diphthongs have the underlying structure of the tone shift, or the double stair step, but the shift is much larger for the voiced ones. price prize peace peas place plays ice eyes hiss his close to close use to use rice rise

pace pays lacey lazy "Corporation So Sad" Repeat the S sounds in the paragraph below. Corporation so sad. Sally stole Sammy's snake skin suit and sold it to a salesman from Sonoma. Sid, the salesman, suggested that Sally stop stealing, but Sally simply said, "So!" Sid sighed sadly, and stomped off to search for a more suitable subject. "Allz Well That Endz Well" Repeat the Z sounds in the paragraph below. Zero Zippers is a zillion dollar organization near the Osgood zoo in Zimbabwe. It zigzagged through an embezzlement scandal and zipped past all reasonable expectations. Zero was in the most desirable zip code in the business zone, but the end result was zilch. As the founder's motto was Easy come, easy go! no one resented the bizarre disaster. Finding S and Z Sounds Go through the paragraph and highlight the seven [s] sounds and the thirteen [z]sounds. There was a time when people really had away with words: They said and did whatever they could, so that each little thing would then be good and clear, both at home and all over the world. They knew that it was very important to use just a few short words because most of the long ones were too hard. The only other thing about words is the number of children who are called names, even if they know how to use it in a sentence. By the way, many more families have been after their children to talk right. Well, how about yours?

5.5. Vowel Sounds

Vowel sounds are made by slight changes in the position of the tongue and lips and tensing or relaxing of the muscles of the mouth. One important characteristic of American English vowels is the open quality that is the result of the position of the tongue. Vowel sounds are made by slightly changing the size, shape, and tension of the muscles of your mouth and lips. A very small change can result in an entirely different sound. Types of Vowel Sounds: Vowels may also be described as front, central, or back. When the tongue is raised or arched in the front of the mouth, it is a front vowel. When the tongue is raised or arched in the center, it is a central vowel. When the tongue is raised or arched in the back, it is a back vowel. The 13 vowel sounds are EE I AH







5.5.1. EE Sounds
EE is one of the most difficult vowels to master. It sounds a lot like to many non-native speakers. The position of the tongue is very similar to where it is for the I sound. The EE, however, is a tense sound. That means the muscles of your mouth are tense. And it tends to be a little longer than the I. EE sounds like the name of the letter e. Instructions to make this sound: Is your tongue very high and flat in. the front of your mouth? Are the muscles of your mouth tense? Try smiling as you make this sound it helps to tense the muscles of your mouth and to keep your tongue high. Common spellings: E as in she, EA as in easy, EE as in feet, EO as in people, I as in visa, IE as in field Y as in busy Each = keep each piece Eat = eat dinner early Evening = the evening Cheap = very cheap material Secretary = Lee's secretary is busy Isn't he teaching history at the university? Take the freeway or Fifth Street directly to the beach.

5.5.2. I Sound
The I sound is most often confused with EE by English-as-a-second-language students. Remember, this sound is relaxed. That means the muscles of the mouth are relaxed, not tense. Instructions to make this sound: Is your tongue high in your mouth but are the muscles of your mouth relaxed? Be sure this does not sound like the name of the letter "e." Common problems: Using an EE sound so it sounds like eat. Common spellings: E as in exist, I as in hit, O as in women, U as in busy, UI as in guitar, Y as in system. Example:

It = complete it Is = this is it Live = live near the beach Winter = every winter Position = a position in the company Bills physician reports his condition is serious Cindy lives in a very distant city, doesnt she?

5.5.3. AY Sounds
AY is a tense sound. That means the muscles of your mouth are tense. It may help to prolong it and end with an EE sound. It sounds like the name of the letter a. Instructions to make this sound: Is your tongue somewhat raised? Are the muscles of your mouth tense? Example: Age = at age eighty H = say aH Eight = eight payments in April Date = able to make a date Later = will rain later They = they may stay anyway Set the cake on the left side of the table, okay? A neighbor explained the parade was delayed.

5.5.4. EH Sounds
The EH sound is relaxed. That means the muscles of the mouth are relaxed, not tense. Instructions to make this sound: Is your tongue high in your mouth but are the muscles of your mouth relaxed? Be sure this does not sound like the name of the letter e. Instructions to make this sound: Is your tongue slightly raised? Are the muscles of your mouth relaxed? Be sure this does not sound like the name of the letter a. Using an AY sound So pen sounds like pain. Common Spellings: A as in any AI as in said EA as in sweat,

E as in et cetera, EO as in jeopardy IE as in friend Edge = check the edge Every = yes, every second Men = many men attend Best = best available Sell = when to sell Beth remained until Wednesday to attend the ballet. The Mets best baseball player was traded already.

