Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

Module 3: Buckling of 1D Simply Supported Beam

Page Number

 Problem Description 2 Theory 2 Geometry 4 Preprocessor 7 Element Type 7 Real Constants and Material Properties 8 Meshing 9 Solution 11 Static Solution 11 Eigenvalue 14 Mode Shape 15 General Postprocessor 16 Results 18 Validation 18

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 1

Problem Description:

y
x

Nomenclature:

 L =200mm Length of beam b =10mm Cross Section Base h =1 mm Cross Section Height Applied Force P=1N E=200,000 Young’s Modulus of Steel at Room Temperature =0.33 Poisson’s Ratio of Steel

Moment of Inertia

In this module, we model a simply supported steel beam with compressive loads. This module stresses the importance of buckling in designs involving linear compressive loading and serves as a starting point for later modules which deal with more complex buckling considerations. Buckling is inherently non-linear, but we linearize the problem through the Eigenvalue method. This solution is an overestimate of the theoretical value since it does not consider imperfections and nonlinearities in the structure such as warping and manufacturing defects.

 Theory Buckling load Hooke’s Law equates stress as shown: (3.1) Deriving both sides of equation 3.1 it shows (3.2) By solving for equilibrium: (3.3)

Equation 3.3 is a nonlinear equation, however this equation can be linearized using eigenvalues.

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 2

 Since: (3.4) Then: (3.5) Plugging in Equation 3.1 for stress we find: (3.6) Plugging Equation 3.6 into Equation 3.3, Equation 3.6 becomes (3.7) Which is simplifies to: (3.8) By integrating two times Equation 3.8 becomes (3.9) At the fixed end (x=0), v=0, , thus 0 At the supported end (x=L), v=0, Equation 3.9 becomes , thus 0 (3.10) Equation 3.6 represents the Differential Equation for a Sin Wave √ √ (3.11) A and B are arbitrary constants which are calculated based on Boundary Conditions. At the fixed end (x=0), v=0 proving B=0. Equation 3.11 becomes √ (3.12) But A cannot equal zero or this problem is trivial. At the supported end (x=L), v=0 Equation 12 becomes √ (3.13)

Since A cannot equal zero,

Sin(nπ)=0

( ) must equal zero:

)

for n=(0, 1, 2, 3, 4…

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 3

So:

n ≠ 0 or it is trivial

(3.14)

We are interested in finding P which is the Critical Buckling Load. Since n can be any integer greater than zero and a continuous beam has theoretically infinite degrees of freedom there are

infinite amount of eigenvalues (

).

Where the lowest Buckling Load is at

(3.15)

(3.16)

This is an over estimate so there are certain correction factors (C) to account for this. (C) is dependent on the beam constraints.

 (3.17) Where C=1 for a fixed-simply supported beam. So the Critical Buckling Load is = 41.124 N (3.18)

Geometry

Opening ANSYS Mechanical APDL

1. On your Windows 7 Desktop click the Start button

2. Under Search Programs and Files type “ANSYS

3. Click on

3
2

Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start

ANSYS. This step may take time.

1

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 4

Preferences

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences

2. Check the box that says Structural

3. Click OK

1
2
3

Title:

1. Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /prep7 -> enter

2. Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /Title, “ Title Name” -> enter

2

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 5

Key points

Since we will be using 1D Elements, our goal is to model the length of the beam.

2
6
2
3
4
5

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Keypoints -> On Working Plane

2. Click Global Cartesian

3. In the box underneath, write: 0,0,0.

This will create a key point at the

origin.

4. Click Apply

5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for 200,0,0

6. Click Ok

7. The Triad in the top left corner is blocking keypoint 1. To get rid of the triad, type /triad,off in Utility Menu -> Command Prompt

7

8. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Replot

Line

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Lines -> Straight Line

2. Select Pick

3. Select List of Items

4. Type 1,2 for points previously generated.

5. Click Ok

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 6

The resulting graphic should be as shown:

Saving Geometry

We will be using the geometry we have just created for 3 modules. Thus it would be convenient to save the geometry so that it does not have to be made again from scratch.

4
2
3

1. Go to File -> Save As …

2. Under Save Database to pick a name for the Geometry. For this tutorial, we will name the file ‘Buckling simply supported

3. Under Directories: pick the Folder you would like to save the .db file to.

4. Click OK

Preprocessor

Element Type

 1 Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete 2 Click Add 3 Click Beam -> 2D Elastic 3 4 Click OK
3
4

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 7

Beam3 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and rotation about the nodal z-axis

Real Constants and Material Properties

Now we will dimension our beam.

