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Module 3: Buckling of 1D Simply Supported Beam Table of Contents Page Number Problem Description
Module 3: Buckling of 1D Simply Supported Beam Table of Contents Page Number Problem Description
Module 3: Buckling of 1D Simply Supported Beam Table of Contents Page Number Problem Description

Module 3: Buckling of 1D Simply Supported Beam

Module 3: Buckling of 1D Simply Supported Beam Table of Contents Page Number Problem Description 2

Table of Contents

Page Number

Problem Description

2

Theory

2

Geometry

4

Preprocessor

7

Element Type

7

Real Constants and Material Properties

8

Meshing

9

Solution

11

Static Solution

11

Eigenvalue

14

Mode Shape

15

General Postprocessor

16

Results

18

Validation

18

Mode Shape 15 General Postprocessor 16 Results 18 Validation 18 UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page
Mode Shape 15 General Postprocessor 16 Results 18 Validation 18 UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 1

Problem Description: y x Nomenclature: L =200mm Length of beam b =10mm Cross Section Base
Problem Description: y x Nomenclature: L =200mm Length of beam b =10mm Cross Section Base

Problem Description:

y x
y
x

Nomenclature:

Problem Description: y x Nomenclature: L =200mm Length of beam b =10mm Cross Section Base h
Problem Description: y x Nomenclature: L =200mm Length of beam b =10mm Cross Section Base h

L =200mm

Length of beam

b

=10mm

Cross Section Base

h

=1 mm

Cross Section Height Applied Force

P=1N

E=200,000

Young’s Modulus of Steel at Room Temperature

 

=0.33

Poisson’s Ratio of Steel

Moment of Inertia

In this module, we model a simply supported steel beam with compressive loads. This module stresses the importance of buckling in designs involving linear compressive loading and serves as a starting point for later modules which deal with more complex buckling considerations. Buckling is inherently non-linear, but we linearize the problem through the Eigenvalue method. This solution is an overestimate of the theoretical value since it does not consider imperfections and nonlinearities in the structure such as warping and manufacturing defects.

Theory

Buckling load

Hooke’s Law equates stress as shown:

 

(3.1)

Deriving both sides of equation 3.1 it shows

 

(3.2)

By solving for equilibrium:

 

(3.3)

Equation 3.3 is a nonlinear equation, however this equation can be linearized using eigenvalues.

3.3 is a nonlinear equation, however this equation can be linearized using eigenvalues. UCONN ANSYS –
3.3 is a nonlinear equation, however this equation can be linearized using eigenvalues. UCONN ANSYS –

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 2

Since:   (3.4) Then:   (3.5) Plugging in Equation 3.1 for stress we find:  
Since:   (3.4) Then:   (3.5) Plugging in Equation 3.1 for stress we find:  
Since:   (3.4) Then:   (3.5) Plugging in Equation 3.1 for stress we find:  

Since:

 

(3.4)

Then:

 

(3.5)

Plugging in Equation 3.1 for stress we find:

 
 

(3.6)

Plugging Equation 3.6 into Equation 3.3, Equation 3.6 becomes

(3.7)

Which is simplifies to:

 
 

(3.8)

 

By integrating two times Equation 3.8 becomes

 
 

(3.9)

At the fixed end (x=0), v=0,

, thus

0

At the supported end (x=L), v=0, Equation 3.9 becomes

, thus

0

 

(3.10)

Equation 3.6 represents the Differential Equation for a Sin Wave

(3.11)

A and B are arbitrary constants which are calculated based on Boundary Conditions. At the fixed end (x=0), v=0 proving B=0. Equation 3.11 becomes

(3.12)

But A cannot equal zero or this problem is trivial.

 

At the supported end (x=L), v=0 Equation 12 becomes

(3.13)

Since A cannot equal zero,

Sin(nπ)=0

( ) must equal zero:

)

for n=(0, 1, 2, 3, 4…

Since A cannot equal zero, Sin( n π)=0 ( ) must equal zero: ) for n
Since A cannot equal zero, Sin( n π)=0 ( ) must equal zero: ) for n

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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So: √ n ≠ 0 or it is trivial (3.14) We are interested in finding
So: √ n ≠ 0 or it is trivial (3.14) We are interested in finding
So: √ n ≠ 0 or it is trivial (3.14) We are interested in finding

So:

n ≠ 0 or it is trivial

(3.14)

We are interested in finding P which is the Critical Buckling Load. Since n can be any integer greater than zero and a continuous beam has theoretically infinite degrees of freedom there are

infinite amount of eigenvalues (

).