5.5.5. AE sounds
A.E is the ugly American sound -- not very pleasant to listen to and it is another difference between American and British English. British speakers tend to use the A (ah) sound in words which American- pronounce with AE. Instructions to make this sound: Is your mouth open wide? Is your tongue lying on the floorof your mouth? Are the muscles of your mouth tense?

Example: An = has an apple pie Asked = asked her address Action = no action at the auction Lacks = lacks an answer Salad = toss the salad Lap-top computers have obvious travel advantages. The Stanford grad, wants to be on the fast track.

5.5.6. UR Sounds
The UR is difficult to make because it has an R sound in it. And to make it harder, non-native speakers can be confused by the multiple ways to spell this sound. Don't try to change the vowel sound to match Corporation spelling. The words her, sir, fur, were and earth all have the same vowel sound in spite of their different spelling. Instructions to make this sound: Is your tongue raised high at the entrance of your mouth? Be sure that you hear an R sound. The UH is a very easy sound to make. Open your mouth just a little. Don't move your tongue or lips. Say uh. Easy, right?

The problem occurs when people try to pronounce this sound as it is spelled -- and it is spelled at least ten different ways! So just remember to try to pronounce it the same uh -regardless of how it is spelled. Instructions to make this sound: Is your mouth slightly open? Are your lips and the muscles of your mouth relaxed? Is your tongue resting on the bottom of your mouth? Common problems: Because this sound has so many different spellings, people tend to pronounce the words like they are spelled. Common spellings: A as in about, Al as in bargain, E as in "system," EI as in "foreign," I as in "engine," IO as in "region," As in "color," OU as in "famous," U as in "but" Early = an early bird Urgent = an urgent matter Work = work later than before Yesterday = yesterday afternoon Were = they were certain Dollar = a dollar thirty Theyll defer the merger for another term. Her brother entertained in the center theater.

5.5.7. AH Sounds
The AH vowel sound is often difficult for non-native speakers. This is the sound you make when a doctor asks you to open your mouth and say ah. (It has pronunciation variations in different regions of the United States!) Instructions to make this sound: Is your mouth open wide? Is your tongue lying on the floor of your mouth? Are the muscles of your mouth relaxed? Example: On = off and on All = offer it all

Cough = cough drops Faucet = the hot water faucet Draw = draw an object A tax audit cost John more than a hundred dollars. August property sales topped past profCorporation About = about a month Of = a ton of machinery Husband = a young husband But = but it was funny None = none on campus will come. Cover = run for cover Publicity showed the ugly conditions in the slums. What American customs do visitors find annoying?

5.5.8. U Sounds
When people have trouble pronouncing the U sound, it is usually because they are mixing it up with OO. The U sound is tense. That means the muscles of your mouth are not relaxed. It tends to be longer than the OO, too. Instructions to make this sound: Are your lips rounded? Are the muscles of your mouth tense? Common Problems & spellings Using an OO sound so pool sounds like pull. Common spellings: EU as in "sleuth" EW as in "grew" As in "into" OE as in "canoe" OO as in "food" Ou as in "group" OUGH as in "through" U as in dirty DE as in "sue" UI as in "suit" Example:

Fool = a stupid fool Pool = into the pool To = to improve the soup Knew = knew the crew Through = flew through the clouds We had cool weather and a smooth cruise in June. Move to a good neighborhood with good schools.

5.5.9. OO Sounds
People have trouble pronouncing the OO sound; it is usually because they are mixing it up with U. The OO sound is "relaxed." That means the muscles of your mouth are not tense. It tends to be shorter than the U, too. Instructions to make this sound: Are your lips somewhat rounded? Are the muscles of your mouth relaxed? Common problems: Using a U sound so that "full" sounds like "fool." Common spellings: OO as in "book" OO as in woman" U as in "pull" Example: Would = understood you would Full = a full moon Pull = push or pull Look = look at a good book Should = should say goodnight The rookie football player misunderstood the rules. We took pudding and sugar cookies to the room.

5.5.10. O Sounds
The O sound requires your lips to be rounded into a circle, like the shape of the letter "O." It sounds like the name of the letter "O. It is a complete "O" sound.

Instructions to make this sound: Is your lips rounded? Is your tongue somewhat raised in the back of your mouth? Are the muscles of your mouth tense? Over = over before you know it Open =open or close Most = most of the coast Phone = a modern cordless phone Note = a note on the door So = and so it goes The CFO reported low corporate growth this quarter. Let's focus on your cooperation and performance.