3
2
9
4

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete

3. Choose Type 1 Beam3

4. Click OK

5. Under Cross-sectional area AREA enter 10

6. Under Area moment of inertia IZZ Enter 10/12

7. Under Total beam height HEIGHT enter 10

8. Click OK

9. Close out of the Real Constants window

5
6
7
8

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 8

Now we must specify Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models

2. Go to Material Model Number 1 -> Structural -> Linear -> Elastic -> Isotropic

3. Input 2E5 for the Young’s Modulus (Steel) in EX.

4. Input 0.3 for Poisson’s Ratio in PRXY

5. Click OK

6. of Define Material Model Behavior window
6
2
3
4
5

Meshing

2
5
6

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Meshing -> Mesh Tool

2. Go to Size Controls: -> Global -> Set

3. Under NDIV No. of element divisions put 10. This will create a mesh of a total 10 elements

4. Click OK

5. Click Mesh

6. Click Pick All

3
4

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 9

7. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes

8. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot Controls -> Numbering…

9. Check NODE Node Numbers to ON

10. Click OK

9
10

The resulting graphic should be as shown:

ANSYS numbers nodes from the left extreme to the right extreme and then numbers from left to right.

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 10

Solution

There are two types of solution menus that ANSYS APDL provides; the Abridged solution menu and the Unabridged solution menu. Before specifying the loads on the beam, it is crucial to be in the correct menu.

Static Solution

Analysis Type

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis

2. Choose Static

3. Click OK

2
3

4. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type ->Analysis Options

5. Under [SSTIF][PSTRES] Stress stiffness or prestress select Prestress ON

6. Click OK

Prestress is the only change necessary in this window and it is a crucial step in obtaining a final result for eigenvalue buckling.

5
6

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 11

Displacement

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural ->

Displacement -> On Nodes

2. Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 1

3. Click OK

4. Under Lab2 DOFs to be constrained select UX and UY

5. Under VALUE Displacement value enter 0

6. Click OK

4
5
6
2
3

7. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Displacement -> On Nodes

8. Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 2

9. Click OK

10. Under Lab2 DOFs to be constrained select only UY

11. Under VALUE Displacement value enter 0

12. Click OK

WARNING: UX and UY might already be highlighted, if so, leave UY
highlighted and click UX to remove it from the selection. Failure to only
constrain UY will result in incorrect results.

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 12

The graphics area should look as below:

1.

2.

Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Force/Moment -> On Nodes

Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 2

2
3

3. Click OK

4. Under Direction of force/mom select FX

5. Under VALUE Force/moment value enter -1

6. Click OK

The graphics area should look as below:

USEFUL TIP: The force value is only a magnitude of 1 because
eigenvalues are calculated by a factor of the load applied, so having a
force of 1 will not skew the eigenvalue answer.

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 13

 Solve 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 2. Go to Main Menu -> Finish

Eigenvalue

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis

2. Choose Eigen Buckling

3. Click OK

2
3

4. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type ->Analysis Options

5. Under NMODE No. of modes to extract input 1

6. Click OK

5
6

7. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS

8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 14

Mode Shape

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> ExpansionPass

2. Click [EXPASS] Expansion pass to ensure this is turned on

3. Click OK

2
3

4. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Load Step Opts -> ExpansionPass -> Single Expand -> Expand Modes…

5. Under NMODE No. of modes to expand input 1

6. Click OK

5
6

7. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS

8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 15

General Postprocessor

Buckling Load Now that ANSYS has solved these three analysis lets extract the lowest eigenvalue. This represents the lowest force to cause buckling. Go to Main Menu -> General Postproc -> List Results -> Detailed Summary

P= 41.124 N

Mode Shape To view the deformed shape of the buckled beam vs. original beam:

1. Go to Main Menu -> General Postproc -> Read Results -> First Set

2. Go to Main Menu -> General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Deformed Shape

3. Under KUND Items to be plotted select Def + undeformed

4. Click OK

3
4

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 16

The graphics area should look as below:

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 17

Results

The percent error (%E) in our model can be defined as:

(

)

= 0%

As one can see, eigenvalue problems are very accurate for one dimensional elements and are solved quickly by the solver.

Validation

 Theoretical 10 Elements 2 Elements Critical Buckling Load 41.124 N 41.124 41.433 Percent Error 0% 0% 0.7513%

This table provides the critical buckling loads and corresponding error from the Theory (Euler), and two different ANSYS results; one with 2 elements and one with 10 elements. This is to prove mesh independence, showing with increasing mesh size, the answer approaches the theoretical value. The results here show that even using a coarse mesh of 2 elements the error baseline is minimal. The eigenvalue buckling method over-estimates the “real life” buckling load. This is due to the assumption of a perfect structure, disregarding flaws and nonlinearities in the material. There is no such thing as a perfect beam so the structure will never actually reach the eigenvalue load that is calculated.

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 18