Where the lowest Buckling Load is at

(3.15)

(3.16)

This is an over estimate so there are certain correction factors (C) to account for this. (C) is dependent on the beam constraints.

 

(3.17)

Where C=1 for a fixed-simply supported beam.

So the Critical Buckling Load is

= 41.124 N

(3.18)

Geometry

Opening ANSYS Mechanical APDL

1. On your Windows 7 Desktop click the Start button

2. Under Search Programs and Files type “ANSYS

3. Click on

3 2
3
2
Programs and Files type “ ANSYS ” 3. Click on 3 2 Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to

Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start

ANSYS. This step may take time.

1
1
” 3. Click on 3 2 Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start ANSYS. This step may take
” 3. Click on 3 2 Mechanical APDL (ANSYS) to start ANSYS. This step may take

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Preferences 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences 2. Check the box that says Structural
Preferences 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences 2. Check the box that says Structural

Preferences

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preferences

2. Check the box that says Structural

3. Click OK

2. Check the box that says Structural 3. Click OK 1 2 3 Title : To
1 2 3
1
2
3

Title:

To add a title

1. Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /prep7 -> enter

2. Utility Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /Title, “ Title Name” -> enter

2
2
Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /Title, “ Title Name” -> enter 2 UCONN ANSYS –
Menu -> ANSYS Toolbar -> type /Title, “ Title Name” -> enter 2 UCONN ANSYS –

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Key points Since we will be using 1D Elements, our goal is to model the
Key points Since we will be using 1D Elements, our goal is to model the
Key points Since we will be using 1D Elements, our goal is to model the

Key points

Since we will be using 1D Elements, our goal is to model the length of the beam.

2 6
2
6
2 3 4 5
2
3
4
5

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Keypoints -> On Working Plane

2. Click Global Cartesian

3. In the box underneath, write: 0,0,0.

This will create a key point at the

origin.

4. Click Apply

5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for 200,0,0

6. Click Ok

7. The Triad in the top left corner is blocking keypoint 1. To get rid of the triad, type /triad,off in Utility Menu -> Command Prompt

7
7

8. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Replot

Line

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Modeling -> Create -> Lines -> Lines -> Straight Line

2. Select Pick

3. Select List of Items

4. Type 1,2 for points previously generated.

5. Click Ok

Pick 3. Select List of Items 4. Type 1,2 for points previously generated. 5. Click Ok
Pick 3. Select List of Items 4. Type 1,2 for points previously generated. 5. Click Ok

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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The resulting graphic should be as shown: Saving Geometry We will be using the geometry
The resulting graphic should be as shown: Saving Geometry We will be using the geometry

The resulting graphic should be as shown:

The resulting graphic should be as shown: Saving Geometry We will be using the geometry we
The resulting graphic should be as shown: Saving Geometry We will be using the geometry we

Saving Geometry

We will be using the geometry we have just created for 3 modules. Thus it would be convenient to save the geometry so that it does not have to be made again from scratch.

4 2 3
4
2
3

1. Go to File -> Save As …

2. Under Save Database to pick a name for the Geometry. For this tutorial, we will name the file ‘Buckling simply supported

3. Under Directories: pick the Folder you would like to save the .db file to.

4. Click OK

Preprocessor

Element Type

1.

Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete

2.

Click Add

3.

Click Beam -> 2D Elastic 3

4.

Click OK

3 4
3
4
2. Click Add 3. Click Beam -> 2D Elastic 3 4. Click OK 3 4 UCONN
2. Click Add 3. Click Beam -> 2D Elastic 3 4. Click OK 3 4 UCONN

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Beam3 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has three
Beam3 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has three
Beam3 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has three

Beam3 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and rotation about the nodal z-axis

Real Constants and Material Properties

Now we will dimension our beam.

3 2 9 4
3
2
9
4

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete

2. Click Add

3. Choose Type 1 Beam3

4. Click OK

5. Under Cross-sectional area AREA enter 10

6. Under Area moment of inertia IZZ Enter 10/12

7. Under Total beam height HEIGHT enter 10

8. Click OK

9. Close out of the Real Constants window

5 6 7 8
5
6
7
8
HEIGHT enter 10 8. Click OK 9. Close out of the Real Constants window 5 6
HEIGHT enter 10 8. Click OK 9. Close out of the Real Constants window 5 6

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Now we must specify Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio 1. Go to Main Menu ->
Now we must specify Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio 1. Go to Main Menu ->