5.5.11. AI Sounds
The AI sound starts with the A ("ah") sound and moves into an EE sound. The key is to make sure you this sound ends with the tense EE ("ah-ee"). If you don't, it sounds like "ah." AI sounds like the name of the letter I Instructions to make this sound: Can you hear two sounds? The AI sound moves from an A sound to an EE sound.

5.5.12. OW Sounds
Make sure you begin with the open mouth A (ah) sound and end with the tense U -- with your lips rounded. If you have trouble pronouncing this sound it is often because you don't end up with the U. This is an especially difficult sound for Chinese speakers when it occurs in front of an N sound: down, brown, town, around, found. Instructions to make this sound: Do you hear two distinct sounds of AH and U. The sound moves from A to U.

Example: Out = go out now Downtown = bought it downtown Crowd = the crowd applauded Mouse = found a mouse Now = shou1d we announce it now Allow = the county will allow How about going downtown now?

He caught a rebound in an astounding foul play.

5.5.13. OY Sounds
Make sure you begin with the O sound and end with the tense EE (oee). If you have trouble pronouncing this sound it is often because you don't end up with the EE. French speakers often pronounce this sound like wah. Instructions to make this sound: Do you hear two distinct sounds of O and EE. The sound moves from O to EE. Example: Oil = employed by an oil company Noisy = noisy employees Join = join the union Enjoy = enjoy the voyage The invoice was soiled but not destroyed. They found the boy's noise annoying.

6. American Intonation
One way to have an accent is to leave out sounds that should be there. Indians bring a rich variety of voiced consonants to English that contribute to the heavy, rolling effect. American Intonation Dos and Donts Dont speak word by word. Example: Callers like options. If you speak word by word with no links or contradiction, you'll end up sounding mechanical. You've noticed the same thing happening in your own language: When someone reads a speech, even a native speaker sounds stiff, quite different from a normal conversational tone. Connect words to form contradiction and sound Groups. Example: kaallr zly Kaapsh 'nz This is where you're going to think of things a little differently. Fortunately, for Indian speakers, this is not at all a challenging aspect. Instead of thinking of each word as a unit, think of sound unCorporation. These sound unCorporation may or may not correspond to a word written on a page. Native speakers don't say He got a piece of pie, but [He gada peesa pie]. Sound unit makes a sentence flow smoothly. You'll notice that there are lots of sentence where we find a presence of contradiction and the purpose is that to get you comfortable contracting your own speech. In conventional writing, of course, avoid using contradiction, but when speaking, contract almost all pronouns and helping verbs. Use staircase Intonation to stress Important Information. Example: Kaa Lr zly Let those sound groups floating on the wavy river in the figure flow downhill and you'll get the staircase. Staircase intonation not only gives you that American sound, it also makes you sound much more confident. Kaap Sh'nz

6.1. Staircase Intonation

In saying your words, imagine that they come out as if they are sliding down a flight of staircase; Every so often, one jumps up to another level, and then starts down again. Americans tend to stretch out their hands longer than you may think is natural. So to lengthen your vowel sound, put them on two stair steps instead of just one. Example: We're Here We He



If you don't double your words, you'll sound clipped, hard to understand or even cranky: No Clipped No Ou Standard American Note: Certain consonants act like a "Lock" at the end of a word by locking in the air flow. When you have a one-syllable word ending in an unvoiced consonant P, F, S, SH, T, CH, K, and H -the vowel is said quickly and in a single stair step. In all other case when a word end in a vowel or a voiced consonants -- B, V, Z, ZH, D, TH, G etc - the vowel is on a double stair step, because the airflow is "'unlocked". Seed Unvoiced See eed Voiced There are two main consequences of not doubling the second category of word: Either your listener will hear the wrong words or even worse, you will always sound upset. In English the words - Cur, Clipped, Terse and Abrupt all literally means short. When referring to a person or to speech, they take on the meaning of upset or rude. Example: In the expression, "His Curt reply", "Her terse response", "He was very short with them", all indicates a negative situation.

6.1.1. Staircase and Pitch Change

What is intonation in American English? What do Americans do? We go up and down staircase. We use higher notes for stressed words and a lower note for unstressed ones. We Go Up And down Stair Steps

6.1.2. Three Ways To Make Intonation

We've talked about where to use intonation, but exactly how do you change your voice on a particular word or syllable? There are three ways to stress a word. The first is to just get louder or raise the volume. The second way is to stretch the word out. Third way, which is the best, is to change the pitch.

6.1.3. Voice Quality

In American English, deep resonant voice is considered attractive, competent and professional. In my observation, when people speak a foreign language, they tense up their throat, so their whole communication style sounds strained. The Indian speaker's voice is also generally higher pitched than would be considered desirable.

6.2. Intonation and Phrasing

In addition to the intonation of a statement, there is another aspect of speech that indicates meaning -- Phrasing This is an extremely important aspect of intonation, as it goes beyond what you are trying to say -- it dictates how your listener will relate to you as an individual if you will be considered charming or rude, confident or nervous, informed or unfamiliar. An extremely important part of intonation is inside a one-syllable word. Intonation in a onesyllable word? Isn't that a contradiction in terms? No, we put in little sounds that are not in the written language, but that convey a great deal of information in terms of who we are. Have you ever caught just a snippet of a conversation in your own language, and somehow known how to piece together what came before or after the part you heard? This has to do with your natural understanding of phrasing. In a sentence, phrasing tells you where the speaker is at the moment, where he is going, and if he is finished or not. Notice that the intonation stays on the nouns. 1. Statement Stress the nouns and let the tone fall at the end of the sentence. "Dogs eat bones." 2. First half, second half The first half of a sentence usually sets up the second half Dogs eat bones, but cats eat fish. 3. lntro Phrase When you want to preface your statement, use a rising tone. As we all know, dogs eat bones. 4. Listing

With more than one item in a list, all but the last one have a rising tone. "Dogs eat bones, kibbles and meat." 5. Question A regular question goes up (compared with a statement), but drops back down at the end. Do dogs eat bones? 6. Repeated Question A repeated, rhetorical or emotional question goes up, and then up again at the end. "Do dogs eat bones?!" You'll notice, of course, that the dogs-eat-bones sentence uses simple nouns and simple verbs. An extremely important part of intonation is compound nouns and complex verb tenses.

6.3. Compound Noun Intonation

One of the first things you-learn about intonation is that nouns carry the new information, and consequently, they carry the stress in a sentence. Dogs eat bones. But what if you have an adjective with the noun, or two nouns together -- on which word do you stress? In this case, you have to make a simple decision: Either stress on the first word or the second word (rarely both). How do you know which one to stress? Well, if it is a description (with no contrast), skim over the adjective and stress the noun: "A nice guy" "A big house" "A good idea" If you have two nouns that form a compound noun, stress the first word: A hot dog A notebook A picture frame This will explain why we say: He lives in a-white house. He lives in the White House.

After you have mastered first-word or second-word stress, you can go on the more complex intonation: It's a pot. It's new. It's a new pot. It's brand new. It's a brand new pot. It's a teapot. It's a new teapot. It's a brand new teapot. It's a teapot lid. It's a new teapot lid. It's a brand new teapot lid.

6.4. Complex verb Intonation

One of the most interesting thing about English is that you can have a simple sentence such as "Dogs eat bones" And the same sentence with a much more complex verb tense, but you will keep the same intonation pattern: "The dogs will have eaten the bones." Because they are both Noun-Verb-Noun sentences with no contrast, you automatically stress the noun each time. The verb is said very quickly and without much stress at all. Furthermore, the natural make the sound very different from the spelling: "Dogs eat bones." [dag zeet bounz] "The dogs will have eaten the bones." [the dag z'l'veetn the bounz] When you switch to a Pronoun- Verb-Pronoun sentence, the liaisons are the same, but the main verb is stressed. "They eat them." [they ee dm.] "They will have eaten them." [they Iv ee(t)n'm.] Contrast

Once the intonation of new information is established, you'll soon notice that there is a pattern that breaks that flow. When you want to emphasize one thing over another, you reflect this contrast with pitch change. Notice how the intonation indicates contrast: Bob studies English. Bob studies English, but he doesn't use it. If a person consistently stresses "contrast words" as opposed to "new information words", he can end up sounding permanently argumentative: "I said it is good." "He doesn't like it. Where are you going?" Additionally, mixed messages occur when modals or verbs of perception are stressed -- you end up with the opposite meaning! "People should exercise more, but....." "They would help us, if. . ." "It looks like Channel, but at that price, it's a knock-off." "He seems like a nice guy, but once you get to know him." Exercise: A good exercise to demonstrate the variety of meaning through intonation changes is to take a single sentence, try stressing each, word in turn, and see the totally different meanings that come out. 1. I didn't say he stole the money. 2. I didn't say he stole the money. 3. I didn't say he stole the-money. 4. I didn't say he stole- the money. 5. I didn't say he stole the money. 6. I didn't say he stole the money. 7. I didn't say he stole the money. Once you are clear on the intonation changes in the seven sentences, you can add context words to clarify the meaning: 1. I didn't say he stole the money, someone else said it. 2. I didn't say he stole the money, that's not true at all. 3. I didn't say he stole the money, I only suggested the possibility. 4. I didn't say he stole the money, I think someone else took it. 5. I didn't say he stole the money, may be he just borrowed it. 6. I didn't say he stole the money, but rather some other money. 7. I didn't say he stole the money; he may have taken some jewelry.