Now we must specify Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio

Now we must specify Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio 1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models

2. Go to Material Model Number 1 -> Structural -> Linear -> Elastic -> Isotropic

3. Input 2E5 for the Young’s Modulus (Steel) in EX.

4. Input 0.3 for Poisson’s Ratio in PRXY

5. Click OK

6. of Define Material Model Behavior window 6 2 3 4 5
6. of Define Material Model Behavior window
6
2
3
4
5

Meshing

2 5 6
2
5
6

1. Go to Main Menu -> Preprocessor -> Meshing -> Mesh Tool

2. Go to Size Controls: -> Global -> Set

3. Under NDIV No. of element divisions put 10. This will create a mesh of a total 10 elements

4. Click OK

5. Click Mesh

6. Click Pick All

3 4
3
4
create a mesh of a total 10 elements 4. Click OK 5. Click Mesh 6. Click
create a mesh of a total 10 elements 4. Click OK 5. Click Mesh 6. Click

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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7. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes 8. Go to Utility Menu ->
7. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes 8. Go to Utility Menu ->
7. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes 8. Go to Utility Menu ->

7. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot -> Nodes

8. Go to Utility Menu -> Plot Controls -> Numbering…

9. Check NODE Node Numbers to ON

10. Click OK

9 10
9
10

The resulting graphic should be as shown:

Click OK 9 10 The resulting graphic should be as shown: ANSYS numbers nodes from the

ANSYS numbers nodes from the left extreme to the right extreme and then numbers from left to right.

nodes from the left extreme to the right extreme and then numbers from left to right.
nodes from the left extreme to the right extreme and then numbers from left to right.

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Solution There are two types of solution menus that ANSYS APDL provides; the Abridged solution
Solution There are two types of solution menus that ANSYS APDL provides; the Abridged solution

Solution

Solution There are two types of solution menus that ANSYS APDL provides; the Abridged solution menu

There are two types of solution menus that ANSYS APDL provides; the Abridged solution menu and the Unabridged solution menu. Before specifying the loads on the beam, it is crucial to be in the correct menu.

Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Unabridged menu

This is shown as the last tab in the Solution menu. If this reads “Abridged menu” you are already in the Unabridged solution menu.

Static Solution

Analysis Type

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis

2. Choose Static

3. Click OK

2 3
2
3

4. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type ->Analysis Options

5. Under [SSTIF][PSTRES] Stress stiffness or prestress select Prestress ON

6. Click OK

Prestress is the only change necessary in this window and it is a crucial step in obtaining a final result for eigenvalue buckling.

5 6
5
6
and it is a crucial step in obtaining a final result for eigenvalue buckling. 5 6
and it is a crucial step in obtaining a final result for eigenvalue buckling. 5 6

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Displacement 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Displacement
Displacement 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Displacement
Displacement 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Displacement

Displacement

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural ->

Displacement -> On Nodes

2. Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 1

3. Click OK

Pick -> Single -> and click node 1 3. Click OK 4. Under Lab2 DOFs to

4. Under Lab2 DOFs to be constrained select UX and UY

5. Under VALUE Displacement value enter 0

6. Click OK

4 5 6
4
5
6
2 3
2
3

7. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Displacement -> On Nodes

8. Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 2

9. Click OK

10. Under Lab2 DOFs to be constrained select only UY

11. Under VALUE Displacement value enter 0

12. Click OK

WARNING: UX and UY might already be highlighted, if so, leave UY highlighted and click
WARNING: UX and UY might already be highlighted, if so, leave UY
highlighted and click UX to remove it from the selection. Failure to only
constrain UY will result in incorrect results.
it from the selection. Failure to only constrain UY will result in incorrect results. UCONN ANSYS
it from the selection. Failure to only constrain UY will result in incorrect results. UCONN ANSYS

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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The graphics area should look as below: Loads 1. 2. Go to Main Menu ->
The graphics area should look as below: Loads 1. 2. Go to Main Menu ->

The graphics area should look as below:

The graphics area should look as below: Loads 1. 2. Go to Main Menu -> Solution
The graphics area should look as below: Loads 1. 2. Go to Main Menu -> Solution

Loads

1.

2.

Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Define Loads ->Apply ->Structural -> Force/Moment -> On Nodes

Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 2

2 3
2
3
Select Pick -> Single -> and click node 2 2 3 3. Click OK 4. Under

3. Click OK

4. Under Direction of force/mom select FX

5. Under VALUE Force/moment value enter -1

6. Click OK

5. Under VALUE Force/moment value enter -1 6. Click OK The graphics area should look as

The graphics area should look as below:

-1 6. Click OK The graphics area should look as below: USEFUL TIP: The force value
USEFUL TIP: The force value is only a magnitude of 1 because eigenvalues are calculated
USEFUL TIP: The force value is only a magnitude of 1 because
eigenvalues are calculated by a factor of the load applied, so having a
force of 1 will not skew the eigenvalue answer.
factor of the load applied, so having a force of 1 will not skew the eigenvalue
factor of the load applied, so having a force of 1 will not skew the eigenvalue

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Solve 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 2. Go
Solve 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 2. Go

Solve

1.

Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS

2.

Go to Main Menu -> Finish

Eigenvalue

LS 2. Go to Main Menu -> Finish Eigenvalue 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis

2. Choose Eigen Buckling

3. Click OK

2 3
2
3

4. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type ->Analysis Options

5. Under NMODE No. of modes to extract input 1

6. Click OK

5 6
5
6

7. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS

8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish

Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish UCONN
Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish UCONN

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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Mode Shape 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> ExpansionPass 2.
Mode Shape 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> ExpansionPass 2.

Mode Shape

Mode Shape 1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> ExpansionPass 2. Click

1. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Analysis Type -> ExpansionPass

2. Click [EXPASS] Expansion pass to ensure this is turned on

3. Click OK

2 3
2
3

4. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Load Step Opts -> ExpansionPass -> Single Expand -> Expand Modes…

5. Under NMODE No. of modes to expand input 1

6. Click OK

5 6
5
6

7. Go to Main Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS

8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish

Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish UCONN
Menu -> Solution -> Solve -> Current LS 8. Go to Main Menu -> Finish UCONN

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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General Postprocessor Buckling Load Now that ANSYS has solved these three analysis lets extract the
General Postprocessor Buckling Load Now that ANSYS has solved these three analysis lets extract the

General Postprocessor

General Postprocessor Buckling Load Now that ANSYS has solved these three analysis lets extract the lowest

Buckling Load Now that ANSYS has solved these three analysis lets extract the lowest eigenvalue. This represents the lowest force to cause buckling. Go to Main Menu -> General Postproc -> List Results -> Detailed Summary

General Postproc -> List Results -> Detailed Summary Results for Buckling Load: P= 41.124 N Mode

Results for Buckling Load:

P= 41.124 N

Mode Shape To view the deformed shape of the buckled beam vs. original beam:

1. Go to Main Menu -> General Postproc -> Read Results -> First Set

2. Go to Main Menu -> General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Deformed Shape

3. Under KUND Items to be plotted select Def + undeformed

4. Click OK

3 4
3
4
Shape 3. Under KUND Items to be plotted select Def + undeformed 4. Click OK 3
Shape 3. Under KUND Items to be plotted select Def + undeformed 4. Click OK 3

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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The graphics area should look as below: UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page 17
The graphics area should look as below: UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page 17

The graphics area should look as below:

The graphics area should look as below: UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page 17
The graphics area should look as below: UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page 17
The graphics area should look as below: UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page 17
The graphics area should look as below: UCONN ANSYS – Module 3 Page 17

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

Page 17

Results The percent error (%E) in our model can be defined as: ( ) =
Results The percent error (%E) in our model can be defined as: ( ) =

Results

The percent error (%E) in our model can be defined as:

(

)

= 0%

percent error (%E) in our model can be defined as: ( ) = 0% As one

As one can see, eigenvalue problems are very accurate for one dimensional elements and are solved quickly by the solver.

Validation

 

Theoretical

10 Elements

2 Elements

Critical Buckling Load

41.124 N

41.124

41.433

Percent Error

0%

0%

0.7513%

This table provides the critical buckling loads and corresponding error from the Theory (Euler), and two different ANSYS results; one with 2 elements and one with 10 elements. This is to prove mesh independence, showing with increasing mesh size, the answer approaches the theoretical value. The results here show that even using a coarse mesh of 2 elements the error baseline is minimal. The eigenvalue buckling method over-estimates the “real life” buckling load. This is due to the assumption of a perfect structure, disregarding flaws and nonlinearities in the material. There is no such thing as a perfect beam so the structure will never actually reach the eigenvalue load that is calculated.

beam so the structure will never actually reach the eigenvalue load that is calculated. UCONN ANSYS
beam so the structure will never actually reach the eigenvalue load that is calculated. UCONN ANSYS

UCONN ANSYS Module 3

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