7. Telephone Dialogues
Here we will go over several common scenarios in business situations, involving business etiquette, telephone terminology and disputed resolution techniques.

7.1. Clarifying Doubts

Recruiter: Thank You for calling ABC Insurance. This is Betty. How may I help you? Caller: Yes, hello, Hello? Is this an actual person? Not a machine? Recruiter: Yes, how may I help you? Caller: Well, I have an insurance policy with you and I had a fender bender yesterday, and I can't tell if I'm covered or not. Recruiter: Do you have your policy number? Caller: Yes, it's "S23859". Recruiter: Are you Mrs. Wilkins? Caller: Yes, dear. I am. Am I covered? Will there be any charges? Recruiter: Let's see here __it looks like you have full coverage and not just PL & PD, so if you take the car to your mechanic for an estimate, and then submit the bill to us, you will be reimbursed in full. Caller: Oh, thank you! That's just wonderful. Recruiter: You're very welcome. At this time, would you be interested in adding a life insurance policy to your portfolio.

7.2. Allaying confusion

Recruiter: Thank you for calling ABC Corporation. This is Betty. How may I help you? Caller: What is wrong with you people over there?! Can't you mail out a simple order? Do I have to spend my life tracking down every little thing you're suppose to send me? How can I run my business if you don't keep up your end? Recruiter: I'm sorry you're having difficulty with an order, sir. Could you tell me specifically what happened? Caller: Again?! Don't you keep records over there? I've called sixteen time about this and you don't even remember! Recruiter: Sir, if I could get your 'name and candidate ID number, I could look up. Caller: How many times do I have to tell you??!! It Edgar Smythe. S-M-Y-T-H-E. I ordered a glass figurine on the 8th and it still isn't here!! Recruiter: I do apologize for that, Mr. Smythe. I'm showing that it was shipped on the morning of the 9th. I have a tracking number here let me see, it says that Joey Smythe signed for it on the 10th. Caller: What!!!? Joey signed for it? That Kid! He never even mentioned it. Well, I guess I owe you an apology! I kind of went off on you there. Recruiter: That's all right, sir. I understand how frustrating it can be. Is there anything else I can do for you today?

Caller: No, and thanks for getting that out on time. Recruiter: Thank you for using ABC

7.3. Dispute Resolution

Recruiter: Thank you for calling ABC Corporation. This is Betty. How may I help you? Caller: I'm really upset that I can get this $200 bill taken care of. I've spoken with three different people there, and each one has said that it's been entered into the computer as paid, and then I get another bill in the mail. And there are all kinds of penalty fees and, interest tacked on. I'm really ticked off and thinking about canceling my account with you people. Recruiter: I'm really sorry that this has caused you so much trouble. Let me look into it and take care of it right away. Now, I know that you've been through this a couple of times now, but if I could get your account information one more time, I'll be able to take care of this for you. Caller: That's OK. My number is 5438-0394-8251. Recruiter: What's the name on the account? Caller: Gennifer Wilson with a G. Recruiter: OK, Ms. Wilson, I see what the problem is. You have two accounts and apparently the money was applied to your other account. I've now credited your main account. I've now credited your main account with $ 200, and the next billing cycle should reflect this change. Of course, the amount will be deducted from your other account, as is was improperly credited. Does this take care of it for you, Ms. Wilson? Caller: Well, I hope so. What's your name, again? Ah, Betty. What your: direct number in case the bill is wrong? Recruiter: We don't have direct numbers, and any Recruiter can take care of this for you, but I'm the only Betty here, so you can ask for me. Is there any thing else I can do for you today?

7.4. Technical Explanation

Recruiter: I think that we've found the problem. Sometimes when you use a different size paper in the fax machine, it jams up. What size paper are you using? Caller: The usual A4. Recruiter: A4? Isn't that a little longer and narrower than 8 1/2 by 11? Caller: I'm not sure; it's what we use in France

8. Candidate Service
8.1. The three Rs
Respect Responsiveness Responsibility

8.2. Candidate perception

Factors which may, Influence the candidates' Perception Instructions: Examine the word lists below. 1. Tone, down negative thought: 2. Intensify positive thoughts I feel Disappointed Frustrated Irritated Angry Stunned Puzzled Perplexed Tired I feel Pleased Excited Alive Content Secure Useful Creative Thoughtful Glad Joyous Energetic Calm Confident Productive Inventive Generous Cheerful Thrilled Radiant Peaceful Bold helpful Ingenious Bighearted Happy Ecstatic Exuberant Tranquil Courageous Resourceful Brilliant Noble Dissatisfied foiled Annoyed Upset Appalled Mixed Up Stumped Exhausted Discourage Stalled Peeved Furious Shocked Confused Baffled Drowsy Defeated Exasperated Mad Enraged Outraged Jumbled Mystified Sleepy



8.3.1. Hear the candidate
Acknowledge Alleviate Noise, distractions, concentration Block out noise, focus on the point, put worries aside until later

8.3.2. Understand the candidate

Analyze Clarify Analyze Instructions: You will hear the facilitator speaking to the class as if he or she is a candidate who is explaining something to you, the Recruiter, Answer the three questions below in the space provided. What was the main reason the candidate called? What is her secondary need? What information provided by the candidate is not directly related to the problem? STOP HERE. CLARIFY Instructions: The facilitator will read a series of candidate statements. Ask candidate a series of clarification questions related to the problem. Main points, support points, candidate details Ask questions when candidate's words are vague or unclear

8.3.3. Relates to the Candidate

Paraphrase Restate the candidate need or concern into own words Empathize Establish rapport, response to words & emotions, convey understanding, agreement, use attentive words, and avoid filler Paraphrase Instructions: Read the statements below and circle the letter of the response that most effectively paraphrases the candidates statement. 1. "I like the idea of having a password to access my account. I just cant seem to remember it and end up not using my Internet access. You're afraid that you cant remember your password, right?

So, a password that you can remember might work for you?" "It sounds like you are interested in having an Internet account. 2. I don 'think an Internet account will work for me. I am concerned about my privacy and security when sending an email. "It sounds like you are looking for security and privacy in your email correspondence. You don't think the Internet is secure? So, you're not interested in hearing about our unlimited internet access. 3. I like the idea of having a new product every two years, I am afraid it may cost too much. It sounds like you're interested in our Membership Program So you think our services are two expensive? You're concerned that the charges for the membership program will be more than you'd like to spend. Is that correct? EMPATHY Instructions: For each candidate statement below work with a partner. Write an empathetic response to the candidate. John Peters: I can't believe I forgot to connect the monitor to the PC. How stupid of me! Vera Ingram: Ive tried setting up the printer several times. I know Im doing it right, but its not working! Lee Chen: I think this Best Value Program is wonderful.

8.4. Six Steps for Handling Challenging Candidates

8.4.1. Dont Get Hooked; Stay Calm.
Use the STOP technique: Signals: Be aware of the signals your body sends that indicate youre getting hooked into the candidates anger. Take control: Halt your own anger before you really do lose control. Opposite: Breathe deeply, smile, relax and focus on feeling all tension being drained from your body, from head to toe Practice:

Practice not allowing the candidate to hook you into an emotional response or otherwise provoke you. With practice, you can treat challenging candidates objectively and avoid getting hooked.

8.4.2. Let the Candidate Vent

Listen carefully, take a few notes, and dont interrupt, even if you already have the solution. If you interrupt, the candidate may lose his place and have to start over again, from the beginning. The candidate has called to have his or her say, and wont be satisfied until you grant that wish. Period.

8.4.3. Empathize with the Candidates Emotions

After you have allowed the candidate to vent: Paraphrase the candidate's concerns and focus on the candidates emotions, even if you already have the solution to candidate's problem. Show empathy sincerely. For example, you might say: That must have been annoying, Mr. Jaarez. I can certainly understand you frustration. Id call, too if that happened to me, Mrs. Ortiz. Get agreement from the candidate that you understand correctly so far. Ask the candidate to tell you more Thank the candidate for his or her feedback (Ex. Thank you for bringing this to my attention, Mr. Harris.) At this stage, the candidate is not ready to hear a solution yet. You must deal with the candidates anger before you can start to work on the solution. Remember emotions first.

8.4.4. Avoid Trigger Words and Phrases.

Trigger words and phrases are those that seem to make candidates angrier, not less. Why? Because they demonstrate to candidates that your focus is on policies and procedures, instead of where it belongs: on them. Examples include: Avoid Trigger Phrases Im sorry, but.. I dont know. Instead, say. What I/we can do is. That's a good question I'll find out for you May I put you on hold while I get that information

Its company policy, sir/maam. You should have. I suppose I can, but that would require too much paperwork. That's incorrect. Someone gave you the wrong information. Who told you that? I cant do that. I'm not responsible for what other people promise.

That's a tough one. Lets see what we can do (Avoid using sir or ma'am.) I have updated information for you I'll need a couple of minutes to help you with that. The person who helped you before must not have had complete information available. The information you need is. The best way for me to help you is to put in touch with/direct you to. Thank you. I appreciate your feedback on what we've been doing right and wrong.

8.4.5. Gently Set LimCorporation with Abusive Candidates.

Instead of telling the Candidate to calm down: Inform him or her that you want to help, but that you are not required to listen to abusive language. Politely ask the candidate to continue, but without the profanity.

8.4.6. Delay Action Momentarily

In some cases, it may help if you tell the candidate you need a few moments to consult with a supervisor or manager regarding the candidate concern. A few moments delay will give you a chance to regain your composure if youre starting to get hooked by the candidates emotions, and it will make the candidate feel better that his her problem is being taken care to the higher authority. It sends the message that the candidate is being taken seriously.

9. Call Structuring
We have used the phone all our lives. Is there something wrong with the way we use it. Why do we need to know how best to use it? That's right. We probably grew up with the phone and take it for granted. But, some of the reasons why we should pay attention to it are: It is one of the most important and convenient ways to do business today. You can access more people and more information than ever before. You can buy almost anything or do any transaction over the phone. Candidates want to do more and more business over the phone because: Its convenient Its quicker Its easier It saves time It saves money This is the GOOD news The BAD news is that in a single year 18,200,000 Candidates were LOST due to poor telephone service. And the WORSE news is that WE as people handling those phones were perhaps responsible for it! So, can we afford to loose candidates because we did not handle the phone properly?

9.1. Inbound call

Opening a Call Good Morning, this is Mary. How may I help you? Hi! This is Mary. How may I help you? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Developing a Call ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Proposing a Solution ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Gaining Agreement

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Closing ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Handling Incoming Calls Why would some one call you? Because: For information about products or services, to buy those products or services or to do routine transactions with your organization. They have a problem/issue that needs resolution. No one calls you out of idle curiosity. They expect that the right person would answer the call promptly, that it will be treated with emergency and that it will get them the desired result / action. And all this should happen in a hassle free manner. When candidates call us, things we do or do not do would ensure whether they have a good experience and get the solution they were looking for or not.

9.2. Outbound call

The outbound call structure is slightly different. In incoming call, the first half of the call belongs to the candidate whereas in outbound calls, the first half belongs to the Recruiter. Opening the call: Hi! This is Mary calling from INDOSYS CORPORATION. Can I speak to Mr. George Smith please? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Identifying the candidate ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Stating the purpose of the call: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Listening to the candidate: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Negotiating and striking the deal:

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Closing: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Handling Outbound Calls

When initiating a call, get as much information as possible about the candidate prior to
making the call.

Announce yourself giving details like your name, company and purpose of the call. Identify the person you want to reach. If you cant reach the person, find out when they may be available so that you can call
again, your name and the likely time when you will call again. carefully.

Since the listener doesn't have the benefit of being able to see you, choose your words Use words that will put listener in the picture. Avoid ambiguous words that can lead to confusion. Spell difficult or confusing words. During the conversation, check from time to time for listeners understanding. Repeat and check for names, phone numbers, instructions & directions.
While making a call

Feel positive Be alert Tune in to the candidate to understand their needs Avoid distractions Focus only on your call Have all candidate details ready Speak clearly and plainly Check for understanding
Building Rapport over the phone

Answer the phone promptly Smile and give a genuine greeting

Treat the caller as a special individual Giving undivided attention to the caller Showing empathy to their situation Providing them a prompt and desirable solution Thanking them Following Up Delivering what was promised

9.3. Conference call

When a complaint cannot be resolved by the Recruiter and needs to be escalated to some one more senior or a technical expert, using a conference call is the most efficient use of time. It is referred to as "soft" transfer. It accomplishes two objectives: the candidates problem is resolved in the same call and the Recruiter also learns how to handle that problem in future. If a problem requires an immediate resolution and you have to place a conference call, do the following:

Place the candidate on hold. However, before doing that, ask permission to do so and tell
them the reason for putting them on hold.

Call the professional and ensure that he or she is the correct person to handle the call Give the professional a description of the problem and callers name. Conference the candidate in, introduce them to the professional and give the professional
the information the candidate has provided to you.

Once the problem has been resolved, thank the professional for his assistance. Break the conference and close the call by thanking the candidate for his cooperation.

9.4. Hold procedure

Being put on hold is perhaps the biggest frustration of any caller. Calls abruptly put on hold, for minutes on end leave a caller wondering if the person on the other side is really concerned about him. When you do have to put a caller on hold Please ask them if they are able to hold. Tell them the time you expect to take so that they are not left wondering about how long they have to hold. Thank them for holding on. Is it OK for you to hold on? It'll take me 2 minutes to gather the information you want. And then Thank you for holding on.

9.5. Transferring call

When your phone rings and you realize that the call is actually for some one else

Tell the caller who is the correct person and offer to find out if they are present. If the person is available, inform the caller that you are transferring the call to them. Also give the caller the extension number of the person in case the transfer fails. While transferring a call, pass on the full details of the caller and situation so that the caller
does not have to repeat herself again.

If the person is not available to take the call, offer to take a message. Remember not to ask the candidate to can back again because you don't know how to
transfer the call. If you really don't know, please find out how to do it. NOW!

"Hello, can I talk to Andrea?" "Oh, you've got the wrong extension. She is in the training department. " "Oh sorry, could you please transfer the call to her?" "I don't know how to transfer the call. Can you please call the board number again and ask for her" Or "I am not sure I can transfer this correctly. Anyway, I'll try and if it gets disconnected, please call again." Is this the correct way to handle the call or is there a better way of doing it. The Better Way "Good morning, Gabriela" Can I talk to Andrea?" Sure. Andreas extension is 250 and I'll transfer the call to her. May I know your name and contact number please, just in case the call gets disconnected. "My name is Mick and my number is 636-812-4000" If Andrea is available, tell her that it is Mick on line for her. After confirming Andreas availability inform Mick that you are transferring the call to her. "Andrea, Hi this is Gabriela. Mick wants to talk to you and I'll just transfer the line. Mick, I am transferring the call to Andrea. Bye" If Andrea is not available, offer to take a message. "Mick, Andrea is currently not available to take your call. Would you like to leave a message for her or is there anyone else you would like to speak to?"

If Mick does leave a message, make sure that you take the details correctly and pass it on to Andrea. Ways to give callers a BAD experience

Make them wait in a queue Pass them from department to department or person to person Make them repeat their story each time you transfer them Get them disconnected because you didn't know how to transfer the call. Put them on hold and force them to listen to music Treat them as nobody Tell them Corporation not your fault/job/problem Don't give them a satisfactory solution Forget to follow up
Ways to give callers a GOOD experience

Don't make them hold on for an eternity Treat them as individuals and make them feel that they are important to you Listen to them Show understanding and empathy Deal with their call efficiently Accept responsibility Respond promptly and give them the result/action they want Make a follow up call Exceed their expectation
Answering the Phone A few things that you can do to give callers a positive experience while answering the phone:

Always answer a call promptly at the first ring. Stop doing any other work that you were doing and prepare to answer the phone Have a pen and paper ready to take notes or if doing it over the computer, make sure you
can access the right screens and fields unclear to the caller

Stop chewing gum or anything else. It is not only bad manners, it also makes your voice Pick up the phone and announce yourself clearly

Announcing Yourself "Hello' "Is that INDOSYS CORPORATION" "Yes" "Can I talk to Gabriela Please?" "This is Gabriela Speaking" So, just saying "hello" can waste time. Announce yourself with a greeting, the name of your company or department and your own name. "Thank you for calling INDOSYS CORPORATION. Gabriela Speaking" Or "Good morning Candidate Service, Gabriela on line" And remember, SMILING when you announce yourself means that the candidate hears it too and it makes you sound as if you are pleased to receive the call. Which you should be!!! Announcing Yourself - If it is someone else's phone. Let the caller know that you are answering on some one else's behalf. " Good morning, Andrea's phone, Gabriela speaking." Taking Message Take the message clearly and establish details like Name of the caller Their organization Their contact details Message, if any Specific action required Write down the message clearly and deliver it with your name and date and time of call mentioned clearly. If necessary, follow up to give the candidate a status report Andrea has been delayed and I don't think she'll be available today. Would you like to speak to anyone else? When the call is not for you, Don't put the blame elsewhere.

This is not Andreas phone, you've got the wrong extension - implies that it is the callers fault that he has got your number. This is not Andrea's phone, I think you have been transferred to the wrong department implies that the person who transferred the call is at fault. This approach does not really help the candidate. Instead, If it is for a specific person, transfer the phone to them. Or else, establish what the caller requires and transfer the call to the person concerned. If the person concerned is not available, please take a message for them.

10. Annexure 1: Abbreviation & Glossary


Abbreviations, Definitions, and Acronyms




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